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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 9

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 9

1

On the first day of Tishrei,1 for the additional offering of the day,2 we offer a bull, a ram, seven sheep, all as burnt-offerings and a goat as a sin-offering.3 This is the additional offering of the day aside from the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh that is offered on every Rosh Chodesh.4 Therefore [if that date] fell on the Sabbath, three additional offerings were brought: the additional offering of the Sabbath, the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh, and the additional offering of that date.

א

בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם פַּר וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת. וְזֶה מוּסַף הַיּוֹם יֶתֶר עַל מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הַקָּרֵב בְּכָל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הָיוּ שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה מוּסָפִין מוּסַף שַׁבָּת וּמוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וּמוּסַף הַיּוֹם:

2

What is the order in which they were offered? First they would offer the additional offering of the Sabbath, then the additional offering of the new month, and then the additional offering of the festival.5 [The rationale is that any offering brought] more frequently than another takes precedence over the other one.6 Similarly, if [an offering] is on a higher level of holiness than another one, it takes precedence over it.7 If one has a choice of [an offering that] is brought more frequently and one which is on a higher level of holiness, one may award precedence to whichever one desires.8

ב

וְכֵיצַד סִדּוּר הַקְרָבָתָן. מוּסַף שַׁבָּת תְּחִלָּה וְאַחֲרָיו מוּסַף הַחֹדֶשׁ וְאַחֲרָיו מוּסַף יוֹם טוֹב. שֶׁכָּל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וְכֵן כָּל הַמְקֻדָּשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. הָיָה לְפָנָיו תָּדִיר וּמְקֻדָּשׁ יַקְדִּים אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:

3

If one transgressed and slaughtered [an animal for an offering that was] not [brought] more frequently or one which was on a lower level of holiness first, one should offer it [on the altar]9 and then slaughter the one [brought] more frequently or one which was on a higher level of holiness.

ג

עָבַר אוֹ שָׁכַח וְשָׁחַט אֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ תָּדִיר אוֹ הַפָּחוּת בִּקְדֻשָּׁה תְּחִלָּה מַקְרִיבוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַתָּדִיר אוֹ אֶת הַמְקֻדָּשׁ:

4

If the two [animals]10 were slaughtered at the same time,11 one should stir the blood [of the one that is less frequent or less holy] until the blood of the one that is more frequent or holier is sprinkled [on the altar].

ד

וְאִם נִשְׁחֲטוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד יִהְיֶה זֶה מְמָרֵס בַּדָּם עַד שֶׁיִּזְרֹק דַּם הַתָּדִיר אוֹ דַּם הַמְקֻדָּשׁ:

5

The blood of a sin-offering is given precedence12 over the blood of a burnt-offering, because the blood of a sin-offering brings atonement.13 [The offering of] the limbs of a burnt-offering take precedence over offering the fats and organs of a sin-offering, because a burnt-offering is consumed entirely by fire.14

[If one must choose] between the blood of a sin-offering15 or the limbs of a burnt-offering,16 one may give precedence to whichever one desires. Similarly, [if one must choose] between the blood of a burnt-offering and the fat and organs of a sin-offering17 or the blood of a burnt-offering and the blood of a guilt-offering,18 one may give precedence to whichever one desires.

ה

דַּם הַחַטָּאת קוֹדֵם לְדַם הָעוֹלָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּם הַחַטָּאת מְכַפֵּר. אֵיבְרֵי עוֹלָה קוֹדְמִין לְאֵימוּרֵי חַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹלָה כֻּלָּהּ לָאִשִּׁים. דַּם חַטָּאת וְאֵיבְרֵי עוֹלָה אֵי זֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יַקְדִּים. וְכֵן דַּם עוֹלָה וְאֵימוּרֵי חַטָּאת אוֹ דַּם עוֹלָה וְדַם אָשָׁם אֵי זֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יַקְדִּים:

6

A sin-offering takes precedence over a burnt-offering.19 Even a sin-offering of a fowl takes precedence over a burnt-offering of an animal, as [Leviticus 5:8 which] states: "[who shall offer] the sin offering first." This is a general principal teaching that every sin-offering takes precedence over the burnt-offering that accompanies it. Similarly, when setting aside [animals for sacrifices], one should set aside the animal to be offered as a sin-offering and then the one to be offered as a burnt-offering.

ו

חַטָּאת קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלָה אֲפִלּוּ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ה ח) "אֶת אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה" בִּנְיַן אָב לְכָל חַטָּאת שֶׁהִיא קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלָה הַבָּא עִמָּהּ. וְכֵן בִּשְׁעַת הַפְרָשָׁה מַפְרִישׁ הַחַטָּאת תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָעוֹלָה:

7

This does not apply with regard to the sacrifices of the holiday [of Sukkot].20 They are sacrificed in the order that they are mentioned in the Torah, for [Numbers 29:33] states: "according to their ordinance."

What is implied? At first the bulls [should be offered], after them the rams, after them the sheep and after them, the goats, even though the goats are sin-offerings and those which preceded them are burnt-offerings.

Similarly, with regard to the burnt-offering of a bull and the sin-offering of a goat the community brings to atone for the inadvertent transgression [of the prohibitions] against the worship of false deities,21 the bull is given precedence, because [ibid. 15:24] states: "according to the ordinance."

The bull offered by the anointed priest22 is given precedence over the bull offered [to atone] for an inadvertent transgression by the community.23 The latter sacrifice takes precedence over the bull [offered to atone] for the worship of false deities.24The latter sacrifice takes precedence over the goat offered with it. Even though the bull is a burnt-offering and the goat is a sin-offering,25 [the bull is given precedence], for this is the order of the verses in the Torah.

The goat brought [to atone for] idolatry takes precedence over the goat brought by a king,26 for the king is one individual.27 The goat brought by a king takes precedence over the she-goat brought by an ordinary individual.28 The she-goat brought by a private individual takes precedence over a ewe,29 even though they are both sin-offerings. For a she-goat is fit to be brought [to atone] for [all] sins for which one is liable for karet for which a sin-offering is brought and the ewe may not be brought [to atone] for the inadvertent transgression of the prohibitions of idolatry.

ז

בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הֶחָג אֵינוֹ כֵן אֶלָּא קְרֵבִין עַל סֵדֶר הַכָּתוּב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כט ו) (במדבר כט לג) "כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם". כֵּיצַד. בַּתְּחִלָּה פָּרִים. וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם אֵילִים. וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם כְּבָשִׂים. וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם שְׂעִירִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשְּׂעִירִים חַטָּאת וְכָל אֵלּוּ שֶׁקָּדְמוּ אוֹתָן עוֹלוֹת. וְכֵן בְּשִׁגְגַת צִבּוּר בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁהֵן מְבִיאִין פַּר עוֹלָה וְשָׂעִיר חַטָּאת. הַפָּר קוֹדֵם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (במדבר טו כד) "כַּמִּשְׁפָּט". וּפַר כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ קוֹדֵם לְפַר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר. וּפַר הֶעְלֵם קוֹדֵם לְפַר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וּפַר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה קוֹדֵם לְשָׂעִיר שֶׁלָּהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפָּר עוֹלָה וְהַשָּׂעִיר חַטָּאת. שֶׁכָּךְ הוּא סֵדֶר הַכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. שְׂעִיר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה קוֹדֵם לִשְׂעִיר נָשִׂיא שֶׁהַנָּשִׂיא יָחִיד. וּשְׂעִיר נָשִׂיא קוֹדֵם לִשְׂעִירַת יָחִיד. וּשְׂעִירַת יָחִיד קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַבְשָׂה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם חַטָּאת. שֶׁהַשְּׂעִירָה רְאוּיָה לָבוֹא עַל הַכְּרֵתוֹת שֶׁמְּבִיאִין עֲלֵיהֶם חַטָּאת. וְהַכַּבְשָׂה אֵינָהּ בָּאָה עַל שִׁגְגַת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:

8

Even the sin-offering of a fowl brought by a woman after childbirth30 takes precedence over the sheep she brings.31 A sin-offering takes precedence over a guilt-offering, because its blood is applied to the four corners [of the altar] and on its base.32 All of the sin-offerings mentioned in the Torah take precedence over all of the guilt-offerings with the exception of the guilt-offering brought by a person afflicted by tzaraat, because it comes to make a person fit.33

A guilt-offering takes precedence over a thanksgiving-offering and the ram brought by a nazirite, because it is a sacrifice of the most sacred order.34 A thanksgiving-offering and the ram brought by a nazirite take precedence over a peace-offering, because they may be eaten for only one day and require that bread bey brought with them. A thanksgiving-offering takes precedence over the ram of a nazirite, because it must be brought with four types of meal-offerings.35

A peace-offering takes precedence over a firstborn offering, because it requires two presentations of blood which are in fact four,36 leaning on the animal,37 waving the offering,38 and accompanying offerings.39 The firstborn offering takes precedence over the tithe offering, because it is sanctified from the womb and may be eaten only by priests.40

The tithe offering takes precedence over fowl41 because it involves ritual slaughter and it has an element of the most sacred order: its blood and the fats and organs are offered on the altar.42 Sacrifices of fowl take precedence over meal-offerings, for [they involve offering] blood.

If a person has a sin-offering of fowl, a tithe offering, and a burnt-offering of an animal [to sacrifice], since the burnt-offering takes precedence over the tithe offering and the sin-offering of the fowl takes precedence over the burnt-offering,43 he should sacrifice the sin-offering of the fowl first, then the burnt-offering and then the tithe offering.44

ח

אֲפִלּוּ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף שֶׁל יוֹלֶדֶת קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַבְשָׂה. חַטָּאת קוֹדֶמֶת לְאָשָׁם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדָּמָהּ נִתָּן עַל אַרְבַּע קְרָנוֹת וְעַל הַיְסוֹד. וְכָל חַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה קוֹדְמִין לְכָל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת. חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּא עַל יְדֵי הַכָּשֵׁר. הָאָשָׁם קוֹדֵם לְתוֹדָה וּלְאֵיל נָזִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים. תּוֹדָה וְאֵיל נָזִיר קוֹדְמִין לִשְׁלָמִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נֶאֱכָלִין לְיוֹם אֶחָד וּטְעוּנִין לֶחֶם. וְהַתּוֹדָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְאֵיל נָזִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי מִנְחָה. שְׁלָמִים קוֹדְמִין לִבְכוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן טְעוּנִין מַתַּן שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן כְּאַרְבַּע וּטְעוּנִין סְמִיכָה וּתְנוּפָה וּנְסָכִים. הַבְּכוֹר קוֹדֵם לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּדֻשָּׁתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם וְנֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים בִּלְבַד. הַמַּעֲשֵׂר קוֹדְמִין לְעוֹפוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא זֶבַח וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים דָּמוֹ וְאֵימוּרָיו. וְהָעוֹפוֹת קוֹדְמִין לִמְנָחוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִינֵי דָּמִים. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ לְפָנָיו חַטַּאת הָעוֹף וּמַעֲשֵׂר. הַמַּעֲשֵׂר קוֹדֵם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא זֶבַח. הָיוּ שָׁם חַטַּאת הָעוֹף וּמַעֲשֵׂר וְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה הוֹאִיל וְעוֹלָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמַעֲשֵׂר וְחַטַּאת הָעוֹף קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה מַקְרִיב חַטַּאת הָעוֹף תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָעוֹלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר:

9

When a person has several types of animals from one type of sacrifice,45 in which order should they be offered? Bulls take precedence over rams, for their accompanying offerings are larger.46 Rams take precedence over sheep for the same reason. Sheep take precedence over goats, because they have more fats and organs offered on the altar, because the fat-tail is among the organs of the sheep offered and the goats do not have a fat-tail.47

The omer offering takes precedence over the sheep offered with it. The loaves take precedence to the two sheep [offered with them]. This is the general principle: An entity offered because of the day48 takes precedence over an entity brought because of the bread.49

ט

הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ מִינֵי בְּהֵמָה הַרְבֵּה מִמִּין קָרְבָּן אֶחָד כֵּיצַד הֵן קְרֵבִין. הַפָּרִים קוֹדְמִין לְאֵילִים שֶׁכֵּן נִתְרַבּוּ בִּנְסָכִים. וְאֵילִים קוֹדְמִין לִכְבָשִׂים שֶׁכֵּן נִתְרַבּוּ בִּנְסָכִים. וּכְבָשִׂים קוֹדְמִין לִשְׂעִירִים שֶׁכֵּן נִתְרַבּוּ בְּאֵימוּרִים. שֶׁבִּכְלַל אֵימוּרֵי כְּבָשִׂים הָאַלְיָה וְאֵין בִּשְׂעִירִים אַלְיָה. הָעֹמֶר קוֹדֵם לַכֶּבֶשׂ הַבָּא עִמּוֹ. וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם קוֹדְמִין לִשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים. זֶה הַכְּלָל דָּבָר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַיּוֹם קוֹדֵם לְדָבָר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם:

10

A meal-offering brought by a male takes precedence over one brought by a female.50 A meal-offering of wheat51 takes precedence over a meal-offering of barley.52 A meal-offering brought as a sin-offering takes precedence over a meal-offering brought as a free-will offering, because it comes [as atonement] for sin. With regard to a meal-offering brought as a free-will offering and the meal-offering of a sotah, one may give precedence to whichever one desires.53

י

מִנְחַת הָאִישׁ קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִנְחַת הָאִשָּׁה. מִנְחַת חִטִּים קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִנְחַת שְׂעוֹרִים. מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִנְחַת נְדָבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה עַל חֵטְא. מִנְחַת נְדָבָה וּמִנְחַת סוֹטָה אֵי זוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מֵהֶם יַקְדִּים:

11

Meal-offerings receive precedence over wine libations.54 Wine libations receive precedence over oil.55 Oil receives precedence over frankincense.56 Frankincense receives precedence over salt57 and salt receives precedence over wood.58

When does the above apply? When they are all brought at the same time. When, however, a sacrifice is brought first, it is offered first and one which is brought last, is offered last.59

יא

מְנָחוֹת קוֹדְמִין לַיַּיִן. וְהַיַּיִן קוֹדֵם לַשֶּׁמֶן. וְהַשֶּׁמֶן קוֹדֵם לַלְּבוֹנָה. וּלְבוֹנָה קוֹדֶמֶת לַמֶּלַח. וּמֶלַח קוֹדֵם לָעֵצִים. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻּלָּן כְּאֶחָד. אֲבָל הַבָּא רִאשׁוֹן קָרֵב רִאשׁוֹן וְהַבָּא אַחֲרוֹן קָרֵב אַחֲרוֹן:

12

All [the sacrifices] that receive precedence with regard to being offered also receive precedence with regard to being eaten.

יב

כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם בְּהַקְרָבָה קוֹדֵם בַּאֲכִילָה:

13

If a person had before him a peace-offering that had been sacrificed on the previous day60 and one that was offered the present day, the one offered on the previous day is given precedence, because the limit [until when it may be eaten] is closer.61 If one has a peace-offering from the previous day and a sin-offering or a guilt-offering from the present day,62 the sin-offering and the guilt-offering take precedence, because they are sacrifices of the most sacred order, as we explained.63

יג

הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ וּשְׁלָמִים שֶׁל יוֹם. שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ קוֹדְמִין שֶׁהֲרֵי קָרַב זְמַנָּן. שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ וְחַטָּאת אוֹ אָשָׁם שֶׁל יוֹם. חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם קוֹדְמִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Footnotes
1.

Which is Rosh HaShanah. Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 47) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 312) include the offering of these sacrifices as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

2.

Although at present - and as explained in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:8, even at times in the Talmudic era - Rosh HaShanah was observed for two days, sacrifices were offered only on the day consecrated as the first of Tishrei.

4.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 1.

5.

I.e., Rosh HaShanah.

6.

Zevachim 89a derives this from the fact that Numbers 28:23 refers to the "the morning offering that is the continuous offering." The latter phrase teaches that it is given precedence because it is a continuous offering, brought every day.

7.

For example, as stated in Halachah 5, since it brings about atonement, the blood of a sin-offering is considered as on a higher level of holiness than the blood of a burnt-offering. Hence, it is given precedence.

8.

Zevachim 90b debates which of the two should be given precedence without resolving the matter. Hence, it is left to an individual's choice (Kessef Mishneh).

9.

Lest its blood coagulate before the other animal was offered.

10.

One from a sacrifice offered more frequently and one from a sacrifice offered less frequently or one on a higher level of holiness and one on a lower level.

11.

More precisely, whenever the animal from the more frequent or holier offering was slaughtered before the blood of the other was sprinkled on the altar (see Radbaz).

12.

I.e., this and the following instance exemplify the principle that an offering that is holier than another receives precedence over it.

13.

While a burnt-offering, by contrast, is considered merely as a present to God (Zevachim 7b).

14.

And hence is considered as holier.

15.

As mentioned in the notes to the following halachah, this is speaking about a situation where both animals were already slaughtered.

16.

Since each has a positive quality, neither is considered as holier than the other.

17.

In this situation, neither possesses a distinctive positive quality in and of itself. Instead, the blood of the burnt-offering is secondary to its limbs and the fats and organs of the sin-offering are secondary to its blood.

18.

Zevachim 89b states that the blood of a guilt-offering is not on the same level of holiness as that of a sin-offering. According to the Rambam's version, there is an unresolved question which is holier, its blood or that of a burnt-offering (Radbaz).

19.

Rav Yosef Corcus understands this as referring to the slaughter of the sin-offering. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh ask: Since we know that a sin-offering receives precedence, why was it necessary to state previously that the blood of a sin-offering is given precedence? They explain that the previous halachah is speaking about a situation when both animals were already slaughtered and the question is which blood should be given precedence.

20.

See Chapter 10, Halachot 3-4, where these offerings are described.

21.

See Hilchot Shegagot 12:1 where these offerings are described.

22.

The High Priest. As stated in Hilchot Shegagot 1:4; 15:1-2, when a High Priest inadvertently transgresses and violates a sin other than idol worship.

23.

As stated in Hilchot Shegagot 12:1 if the High Court errs in the issuance of a halachic warning and causes the people at large to sin, each tribe is required to bring a bull as a sin-offering.

Horiot 13a derives the sequence of these offerings from Leviticus 4:21 which describes the bull brought by the High Priest as "the first bull." Our Sages understood that as implying that it is given precedence. Moreover, they maintain that it is logical to assume that the High Priest's offering should be given precedence, for he is the one who offers the bull on behalf of the community. Hence first he should atone for himself and then, offer atonement for the community.

24.

When the community violates a transgression involving the worship of false deities due to an erroneous ruling by the High Court, each tribe must bring a burnt-offering of a bull and a sin-offering of a goat (Hilchot Shegagot, loc. cit.). Since this bull is a burnt-offering, the bull brought to atone for other transgressions is given precedence.

25.

And sin-offerings should be given precedence, as stated in the preceding halachah.

26.

As stated in Hilchot Shegagot 1:4, when a king sins and inadvertently performs a transgression punishable by karet other than idolatry. He must bring a goat as a sin-offering.

27.

While the goat brought to atone for idolatry is brought on behalf of a tribe as a whole.

28.

As a sin-offering. Hilchot Shegagot, loc. cit., states that an ordinary individual who performs a transgression punishable by karet must bring either a she-goat or a ewe as a sin-offering. The sin-offering brought by a king receives precedence, for his sacrifice is associated with his elevated position.

29.

A she-goat can be brought to atone for all transgressions, including idolatry, while a ewe may not be brought for idolatry. This indicates that the goat is of greater power.

30.

This offering is singled out, because it is not brought to atone for any particular transgression (Kessef Mishneh).

31.

As related in Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 1:2, after childbirth, in order to be able to partake of sacrificial foods, a woman must bring a dove or turtle-dove as a sin-offering and a sheep as a burnt-offering. Since the fowl is a sin-offering, it is given precedence.

32.

See the description of the presentation of the blood of a sin-offering in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 5:7. There are, by contrast, only two presentations of the blood of a guilt-offering on the altar (ibid. :6). Hence the sin-offering is given precedence.

33.

As explained in the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Zevachim 10:5), this sacrifice enables the person to regain his ritual purity. Afterwards, he may enter the Temple Courtyard and partake of sacrificial foods. The order of the sacrifices brought by a person after he being healed from a tzara'at affliction is described in Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 4:2.

34.

While the latter two are considered as sacrifices of lesser sanctity.

35.

The offering of these three types of sacrifices and the breads that accompany them are described in Hilchot Ma'aseh Korbanot, ch. 9. The fact that the thanksgiving-offering and the nazirite's ram are eaten for only one day and a night indicate a higher level of holiness for those restrictions are also placed on a sin-offering and a guilt-offering which are sacrifices of the most sacred order (Radbaz). The inclusion of breads in these offerings also points to their importance.

36.

The presentation of the blood on the altar for these sacrifices is described in ibid.:6.

37.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, ch. 3, which describes this practice.

38.

The waving of the peace-offering is described in ibid. 9:6-8.

39.

The obligation to bring accompanying offerings is mentioned in ibid., ch. 2. None of these rites are associated with the firstborn offering. Its blood is only poured out at the base of the altar (ibid. 5:17); it does not require the owner to lean upon it (ibid. 3:6); nor is it waved; nor are accompanying offerings brought with it (see (ibid. 2:2).

40.

Both of these factors indicate a higher level of holiness.

41.

I.e., sin-offerings and burnt-offerings brought from turtle doves and ordinary doves.

42.

In contrast, when a fowl is brought as an offering, only its blood is offered on the altar.

43.

As stated in Halachah 6.

44.

I.e., were he not to have brought the burnt-offering, the tithe offering would have been sacrificed first, but because he brought it, the entire order is rearranged.

45.

E.g., they are all burnt-offerings or sin-offerings.

46.

As indicated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:4.

47.

See ibid. 1:18.

48.

I.e., the omer offering and the two loaves.

49.

The sheep mentioned above.

50.

This also applies to animal offerings brought by males (Radbaz).

51.

Brought as a sin-offering, as evident from the concluding clause of the halachah.

52.

I.e., the sotah offering, for this is the only individual meal-offering brought from barley. Wheat is a more important grain and hence, its offerings are given precedence.

53.

For each have a positive quality lacking in the other. The free-will offering is brought together with frankincense and oil, but the sotah offering comes to clarify whether a transgression was performed (Menachot 90a).

54.

For the meal-offering is called a "sacrifice" and the wine libation is not (Radbaz). Alternatively, a handful of meal is sprinkled on the altar's pyre, while the wine is merely poured down the shittin, holes on the base of the altar.

55.

For the wine libations are poured out separately, while oil is always offered with other sacrifices (Radbaz). Alternatively, the majority of the oil is eaten by the priests, while the wine libations are poured on the altar in their entirety.

56.

Because the minimum quantity of oil is larger than the minimum quantity of frankincense (Or Sameach).

57.

The Radbaz questions the Rambam's statements, noting that nowhere does the Rambam mention offering salt as an independent offering.

58.

For salt is associated with the sacrifices by the Torah (Leviticus 2:13), while wood is called a sacrifice only by Scripture (Nechemiah 10:35, see Kiryat Sefer).

59.

This principle applies to all the above situations.

60.

Peace-offerings may be eaten for two days and one night.

61.

For the peace-offering sacrificed on the present day may also be eaten at night and on the following day, while the one offered the previous day must be completed by sunset.

62.

In which instance, one must complete eating both before sunset.

63.

Halachah 8; see also Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 1:17.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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