Enter your email address to get our weekly email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life.
ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Maaser - Chapter 13, Maaser - Chapter 14, Maaser Sheini - Chapter 1

Video & Audio Classes
Show content in:

Maaser - Chapter 13

1

Fruits that we can assume to be ownerless:1 e.g., wild figs,2 brush berries, thorn apples, white figs, other species of wild figs, anise, dates that fall of the tree before they have swelled,3 capers, coriander, and the like are free from the stringency of demai. One who purchases them from a common person does not have to separate terumat ma'aser or the second tithe from them for we assume that they grew ownerless. Even if a common person told him that they have not been tithed, they are exempt from the tithes until it is known that they grew from produce that was guarded.4

א

פֵּרוֹת שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מִן הַהֶפִקִר. כְּגוֹן הַשִּׁיתִין וְהָרִימִין וְהָעוֹזְרָדִין וּבְנוֹת שׁוּחַ וּבְנוֹת שִׁקְמָה וְהַגּוּפָנִין וְנוֹבְלוֹת תְּמָרָה וְהֵן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִטִּילוּ שְׂאוֹר הַנִּצְפָּה וְהַכֻּסְבַּר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. פְּטוּרִין מִן הַדְּמַאי. וְהַלּוֹקְחָן מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַפְרִישׁ מֵהֶן תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מִן הַהֶפְקֵר. אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר לוֹ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֵינָם מְעֻשָּׂרִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ שֶׁהֵן מִן הַשָּׁמוּר:

2

Produce that ripens first and last in a valley are exempt from the obligations of demai.5 Similar produce in a garden is liable, because it is watched.

What is meant by produce that ripens first? All the produce that ripens before [the owner] employs a guard for the valley to protect his produce.

What is meant by produce that ripens last? The produce that remains after the reapers have folded away their nets6 in the field and left them without a guard. Similarly, vinegar made from wine dregs7 is exempt from the obligations of demai.8

ב

הַבְּכוֹרוֹת וְהַסְּיָּיפוֹת שֶׁבְּבִקְעָה פְּטוּרִין מִן הַדְּמַאי. וְשֶׁבְּגִנָּה חַיָּבִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נִשְׁמָרִין. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַבְּכוֹרוֹת. כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבִּכְּרוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הוֹשִׁיבוּ שׁוֹמֵר עַל הַבִּקְעָה לִשְׁמֹר פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ. וְהַסְּיָּיפוֹת הֵן הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ אַחַר שְׁיְּקַפְּלוּ הַמִּקְצוֹעוֹת שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת וְיַנִּיחוּם בְּלֹא שׁוֹמֵר. וְכֵן הַחֹמֶץ הֶעָשׂוּי מִן הַתְּמָדִים פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי:

3

When decrees were enacted concerning demai, they were enacted only with regard to produce from the land that was inhabited by the Jews who returned from Babylonia,9 i.e., from Kziv inward.10 Kziv itself is considered as outside these boundaries. All produce from Kziv and further are exempt from the obligations of demai for we operate under the assumption that the produce came from the place where it is found.11

ג

כְּשֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל הַדְּמַאי לֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ בָּהּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא מִכְּזִיב וְלִפְנִים וּכְזִיב עַצְמָהּ כְּלַחוּץ. וְכָל הַפֵּרוֹת הַנִּמְצָאוֹת מִכְּזִיב וְלַחוּץ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַדְּמַאי שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מִפֵּרוֹת מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בּוֹ:

4

When we know12 that produce was grown in the land that was inhabited by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia, the laws of demai apply with regard to it even though it is presently found in Syria or in the land that was inhabited only by the Jews who ascended from Egypt. [Thus] terumat ma'aser and the second tithe must be separated from it.

Therefore a fat fig whose species is found only in the land inhabitant by the Jews who ascended from Babylon - and similarly, large dates, straight carobs,13 rice that is exceedingly white, and oversized cumin14 - must be tithed like demai in the entirety of Eretz Yisrael and in Syria. Similar laws apply with regard to all produce that is comparable to these species.

ד

פֵּרוֹת שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁהֵן מִפֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ בָּהּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן נִמְצָאוֹת בְּסוּרְיָא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בָּאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ בָּהּ עוֹלֵי מִצְרַיִם בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין בִּדְמַאי. וּמַפְרִישִׁין מֵהֶן תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. לְפִיכָךְ הַדְּבֵלָה הַשְּׁמֵנָה שֶׁאֵין כְּמוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בָּאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל וְכֵן הַתְּמָרִים הַגְּדוֹלִים וְהֶחָרוּבִין הַשָּׁוִים וְהָאֹרֶז הַלָּבָן בְּיוֹתֵר וְהַכַּמּוֹן הַגָּדוֹל מִתְעַשְּׂרִין דְּמַאי בְּכָל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְסוּרְיָא. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּפֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ:

5

When donkey-drivers bring produce to Tyre,15 the laws governing demai apply to it, for we assume that it came from the nearby land inhabited by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia.16 We do not harbor any suspicions with regard to rice. Instead, all the rice that is found in the Diaspora that neighbors the land which was inhabited by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia is exempt17 from demai unless it was obvious that it grew [only in Eretz Yisrael] as we explained.18

ה

הַחַמָּרִים שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ פֵּרוֹת לְצוֹר חַיָּבִין בִּדְמַאי שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מֵהָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל שֶׁהִיא הַקְּרוֹבָה לָהּ. וְהָאֹרֶז אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ אֶלָּא כָּל הָאֹרֶז הַנִּמְצָא חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁהִיא קְרוֹבָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה נִכָּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

6

When a person purchases [produce] from the owners of storehouses in Tyre, he is exempt from [the obligations of] demai. We do not say that they stored produce from Eretz Yisrael.19 Similarly, if one donkey20 enters Tyre laden with produce, it is exempt from [the obligations of] demai, for we assume that [the produce comes] from the fields around the city.

ו

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִבַּעֲלֵי אוֹצָרוֹת בְּצוֹר פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין שֶׁמָּא מִפֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֲצָרוֹ. וְכֵן חֲמוֹר יְחִידִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְצוֹר וְהוּא טָעוּן פֵּרוֹת פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן מִשְּׂדֵה הָעִיר:

7

When a person purchases [produce] from the owners of storehouses in Tzidon,21 he is obligated in [the laws of] demai, because it is closer to Eretz Yisrael than Tyre and we operate under the assumption that they store produce from the land inhabited by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia. If, however, one purchases [produce] from donkey-drivers in Tzidon, is exempt from [the obligations of] demai, for we assume that they are bringing [the produce] from the Diaspora.22

ז

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִבַּעֲלֵי אוֹצָר בְּצִידוֹן חַיָּב בִּדְמַאי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּרוֹבָה הִיא יוֹתֵר מִצּוֹר שֶׁחֶזְקָתָהּ שֶׁאוֹצְרִין מִפֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל. אֲבָל הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הַחַמָּרִים בְּצִידוֹן פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן שֶׁמְּבִיאִין מִחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ:

8

[The following rules apply when a person] purchases [produce] from a gentile in the land inhabited by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia. If the gentile was a merchant23 who purchases produce from Jews, the produce is [considered as] demai. Therefore at the outset, when the majority of Eretz Yisrael was in the hands of Jews,24 when a person purchased produce from a gentile merchant, he would separate tithes as one does for demai just like one does when [purchasing] from a [Jewish] common person.

ח

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם בָּאָרֶץ שֶׁהֶחֱזִיקוּ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל אִם הָיָה תַּגָּר עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי פֵּרוֹתָיו דְּמַאי. לְפִיכָךְ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיָה רֹב אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִכָּל תַּגָּר עַכּוּ''ם מְעַשֵּׂר דְּמַאי כְּלוֹקֵחַ מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ:

9

Who is a merchant? One who brings [produce to the market] two or three times. If, however, he brings once - even if he brings three loads at once, or even if he, his son, and his servant each brings loads - he is not presumed to be a merchant.25

ט

אֵי זֶהוּ תַּגָּר זֶה שֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים. אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיא פַּעַם אַחַת אֲפִלּוּ הֵבִיא שָׁלֹשׁ מַשּׂוֹאוֹת בְּבַת אַחַת אוֹ שֶׁהֵבִיא הוּא וּבְנוֹ וּפוֹעֵל עֲדַיִן לֹא הֻחְזַק תַּגָּר:

10

When [our Sages] issued a decree concerning demai, the decree did not apply to produce from the Diaspora that was brought into Eretz Yisrael.26

י

כְּשֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל הַדְּמַאי לֹא גָּזְרוּ עַל פֵּרוֹת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לָאָרֶץ:

11

When the majority of the produce [in a mixture] is from Eretz Yisrael and not from the Diaspora, [the laws of] demai apply.27 If the majority of the mixture is produce from the Diaspora, it is exempt from demai. [This law applies] also to species that we can presume that most frequently come from the Diaspora, e.g., nuts and plums.28

יא

פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ שֶׁרַבּוּ עַל שֶׁל חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין בִּדְמַאי. וְשֶׁל חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁרַבּוּ עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ. וְכֵן דְּבָרִים שֶׁחֶזְקָתָן תָּדִיר מִחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ כְּגוֹן אֱגוֹזִים וְדֻרְמַסְקָעוֹת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַדְּמַאי:

12

[When there was a doubt whether] produce came from the Diaspora or not, our Sages [maintained that the ruling] is not dependent on the appearance [of the produce], its flavor, or its fragrance,29 but rather where the majority [of produce in the marketplace originated]. If produce [from the Diaspora] constitutes the majority, it is permitted.30 If not, it is forbidden.

What is implied? When there is a majority [of produce from the Diaspora] in a city, but not in its outlying areas, or in the outlying areas31 and not in the city, in the mountain, but not in the valley, in the valley, but not in the mountain, for a storekeeper, but not for a private homeowner, for a private homeowner and not for a storekeeper, for those where [produce from the Diaspora] is the majority, they are permitted.32 For those where it is not in the majority, they are obligated [to heed the restrictions of] demai.

יב

לֹא הָלְכוּ חֲכָמִים בְּפֵרוֹת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ לֹא אַחַר הַמַּרְאֶה וְלֹא אַחַר הַטַּעַם וְהָרֵיחַ אֶלָּא אַחַר הָרֹב כָּל שֶׁרַבּוּ לוֹ מֻתָּר וְשֶׁלֹּא רַבּוּ לוֹ אָסוּר. כֵּיצַד. רַבּוּ בָּעִיר אֲבָל לֹא בַּמְּדִינָה. אוֹ שֶׁרַבּוּ בַּמְּדִינָה וְלֹא רַבּוּ בָּעִיר. בָּהָר וְלֹא רַבּוּ בַּבִּקְעָה. בַּבִּקְעָה וְלֹא בָּהָר. רַבּוּ לַחֶנְוָנִי וְלֹא לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת. לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת וְלֹא לַחֶנְוָנִי. זֶה שֶׁרַבּוּ בּוֹ מֻתָּר. וּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא רַבּוּ בּוֹ חַיָּב בִּדְמַאי:

13

If, at first, there was a majority of produce from the Diaspora in the market place and then, that quantity was reduced, the market place returns to its original status, and one who purchases [produce] is obligated in [the restrictions of] demai.

יג

רַבּוּ פֵּרוֹת חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ בַּשּׁוּק וְנִתְמַעֲטוּ חָזַר הַשּׁוּק לְיָשְׁנוֹ וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב בִּדְמַאי:

14

At the time the decree concerning demai was issued, it was not applied in the following situations. All of the [following] instances are exempt from the obligations of demai: One who purchases: produce for seed or as animal fodder, flour for the processing of hides33 or for a compress or a bandage, oil to kindle a lamp or to apply to utensils, wine for an eye ointment.34 [This ruling also applies to] challah separated by a common person,35 a mixture of terumah and ordinary produce,36 produce purchased with money from the second tithes,37 flour left over from a meal offering,38 and produce added to the bikkurim offerings.39 If a common person tells him that the appropriate separations have been made, there is no obligation to tithe it.40

יד

וְאֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל הַדְּמַאי. הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת לִזְרִיעָה אוֹ לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֵמָה. קֶמַח לְעוֹרוֹת אוֹ לִמְלוּגְמָא אוֹ לִרְטִיָּה. שֶׁמֶן לְהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּר אוֹ לָסוּךְ בּוֹ אֶת הַכֵּלִים. יַיִן לְקִילוֹר. וְחַלַּת עַם הָאָרֶץ. וְהַמְדֻמָּע. וְהַלָּקוּחַ בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. וּשְׁיָרֵי הַמְּנָחוֹת. וְתוֹסֶפֶת הַבִּכּוּרִים. כָּל אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִים מִן הַדְּמַאי. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ עַם הָאָרֶץ מְתֻקָּנִין הֵם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר:

15

When a person purchases produce to eat and changed his mind and thought to use it as animal fodder, he should not sell them to a gentile41 or feed them to an animal - even an animal belonging to others - until he makes the separations associated with demai.42

טו

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת לַאֲכִילָה וְנִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם לִבְהֵמָה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִמְכְּרֵם לְעַכּוּ''ם. וְלֹא יַאֲכִילֵם לִבְהֵמָה אֲפִלּוּ לְבֶהֱמַת אֲחֵרִים עַד שֶׁיְּתַקְּנֵם דְּמַאי:

16

Fragrant oil43 is exempt from [the obligations of] demai for we assume it will not be eaten. When a comber of wool purchases oil to put it in the wool,44it is exempt from [the obligations of] demai, because it is absorbed by the wool.45 When, however, a weaver purchases oil to apply between his fingers,46it is obligated in [the laws of] demai. The rationale is that it is absorbed in his body and the application of oil is considered as drinking in all instances.47

טז

שֶׁמֶן עָרֵב פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי שֶׁאֵין חֶזְקָתוֹ לַאֲכִילָה. שֶׁמֶן שֶׁלָּקַח הַסּוֹרֵק לְתִתּוֹ בְּצֶמֶר פָּטוּר מִן הַדְּמַאי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נִבְלָע בַּצֶּמֶר. אֲבָל שֶׁמֶן שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ הָאוֹרֵג לָסוּךְ בֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו חַיָּב בִּדְמַאי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נִבְלָע בְּגוּפוֹ וְסִיכָה הִיא כִּשְׁתִיָּה בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

17

When a gentile asks a Jew to place oil on his wound,48 he is forbidden to use oil from which he is certain the appropriate separations have not been made. He is, however, permitted to use demai for this purpose.49 If a gentile places oil50 on a tablet to twist around,51 after he arises, it is permitted for a Jew to sit on it afterwards.52

יז

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁשָּׁאַל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִתֵּן לוֹ שֶׁמֶן עַל מַכָּתוֹ אָסוּר בְּוַדַּאי וּמֻתָּר בִּדְמַאי. נָתַן הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁמֶן עַל גַּבֵּי טַבְלָא לְהִתְעַגֵּל עָלֶיהָ מִשֶּׁעָמַד מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֵישֵׁב אַחֲרָיו:

18

When oil that is demai falls on a person's flesh, he may rub it without concern.53 When a person purchases wine for fishbrine or a mixture of wine and water or legumes to crush and mix with honey, he is obligated in the restrictions of demai.54 If, however, he purchased fishbrine that contains wine, a mixture of wine and oil, or a mixture of crushed legumes and honey, he is exempt from the restrictions of demai, for [our Sages] did not apply their decree to a mixture of demai and other substances. If the entity that was demai that became mixed with other substances was something like spices or yeast,55since its flavor is evident, the restrictions involving demai must be observed for the entire mixture.

יח

מִי שֶׁנָּפַל שֶׁמֶן דְּמַאי עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ מְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ. הַלּוֹקֵחַ יַיִן לְמֻרְיָס אוֹ לַאֲלוּנְתִּית. אוֹ קִטְנִיּוֹת לַעֲשׂוֹת טְחִינִין חַיָּב בִּדְמַאי. אֲבָל הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֻרְיָס שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ יַיִן אוֹ אֲלוּנְתִּית אוֹ שֶׁלָּקַח טְחִינִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין מִן הַדְּמַאי שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עַל תַּעֲרֹבֶת דְּמַאי. וְאִם הָיָה הַדָּבָר שֶׁחַיָּב בִּדְמַאי שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב כְּגוֹן תַּבְלִין וּשְׂאוֹר הוֹאִיל וְטַעֲמוֹ נִכָּר אֵינָן בְּטֵלִים וְנִמְצֵאת כָּל הַתַּעֲרוֹבֶת חַיֶּבֶת בִּדְמַאי:

19

In all those situations where one is exempt from demai because [our Sages] did not apply their decree in these instances, if one corrected [the produce as one does] demai, separating terumat ma'aser and the second tithe, his actions are considered of consequence.56 If, however, he sought to correct [produce that is] demai like one does produce from which we are certain that no separations were made,57 separating the great terumah and the tithes from it58 or he sought to correct produce from which we are certain that no separations were made by making separations like one does demai, his deeds are of no consequence.59

יט

כָּל אֵלּוּ הַפְּטוּרִין מִן הַדְּמַאי שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם. אִם הִתְקִינָן דְּמַאי וְהִפְרִישׁ מֵהֶם תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה עָשׂוּי. אֲבָל אִם תִּקֵּן אֶת הַדְּמַאי בְּוַדַּאי וְהִפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת אוֹ שֶׁתִּקֵּן אֶת הַוַּדַּאי בִּדְמַאי לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם:

20

[The following laws apply when] all [of the individuals in] a town sell produce that is definitely [tevel], one person sells demai , and one purchases [produce] from a person without knowing from whom he purchased. How should he correct the produce?60 He should separate terumah and terumat ma'aser and give it to the priest. And then he should separate the second tithe and it is considered as the second tithe of demai.

כ

כָּל הָעִיר מוֹכְרִין וַדַּאי וְאֶחָד מוֹכֵר דְּמַאי וְלָקַח וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מִמִּי לָקַח כֵּיצַד מְתַקֵּן. מַפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְנוֹתְנָן לְכֹהֵן וּמַפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בִּלְבַד וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁל דְּמַאי:

21

Similar [concepts apply] if there were two containers [of produce] before a person: one containing tevel and one containing produce from which the separations were made. If one of them is lost,61 one must separate terumah and terumat ma'aser from the other one and give it to any priest he desires. And he should separate the second tithe and it is considered as the second tithe of demai.62

כא

וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי קֻפּוֹת אַחַת טֶבֶל וְאַחַת מְתֻקָּן וְאָבְדָה אַחַת מֵהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה מַפְרִישׁ מִן הַשְּׁנִיָּה תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְנוֹתְנָן לְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וּמַפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בִּלְבַד בִּדְמַאי:

Footnotes
1.

That grow wild and do not have an owner. Such produce does not have to be tithed.

2.

Our definition of this and the following terms are dependent on the definitions given in the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 1:1) as interpreted by Rav Kapach.

3.

The literal translation is "when they will become yeast," the intent is when they will swell like bread into which yeast was placed. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 1:2).

4.

In which instance even if generally, the species is exempt, in this instance, the produce must be tithed.

5.

The owners generally leave such produce free to be taken by anyone, as the Rambam proceeds to explain. Hence, there is no obligation to separate tithes from it.

6.

The nets where grapes and figs that have been harvested are kept to dry [ibid. (Nedarim 8:4)].

7.

The peels and seeds of the grapes and the dregs that are separated from the wine and fall to the bottom of the container [ibid. (Ma'aserot 5:6)].

Our translation follows the standard printed text of the Mishneh Torah. There are manuscripts and early printings that stated tamarim instead of temadim. According to that version, the translation would be "date vinegar." The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, follow the version stated in the standard texts.

8.

The Kessef Mishnehexplains that the rationale is that the wine dregs are usually left as ownerless. Hence, it is only in a place where that is the common practice that this law applies.

9.

In contrast to the area inhabited by the Jews who ascended from Egypt in the first conquest.

10.

See Hilchot Terumah, ch. 1, for a description of these geographic terms.

11.

Conversely, we operate under the assumption that any produce found within the borders of Eretz Yisrael is bound by the restrictions of demai [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 1:3)].

12.

If, however, there is a doubt concerning the matter, we assume that the produce grew in the land where it was found.

13.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 2:1).

14.

All of these species grow only in Eretz Yisrael.

15.

A city in Southern Lebanon, close to, but not immediately bordering on Eretz Yisrael.

16.

Since the produce was brought by donkey-drivers who travel longer distances, we consider the possibility that it was brought from Eretz Yisrael (Radbaz). As indicated by a comparison to the following halachah, here we are speaking about a caravan of donkeys.

17.

Because rice which requires plentiful water is not usually grown in Eretz Yisrael.

18.

As explained in the previous halachah.

19.

But instead, stored the local produce.

20.

As opposed to the caravan mentioned in the previous halachah, a single donkey-driver will travel short distances.

21.

Also a city in Southern Lebanon. It is very close to Eretz Yisrael.

The commentaries have questioned the Rambam's comments, noting that in actual fact, Tyre is closer to Eretz Yisrael than Tzidon. Among the explanations given is that there were two cities named Tzidon and the smaller one was in fact closer to Eretz Yisrael than Tyre. See Rambam LeAm.

22.

Here as well we are speaking about a caravan of donkey-drivers who travel long distances. As such, it is unlikely that they brought produce from Eretz Yisrael, for it is relatively close.

23.

If, however, the gentile grew the produce himself, it is exempt from the obligation of tithes.

24.

In later eras, by contrast, the land was owned primarily by gentiles and there is no need to consider the produce as demai (Radbaz).

25.

And it is possible that he brought from his own produce.

26.

The Radbaz states that this applies to produce that was sold to a Jew who completed the tasks associated with its preparation. Even though such produce must be tithed, the stringency of demai does not apply.

27.

For as in all matters, the ruling is dependent on the majority (Radbaz).

28.

The particular species of plums the Rambam mentions grew primarily in Damascus and the laws of demai do not apply to produce that grows there (Chapter 12, Halachah 11).

29.

I.e., one might say that as a result of these factors one could identify the source of the produce.

30.

I.e., without tithing.

31.

This is the interpretation of the term followed by most authorities. From the Rambam's wording in Hilchot Ishut 13:17, the interpretation would be: "When there is a majority in a town, but not in a metropolis...."

32.

To partake of it without observing the restrictions of demai.

33.

See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 1:3) for clarification regarding this and the other subjects mentioned in this halachah.

34.

Produce used for purposes other than for food.

35.

For challah like terumah carries a punishment of death at the hand of heaven and even the common people were careful with regard to its observance.

36.

Since such a mixture contains terumah which involves such a severe penalty, the common people were careful with regard to the prohibitions involved.

37.

I.e., after the second tithe is redeemed, the money used for its redemption must be used to purchase food in Jerusalem.

38.

The priest would take a handful of flour from a meal offering to offer on the altar. The remainder was eaten by the priests. We do not suspect that the remainder was demai.

39.

The first fruits of the seven species for which Eretz Yisrael is praised must be brought to the Temple and given to the priests as the bikkurim offerings. Occasionally, fruits of the same species were added to the offering to make it more impressive. These are referred to as "produce added to the bikkurim."

40.

Nevertheless, even in these instances, the initial preference should be to purchase the produce from a trustworthy source (Radbaz).

41.

The separations are necessary in this instance, for the gentile may sell the produce to another Jew (Radbaz).

42.

For once he has incurred the obligation to make the separations associated with demai, he is not absolved from that responsibility until he does so (ibid.).

43.

Olive oil mixed with fragrant spices [Rav Kappach's translation of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 1:3)].

44.

Wool would be combed to remove its dirt and other impurities attached to it. Oil was applied to the wool to make the combing process easier.

45.

Like the oil applied to utensils mentioned in Halachah 14.

46.

As protection for them in the weaving process.

47.

See Hilchot Shivitat Esor 1:5.

48.

I.e., he is asking a chavair to use the chavair's own oil for this purpose.

49.

As a salve. If a chavair knows that produce has not been tithed, he may not use it in a manner that removes it from his possession or destroys it until he tithes it. For using it to benefit another person is equivalent to a sale (Chasdai David). With regard to demai, however, leniency may be shown, for he is using it for medical purposes for a gentile. If, however, he is using it for a Jew, the tithes must be separated even in this instance.

50.

This refers even to oil from which we are certain separations have not been made.

51.

One of the ways people would apply oil to their flesh was to place it on a marble tablet and then roll on the tablet.

52.

Even though the oil will be applied to his flesh. The rationale is that once the gentile used it, the holiness vested in the terumah has been defiled and it is no longer necessary to make any separations from it. Note a parallel in Hilchot Terumot 11:8 (Chasdei David). In this instance, we are speaking about demai (which is feared to be tevel) and not terumah and in its present state, it is not holy. Nevertheless, the same principles can be applied.

53.

As mentioned above, one should not apply oil that is demai to one's body. In this instance, however, the oil fell on the person's body against his will and its holiness is defiled at that time. Hence, what happens afterwards is not significant and he can continue rubbing that oil into to his flesh.

54.

Because they were already distinct entities obligated in the restrictions of demai before the mixture came into being.

55.

I.e., an entity that has an effect that is far greater than what could be expected from its size. This is a general principle applied with regard to all of the Torahs prohibitions; see Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 16:1-2.

56.

He must give the terumat ma'aser to a priest and redeem the second tithe and use it to purchase food in Jerusalem.

57.

Our translation follows the text suggested by the Kessef Mishneh. It is found in several authentic manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah. The version in the standard printed text - which was also the version possessed by the Ra'avad - differs slightly.

58.

This is unnecessary, for we assume that terumah has already been separated. With regard to the tithes - the first tithe and the tithe for the poor - for demai, it is not necessary to give these to the Levite and the poor person, as one does when he is certain that the separations have not been made. Instead, all that is necessary is to make the separations.

59.

In the latter instance, his deeds are of no consequence, because since he is not separating the great terumah, he is making the separations in improper order. Since that is undesirable, we assume that had he known what he was required to do, he would have made the separations in the appropriate order. Hence the separation that he did make is considered to have been made in error and therefore invalid.

60.

Because it is possible that it is demai and it is possible that it is definitely tevel. Generally, we follow the principle that whenever the existence of an entity is fixed, we do not look at the actual ratio of permitted and forbidden entities. Instead, we consider it as if half are forbidden and half are permitted (see Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 8:11) . Now, in this instance, there is a stringency in considering the produce as tevel - that one must separate the great terumah. And there is a stringency in considering the produce as demai - that he must separate terumat ma'aser and the second tithe. To permit the use of the produce, he must fulfill both stringencies. He must also separate the first tithe and the tithe for the poor. He does not have to give this produce away, because of the doubt concerning its status. Instead, he may keep it for himself.

61.

But we do not know which one.

62.

In this instance as well, since it is possible that the separations have already been made, we do not require him to give the first tithe and the tithe of the poor. Those separations that involve prohibitions, by contrast, must be made.

Maaser - Chapter 14

1

When a person purchases [produce] from a wholesaler and then purchases [produce] from him a second time, he should not separate tithes from one batch for another. [This applies] even if they are of one species, and even from one container, and even if he himself recognized the barrel [from which the produce was taken].1 [The rationale is that] a wholesaler purchases from many different people and sells [it]. Perhaps the produce he first sold was from a common person whose produce is demai2 and the batch he sold later was from a chavair who made the appropriate separations. As we already explained,3 we do not separate tithes from produce that is obligated to be tithed for produce that is exempt or from produce that is exempt for produce that is obligated. If the wholesaler said that [both batches] are from one person, we rely on his word.4

א

הַלוֹקֵחַ מִן הַסִּיטוֹן וִחָזַר וְלָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה לֹא יְעַשֵּׂר מִזֶּה עַל זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִין אֶחָד אֲפִלּוּ מִקֻּפָּה אַחַת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּכִּיר אֶת הֶחָבִית שֶׁהִיא הִיא. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַסִּיטוֹן לוֹקֵחַ מֵאֲנָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה וּמוֹכֵר. וְשֶׁמָּא לָקַח זֶה שֶׁמָּכַר תְּחִלָּה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁפֵּרוֹתָיו דְּמַאי וְזֶה שֶׁלָּקַח בַּסּוֹף מֵחָבֵר שֶׁפֵּרוֹתָיו מְתֻקָּנִין. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְעַשְּׂרִין מִן הַחַיָּב עַל הַפָּטוּר וְלֹא מִן הַפָּטוּר עַל הַחַיָּב. וְאִם אָמַר הַסִּיטוֹן מִשֶּׁל אֶחָד הֵן נֶאֱמָן:

2

When [a wholesaler] sells hops or vegetables and they are being brought and collected before him, a purchaser should tithe each bunch of hops, each bundle [of vegetables], and each date individually.5

ב

הָיָה מוֹכֵר כְּשׁוּת אוֹ יָרָק וְהֵן מְבִיאִין וְצוֹבְרִין לְפָנָיו הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל כְּשׁוּת וּכְשׁוּת וּמִכָּל אֲגֻדָּה וַאֲגֻדָּה וּמִכָּל תְּמָרָה וּתְמָרָה:

3

When a person purchases [produce] from a private individual and then purchases [the same species] from him a second time, he may separate the tithes from one batch for the other.6 [This applies] even when he purchases [produce] from two containers, and even from two cities. [The rationale is that] we operate under the presumption that a private person sells only his own produce.

ג

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁנִיָּה. מְעַשֵּׂר מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. אֲפִלּוּ מִשְּׁתֵּי קֻפּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מִשְּׁתֵּי עֲיָרוֹת. שֶׁחֶזְקָתוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁלּוֹ:

4

[Different rules apply when] a private person sells vegetables in the market place. When [produce] is brought to him from his gardens, [a purchaser] may tithe from one batch for the entire quantity. If, however, he is also brought [produce] from other gardens, should one purchase a batch from him and then purchase a second batch, he should not tithe from one for the other.7

ד

בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהָיָה מוֹכֵר יָרָק בַּשּׁוּק בִּזְמַן שֶׁמְּבִיאִין לוֹ מִגִּנּוֹתָיו מְעַשֵּׂר מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁמְּבִיאִין לוֹ מִגִּנּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת אִם לָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה לֹא יְעַשֵּׂר מִזֶּה עַל זֶה:

5

When a person purchases bread from a baker, he should not tithe from the warm bread for the cool bread, for one might say that the wheat [used for] yesterday's [bread] was from one person and that [used] for today's is from another.8

ה

הַלּוֹקֵחַ פַּת מִן הַנַּחְתּוֹם לֹא יְעַשֵּׂר מִן הַחַמָּה עַל הַצּוֹנֶנֶת שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר חִטִּים שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ הָיוּ מִשֶּׁל אֶחָד וְשֶׁל הַיּוֹם מִשֶּׁל אַחֵר:

6

When a person purchases [bread] from a bakery9 he may tithe from one loaf for all the others even if [the loaves] are from different molds. For a baker who sells to a bakery10 bakes his dough in different molds. If, however, one purchases [bread] from a distributor, one should tithe each mold individually,11 for a distributor purchases from two [or more] bakers.

ו

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הַפַּלְטֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן דְּפוּסִין הַרְבֵּה מְעַשֵּׂר מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל. שֶׁהַנַּחְתּוֹם שֶׁמּוֹכֵר לַמַּנְפּוֹל עוֹשֶׂה עִסָּתוֹ דְּפוּסִין הַרְבֵּה. אֲבָל הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הַמַּנְפּוֹל מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל דְּפוּס וּדְפוּס. שֶׁהַמַּנְפּוֹל לוֹקֵחַ מִשְּׁנֵי נַחְתּוֹמִין:

7

When nine distributors purchase [bread] from ten bakers, since one of them purchases from two [bakers], anyone who purchases [bread] from one of the nine must tithe each mold individually.12

ז

תִּשְׁעָה מַנְפּוֹלִין שֶׁלָּקְחוּ מֵעֲשָׂרָה נַחְתּוֹמִין הוֹאִיל וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן לָקַח מִשְּׁנַיִם כָּל הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֵאֶחָד מִן הַתִּשְׁעָה מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל דְּפוּס וּדְפוּס:

8

When a person purchases [bread] from a poor person and similarly, if a poor person was given13 slices of bread or slices of a cake of dried figs, he should tithe each one individually. For dates and dried figs, he should group the entire quantity together and tithe them.

When does the above apply? When he was given a large present.14 If he was given a small present, he should tithe each present individually.15

ח

הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הֶעָנִי וְכֵן הֶעָנִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ פְּרוּסוֹת פַּת אוֹ פִּלְחֵי דְּבֵלָה מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת. וּבִתְמָרִים וּבִגְרוֹגָרוֹת בּוֹלֵל הַכּל וּמְעַשֵּׂר. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַמַּתָּנָה מְרֻבָּה. אֲבָל בְּמֻעֶטֶת מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל מַתָּנָה וּמַתָּנָה:

9

If a person ground a loaf of bread [into] crumbs or ground dried figs and made them into a cake,16 he should separate tithes for the entire quantity.

ט

שָׁחַק אֶת הַפַּת וַעֲשָׂאָהּ פֵּרוּרִין וְאֶת הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת וַעֲשָׂאָן דְּבֵלָה מְעַשֵּׂר מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכּל:

10

When workers or guests were reclining and eating and they left over slices [of bread], one should tithe each one individually.17

י

פּוֹעֲלִים אוֹ אוֹרְחִים שֶׁהָיוּ מְסֻבִּין וְאוֹכְלִין וְהוֹתִירוּ פְּרוּסוֹת מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת: סְלִיקוּ לְהוּ הִלְכוֹת מַעשֵׂר בְּסִיַעְתָּא דִּשְׁמַיָּא

Blessed be the Merciful One who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות מעשר:

Footnotes
1.

And thus one might think that both batches came from the same person.

2.

Since the wholesaler sells in large quantities, he is permitted to sell demai (Chapter 11, Halachah 2).

3.

Chapter 1, Halachah 6; Hilchot Terumah 5:12.

4.

Even though he is a common person. The rationale is that he has nothing to gain by lying.

5.

The tithes cannot be separated from one for the other for the reason stated in the previous halachah.

6.

For each person may separate tithes from one batch of his own produce for another. Since the person who grows this produce has this option, it is also granted to one who purchases from him.

7.

For it is possible that the second batch came from a different person and the difficulties mentioned in the first halachah might apply. This suspicion also applies in the halachot that follow.

8.

This applies even if the appearance of the bread is similar and they were baked in the same mold [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 5:3)].

9.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.).

10.

Our version of the text is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.). The standard printed text of the Mishneh Torah follows a slightly different version.

11.

When many loaves were made from the same mold, it is sufficient to separate tithes from one loaf for all those made in the same mold. One need not separate from each loaf individually, because we assume that all the loaves from the same mold came from the same baker.

12.

This applies even when the majority of the distributors bought their bread from one baker.

13.

I.e., as charity. If he was given them as part of the presents given to the poor, he is not liable to make separations from them.

14.

Since the donor is generous, we assume that he also separated the tithes. Hence, the obligation to separate the tithes is merely a stringency. Therefore we are lenient with regard to its observance and do not suspect that the produce was given to the poor person by different people [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 5:5)].

15.

Since the donor was tightfisted, it is unlikely that he separated the tithes. Hence, the obligation to separate the tithes is more compelling and we are stringent with regard to the above suspicion (ibid.).

16.

A loaf of bread and a cake of dried figs is considered as a large present. Hence the more lenient laws mentioned in the previous halachah apply (see Radbaz).

17.

We are speaking about the guests or workers of one person. Nevertheless, one cannot be lenient and separate tithes for the entire batch as one, for it is possible that one of the workers or guests separated the tithes and others did not and thus one might be separating tithes from produce from which tithes had been separated for produce from which they had not been. Although demai may be fed to guests (Chapter 10, Halachah 11), there may be some who desire to separate tithes as a stringency, but others will not.

Maaser Sheini - Chapter 1

Introduction to Hilchos Maaser Sheini

They contain nine mitzvot: three positive commandments and six negative commandments. They are:

1) To separate the second tithe;
2) Not to use the proceeds [from its redemption] for any other human needs aside from eating, drinking, or anointing oneself;
3) Not to partake [of the second tithe] in a state of ritual impurity;
4) Not to partake [of the second tithe] while in mourning;
5) Not to partake of the second tithe of grain while outside Jerusalem;
6) Not to partake of the second tithe of wine while outside Jerusalem;
7) Not to partake of the second tithe of olive oil while outside Jerusalem;
8) For the entire crop of the fourth year to be consecrated; the requirement is that it must be eaten in Jerusalem by its owners according to all the particulars that apply to the second tithe;
9) To make the declaration associated with the giving of the tithes.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות מעשר שני ונטע רבעי - הקדמה הלכות מעשר שני ונטע רבעי יש בכללן תשע מצות שלש מצות עשה וששת מצות לא תעשה וזהו פרטן: (א) להפריש מעשר שני
(ב) שלא להוציא דמיו בשאר צרכי בני אדם חוץ מאכילה ושתיה וסיכה
(ג) שלא לאוכלו בטומאה
(ד) שלא לאוכלו באנינות
(ה) שלא לאכול מעשר שני של דגן חוץ לירושלים
(ו) שלא לאכול מעשר תירוש חוץ לירושלים
(ז) שלא לאכול מעשר יצהר חוץ לירושלים
(ח) להיות נטע רבעי כולו קדש ודינו להאכל בירושלים לבעליו כמעשר שני לכל דבר
(ט) להתודות וידוי המעשר וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

After1 separating the first tithe every year, we separate the second tithe,2as [Deuteronomy 14:22] states: "You shall certainly tithe the produce of your crops."3 In the third and sixth years [of the seven year agricultural cycle], we separate the tithe for the poor instead of the second tithe, as we explained.4

א

אַחַר שֶׁמַּפְרִישִׁין מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן בְּכָל שָׁנָה מַפְרִישִׁין מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד כב) "עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר אֵת כָּל תְּבוּאַת זַרְעֶךָ". וּבְשָׁנָה שְׁלִישִׁית וְשִׁשִּׁית מַפְרִישִׁין מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי חֵלֶף מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

2

The first of Tishrei is the beginning of the year with regard to the reckoning of the tithes5 for grain, legumes,6 and vegetables. Whenever the term Rosh HaShanah is used [with regard to crops], the intent is the first of Tishrei. The fifteenth of Shvat is the beginning of the year with regard to reckoning the tithes for fruit-trees.

What is implied? If grain or legumes7 reach "the phase of tithing"8 before Rosh HaShanah of the third year,9 the second tithe should be separated from them even though they became fully developed and were gathered in the third year. If, however, they did not reach "the phase of tithing" until after Rosh HaShanah of the third year,10the tithe for the poor should be separated from them. Similarly, if fruit from trees reaches "the phase of tithing" before the fifteenth of Shvat in the third year, it should be tithed according to the previous year and the second tithe should be separated from it even though it became fully developed and was gathered at the end of the third year. Similarly, if it reaches "the phase of tithing" before the fifteenth of Shvat in the fourth year, the tithe for the poor should be separated from it even though it became fully developed and was gathered at the end of the fourth year. If it reaches "the phase of tithing" after the fifteenth of Shvat, it should be tithed like the produce of the coming year.

ב

בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי הוּא רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לְמַעֲשַׂר תְּבוּאוֹת וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וִירָקוֹת. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הוּא אֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי. וּבְט''ו בִּשְׁבָט הוּא רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לְמַעֲשַׂר הָאִילָנוֹת. כֵּיצַד. תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל שְׁלִישִׁית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ וְנֶאֶסְפוּ בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית מַפְרִישִׁין מֵהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. וְאִם לֹא בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת אֶלָּא לְאַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל שְׁלִישִׁית מַפְרִישִׁין מֵהֶן מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי. וְכֵן פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן שֶׁבָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת קֹדֶם ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט שֶׁל שְׁלִישִׁית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ וְנֶאֶסְפוּ אַחַר כֵּן בְּסוֹף שָׁנָה שְׁלִישִׁית מִתְעַשְּׂרִין לְשֶׁעָבַר וּמַפְרִישִׁין מֵהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. וְכֵן אִם בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת קֹדֶם ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט שֶׁל רְבִיעִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ וְנֶאֶסְפוּ בִּרְבִיעִית מַפְרִישִׁין מֵהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר עָנִי. וְאִם בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת אַחַר ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט מִתְעַשְּׂרִין לְהַבָּא:

3

Even though the fruit of carob trees begin to ripen11 before the fifteenth of Shvat, they should be tithed according to the coming year,12 since [the obligation to] tithe them is of Rabbinic origin.13

It appears to me that this applies only with regard to the carobs that grow in Tzalmona or other similar species that are not fit to be eaten by most people. [Hence,] the obligation to partake of them is Rabbinic in origin.14 It appears to me that other carobs are similar to the rest of the fruit of the trees.15

ג

וְהֶחָרוּבִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָנְטוּ פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן קֹדֶם ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט מִתְעַשְּׂרִין לְהַבָּא. הוֹאִיל וּמִתְעַשְּׂרוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין הַדְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִין אֶלָּא בְּחָרוּבֵי צַלְמוֹנָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵין רְאוּיִין לְמַאֲכַל רֹב הָאָדָם. וְהֵן הֵן שֶׁמִּתְעַשְּׂרוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הֶחָרוּבִין יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהֵן כִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן:

4

Vegetables should be tithed according to the year when they are harvested.16 What is implied? If they are harvested on the day of Rosh HaShanah of the third year,17 the tithe for the poor should be separated from them even though they reached "the phase of tithing"18 and [indeed,] fully matured19 in the second year. If they were harvested in the fourth year, the second tithe should be separated from them.

ד

הַיָּרָק בִּשְׁעַת לְקִיטָתוֹ עִשּׂוּרוֹ. כֵּיצַד. אִם נִלְקַט בְּיוֹם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל שְׁלִישִׁית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּא לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת וְנִגְמַר בַּשְּׁנִיָּה מַפְרִישִׁין מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי. וְאִם נִלְקַט בָּרְבִיעִית מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי:

5

Similarly, among fruit from trees, only an esrog is like a vegetable,20 [i.e., the laws governing it] whether for tithes or the Sabbatical year are dependent on when it is harvested.

What is implied?21 If it was harvested in the third year after the fifteenth of Shvat, the tithe for the poor should be separated from it even though its growth was completed in the second year. Similarly, if it was gathered in the fourth year before the fifteenth of Shvat, the tithe for the poor should be separated from it.22 If it was harvested in the fourth year after the fifteenth of Shvat, the second tithe should be separated from it.

ה

וְכֵן הָאֶתְרוֹג בִּלְבַד מִשְּׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן הֲרֵי הוּא כְּיָרָק וְהוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְקִיטָתוֹ בֵּין לְמַעֲשֵׂר בֵּין לִשְׁבִיעִית. כֵּיצַד. אִם נִלְקַט בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית אַחַר ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט מַפְרִישִׁין מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה בַּשְּׁנִיָּה. וְכֵן אִם נִלְקַט בָּרְבִיעִית קֹדֶם ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט מַפְרִישִׁין מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי. נִלְקַט בָּרְבִיעִית אַחַר ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט מַפְרִישִׁין מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי:

6

Although the laws governing an esrog depend on when it was reaped, when an esrog that grew23 in the sixth year entered the seventh year, tithes must be separated from it.24 [This applies] even though it was only an olive size [at the beginning of the Sabbatical year] and became the size of a loaf of bread [during that year].

ו

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹלְכִין אַחַר לְקִיטָתוֹ אֶתְרוֹג בַּת שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לַשְּׁבִיעִית אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה כְּזַיִת וְנַעֲשֵׂית כְּכִכָּר חַיֶּבֶת בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת:

7

We apply both the stringencies that apply to trees and those that apply to vegetables to caper berries.25 Thus if they grew26 from the second year and then they entered into the third year and were harvested before the fifteenth of Shvat, the first tithe should be separated. Afterwards, another tithe27 should be separated. Afterwards, it should be redeemed28 and then given to the poor.29 The proceeds of the redemption [should be used to purchase food that] is eaten according to the laws of the second tithe. Thus it is as if he separated both the second tithe and the tithe for the poor.

ז

הָאֶבְיוֹנוֹת שֶׁל צָלָף נוֹתְנִין עֲלֵיהֶן חֻמְרֵי אִילָן וְחֻמְרֵי זְרָעִים. שֶׁאִם הָיוּ מִשָּׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לַשְּׁלִישִׁית וְנִלְקְטוּ קֹדֶם ט''ו בִּשְׁבָט מַפְרִישִׁין מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר אַחֵר וּפוֹדֵהוּ. וְאַחַר שֶׁפּוֹדֵהוּ נוֹתְנוֹ לָעֲנִיִּים וְאוֹכֵל פִּדְיוֹנוֹ בְּתוֹרַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. וְנִמְצָא כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וּמַעֲשַׂר עָנִי:

8

With regard to rice, millet,30 poppy seed, and sesame seeds, even if the plants took root before Rosh HaShanah, we are concerned only with the completion of [the maturity of] the fruit and thus the tithes are separated as is the produce of the coming year. Similarly, with regard to Egyptian beans, even though a portion of the crop took root before Rosh HaShanah and a portion afterwards, he should gather the entire crop together31 and separate terumah and tithes from the entire crop as one. For everything depends on the produce reaching maturity.32

ח

הָאֹרֶז וְהַדֹּחַן וְהַפְּרָגִין וְהַשֻּׁמְשְׁמִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִשְׁרִישׁוּ קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֵין הוֹלְכִין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא אַחַר גְּמַר הַפְּרִי וּמִתְעַשְּׂרִין לְהַבָּא. וְכֵן פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָתוֹ הִשְׁרִישׁ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וּמִקְצָתוֹ לְאַחֲרָיו צוֹבֵר גָּרְנוֹ לְתוֹכוֹ וְתוֹרֵם וּמְעַשֵּׂר מִן הַכּל כְּאֶחָד שֶׁהַכּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר גְּמַר הַפְּרִי:

9

When one withheld water from onions that do not produce sprouts33 for 30 days or when one withheld water from onions that are irrigated from three periods34 before Rosh HaShanah, they should be tithed as produce of the previous year.35 If water was withheld from them for less than this - and thus they began to dry up before Rosh HaShanah36 - they should be tithed like produce of the coming year.

ט

הַבְּצָלִים הַסָּרִיסִים שֶׁמָּנַע מֵהֶם מַיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. וְשֶׁל בַּעַל שֶׁמָּנַע מֵהֶם שָׁלֹשׁ עוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. מִתְעַשְּׂרִין לְשֶׁעָבַר. מָנַע מֵהֶם פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לִיבַשׁ קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה מִתְעַשְּׂרִין לְהַבָּא:

10

[The following rules apply when] Egyptian beans reached a third of their growth before Rosh HaShanah. If they were sown to produce seed,37 they should be tithed as produce of the previous year.38 If they were sown to produce vegetables,39 they should be tithed as produce of the coming year.40 If they were sown to produce seed and vegetables or they were sown to produce seed and then [the owner changed his mind and] thought to use them for vegetables [as well], he should tithe from the seeds for the vegetables and from the vegetables as seeds.41

[Different rules apply if the beans] did not reach one third of their growth before Rosh HaShanah. If they were sown to produce seed, they should be tithed as produce of the previous year, but the vegetables that grow should be tithed as they are harvested, provided they are harvested before Rosh HaShanah.42 If they were harvested after Rosh HaShanah, both the vegetables and the seeds should be tithed as produce of the coming year.43

If they were sown to produce seed and then [the owner changed his mind and] thought to use them for vegetables [only], the ruling follows his thought.44 If they were sown to produce vegetables and then [the owner changed his mind and] thought to use them for seed, the thought to use it as seed has no effect on the ruling unless he withholds water from it for three periods45 when [the plants] would be ordinarily be watered,46 and [then,] only when [the plants] reached a third of their growth before Rosh HaShanah.47

[They are, however, governed by different rules] if they did not reach a third of their growth before Rosh HaShanah even though he withheld water from it for three periods when [the plants] would be ordinarily be watered.48 If he sowed it for the purpose of seed and the entire crop grew into fully grown plants before Rosh HaShanah, the seed is tithed as produce of the previous year49 and the vegetables are tithed according to when they are harvested.50 If some of the plants reached their full growth and some did not, to this situation, we apply our Sages' statement:51 "He should gather the entire crop together." [Thus he should separate tithes from the entire crop as one,] separating tithes from the seed for the vegetables and from the vegetables as seed.52

י

פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁלִישׁ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אִם זְרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע מִתְעַשֵּׂר לְשֶׁעָבַר. זְרָעוֹ לְיָרָק מִתְעַשֵּׂר לְהַבָּא. זַרְעוֹ לְזֶרַע וּלְיָרָק אוֹ שֶׁזְּרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע וְחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְיָרָק מְעַשֵּׂר מִזַּרְעוֹ עַל יְרָקוֹ וּמִירָקוֹ עַל זַרְעוֹ. לֹא הֵבִיא שְׁלִישׁ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אִם זְרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע זַרְעוֹ מִתְעַשֵּׂר לְשֶׁעָבַר וִירָקוֹ בִּשְׁעַת לְקִיטָתוֹ עִשּׂוּרוֹ. וְהוּא שֶׁלִּקֵּט מִמֶּנּוּ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. אֲבָל אִם לִקֵּט מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה בֵּין יְרָקוֹ בֵּין זַרְעוֹ מִתְעַשֵּׂר לְהַבָּא. זְרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע וְחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְיָרָק הוֹלְכִין אַחַר מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ. זְרָעוֹ לְיָרָק וְחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְזָרַע אֵין מַחֲשֶׁבֶת זֶרַע חָלָה עָלָיו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מָנַע מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ אֲרָיוֹת. וְהוּא שֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁלִישׁ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֲבָל אִם לֹא הֵבִיא שְׁלִישׁ אֶלָּא לְאַחֲרָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִמְנַע מִלֶּאֱרוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ אֲרָיוֹת. זַרְעוֹ לְזֶרַע וְעָשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ קַצָּצִין גְּמוּרִים לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה זַרְעוֹ מִתְעַשֵּׂר לְשֶׁעָבַר. וִירָקוֹ בִּשְׁעַת לְקִיטָתוֹ. מִקְצָתוֹ עָשָׂה קַצָּצִין גְּמוּרִין וּמִקְצָתוֹ לֹא עָשָׂה. זֶה שֶׁאָמְרוּ צוֹבֵר גָּרְנוֹ לְתוֹכוֹ וְנִמְצָא מְעַשֵּׂר מִזַּרְעוֹ עַל יְרָקוֹ וּמִירָקוֹ עַל זַרְעוֹ:

11

When produce from the second year becomes mixed with produce from the third year or produce from the third year becomes mixed with that of the fourth year, we follow the majority.53 If it is half and half, we separate the second tithe from the entire quantity, but not the tithe for the poor.54 [The rationale is that] the second tithe is a more severe obligation, because it is sacred,55 while the tithe for the poor is ordinary produce. Similarly, when there is a doubt whether produce is from the second year or from the third year, the second tithe should be separated from it.

יא

פֵּרוֹת שָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בְּפֵרוֹת שְׁלִישִׁית. אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁלִישִׁית בִּרְבִיעִית. הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה מַפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי מִן הַכּל. אֲבָל לֹא מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי חָמוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא קֹדֶשׁ וּמַעֲשַׂר עָנִי חֹל. וְכֵן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁהֵן סָפֵק אִם פֵּרוֹת שְׁנִיָּה הֵם אוֹ פֵּרוֹת שְׁלִישִׁית מַפְרִישׁ מֵהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי:

12

Whenever [produce] is exempt from the first tithe, it is also exempt from the second tithe and the tithe for the poor.56 Whenever produce is obligated in the first tithe, it is also obligated in these two. All of the individuals who may separate terumah may also separate [these] tithes and those who are not entitled to separate terumah may not separate these tithes. When any of the individuals with regard to whom it is said that [they should not separate terumah,] but if they separate terumah, the separation is effective57 separate these tithes, their separation is effective. When any of the individuals with regard to whom it is said that their separation of terumah is ineffective58 separate these tithes, their separation is ineffective.

יב

כָּל הַפְּטוּר מִמַּעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּר מִן הַשֵּׁנִי וּמִן הֶעָנִי. וְכָל שֶׁחַיָּב בְּרִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם. וְכָל הַתּוֹרֵם מוֹצִיא מַעֲשֵׂר. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ תּוֹרֵם אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא מַעֲשֵׂר זֶה. כָּל מִי שֶׁאִם תָּרַם תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה כָּךְ אִם עִשֵּׂר מַעֲשֵׂר זֶה הֲרֵי הוּא מַעֲשֵׂר. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְּרוּמָה כָּךְ אִם הוֹצִיא מַעֲשֵׂר זֶה אֵינוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר:

13

When a person separated the first tithe from produce before the obligation to tithe was established,59 he may snack from it before separating the second tithe. For [separating] the first [tithe] does not create an obligation to separate the second. If, however, an obligation to tithe was established, it is forbidden to snack from it until he separates the second tithe or the tithe for the poor even though he has already separated the first tithe.60

יג

פֵּרוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיא מֵהֶן מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקָּבְעוּ לַמַּעֲשֵׂר הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל מֵהֶן עַרְאַי קֹדֶם שֶׁיּוֹצִיא מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. שֶׁאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹן קוֹבֵעַ לַשֵּׁנִי. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁנִּקְבְּעוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיא אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹן אָסוּר לֶאֱכל מֵהֶן עַרְאַי עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אֶת הַשֵּׁנִי אוֹ אֶת מַעֲשַׂר עָנִי:

14

Since the second tithe must be brought [to Jerusalem],61 it should not be brought from the Diaspora,62 like the firstborn of animals.63 For this reason, our Sages did not obligate the separation of the second tithe in Syria.64

It appears to me that the second tithe that is separated in Babylonia and in Egypt65 should be redeemed and the proceeds taken to Jerusalem. Similarly, it appears to me that the obligation to separate the second tithe in these places was established only so that there would be an obligation to separate the tithe for the poor, so that the poor of the Jewish people could rely on it.66

יד

מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הוֹאִיל וְטָעוּן הֲבָאַת מָקוֹם אֵין מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מִחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ כִּבְכוֹר בְּהֵמָה. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא חִיְּבוּ לְהַפְרִישׁ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּסוּרְיָא. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁמַּפְרִישִׁים בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר וּבְמִצְרַיִם פּוֹדִין אוֹתוֹ וּמְבִיאִין דָּמָיו לִירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְכֵן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבוּ מְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לִקְבֹּעַ מַעֲשֵׂר עָנִי כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל סוֹמְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם:

Footnotes
1.

For preferably, the tithes should be separated in order, as stated in Hilchot Terumah 3:23.

2.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 128) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 473) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. In Sefer HaMitzvot, the Rambam states that separating the second tithe and partaking of it in Jerusalem are considered two facets of one mitzvah. The Ramban (in his Hosafot to Sefer HaMitzvot) differs and considers partaking of the produce in Jerusalem as another positive mitzvah.

3.

From the context of the passage, it is obvious that it is referring to another tithe and not to the first tithe which is given to the Levites.

4.

Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 6:3; Hilchot Ma'aser 9:3-4.

5.

I.e., with regard to the reckoning of the years of the agricultural cycle. These concepts also apply to with regard to the Sabbatical year.

6.

This is the popular translation of the Hebrew term kitniyot. More particularly, the Hebrew term includes many species that are not legumes3.

7.

Vegetables are not mentioned here, because different laws apply to them, as stated in Halachah 4. With regard to kitniyot, note, however, Halachah 8.

8.

I.e., one third of their full growth, as stated in Hilchot Ma'aser 2:5.

9.

I.e., they reached this level of growth during the second year of the agricultural cycle. As mentioned above, the second tithe is separated in the second year of the agricultural cycle and the tithe for the poor in the third year.

10.

Even though their initial growth was in the second year.

11.

Black spots begin to appear upon them. This is "the phase of tithing" for them, as stated in Hilchot Ma'aser 2:5.

12.

I.e., the year when they are harvested.

13.

See Hilchot Terumah 3:3; Hilchot Ma'aser 1:9.

Because the obligation is Rabbinic in origin, they are tithed like vegetables for the obligation to tithe them is also of Rabbinic origin.

14.

According to Scriptural Law, there is no obligation to tithe them, because most people do not partake of them. Nevertheless since there are some who do partake of them, our Sages imposed this obligation.

15.

And the mitzvah of tithing them is of Scriptural origin.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam, maintaining that the carobs of Tzalmona need not be tithed at all and that the obligation to tithe all trees is Rabbinic in origin. The Ra'avad and the Kessef Mishneh discuss these points at length.

16.

Our Sages (Kiddushin 3a) explain the difference between vegetables and other crops. Unlike other crops for which the water from the rains suffice, vegetables require irrigation.

17.

It is forbidden for a Jew to harvest produce on Rosh HaShanah. We are speaking about produce belonging to a Jew harvested by a gentile.

18.

In contrast to the fruit mentioned in Halachah 4.

19.

In contrast to the species mentioned in Halachah 8.

20.

For it also requires water from irrigation.

21.

Here the Rambam is outlining the laws governing the tithes. The laws governing the Sabbatical year are described in Hilchot Shemitah 4:12.

22.

Because with regard to trees, the fourth year does not start until the fifteenth of Shvat.

23.

I.e., reached "the phase of tithing."

24.

The Ra'avad has a different understanding of Rosh HaShanah 15a-b, the source for the Rambam's ruling and differs on that basis. The Radbaz justifies the Rambam's understanding of that passage and hence his ruling here.

25.

The Ra'avad notes that the Rambam's ruling appears to contradict Berachot 36a which cites the position quoted by the Rambam in the name of the School of Shammai, while the School of Hillel considers it only as the fruits of a tree. The Kessef Mishneh justifies the Rambam's ruling, explaining that capers are considered as the fruits of a tree only with regard to the prohibitions of kilayim and orlah. With regard to the second tithe, by contrast, since there is no loss in observing both stringencies, we follow the stricter ruling.

26.

Reaching one third of their growth.

27.

Which as reflected in the continuation of the halachah will serve as both the second tithe and the tithe for the poor.

28.

As is done with the second tithe.

29.

As is done with the tithe for the poor.

30.

According to some opinions, the translation of these two terms should be reversed.

31.

The Ra'avad questions that Rambam's ruling, for seemingly, if everything depends on when the produce reaches maturity, it is not necessary to gather all the produce together. Instead, it can be tithed as it is gathered. The Kessef Mishneh explains that the Rambam is saying that even if the produce is gathered all together, there is no difficulty. We do not say that the produce is from different years, because everything depends on when the produce reaches maturity. He is not, however, required to gather the produce together.

32.

See Halachah 10 where the Rambam mentions other particulars with regard to Egyptian beans.

33.

The literal translation of the Rambam's words (taken from Shivi'it 2:9) is "eunuch onions." In his Commentary to the Mishnah, he explains that term: "[Generally,] when onions are left in a moist place after being uprooted from the ground, they sprout forth green leaves. There is one type that does not do this. They are called 'eunuch onions,' for they represent a eunuch who does not produce seed."

34.

I.e., three periods in which they would ordinarily be watered. For example, if it was customary to water them every week, the laws that follow would apply if one withheld water from tem for three weeks.

35.

Even though they are not harvested immediately, their growth has already ceased.

36.

And thus one might think that their growth has been completed.

37.

I.e., to take the beans. See Rav Kappach's version of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Shivi'it 8:2).

38.

I.e., even the vegetables. For the vegetables are considered as secondary to the seed (beans). Thus these plants are judged as other legumes in which case, the ruling depends on when the beans reach one third of their growth as stated in Halachah 2.

39.

I.e., the leaves of the plant.

40.

I.e., even the seed. For the seed are considered as secondary to the vegetables and vegetables should be tithed according to when they are gathered as stated in Halachah 4.

41.

I.e., he separates one tithe for both the vegetables and the seeds, even though there is reason to say that the tithes for each of the two should be separated separately. If he harvested the plants primarily for the seeds, even the vegetables should be tithed as if they were seeds. Conversely, if he harvested the plants primarily as vegetables, even the seeds should be tithed as such.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam, questioning why he bases his ruling on the Jerusalem Talmud (Shivi'it 2:8) when - the Ra'avad states - that ruling is problematic. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's view.

42.

Only in such a situation should the produce be tithed as produce of the second year. The Ra'avad notes that this ruling is problematic: Since the produce has not reached a third of its growth, why is there a need to tithe it? The Radbaz explains that since the person gathers, it is significant for him, and - as far as he is concerned, it has reached its full growth.

43.

For the vegetables, this ruling is obvious and even for the seeds, it applies because the plants did not reach one third of their growth in the previous year.

44.

And they should be tithed according to when they are harvested.

45.

When produce is grown to be used as a vegetable, it is watered before it is harvested. When it is grown for seeds, it is not (Radbaz). The Ra'avad questions the Hebrew term used by the Rambam. The Radbaz states that it means "harvests," because, as explained above, vegetables are usually watered before they are harvested.

46.

For his intent to be significant, it has to be reinforced by a deed.

47.

Otherwise, it would not be appropriate for them to be tithed as produce of the second year.

48.

The Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling in this instance as well and again the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's approach.

49.

For they reached a level of growth obligated them to be tithed at that time.

50.

Since he intended to use the plants for vegetables, we do not say that the vegetables are entirely insignificant.

51.

Rosh HaShanah 13b.

52.

As explained in Halachah 8.

53.

I.e., the entire quantity of produce is tithed according to the laws governing the majority. For we assume that any individual fruit was separated from the majority.

54.

The Ra'avad differs and maintains that the tithe for the poor should also be separated, for if it is not separated, the produce is tevel. Rav Yosef Korcus differs, explaining that the same logic could be used with regard to the first clause of the halachah, and that ruling is based on an explicit mishnah (Makshirin 2:11). This explanation provides us with a new definition of tevel - produce from which the separations have been made to the best of man's ability.

55.

I.e., it is considered as sacred property, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 17.

56.

See Hilchot Ma'aser 1:7.

57.

See Hilchot Terumot 4:4.

58.

See ibid.:2.

59.

I.e., through one of the six situations mentioned in Hilchot Ma'aser 3:2-3.

60.

For the prohibition against partaking of tevel applies until all the tithes have been separated. See Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:20.

61.

As explained in the following chapter.

62.

The Scriptural obligation to separate the second tithe applies only in Eretz Yisrael. Furthermore, not only is there no Rabbinic obligation, one should not do so.

63.

The firstborn offspring of kosher animals must be offered as a sacrifice. Nevertheless, a firstborn animal in the Diaspora should not be brought to Jerusalem. Indeed, even if it is brought to the Temple, it is not offered as a sacrifice. See Hilchot Bechorot 1:5.

64.

I.e., since the second tithe should not be brought from Syria to Jerusalem, our Sages did not require its separation there. The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam's ruling, but it is justified by the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh.

65.

See Hilchot Terumot 1:1 which states that our Prophets and Sages ordained that terumah should be separated in these lands.

66.

I.e., there was always a substantial Jewish community in these lands and our Sages wanted to provide the poor with an opportunity to receive their livelihood. This provision was not enacted with regard to Syria, because it was relatively close to Eretz Yisrael and the poor could receive their livelihood from the tithe for the poor separated there (Radbaz). The Ra'avad maintains that the second tithe should also be separated in Syria, but the commentaries follow the Rambam's view.

Published and copyright by Moznaim Publications, all rights reserved.
To purchase this book or the entire series, please click here.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah