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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 8

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 8

1

The fiftieth day of the counting of the omer is the holiday of Shavuot.1 It is also called Atzeret. On this day, an additional offering is brought like the one brought on Rosh Chodesh:2 Two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering. These are the addition offerings that are mentioned in the Book of Numbers.3 They are the additional offering associated with the day.

Also, besides the additional offering of this day, a meal-offering is brought from new grain: two loaves. Together with the loaves are offered a bull, two rams, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering and two sheep are brought as peace-offerings.4 These are the addition offerings that are mentioned in the Book of Leviticus.5

Thus on this day, besides [the two lambs brought as] continuous offerings, there are offered three bulls, three rams, and fourteen sheep - a total of 20 animals - as burnt offerings and two goats as sin-offerings which are eaten and two sheep as peace-offerings which are eaten.

א

בְּיוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים מִסְּפִירַת הָעֹמֶר. הוּא חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת. וְהוּא עֲצֶרֶת. וּבַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מַקְרִיבִין מוּסָף כְּמוֹ מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵי פָּרִים וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּם עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים וְהֵם מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וְעוֹד מְבִיאִין יֶתֶר עַל הַמּוּסָף בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּמַקְרִיבִין עִם הַלֶּחֶם פַּר וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים. הַכּל עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וּשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּחֻמַּשׁ וַיִּקְרָא. נִמְצָא הַקָּרֵב בְּיוֹם זֶה יֶתֶר עַל שְׁנֵי הַתְּמִידִין שְׁלֹשָׁה פָּרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵילִים וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים. הַכּל עֶשְׂרִים בְּהֵמָה עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי חַטָּאוֹת נֶאֱכָלִים. וּשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים שְׁלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִים:

2

These two loaves may be brought only from Eretz Yisrael and from freshly-harvested grain,6 as [indicated by Leviticus 23:17]: "From your dwelling places,7 bring bread that will be waved...." If freshly-harvested grain cannot be found, one may bring from that which had been stored away.8

ב

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא מִן הָאָרֶץ וּמִן הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג יז) "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה" וְגוֹ'. לֹא מָצְאוּ חָדָשׁ יָבִיאוּ מִן הָעֲלִיָּה:

3

If wheat kernels descended from the clouds,9 there is an unresolved doubt whether they are considered as coming from "your dwelling places."10 Hence, [as an initial preference, the two loaves] should not be brought [from such grain]. After the fact, [the offering] is acceptable.

How are [the two loaves] brought? Three se'ah of wheat from new grain are brought. [The kernels] are struck and tread upon as [is done] for all the meal offerings.11 They should be ground into fine flour [to produce] two esronim12 that are sifted with twelve sifters. The remainder is redeemed and [afterwards] may be eaten by any person. Challah must be separated from [that grain], but it is exempt from the tithes, as we explained.13

ג

חִטִּים שֶׁיָּרְדוּ בְּעָבְיָם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם סָפֵק אִם אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בָּהֶם (ויקרא כג יז) "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם" אוֹ אֵינָם מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יָבִיא וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. מְבִיאִין שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין חִטִּין חֲדָשׁוֹת וְשָׁפִין אוֹתָן וּבוֹעֲטִין בָּהֶם כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת וְטוֹחֲנִין אוֹתָן סלֶת וּמְנַפִּין מֵהֶן שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת מְנֻפֶּה בִּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

The two loaves that come from new grain must each come from an isaron produced from a se'ah and a half [of kernels]. They are sifted with twelve sifters. For the showbread that comes from grain that grown for a full season, it is sufficient to use eleven sifters and an isaron is produced from every se'ah.14 The omer which, however, comes from fresh barley does not come from choice grain.15 [Hence it requires] three se'ah and thirteen sifters.

ד

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁהֵן מִן הֶחָדָשׁ צְרִיכִין לָבוֹא עִשָּׂרוֹן מִכָּל סְאָה וּמֶחֱצָה וּמְנַפִּין אוֹתָן בִּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה. וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִן הַיָּשָׁן דַּי לוֹ בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה וְהוּא בָּא עִשָּׂרוֹן מִכָּל סְאָה. אֲבָל הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים חֲדָשׁוֹת אֵינוֹ בָּא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר אֶלָּא מִשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וּבִשְׁלֹשׁ עֲשָׂרָה נָפָה:

5

In all these instances, if one added the number of se'ah used or subtracted from them,16 [the offering] is acceptable.17

ה

וְכֻלָּם אִם רִבָּה בְּמִדַּת הַסְּאִין שֶׁבָּאִין מֵהֶן אוֹ מִעֵט כָּשֵׁר:

6

The two esronim are taken and each one is kneaded into dough individually and baked individually.18

ו

וְלוֹקְחִין שְׁנֵי הָעֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת וְלָשִׁין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת וְאוֹפִין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת:

7

The dough for them is made and they are shaped outside [the Temple Courtyard].19 They are, however, baked inside [the Courtyard] like all the meal-offerings.20

ז

וְלִישָׁתָן וַעֲרִיכָתָן בַּחוּץ וַאֲפִיָּתָן בִּפְנִים כְּכָל הַמְּנָחוֹת:

8

Preparing these loaves does not supersede [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] the festivals and needless to say, not [those of] Sabbath. Instead, they are baked on the day preceding the festival. For [Exodus 12:16 which permits cooking and baking on the festivals states]: "It alone may be done for yourselves." [Implied is an exclusion:] "For yourselves and not for the Most High.21

ח

וְאֵין עֲשִׂיָּתָן דּוֹחָה יוֹם טוֹב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב טז) "הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם" לָכֶם וְלֹא לְגָבוֹהַּ:

9

If the day before the festival is the Sabbath, they should be baked on Friday and eaten on the third day after they were baked which is the festival.

It is explicitly stated in the Torah that they should be leavened bread.22 How were they prepared? One would bring yeast from another place and place it into the isaron measure. He would then fill that measure with fine flour and let it leaven with that yeast.23

ט

הָיָה עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שַׁבָּת אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנֶאֱכָלוֹת בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי לַאֲפִיָּתָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב. וַהֲרֵי מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁהֵם חָמֵץ. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. מֵבִיא שְׂאוֹר מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָעִשָּׂרוֹן וּמְמַלֵּא הָעִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת וּמְחַמְּצוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַשְּׂאוֹר:

10

They were rectangular.24 The length of each loaf is seven handbreadths and their width was four handbreadths. Their height was four fingerbreadths.

י

וּמְרֻבָּעוֹת הֵן. אֹרֶךְ כָּל חַלָּה שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים וְרָחְבָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְגָבְהָהּ אַרְבַּע אֶצְבָּעוֹת:

11

How is the bread waved together with the two sheep brought as peace offerings?25 Two sheep are brought and they should be waved while they are still alive, as [Leviticus 23:20] states: "And [the priest] shall wave them...." If one waved each of them individually, the obligation is fulfilled. Afterwards, they are slaughtered and skinned.

The breast and the thigh from both of them are taken and placed aside the two loaves. [A priest] should place both of his hands below them and wave them all as a single entity26 in the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard in the place where all the waving [of offerings] is performed.27 One should bring them back and forth [to each of the four directions] and up and down. If he waved each of the loaves [together with one breast and one thigh] individually, the obligation is fulfilled.

Afterwards, the eimorim28 of the sheep are offered on the altar's pyre. The remainder of the meat is eaten by the priests.29 With regard to the two loaves: the High Priest receives one of them30 and the other is divided among all the priestly watches.31 They both may be eaten for the entire day and half the night like the meat of the sacrifices of the most sacred order.32

יא

כֵּיצַד הֲנָפַת הַלֶּחֶם עִם שְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי הַשְּׁלָמִים. מֵבִיא שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמְנִיפָם בְּעוֹדָן חַיִּים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד יב) "וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה". וְאִם הֵנִיף זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְזֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָן וּמַפְשִׁיט. וְלוֹקֵחַ חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק מִכָּל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם וּמַנִּיחָן בְּצַד שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּמֵנִיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו מִלְּמַטָּן וּמֵנִיף הַכּל כְּאֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח בִּמְקוֹם כָּל הַתְּנוּפוֹת. מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא. מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד. וְאִם הֱנִיפָן אֶחָד אֶחָד יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵי שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים וּשְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי הַחַלּוֹת נוֹטֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אַחַת מֵהֶן. וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה מִתְחַלֶּקֶת לְכָל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת. וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן נֶאֱכָלוֹת אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וַחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה כִּבְשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים:

12

[The following laws apply if] one slaughtered the two sheep for four loaves: If [the priest performing the service] said:33 "Let two of the four become sanctified," he should remove two of the four, and wave them.34 The remainder should be redeemed inside the Temple Courtyard35 and eaten outside like other ordinary [bread]. If he did not make such a stipulation, the bread does not become sanctified.

יב

שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים עַל אַרְבַּע חַלּוֹת. אִם אָמַר יִקָּדְשׁוּ שְׁתַּיִם מִתּוֹךְ אַרְבַּע מוֹשֵׁךְ שְׁתַּיִם מֵהֶן וּמְנִיפָן. וְהַשְּׁאָר פּוֹדִין אוֹתָן בִּפְנִים וְנֶאֱכָלִין בַּחוּץ כִּשְׁאָר הַחֻלִּין. וְאִם לֹא הִתְנָה לֹא קָדַשׁ הַלֶּחֶם:

13

If he slaughtered four sheep for two loaves, they should take away two of them and dash their blood on the altar with the intent that they not be for this offering.36 He should then wave the remaining two together with the two loaves.37

יג

שָׁחַט אַרְבָּעָה כְּבָשִׂים עַל שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת. מוֹשֵׁךְ שְׁנַיִם מֵהֶם וְזוֹרֵק דָּמָן שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָן. וּמֵנִיף הַשְּׁנַיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים הַכְּשֵׁרִים עִם שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם:

14

The two breads are each indispensable requirements for the offering of each other38 and the two sheep are each indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.39 If one of them died, fled, or became treifah, a partner should be taken for the second. If one was slaughtered with the proper intent [and then the other died or the like], a partner should be taken for [the first].40

יד

שְׁתֵּי הַחַלּוֹת מְעַכְּבוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ. וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. מֵת אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אוֹ בָּרַח אוֹ נַעֲשָׂה טְרֵפָה. יִקַּח זוּג לְשֵׁנִי. שָׁחַט אֶחָד לִשְׁמוֹ. יִקַּח לוֹ זוּג:

15

The two loaves are indispensable requirements for the offering of the sheep,41 but the two sheep are not indispensable requirements for the offering of the loaves.42 [Nevertheless,] if [the loaves] were waved together with the sheep, they are indispensable requirements for their being offered.43 Thus if the loaves were lost, the sheep should be destroyed and if the sheep were lost, the loaves should be destroyed and other loaves and other sheep should be brought.

טו

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הַכְּבָשִׂים. וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הַלֶּחֶם. וְאִם הוּנְפוּ עִם הַכְּבָשִׂים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאִם אָבַד הַלֶּחֶם יֹאבְדוּ הַכְּבָשִׂים וְאִם אָבְדוּ הַכְּבָשִׂים יֹאבְדוּ הַלֶּחֶם וְיָבִיאוּ לֶחֶם אַחֵר וּכְבָשִׂים אֲחֵרִים:

16

How should the two loaves be brought when they are brought without the sheep? They should be waved and then [left] until their form spoils44 and then taken out to the place where [sacrifices] are burnt.45 This is a decree, [enacted] lest sheep be available in the coming year and the loaves be offered without them.

The two rams, seven sheep46 and the goat47 brought on this day because of the loaves are not indispensable requirements for the offering of the loaves, nor are the loaves indispensable requirements for their being offered.

טז

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּאוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן בְּלֹא כְּבָשִׂים כֵּיצַד עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן. יוּנְפוּ וּתְעֵבַּר צוּרָתָן וְיֵצְאוּ לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְצְאוּ כְּבָשִׂים לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה וְיָבִיאוּ לֶחֶם בְּלֹא כְּבָשִׂים. הַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי הָאֵילִים וְשִׁבְעַת הַכְּבָשִׂים וְהַשָּׂעִיר הַבָּאִים בְּיוֹם זֶה בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא הַלֶּחֶם מְעַכְּבָן:

17

The two bulls of the additional offering of the day and the bull brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.48

יז

שְׁנֵי פָּרִים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וּפַר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

18

The ram of the additional offering of the day and the two rams brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.49

יח

אַיִל שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים הַבָּאִין בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין (זֶה אֶת זֶה):

19

The seven sheep of the additional offering of the day and the seven sheep brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.50 If they were slaughtered, they are indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.51

יט

שִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַבָּאִים בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאִם נִשְׁחֲטוּ כֻּלָּן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

20

The continuous offerings are not indispensable requirements for the additional offerings, nor are the additional offerings indispensable requirements for the continuous offerings, nor are the additional offerings indispensable requirements for each other, nor is the entire amount of burnt offerings an indispensable requirement.

What is implied? If only six sheep were found, the six should be offered. Even if one found only one sheep, it should be offered.52 [This applies] whether on Rosh Chodesh or on the festivals or Sabbaths. There is no obligation to offer the other animals on the following day or at any other time. Instead, whenever the date for a communal sacrifice passes without it being offered, [the obligation to offer] the sacrifice is nullified.53

If there were only two sheep to be found and thus if they would be offered for the additional offering of the day, there would not be any for the continuous offering on the next day, the options are of equal weight.54 If they were offered for the additional offering of that day, the offering [is acceptable]. If it was desired that they be left to be offered on the following day, they should be left.

כ

הַתְּמִידִין אֵינָם מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַמּוּסָפִין וְלֹא הַמּוּסָפִין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתְּמִידִין וְלֹא הַמּוּסָפִין מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה וְלֹא מִנְיַן הָעוֹלוֹת כֻּלָּן מְעַכֵּב. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שִׁשָּׁה כְּבָשִׂים מַקְרִיבִין שִׁשָּׁה אֲפִלּוּ לֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא אֶחָד מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים בֵּין בִּימֵי הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת וְהַשַּׁבָּתוֹת. וְאֵינָן חַיָּבִין לְהַקְרִיב הַשְּׁאָר לְמָחָר אוֹ לְמוֹעֵד אַחֵר אֶלָּא כָּל קָרְבַּן צִבּוּר שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנּוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ. לֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים אִם יַקְרִיבוּ אוֹתָן לְמוּסַף הַיּוֹם אֵין לָהֶן תְּמִידִין לְמָחָר. הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר שָׁקוּל אִם הִקְרִיבוּם לְמוּסַף הַיּוֹם הִקְרִיבוּ וְאִם רָצוּ לְהַנִּיחָם לְמָחָר לִתְמִידִין יַנִּיחוּ:

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Footnotes
1.

I.e., unlike other holidays, the celebration of Shavuot is not associated with a specific date of the month, but is instead dependent on the counting of the omer. In the era of the Temple, when the calendar was established based on the sighting of the moon, it was possible for the holiday to be celebrated on the fifth, sixth, or the seventh of the month. See Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 3:12.

2.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 45) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 404) include offering the additional offering of Shavuot as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

4.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 46) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 307) include offering these loaves and these sacrifices as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

5.

Leviticus 23:16-19. The Rambam is following the opinion of Rabbi Akiva (Menachot 45b) who sees the two as two different sets of offerings.

6.

For Leviticus 23:16 describes this as "a new meal-offering," i.e., a meal-offering from grain harvested in the present year.

7.

I.e., Eretz Yisrael.

8.

The literal meaning of the Rambam's words is "from the attic." To support such a ruling, Menachot 83b explains that the expression "a new meal-offering" can be interpreted to mean that after these two loaves are brought, meal-offerings can be brought from new grain.

9.

I.e., miraculously, without there being a logical explanation for their descent (see Tosafot, Menachot 69b).

10.

I.e., from a simple perspective, the phrase "from your dwelling places," comes to exclude the Diaspora. Hence one might think grain from the clouds would be acceptable. Nevertheless, grain from the clouds also does not come "from your dwelling places." Hence there is room to say that it is excluded (Menachot, loc. cit.).

11.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 6, and Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:4.

12.

As mentioned in the notes to Chapter 7, Halachah 12, an isaron is one tenth of an ephah and an ephah is three se'ah. Thus an isaron is approximately 2.4 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah.

The priests would be endeavoring to get one fifth of the original amount of grain. Since the kernels of grain are still somewhat underdeveloped, for this is an early stage in the harvest, there will not be as much fine flour and much sifting will be required to produce the desired quantity.

13.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 12; Hilchot Ma'aser 3:25; Hilchot Bikkurim 6:3.

14.

Since the grain has had more time to grow, the kernels of wheat have matured more, and there is more fine flour in each kernel. Hence, there is no need to sift them so thoroughly and more fine flour is produced per se'ah.

15.

Because at the beginning of the harvest such grain does not exist.

16.

The same law applies if the grain was sifted less (see Chapter 5, Halachah 6).

17.

He must, however, used the required amount of esronim for each offering (Kessef Mishneh).

18.

In his Commentary to the Mishneh (Menachot 11:1), the Rambam states that this practice has its roots in the Oral Tradition transmitted by Moses from Sinai.

19.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.:2), the Rambam notes that the Talmud does not explain why the two loaves were not prepared in the Temple Courtyard.

20.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:23.

21.

Even though the priests do partake of these two loaves, the purpose of their preparation is not to serve as food, but to be an offering unto God.

22.

See Leviticus 23:17. Aside from one of the types of breads offered together with the thanksgiving offering, all of the meal-offerings were unleavened bread.

23.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:18 with regard to the leavening of one of the types of the bread used for the thanksgiving offering.

24.

The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam derived this concept from the showbread. See also Tosefta, Menachot 11:1.

25.

As stated in Chapter 9, Halachah 9, the two loaves should be offered before the sheep that accompany them.

26.

Menachot 61a derives this from the description of the guilt offering and the log of oil that accompanies it.

27.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 12; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:6.

28.

The fats and organs offered on the altar.

29.

I.e., the meat, and apparently also the bread, may not be eaten until the eimorim were offered on the altar.

30.

As in the instance of the showbread where half the loaves are given to the High Prist (Chapter 4, Halachah 14; Kessef Mishneh).

31.

For the priests of all the watches are able to offer the sacrifices of the festivals and share in their division (see Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:4-5). As the Radbaz emphasizes, this division is followed even though each of the priests will receive only a miniscule portion.

32.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 10:8, this is a Rabbinic safeguard. According to Scriptural Law, the sacrifices may be eaten until dawn. Even though they are peace offerings, since they are communal sacrifices, they are considered sacrifices of the most holy order and the time during which they may be eaten is regulated accordingly (Kessef Mishneh).

33.

The Radbaz emphasizes that if the priest does not make such a statement explicitly, the breads are not sanctified.

34.

And they are acceptable for the offering.

35.

For if they were redeemed outside the Temple, they would be disqualified (Menachot 47b). Rav Yosef Corcus explains that although one is forbidden to bring ordinary food into the Temple Courtyard, in this instance, one is not bringing the bread into the Temple Courtyard, The loaves are redeemed while they are located there. Afterwards, they are removed.

36.

In such an instance, the sacrifices are not disqualified, but they are not considered as fulfilling the obligation of the given offering. Hence they are no longer associated with the two loaves. If, however, the blood of the first two sheep was offered with the proper intent, the later two are disqualified, before they were slaughtered. For this reason, the option mentioned by the Rambam is preferable (Menachot 48a). That passage asks: Should one slaughter a sacrifice without the proper intent, because there is a redeeming factor by doing so? It explains that there is no transgression involved in slaughtering a sacrifice without the proper intent. Hence in this situation, it is the most desired alternative.

37.

And they are acceptable.

38.

One is not acceptable without the other and should not be brought (Menachot 27a).

39.

One is not acceptable without the other and should not be brought (Menachot 27a).

40.

Our additions were made on the basis of the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh. The Or Sameach suggests (and his suggestion is borne out by some manuscript copies of the Mishneh Torah) amending the text to read "If one was slaughtered without the proper intent, (i.e., and thus disqualified,) a partner should be taken for the other."

41.

If there are no loaves, the sheep should not be offered.

42.

And even if there are no sheep, the loaves should be offered [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 4:3)].

43.

For waving them together establishes interdependence (see Menachot 46b). The Ra'avad states that the matter is left unresolved by the Talmud and hence, questions the Rambam's ruling. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, offer an interpretation of the passage that supports the Rambam's approach.

44.

Since they were waved, they are considered as sacrificial entities and may not be burnt until they are disqualified.

45.

In the initial version of his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.; this is the version in the standard published text), the Rambam rules according to Scriptural Law and states that the loaves should be eaten. Afterwards, he amended that text to read as above (Rav Kappach's notes).

46.

Offered as burnt offerings (Halachah 1).

47.

Offered as a sin offering (ibid.).

48.

Indeed, the two bulls brought because of the additional offering are not even indispensable requirements for the offering of each other (Kessef Mishneh).

49.

In this instance, however, the two rams brought because of the bread are indispenaible requirements for the offering of each other (ibid.).

50.

Here also the seven sheep brought because of the additional offering are not even indispenaible requirements for the offering of each other. The Ra'avad maintains, however, that the seven sheep brought because of the bread are indispenaible requirements for the offering of each other. The Kessef Mishneh differs and maintains that none of the sheep are indispenaible requirements for each other.

51.

For the fact that they were slaughtered for the same purposes causes them to be considered as a single entity. The Ra'avad does not accept this concept, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh offer an explanation of the Rambam's source, Menachot 55b, that supports his ruling.

52.

With regard to the Rosh Chodesh sacrifice, Ezekiel 46:7 speaks of offering one bull, while the Torah (Numbers 28:11) speaks of bringing two. Menachot 45a reconciles the apparent contradiction stating that if two are available, two should be offered. If only one is available, that one should be brought. Similarly that passage speaks of offering "six sheep... that one's hand will come by," though the Torah speaks of seven. Implied is that if seven are not available, six should be brought. And if six are not available, whatever animals "that one's hand will come by" should be offered.

53.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 1:7.

54.

The continuous offerings have the advantage of being offered more frequently, but the additional offerings are on a higher level of holiness. See also Chapter 9, Halachah 2.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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