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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 7

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 7


On Rosh Chodesh, the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh is offered after the continuous offering of the morning.1 What does the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh comprise? Two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering.2


בְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אַחַר תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר. וְכַמָּה הוּא מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. פָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים חַטָּאת:


The procedure through which all the burnt-offerings are offered is the same as that of continuous offering.3 The procedure through which the sin-offerings of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals are offered is the same as that employed for the sin-offering which is eaten that we described.4


מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת אֶחָד הוּא כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַתָּמִיד. וּמַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁל רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וְשֶׁל מוֹעֲדוֹת כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


On Pesach, an additional offering is brought every day,5 from the first day to the seventh day, like that of the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh: two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep; all are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering which is eaten.6

On the second day of Pesach, the sixteenth of Nisan,7 besides the additional offering brought each day [of the holiday],8 a lamb is offered as a burnt-offering together with the omer of barley that is waved.9 This is a communal meal-offering, as we explained.10


בְּפֶסַח מַקְרִיבִין קָרְבַּן מוּסָף בְּכָל יוֹם. מִיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּמוּסַף רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים. פָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת. בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא יוֹם שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן מַקְרִיבִין יֶתֶר עַל מוּסָף שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם כֶּבֶשׂ לְעוֹלָה עִם עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה. וְהִיא מִנְחָה שֶׁל צִבּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


There is a fixed time [when this offering is brought]. Hence it supersedes [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] the Sabbath and the restrictions of ritual impurity.11


וּזְמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ וּלְפִיכָךְ דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה:


This meal offering may be brought only from Eretz Yisrael,12 as [Leviticus 23:10] states: "And you shall bring the omer, the first of your harvest,13 to the priest." It is a mitzvah to bring the omer from [fields that are] close [to Jerusalem].14 If it was not brought from a close place,15 it may be brought from any place in Eretz Yisrael.


אֵין מְבִיאִין מִנְחָה זוֹ אֶלָּא מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן". מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַקָּרוֹב. לֹא בָּא מִן הַקָּרוֹב מְבִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל:


It is a mitzvah that it be reaped at night, on the night of the sixteenth [Nisan].16 [This applies] whether [that day falls] during the week or on the Sabbath.17


מִצְוָתוֹ לְהִקָּצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה בְּלֵיל שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר. בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת:


The entire night is acceptable for reaping [the barley for] the omer. If it was reaped during the day, it is acceptable.18


וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה כָּשֵׁר לִקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם קְצָרוּהוּ בַּיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר:


The mitzvah is to bring it from standing grain.19 If [appropriate standing grain] was not found, it should be brought from the sheaves.


מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַקָּמָה. לֹא מָצְאוּ יָבִיאוּ מִן הָעֳמָרִים:


The mitzvah is [to harvest grain] that is fresh.20 If [such grain] was not found, it may be brought from dried grain.


מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַלַּח. לֹא מָצְאוּ יָבִיאוּ מִן הַיָּבֵשׁ:


Their practice was to bring [the omer] from fields to the south [of Jerusalem].21 They would leave one half of the field fallow22 and sow the other half one year. And the following year, they would leave fallow the half of the field that was previously sown and sow the other half and bring [the omer] from it.23


דַּרְכָּן הָיָה לְהָבִיא מִשָּׂדוֹת שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם. הָיָה נָר חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה וְזוֹרֵעַ חֶצְיָהּ בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ וּבְשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת נָר חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁזָּרַע וְזוֹרֵעַ הַחֵצִי שֶׁנָּר וּמֵבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ:


This omer would come from barley.24 This is a halachah communicated by Moses our teacher.25

How was [the offering] brought? On the day before the festival of Pesach, the agents of the court would go out [to the field] and tie [the barley] into bundles26 while it was still attached to the ground so that it would be easy to reap. [On the evening after Pesach,] all [of the inhabitants] of all the neighboring villages would gather so that it would be reaped with much flourish.27 They would have three men reap three se'ah of barley in three baskets with three sickles.

When it became dark, the reapers would ask those standing [in attendance]: "Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

If it was the Sabbath, they would ask: "Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."28

"Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."

Afterwards, they would ask: "Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

Three [questions and answers] were given regarding each matter. Why was all this necessary? Because of those who erred who departed from the community of Israel in the Second Temple [era].29 They maintained that the Torah's expression [Leviticus 23:11]: "From the day following the Sabbath" [should be understood literally, as referring to] the Sabbath of the week. Nevertheless, according to the Oral Tradition, [our Sages] derived that the intent is not the Sabbath, but the festival.30 And so, was understood at all times by the prophets and the Sanhedrin31 in every generation. They would have the omer waved on the sixteenth of Nisan whether it fell during the week or on the Sabbath.

[This interpretation is also reflected in the Written Torah itself,]32 for it is written in the Torah [ibid.:14]: "You shall not eat bread, roasted grain, or kernels of grain until this self-same day." And [Joshua 4:11] states: "And they ate from the produce of the land on the day after Pesach, matzot and roasted grain."33 And if one would presume that in that year Pesach fell on the Sabbath34 as these fools have supposed,35 why would Scripture make the license for them to eat new grain dependent on a factor that is not fundamental, nor the true cause, but mere coincendence.36 Instead, since [Scripture] made the matter dependent on "the day after Pesach," it is clear that the day after Pesach is the cause that permits new grain [to be eaten] and no attention is paid to the day of the week [on which it falls].


עֹמֶר זֶה מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים הָיָה בָּא. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ. וְכֵיצַד הָיָה נַעֲשֶׂה. מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב יוֹצְאִין שְׁלוּחֵי בֵּית דִּין וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ כְּרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נֹחַ לִקְצֹר. כָּל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִקְצַר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. וְקוֹצְרִין שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין שְׂעוֹרִין בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים. וּבְשָׁלֹשׁ קֻפּוֹת. וּבִשְׁלֹשָׁה מַגָּלוֹת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָשְׁכָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַקּוֹצֵר לְכָל הָעוֹמְדִים שָׁם. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הִין. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. וְאִם הָיָה שַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶן שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הִין. שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר לָהֶן אֶקְצֹר וְהֵן אוֹמְרִין לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה מִפְּנֵי אֵלּוּ הַטּוֹעִים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבַיִת שֵׁנִי. שֶׁהֵן אוֹמְרִין שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כג יא) (ויקרא כג טו טז) "מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת" הוּא שַׁבָּת בְּרֵאשִׁית. וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא יוֹם טוֹב וְכֵן רָאוּ תָּמִיד הַנְּבִיאִים וְהַסַּנְהֶדְרִין בְּכָל דּוֹר וְדוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ מְנִיפִין אֶת הָעֹמֶר בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת. וַהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כג יד) "וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה". וְנֶאֱמַר (יהושע ה יא) "וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח מַצּוֹת וְקָלוּי". וְאִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הַפֶּסַח בְּשַׁבָּת אֵרַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁדִּמּוּ הַטִּפְּשִׁים. הֵיאַךְ תָּלָה הַכָּתוּב הֶתֵּר אֲכִילָתָם לֶחָדָשׁ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ הָעִקָּר וְלֹא הַסִּבָּה אֶלָּא נִקְרָה נִקְרֶה. אֶלָּא מֵאַחַר שֶׁתָּלָה הַדָּבָר בְּמָחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח הַדָּבָר בָּרוּר שֶׁמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח הִיא הָעִלָּה הַמַּתֶּרֶת אֶת הֶחָדָשׁ וְאֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין עַל אֵי זֶה יוֹם הוּא מִימֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ:


They reaped [the barley]; [then] they placed it in the baskets, and brought it to the Temple Courtyard. [There] they beat it, winnowed it, and selected [the kernels]. The barley [kernels] were taken and roasted over the fire in a cylinder with holes so that the fire would reach it in its entirety, as [Leviticus 2:14] states: "From ripe ears, roasted over fire, ground from fresh kernels." According to the Oral Tradition,37 we learned that the verse is speaking only about the omer meal-offering. After it is roasted, it is spread out in the Temple Courtyard and the wind wafts through it. It is then taken to a mill for kernels and ground [to produce] three se'ah.38 From that quantity, an isaron39 is taken out after it has been sifted with thirteen sifters. The remainder is redeemed and [afterwards] may be eaten by any person. Challah must be separated from [that grain], but it is exempt from the tithes, as we explained.40

This isaron of fine barley flour is taken and mixed with a log of oil41 on the sixteenth of Nisan and a handful of frankincense is placed upon it like on the other meal offerings.42 It is waved in the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard, being passed to [all four directions], lifted up and brought down.43 It is then brought close to the tip of the southwest corner of the altar like the other meal-offerings.44 A handful of the meal is taken and offered on the altar's pyre. The remainder is eaten by the priests like the remainder of all other meal-offerings.45

When is this handful taken? After the additional offering of the day is offered.46 The lamb brought as a burnt-offering47 is offered before the continuous offering of the afternoon.


קְצָרוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּקֻפּוֹת וֶהֱבִיאוּהוּ לָעֲזָרָה וַחֲבָטוּהוּ. וְזוֹרִין וּבוֹרְרִין. וְלוֹקְחִין אֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִין וּמְהַבְהֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בָּאוּר. בְּאַבּוּב מְנֻקָּב. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט בְּכֻלָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב יד) "אָבִיב קָלוּי בָּאֵשׁ גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר בִּלְבַד. וְאַחַר שֶׁקּוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ שׁוֹטְחִין אוֹתוֹ בָּעֲזָרָה וְהָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בּוֹ. וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ לְרֵחַיִם שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת וְטוֹחֲנִין אֶת הַשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וּמוֹצִיאִין מִן הַכּל עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְנֻפֶּה בִּשְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה. וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְלוֹקְחִין זֶה הָעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל סלֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִים וּבוֹלְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּלוֹג שֶׁמֶן בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן וְנוֹתְנִין עָלָיו קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וּמְנִיפוֹ בַּמִּזְרָח מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד וּמַגִּישׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד חֻדָּהּ שֶׁל קֶרֶן מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וְקוֹמֵץ וּמַקְטִיר. וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים כִּשְׁיָרֵי כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת. ואֵימָתַי קוֹמְצִין אוֹתוֹ. לְאַחַר שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וְכֶבֶשׂ הָעוֹלָה קֹדֶם תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:


It is forbidden to reap any of the species of grain48 in Eretz Yisrael49 before the reaping50 of the omer, [because Leviticus 23:10] refers [to it as]: "the first of your harvest," [implying that] it should be the first [grain] that is reaped.51

To what does the above apply? To a harvest from which the omer offering could be brought. [A field located] in parched land in a valley, by contrast, may be reaped before [the reaping of] the omer, because it is not fit to bring [the omer offering] from it.52 [Even such grain] should not, however, be collected in a grain heap.


אָסוּר לִקְצֹר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִין מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי תְּבוּאָה קֹדֶם לִקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם" שֶׁיִּהְיֶה תְּחִלָּה לְכָל הַנִּקְצָרִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקָצִיר שֶׁרָאוּי לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ עֹמֶר. אֲבָל בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ קוֹצְרִין אוֹתוֹ מִלִּפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר. אֲבָל לֹא יִגְדּשׁ:


When grain grew its roots53 before [the reaping of] the omer, [reaping] the omer causes it to be permitted. If not, it is forbidden to harvest it, just as it is forbidden to partake of it until the omer is harvested next [year].


תְּבוּאָה שֶׁהִשְׁרִישָׁה קֹדֶם הָעֹמֶר הָעֹמֶר מַתִּירָהּ. וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר לְקָצְרָהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא הָעֹמֶר הַבָּא:


When grain has not completed the final third of its growth,54 it may be reaped [even if it had not grown roots before the reaping of the omer] to feed it to an animal. [Grain] may be reaped so it does not ruin trees. [Similarly,] it may be reaped to clear a place for an assembly of mourning or an assembly of study. For [the prooftext] states "your harvest." [Implied is that the restrictions] do not [apply] to harvest associated with a mitzvah.


תְּבוּאָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ מֻתָּר לִקְצֹר מִמֶּנָּה לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֵמָה. וְקוֹצְרִין מִפְּנֵי הַנְּטִיעוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּסְדוּ. וְקוֹצְרִין לְפַנּוֹת מָקוֹם לְבֵית הָאָבֵל אוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "קְצִירְכֶם" וְלֹא קְצִיר מִצְוָה:


Even though it is permitted to reap, one should not bind [the stalks of barley] as sheaves55 as the reapers do. Instead, he should leave them as small bundles.56


וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִקְצֹר לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָן כְּרִיכוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ הַקּוֹצְרִין. אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֵם צְבָתִים צְבָתִים:


We already explained57 that meal-offerings, the meal-offerings for the additional offerings58 and first fruits59 may not be brought from new grain before the bringing of the omer.60 If one brought them, the offering is invalid. [Similarly, these offerings] should not be brought before bringing the two loaves [on Shavuot], but if one brought them, the offering is acceptable.61


כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין מְנָחוֹת וְלֹא מִנְחַת נְסָכִים וְלֹא בִּכּוּרִים מִן הֶחָדָשׁ קֹדֶם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם הֵבִיא פָּסוּל. וְלֹא יָבִיא קֹדֶם לַהֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם. וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר:


Anyone who offers a meal-offering from new grain should recite the blessing Shehechiyanu.62


וְכָל הַמַּקְרִיב מִנְחָה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ תְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָינוּ:


When grain was sown after the offering of the omer and harvested after the omer was offered the following year, there is an unresolved doubt:63 May meal-offerings be brought from it as an initial preference before the two loaves are brought [on Shavuot] because the two loaves and the omer had been brought while this grain [was growing]64 or perhaps [meal-offerings] should not be brought from it until after bringing the two loaves after the omer of the same year were brought.65


תְּבוּאָה שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר וּקְצָרָהּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר שֶׁל שָׁנָה הַבָּאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק אִם מְבִיאִין מִמֶּנָּה מְנָחוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה טֶרֶם הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הוֹאִיל וּתְבוּאָה זוֹ עָבַר עָלֶיהָ הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר. אוֹ אֵין מְבִיאִין עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אַחַר הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁל שָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת:


Similarly, if grain was growing in the ground and its leaves began to form or they began to blossom at the time of the bringing of the two loaves,66 there is an unresolved question if the blossoming or the formation of leaves is considered equivalent to [the grain] taking root and it is permitted to bring meal-offerings from it or it is not considered as equivalent to it having taken root. Therefore one should not bring [such offerings]. If one did, [we assume that] they were accepted.


וְכֵן תְּבוּאָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּקַּרְקַע וְחָנְטוּ עָלֶיהָ אוֹ הֵנֵצּוּ עָלִים שֶׁלָּהּ כְּשֶׁהֵבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הֲנָצַת הֶעָלִין אוֹ חֲנָטָתָן כְּמוֹ הֻשְׁרְשָׁה וְהֻתְּרָה לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנָּה מְנָחוֹת אוֹ אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַשְׁרָשָׁה. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יָבִיא וְאִם הֵבִיא הֻרְצָה:


One who reaps grain before the harvest of the omer is not liable for lashes67 and [the grain] he reaps is fit to be used.68


וְהַקּוֹצֵר קֹדֶם קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה וְהַקָּצִיר כָּשֵׁר:


It is a positive commandment to count69 seven complete weeks70 from the day the omer is brought, as [Leviticus 23:15] states: "And from the day after the Sabbath, you shall count... seven weeks." It is a mitzvah to count the days together with the weeks, as [ibid.:15] states: "You shall count 50 days."71

One should count at the inception of the [new] day. Therefore one counts at night,72 [beginning] from the night of the sixteenth of Nisan.


מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִסְפֹּר שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימוֹת מִיּוֹם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג טו) "וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת" "שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת". וּמִצְוָה לִמְנוֹת הַיָּמִים עִם הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג טז) "תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם". וּמִתְּחִלַּת הַיּוֹם מוֹנִין לְפִיכָךְ מוֹנֶה בַּלַּיְלָה מִלֵּיל שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן:


When one forgot and did not count at night, he should count during the day.73 One should count only when standing.74 If one counted while sitting, he fulfilled his obligation.


שָׁכַח וְלֹא מָנָה בַּלַּיְלָה מוֹנֶה בַּיּוֹם וְאֵין מוֹנִין אֶלָּא מְעֻמָּד. וְאִם מָנָה מְיֻשָּׁב יָצָא:


This mitzvah is incumbent on every Jewish male75 in every place76 and at all times.77 Women and servants are absolved from it.78


מִצְוָה זוֹ עַל כָּל אִישׁ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּבְכָל מָקוֹם וּבְכָל זְמַן. וְנָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים פְּטוּרִין מִמֶּנָּה:


Each night, the [following] blessing should be recited before counting:79 "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the counting of the omer." If one counted without reciting the blessing, he fulfills his obligation80 and should not recite the blessing afterwards.81


וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל לַיְלָה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר. מָנָה וְלֹא בֵּרֵךְ יָצָא וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ:


For the offerings that are offered more frequently are given precedence over those offered on occasion (Zevachim 89a).

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 42) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 403) include offering the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.


See Numbers 28:11-14.


See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, Chapter 6.


See ibid., Chapter 7.


Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 43) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 299) include offering the additional offering of Pesach as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

The fact that the same offering is brought on each of the days of the holiday has several consequences in other areas of Jewish Law. Among them: Hallel is only recited on the first (and in the Diaspora, on the first two) days of the holiday. The blessing Shehechiyanu is not recited on the last day(s).


With regard to the date when this offering is brought, see Halachah 11.


As stated in the previous clause.


Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:3.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 44) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 302) include bringing the omer offering and the accompanying sacrifice as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.


See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 4:9-17.


In contrast to most of the other meal-offerings that may be brought from the Diaspora as well (Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 6:15).


The words "your harvest" can be interpreted as a reference to the harvest of your land, i.e., Eretz Yisrael. Alternatively, the Rambam is referring to the beginning of the verse "When you come to the land," as some have inferred from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 8:1).


In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit. 10:2), the Rambam explains that the rationale is that it is improper to pass over the opportunity to perform a mitzvah. Since there was barley fit for this offering in Jerusalem, it was not fitting to seek it elsewhere.


Because the grain close to Jerusalem had not ripened (Rashi, Menachot 83b).


In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 10:3), the Rambam explains that this preference stems from the fact that the Counting of the Omer must be "seven perfect weeks" (Leviticus 23:15), including both day and night. The counting and the reaping should begin at the same time, as implied by Deuteronomy 16:9 which describes this offering with the phrase: "When the sickle is first put to the standing grain, you shall begin counting." Hence the reaping should also be done at night.


Since offering the omer supersedes the prohibition against forbidden labor on the Sabbath, this applies to all the aspects of its offering, including harvesting the barley.


Menachot 72a states that the Sages that maintain that it is acceptable to harvest the barley for the offering during the day do not accept the view that this barley may be harvested on the Sabbath. How then can the Rambam accept both rulings? Nevertheless, since the Jerusalem Talmud (Rosh HaShanah 1:8, Megilah 2:7) does not see the two as contradictory, it is possible for the Rambam to accept both rulings.


For this offering with the phrase: "When the sickle is first put to the standing grain."


For Leviticus 23:14 uses the term karmel which has the connotation of fresh grain.


I.e., from the southern slopes of the mountains on the outskirts of Jerusalem which had greater exposure to the sun (Tosafot, Menachot 85a).


Plowing it, but not sowing it [see the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 8:2)].


In this way, the field's power of growth would always be restored and the barley would be of high quality. Compare to Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:4.


In contrast to all other meal offerings with the exception of the meal offering brought by a sotah (a woman suspected of infidelity) which were from wheat. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:2, Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 14:3.


I.e., a concept that, although not explicitly stated in the Torah, was given to Moses at Sinai and always practiced among the Jewish people.


Rashi (Menachot 65a) states that all the stalks of barley that could be gathered within the reach of one's forearm would be tied together.


This was to refute the approach of the Sadducees as the Rambam proceeds to explain. Perhaps the Rambam elaborates so extensively in the refutation of the Sadducees, because in his time there were Karaites who also rejected the authority of the Oral Law while claiming to follow the Written Law.


Thus emphasizing that reaping the omer supersedes the prohibition against forbidden labor on the Sabbath, as stated in Halachah 6.


The Sadducees who maintained that only the Written Law was of Godly origin and that the Oral Law should not be followed.


I.e., Pesach. This is an accepted interpretation, because the festivals are referred to as "Sabbaths" several times in the Torah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Chagigah 2:4).


The Supreme Jewish court.


The proof proposed by the Rambam does not appear to be based on any prior Rabbinic source. Although Menachot 65b brings several proofs of this concept from the exegesis of different verses, the Rambam does not refer to them because he is seeking an explicit proof from Scripture which the Saduccees accept rather than a concept derived from exegesis which they do not accept. The Sages did not refer to the proof used by the Rambam, because they would rather employ a proof that has its source in the Torah itself rather than in the works of the prophets (Radbaz).


Thus we can assume the day when the omer was brought and new produce was permitted to be eaten was the day following Pesach.


And thus there would be no proof of what to do in a year when Pesach does not fall on the Sabbath.


Tosafot, Menachot 30a, mentions two opinions with regard to the day of the week on which Moses died: Friday or the Sabbath. Moses died on 7 Adar. Accordingly, Pesach, 15 Nisan, was either a Sunday or a Monday.


For according to the Saduccees' misguided conception, the fundamental point is that they ate the grain on the day after the Sabbath. If their approach was right, Scripture should have emphasized that the event took place then and not "on the day after Pesach."


See Sifra to the verse; Menachot 66b.


A se'ah is approximately 8.3 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah. There are also more stringent views.


An isaron is one tenth of an ephah and an ephah is three se'ah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 6:6)]. Thus an isaron is approximately 2.4 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah.

The priests would be endeavoring to get one tenth of the original amount of grain. There the Rambam explains that since the kernels of grain are still somewhat underdeveloped - for this offering is being made right at the beginning of the harvest - there will not be as much fine flour and much sifting will be required to produce the desired quantity.


Hilchot Ma'aser 3:25; Hilchot Bikkurim 6:3. The rationale is that once the flour has been redeemed, the holiness associated with it has departed. Hence, dough produced from it must be treated like ordinary dough. The obligation to separate terumah and tithes takes effect at the conclusion of the harvest. At that time, the produce is consecrated and therefore exempt. The obligation to separate challah, by contrast, takes effect when the dough is kneaded and, at that time, the flour has already been redeemed and is no longer consecrated.


As all the other meal-offerings. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:7


See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, loc. cit.


See the description of the waving of the offerings in ibid. 9:6-7.


See ibid. 12:6.


See ibid. 12:9.


For the offering brought more frequently receives priority (Kessef Mishneh).


Which accompanies the omer as stated in Halachah 3.


Wheat, barley, oats, rye, and spelt.


In the Diaspora, this is permitted, however, because the omer may not be brought from there.


The Kessef Mishneh questions why the Rambam puts the limit on the reaping of the omer and not on its offering. Some have suggested that since the verse mentions "your harvest," the prohibition applies only until then.


As mentioned in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:2-3, it is forbidden to partake of any grain before the offering of the omer. That prohibition is referred to as chadash ("new [grain]"). Here the Rambam is emphasizing that even harvesting such grain is forbidden. The prohibition is, however, an outgrowth of a positive commandment and is not considered as a negative commandment. See Halachah 21.


See Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 6:12. Since this grain is not of high quality, the offerings should not be brought from it. It must be emphasized that this is only an a priori consideration. After the fact, such a meal-offering is acceptable.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 10:2), the Rambam explains why this leniency is granted. The prooftext cited above states: "You shall reap your harvest and you shall bring the omer, the first of your harvest." From the first portion of the verse, it appears that the harvest should precede the omer, but the second portion states that the omer is "the first of the harvest." The Oral Tradition resolves the difficulty by teaching: "From the place where you may bring the omer, you may not harvest, but from a place where that offering may not be brought, you may harvest."


The Rabbis explain that it takes fourteen days between the time when seedlings trees are planted and when they took root. One may assume that it takes less time for grain to root.


At this stage, it has not reached a state fit to serve as food for humans. Hence the prohibition mentioned above does not apply. Our translation is dependent on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 10:8).


Larger bindings collected from several smaller bundles (ibid.).


The Rambam does allow the stalks to be tied in contrast to Rashi's view (Menachot 71a).


Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 5:9.


This also includes the wine for the libations (ibid.).


The first-fruits are not mentioned in Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach, loc. cit.


Because the omer must be "the first of your harvest" as mentioned above.


As explained in Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 5:10, the two loaves are described by Leviticus 23:17 as "the first fruits unto God." Hence, no other grain offerings should be offered before them. Nevertheless, since this grain is acceptable for a private individual, after the fact, the offering is still acceptable.


Since it is the first meal-offering to be brought from new grain, it warrants a blessing. The Rambam is interpreting Menachot 75b differently than Rashi.


Our Sages discussed the issue in Menachot 68b and did not arrive at a resolution.


I.e., the two loaves of the previous year and the omer of the present year.


Rav Yosef Corcus states that if one does bring a meal-offering from such grain, after the fact, he is not required to bring a second one. See also the conclusion of the following halachah.


I.e., without the grain having become rooted in the ground. The Kessef Mishneh questions how is it possible for the leaves of a plant to grow without it taking root. He explains that this refers to a situation where the seeds were sprouted in water which could produce leaves before roots.


For the violation of a negative Scriptural commandment is not involved. The Radbaz maintains that one is, however, liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.


Both as food and for a meal-offering (Rav Yosef Corcus). Needless to say, one must wait until the omer or the two loaves are offered.


Verbalizing the reckoning of each day (see Radbaz).


Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 161) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 306) include this as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.


In Sefer HaMitzvot, loc. cit., the Rambam emphasizes that these are not two separate commandments. In some Ashkenazic communities, the custom is to count each night and, at the end of a week, to count the passage of the week. The Sephardic custom is to mention the days and the weeks each night when counting.


For by including the night, the weeks will be "complete," without any lack (Menachot 66a).


It appears that according to the Rambam, after the fact, by counting during the day, one fulfills the mitzvah just as one does by counting at night. Rabbenu Asher does not accept this view. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 489:7) states that if one did not count during the night, he should not recite a blessing while counting during the day.


For in its reference to this mitzvah, Deuteronomy 16:9 mentions "standing grain," which our Rabbis interpret as an allusion to fulfill the mitzvah while standing (Kessef Mishneh).


I.e., the mitzvah of counting is not entrusted to the court as is the mitzvah of counting the Jubilee, but rather is a personal responsibility for every individual (Radbaz).


I.e., in both Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora.


I.e., even after the destruction of the Temple. There are Ashkenazic authorities who differ and maintain that according to Scriptural Law, the mitzvah is dependent on the harvest of the omer. Hence in the present era, our observance only possesses the status of a Rabbinic commandment. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 489:2 writes that although primacy should be given to this view, there is no difference in practice between the two approaches.


As is true with regard to all other mitzvot associated with a specific time.


As one does before fulfilling any other positive commandment (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).


For the failure to recite a blessing does not nullify the mitzvah (Kessef Mishneh).


Even if one counted accidentally, one should not count afterwards with a blessing. Therefore if one's friend asks what day of the omer it is, one should answer "Yesterday was such and such" [Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 489:4)].

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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