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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 10

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 10

1

On the fast day of Yom Kippur an additional offering is offered like that of Rosh HaShanah:1 a bull and a ram - this ram is called "the ram of the people"2 - and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat [is brought as] a sin-offering and it is eaten in the evening.3

א

בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מַקְרִיבִין מוּסָף כְּמוּסַף רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה פַּר וְאַיִל. וְאַיִל זֶה נִקְרָא אֵיל הָעָם. וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּן עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת וְהוּא נֶאֱכָל לָעֶרֶב:

2

In addition, the community offers another goat as a sin-offering, it is burnt.4 Its pair is the goat sent to Azazel.5

ב

וְעוֹד מַקְרִיבִין הַצִּבּוּר שְׂעִיר חַטָּאת וְהוּא נִשְׂרָף שֶׁבֶּן זוּגוֹ שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ:

3

On the first day of the Sukkot festival, the following are brought as the additional offering of the day: thirteen bulls, two rams, and fourteen sheep. All are burnt offerings. And a goat which is eaten [is brought as] a sin-offering.6 Similarly, on all the seven days of [the Sukkot] festival, two rams, fourteen sheep, and a sin-offering of a goat are offered.

ג

בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּן עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת נֶאֱכֶלֶת. וְכֵן כָּל יוֹם וְיוֹם מִשִּׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת:

4

The number of bulls [offered], however, is decreased each day.7 On the second day, twelve bulls are offered, on the third eleven,... until on the seventh day, seven bulls, two rams, and fourteen sheep are all brought as burnt-offerings and a goat is brought as a sin-offering.

ד

אֲבָל הַפָּרִים פּוֹחֲתִין אֶחָד אֶחָד בְּכָל יוֹם. בַּשֵּׁנִי מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי אַחַד עָשָׂר. עַד שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא קָרְבַּן יוֹם שְׁבִיעִי פָּרִים שִׁבְעָה אֵילִים שְׁנַיִם כְּבָשִׂים אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר הַכּל עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת:

5

On Shemini Atzeret,8 the following are brought as the additional offering of the day: a bull, a ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt offerings. And a goat [is brought as] a sin-offering.9 This is a separate offering in its own right.10

ה

בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם פַּר וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּן עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וְזֶה מוּסָף בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ:

6

On all the seven days of the [Sukkot] festival, a water libation is poured on the altar.11 This practice is a halachah communicated to Moses on [Mount] Sinai.12The water was poured as a separate libation together with the morning wine libation.13

ו

כָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג מְנַסְּכִין אֶת הַמַּיִם עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. וְעִם נִסּוּךְ הַיַּיִן שֶׁל תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ הַמַּיִם לְבַדּוֹ:

7

If one poured the water into the wine or the wine into the water and then poured the two of them as a libation from a single utensil, the obligation is fulfilled.14 If the water libation was offered before the [daily] sacrifice - indeed, even if it was offered at night - the obligation is fulfilled.15

The libation was poured at the southwest corner, above the mid-point of the altar, and then it would all descend to the shittin,16 as we explained.17 How was it offered? He would fill a golden vessel that contains three lugin18 from the Shiloach stream.19 When they reached the Water Gate,20 tekiah, teruah,, and tekiah blasts are sounded.21 [The priest] would ascend the ramp and turn to his left22 and pour the water into a cup that was positioned there. For there were two silver cups there.23 The water [was poured] into the western one and the wine libation [was poured] into the eastern one. They were pierced with two small holes like two small nostrils. The hole for [the cup] of water was thinner than that for the wine so that the water would conclude flowing together with the wine.

ז

וְאִם עֵרָה הַמַּיִם לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן אוֹ הַיַּיִן לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וְנִסֵּךְ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִכְּלִי אֶחָד יָצָא. וְאִם הִקְדִּים נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם לָזֶבַח אֲפִלּוּ נִסְּכָן בַּלַּיְלָה יָצָא. וּבְקֶרֶן דְּרוֹמִית מַעֲרָבִית הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ לְמַעְלָה מֵחֲצִי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַכּל יוֹרֵד לַשִּׁיתִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחְזֶקֶת שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין הָיָה מְמַלֵּא אוֹתָהּ מִן הַשִּׁילוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקְעוּ. עָלָה לַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ וְנוֹתֵן הַמַּיִם מִן הַצְּלוֹחִית לְתוֹךְ הַסֵּפֶל שֶׁהָיָה שָׁם. וּשְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. מַעֲרָבִי הָיָה בּוֹ הַמַּיִם. וּמִזְרָחִי הָיָה בּוֹ הַיַּיִן שֶׁל נֶסֶךְ. וְהָיוּ מְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין. וְשֶׁל מַיִם הָיָה נֶקֶב שֶׁלּוֹ דַּק מִשֶּׁל יַיִן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הַמַּיִם עִם הַיַּיִן כְּאֶחָד:

8

They would tell [the priest] who would pour the water libation: "Lift up your hands,"24 because once [a priest] poured [the water] on his feet,25 and the entire nation stoned him with their esrogim. For they said: "He was a Sadducee,"26 for they say that there is no water libation.

ח

זֶה שֶׁמְּנַסֵּךְ הַמַּיִם הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הַגְבֵּהַּ יָדְךָ. שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל רַגְלָיו וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָּל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן שֶׁאָמְרוּ צְדוֹקִי הוּא שֶׁהֵן אוֹמְרִין אֵין מְנַסְּכִין מַיִם:

9

[The water libation] was performed on the Sabbath in the same manner in which it was performed during the week, except that on Friday, a golden jug that was not a sacrificial vessel27 was filled28 [with water] and left in the chamber. On the morrow, [the pitcher used for the libation] was filled from it.29

ט

כְּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְּחל כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה מְמַלֵּא מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת חָבִית שֶׁל זָהָב וְאֵינָהּ מִכְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּמַנִּיחָהּ בַּלִּשְׁכָּה וּלְמָחָר מְמַלֵּא מִמֶּנָּה:

10

If the water was spilled or was uncovered,30 one should fill [the pitcher] from the basin and pour the libation.

י

אִם נִשְׁפְּכָה אוֹ נִתְגַּלְּתָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַכִּיּוֹר וּמְנַסֵּךְ:

11

On every day of the Sukkot festival, a separate song31 was recited for the Musaf offering. On the first day of Chol HaMoed, they would say: "Render to God, children of the mighty..." (Psalm 29).32 On the second [day of Chol HaMoed], they would say "And to the wicked, God said..." (Psalm 50).33 On the third, they would say: "Who will stand up for me against the wicked?..." (ibid. 94:16).34 On the fourth, they would say: "Understand, you senseless among the people..." (ibid.:5).35 On the fifth, they would say: "I removed his shoulder from the burden" (ibid. 81:7).36 On the sixth, they would say: "All the foundations of the earth tremble" (ibid. 82:5).37 If the Sabbath falls on one of [the days of Chol HaMoed, the verses beginning] "All the foundations tremble" are superseded [by the song for the additional offering of the Sabbath].38

יא

בְּכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם מִימֵי הֶחָג הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים שִׁירָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ עַל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. בָּרִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים כט א) "הָבוּ לַה' בְּנֵי אֵלִים". בַּשֵּׁנִי (תהילים נ טז) "וְלָרָשָׁע אָמַר אֱלֹהִים" וְגוֹ'. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי (תהילים צד טז) "מִי יָקוּם לִי עִם מְרֵעִים". בָּרְבִיעִי (תהילים צד ח) "בִּינוּ בֹּעֲרִים בָּעָם" וְגוֹ'. בַּחֲמִישִׁי (תהילים פא ז) "הֲסִירוֹתִי מִסֵּבֶל שִׁכְמוֹ". בַּשִּׁשִּׁי (תהילים פב ה) "יִמּוֹטוּ כָּל מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ" וְגוֹ'. וְאִם חָל שַׁבָּת לִהְיוֹת בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן יִמּוֹטוּ יִדָּחֶה:

12

We have already explained39 that there are a total of 24 priestly watches and they all serve with equal rights during the festivals. On the holiday of Sukkot, each watch would offer [only] one bull, one ram, or a goat as a sin-offering. With regard to the sheep, however, [there was a difference]. There were watches which would offer two sheep and there were watches that would offer one.

What is implied? On the first day of the festival of Sukkot, there are thirteen bulls, two rams, and a goat. Every watch [that receives an animal to offer] would offer one of these animals. Thus there remain fourteen sheep for eight watches. Six watches offer two sheep and two watches offer one.

On the second day, there are twelve bulls,40 two rams, and a goat. Every watch [that receives an animal to offer] would offer one of these animals. Thus there remain fourteen sheep for nine watches. Five watches offer two sheep and four watches offer one.

On the third day, there are eleven bulls, two rams, and a goat. Every watch [that receives an animal to offer] would offer one of these animals. Thus there remain fourteen sheep for ten watches. Four watches offer two sheep and six watches offer one.

On the fourth day, there are ten bulls, two rams, and a goat. Every watch [that receives an animal to offer] would offer one of these animals. Thus there remain fourteen sheep for eleven watches. Three watches offer two sheep and eight watches offer one.

On the fifth day, there are nine bulls, two rams, and a goat. Every watch [that receives an animal to offer] would offer one of these animals. Thus there remain fourteen sheep for twelve watches. Two watches offer two sheep and ten watches offer one.

On the sixth day, there are eight bulls, two rams, and a goat. Every watch [that receives an animal to offer] would offer one of these animals. Thus there remain fourteen sheep for thirteen watches. One watch offers two sheep and twelve watches offer one.

On the seventh day, there are seven bulls, two rams, a goat, and fourteen sheep, [an amount of animals] equivalent to the number of watches. Each watch offers one animal.

יב

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל מִשְׁמְרוֹת כְּהֻנָּה עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה. וְכֻלָּן עוֹבְדִין בְּשָׁוֶה בָּרְגָלִים. וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת הָיָה כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב פַּר אֶחָד אוֹ אַיִל אֶחָד אוֹ שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת. אֲבָל הַכְּבָשִׂים יֵשׁ מִשְׁמָר שֶׁמַּקְרִיב מֵהֶן שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים. וְיֵשׁ מִשְׁמָר שֶׁמַּקְרִיב כֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד. כֵּיצַד. בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג הָיוּ שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב בְּהֵמָה אַחַת מֵהֶם. נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים לִשְׁמוֹנֶה מִשְׁמָרוֹת. שִׁשָּׁה מִשְׁמָרוֹת מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם וּשְׁנֵי מִשְׁמָרוֹת מַקְרִיבִין אֶחָד אֶחָד. בַּשֵּׁנִי הָיוּ שָׁם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב אֶחָד. נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים לְתִשְׁעָה מִשְׁמָרוֹת. חֲמִשָּׁה מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם. וְאַרְבָּעָה מַקְרִיבִין אֶחָד אֶחָד. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי הָיוּ שָׁם אַחַד עָשָׂר פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב אֶחָד. נִשְׁאֲרוּ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים לַעֲשָׂרָה מִשְׁמָרוֹת. אַרְבָּעָה מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם וְשִׁשָּׁה מַקְרִיבִין אֶחָד אֶחָד. בָּרְבִיעִי הָיוּ שָׁם עֲשָׂרָה פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב אֶחָד. נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים לְאַחַד עָשָׂר מִשְׁמָר. שְׁלֹשָׁה מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם וּשְׁמוֹנָה מַקְרִיבִין אֶחָד אֶחָד. בַּחֲמִישִׁי הָיוּ שָׁם תִּשְׁעָה פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב אֶחָד. נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מִשְׁמָר. שְׁנֵי מִשְׁמָרוֹת מַקְרִיבִין שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם וַעֲשָׂרָה מַקְרִיבִין אֶחָד אֶחָד. בַּשִּׁשִּׁי הָיוּ שְׁמוֹנָה פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב אֶחָד. נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים לִשְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר מִשְׁמָר. מִשְׁמָר אֶחָד מֵהֶן מַקְרִיב שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיבִין אֶחָד אֶחָד. בַּשְּׁבִיעִי הָיוּ שָׁם שִׁבְעָה פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשָׂעִיר. וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים כְּמִנְיַן הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת. נִמְצָא כָּל מִשְׁמָר מַקְרִיב בְּהֵמָה אַחַת:

13

Whichever watch offered a bull one day did not offer a bull the next day. Instead, they would rotate. On the eighth day,41 they allot them through a lottery42 in which all watches are equal,43 as we explained.44

יג

וְכָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה מַקְרִיב פַּר הַיּוֹם לֹא הָיָה מַקְרִיב פַּר לְמָחָר אֶלָּא חוֹזְרִין חֲלִילָה. בַּשְּׁמִינִי חוֹזְרִין לְפַיִס כֻּלָּן כְּאֶחָד כִּשְׁאָר הָרְגָלִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

14

When the first day of the festival of Sukkot fell on the Sabbath, there would be 61 esronim of accompanying meal-offerings from the additional offerings and the continuous offerings.45 They would not be mixed together.

יד

בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה שָׁם מִנְחַת נְסָכִים שֶׁל מוּסָפִין וְשֶׁל תְּמִידִין שִׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד עִשָּׂרוֹן וְלֹא הָיוּ מְעָרְבִין אוֹתוֹ:

15

The accompanying meal-offerings46 are never mixed together.47 Instead, the accompanying offerings of bulls [are prepared and offered] separately, those of rams separately, and those of sheep separately.48 [This applies] both with regard to communal offerings and individual offerings.

טו

וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין מְעָרְבִין נְסָכִים. אֶלָּא נִסְכֵּי הַפָּרִים לְבַדָּם וְנִסְכֵּי הָאֵילִים לְבַדָּם וְנִסְכֵּי כְּבָשִׂים לְבַדָּם. בֵּין בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר בֵּין בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד:

16

All of the fats of the sacrifices [that are to be offered on the altar] - whether from communal sacrifices or from individual sacrifices - should not be mixed with each other.49 Instead, the fats and the organs of each sacrifice are offered on the altar's pyre separately. If, however, they become mixed together, they may be offered all as one.

טז

וְכָל הַחֲלָבִים שֶׁל קָרְבָּנוֹת בֵּין קָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר בֵּין קָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד אֵין מְעָרְבִין אוֹתָן זֶה בָּזֶה אֶלָּא מַקְטִירִין אֵימוּרֵי כָּל קָרְבָּן וְקָרְבָּן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְאִם נִתְעָרְבוּ מַקְטִיר הַכּל כְּאֶחָד:

17

If the meal-offerings of the accompanying offerings become intermingled after each type50 was mixed with oil separately,51 they are acceptable.

יז

מְנָחוֹת שֶׁל נְסָכִים שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ זוֹ בָּזוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּבְלַל כָּל מִין וּמִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כְּשֵׁרוֹת:

18

Since the meal-offerings were mixed together and their oil and meal have become intermingled, it is permissible to mix their wine [libations] together as an initial preference. Similarly, if the meal-offerings of the accompanying offerings were already offered, each one separately, it is permissible to mix their wine [libations] together.52

יח

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּבְלְלוּ הַמְּנָחוֹת וְנִתְעָרֵב שַׁמְנָן וְסָלְתָּן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְעָרֵב יַיִן שֶׁלָּהֶן לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְכֵן אִם הִקְטִיר מְנָחוֹת שֶׁל נְסָכִים כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְעָרֵב הַיַּיִן שֶׁלָּהֶן:

19

When the wine-libations of the accompanying offerings are mixed together, it is permissible to mix a wine libation of a sacrificed offered on the previous day with one offered on the present day53 or those of an individual offering with those of a communal offering.

When one mixes together [wine libations], he may mix the wine libations of the accompanying offerings of bulls with those of the accompanying offerings of rams, or those of the accompanying offerings of sheep with others of the accompanying offerings of sheep. One should not, however, mix the wine libations of the accompanying offerings of sheep with those of bulls or rams.

יט

כְּשֶׁמְּעָרְבִין הַיַּיִן שֶׁל נְסָכִים יֵשׁ לוֹ לְעָרֵב יֵין נְסָכִים שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ בְּשֶׁל יוֹם וְשֶׁל יָחִיד בְּשֶׁל צִבּוּר. וּכְשֶׁמְּעָרֵב מְעָרֵב יֵין נִסְכֵּי פָּרִים בְּיֵין נִסְכֵּי אֵילִים יֵין נִסְכֵּי כְּבָשִׂים בְּיֵין נִסְכֵּי כְּבָשִׂים. אֲבָל אֵין מְעָרְבִין יֵין נִסְכֵּי כְּבָשִׂים בְּיֵין נִסְכֵּי פָּרִים וְאֵילִים:

20

As an initial preference, one should not mix wine [libations] unless the meal-offerings have been mixed together or they have been offered, as we explained.54

כ

וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין מְעָרְבִין הַיַּיִן לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה הַסּלֶת אוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִקְטִירוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות תמידין ומוספין בס"ד:

Footnotes
1.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 48) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 314) include the offering of these sacrifices as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. These sacrifices are mentioned in Numbers 29:7-8.

2.

In the Mishnah (Yoma 7:3). This follows the opinion of Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi (Yoma 70b) who maintains that the ram mentioned in Leviticus 16:5 is the same mentioned in Numbers. See also Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim 1:1.

3.

After the conclusion of the fast.

4.

See Leviticus 16:27; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 1:16.

5.

As mentioned in Leviticus 16:5-9. See Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim, ch. 3, for a description of the service performed with these goats.

6.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 50) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 320) include the offering of these sacrifices as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. These sacrifices are mentioned in Numbers 29:12-34.

7.

The fact that the sacrifices of each day of Sukkot differ from each other endow the days of the holiday with an advantage over the days of the holiday of Pesach. For that reason, the full Hallel is recited on each of the days of Sukkot, while this is not true with regard to Pesach. Nevertheless, the fact that the sacrifices differ is not sufficient for each day to be considered a separate mitzvah.

8.

Literally, "the eighth day of assembly."

9.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 51) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 322) include the offering of these sacrifices as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. These sacrifices are mentioned in Numbers 29:35-38.

10.

I.e., it is not a continuation of the Sukkot offerings. As Rosh HaShanah 4b, et al, state there are six aspects in which Shemini Atzeret is considered as an independent festival. One of them is that it has its own sacrifice.

11.

In connection with the water libation, a special celebration, Simchat Beit HaShoevah was held in the Temple Courtyard. The Rambam describes that celebration and the immensity of the joy expressed at that time at the conclusion of Hilchot Shofar Sukkah VeLulav. Interestingly, however, in that source, he does not associate the celebration with the water libation and here, he does not mention the celebration.

12.

A practice that is part of the Oral Law, but is not specifically mentioned in the Written Law. As the Rambam mentions in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 4:8), there are allusions to this practice in the Written Law.

13.

I.e., initially, this is the preferred manner of observing the mitzvah.

14.

I.e., after the fact; the initial preference is that each be poured separately as the Rambam proceeds to explain. The Radbaz explains that since ultimately, when the wine and the water reach the shittin, they will be mixed together, after the fact, it is acceptable if they were mixed together initially.

15.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 4:5, libations offered in connection with a sacrifice must be offered by day, but those offered independently may be offered at night.

16.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:11 which explains that these were two cavities in the southwest corner of the Altar, through which the blood would run off and flow through the drainage canal and from there, to the Kidron River.

17.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:1 and the discussion of the Rambam's ruling by the other commentaries.

18.

A log is 346 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 600 cc according to Chazon Ish.

19.

A stream that is located on the southern side of the Temple Mount.

20.

One of the gates located on the south side of the Temple Courtyard. It was given its name, because the water for the libation was brought in through it.

21.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 7:6.

22.

Usually, the priests would circle the altar, turning first to the right. In this instance, they would turn to the left lest the smoke affect the water and the wine (Sukkah 48b; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 7:11).

23.

In his gloss to Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:1, the Kessef Mishneh states that these cups were not a permanent part of the altar, but placed there only during the Sukkot holiday.

24.

So that it would be obvious that he is pouring the water in the altar's cups (Rav Yosef Corcus).

25.

Rather than on the altar.

26.

Lit., "a follower of Tzadok." The Sadducees represented a splinter group within Judaism. They accepted the Written Law, but not the Oral Law. [In truth, they wanted to abandon Jewish practice entirely, but realized that they could never attract a large number of followers with such an approach and hence, adopted this ruse (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Avot 1:3)]. Since the water libation is not explicitly stated in the Written Law, the Sadducees did not accept its validity.

27.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 4:9), the Rambam gives an original interpretation for the reason the water should not be held in a sacred vessel. Were it to be held in a sacred vessel, it would be possible that the priests would sanctify their hands with it. Thus they would perform that rite with water that was not consecrated or would use up the water and prevent it from being used for the libation (Rav Kappach's notes to that mishnah). This represents a different approach than that of the other commentaries.

28.

With water from the Shiloach Stream.

29.

This change was necessary, for going down to fill the pitcher with water from the stream was forbidden on the Sabbath, because one would be carrying from a public domain to a private domain.

30.

Water that was uncovered is unacceptable as a libation, as stated in Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 6:10.

31.

I.e., in addition to the song recited for the daily sacrifice. See also Chapter 6, Halachot 8-9 which describe the Levites' songs.

32.

This psalm contains the verse "The voice of God is upon the water" and thus is appropriate to mark the beginning of the offering of the water libation (see Sukkah 55a).

33.

This psalm warns of coming to the Temple to celebrate and offer sacrifices without first repenting (Rashi, Sukkah, op. cit.).

34.

From this verse until the end of the psalm. These verses were chosen, because they speak of confronting wicked powers. Our Sages ordained that it be recited in the Second Temple period when the Temple was under the authority of Persian, Greek, and Roman rulers (ibid.).

35.

I.e., from verse 5 until verse 16. These verses speak about God's watchful eye that surveys man's actions. These verses were chosen, because Sukkot marks the end of the harvest season when the agricultural gifts must be given to the poor. These verses serve as a warning, impressing the people with the awareness that God is observing them at all times and seeing whether they give these gifts or not.

36.

Until the end of the psalm. These verses contain words of comfort and the reassurance of Divine blessings.

37.

These verses speak of Divine judgement and Hoshaana Rabbah, the day on which these verses are recited marks the conclusion of the judgment begun on Rosh HaShanah.

38.

The song for the additional offering of the Sabbath (a portion of the song Ha'azinu, as mentioned in Chapter 6, Halachah 9) is recited on that day and the songs for the remaining days are pushed back a day (Kessef Mishneh).

39.

Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3-4.

40.

Because the number of bulls are being reduced by one each day. See Halachot 3-4 above.

41.

When there are far fewer sacrifices, as stated in Halachah 5.

42.

The Radbaz infers from this that no lotteries were conducted during the prior seven days. Although there were some days when one watch received more sheep to offer than another, they would balance that matter by allowing the other watches to receive more the following days.

43.

There were two watches that did not offer three bulls throughout the Sukkot holiday. One opinion in Sukkot 55b maintains that on Shemini Atzeret, the lottery to offer the bull should be held only between these two watches. The Rambam accepts the opinion of Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi which maintains that all the watches are included in this lottery.

44.

Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3-4.

45.

According to the guidelines established in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:4, for the additional offerings of Sukkot, the thirteen bulls required a total of 39 esronim, the two rams, a total of 4 esronim, and the fourteen sheep, a total of 14 esronim, a total of 57 esronim. In addition, two esronim were brought for the additional offering of the Sabbath, and two esronim for the continuous offerings.

46.

This includes the wine and the oil as well as the meal, as indicated by the concluding halachot of the chapter.

47.

Indeed, if the meal-offerings for two types of animals become intermingled before they are mixed together with their oil, they are disqualified [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 9:4)].

48.

The rationale for the separation is that the ratio of oil to meal is different for the offerings of sheep and bulls.

49.

The Sifra derives this concept from Leviticus 3:11 which states "And he shall offer it on the pyre," using a singular form.

50.

I.e., those of bulls, those of sheep, and those of rams.

51.

As required by Halachah 15.

52.

For the rationale for the restriction against mixing their wine libations is only to prevent their meal-offerings from being intermingled. Once the meal-offerings have been offered, there is no longer any need for that constraint (Menachot 89b). They may be mixed as an initial preference [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)]. See Halachah 20.

53.

For as stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:12, the wine libations may be brought several days after the sacrifice was offered.

54.

In Halachah 18.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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