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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 6

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 6

1

[The following is] order of continuous offerings brought each day: Shortly before dawn1 the supervisor in charge of the lotteries comes and knocks gently2 on [the gates of] the Temple Courtyard.3 They are opened for him and an inspection is made of the Temple Courtyard.4 The bakers of the chavitin are roused to prepare the chavitin.5

All of the priests there will have already immersed themselves before the supervisor comes and garbed themselves in the priestly garments. They come and stand in the Chamber of Hewn Stone and carry out the first and second lottery6 and [the priests] who merit [are designated to perform] their services, as we explained.7

The one who merited to remove the ashes [from the outer altar] begins removing them according to the procedure we described.8 Afterwards, he arranges the large array [of wood on the altar], then he arranges the second array,9 and then he brings up two logs of wood and places them on the array to increase the fire.10

Afterwards, they enter the Chamber of the Utensils11 and remove all the utensils that are necessary for the entire day.12 They give [the lamb to be sacrificed as] the continuous offering water to drink.13 The one who merited to slaughter it pulls it to the butchering area. All of the priests who merited to take the limbs [up to the ramp] follow him and wait there until they open the Great Gate14 of the Sanctuary. When the gate is opened [the lamb to be sacrificed as] the continuous offering is slaughtered.15

Afterwards two priests enter the Sanctuary: one who merited to remove the ashes from the inner altar16 and the other who merited to remove the ashes from the Menorah.17

א

סֵדֶר עֲבוֹדוֹת הַתְּמִידוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם כָּךְ הוּא. סָמוּךְ לַעֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר יָבוֹא הַמְמֻנֶּה שֶׁעַל הַפְּיָסוֹת וְיַקִּישׁ עַל הָעֲזָרָה וּפוֹתְחִין לוֹ. וּמְבַלְּשִׁין אֶת כָּל הָעֲזָרָה. וּמַעֲמִידִין עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִיתִין לַעֲשׂוֹת הַחֲבִיתִין. וְכָל הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁשָּׁם כְּבָר טָבְלוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹא הַמְמֻנֶּה וְלָבְשׁוּ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה. וְיָבוֹאוּ וְיַעַמְדוּ בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית. וְיָפִיסוּ פַּיִס רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וְיִזְכֶּה כָּל אֶחָד בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמַתְחִיל זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בִּתְרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן וְתוֹרֵם עַל הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַדֵּר מַעֲרָכָה גְּדוֹלָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַדֵּר מַעֲרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲלֶה שְׁנֵי גִּזְרֵי עֵצִים וּמַנִּיחָן עַל מַעֲרָכָה גְּדוֹלָה לְהַרְבּוֹת הָאֵשׁ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָסִין לְלִשְׁכַּת הַכֵּלִים וּמוֹצִיאִין כָּל כְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת הַצְּרִיכִין לָהֶן כָּל הַיּוֹם. וּמַשְׁקִין אֶת הַתָּמִיד מַיִם וְזֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בִּשְׁחִיטָתוֹ מוֹשְׁכוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם. וְהוֹלְכִין אַחֲרָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁזָּכוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת הָאֵיבָרִים וְשׁוֹהִין שָׁם עַד שֶׁפּוֹתְחִין שַׁעַר הַהֵיכָל הַגָּדוֹל. וּבִשְׁעַת פְּתִיחַת הַשַּׁעַר שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַתָּמִיד. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָסִין לַהֵיכָל שְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים. הָאֶחָד שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה:

2

The one who removes the ashes from the altar should do that at the same time the slaughterer slaughters [the lamb to be offered] as the continuous offering. Afterwards, the person who receives its blood dashes it on the altar.18

ב

וְהַמְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְדַשְּׁנוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַשּׁוֹחֵט שׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַתָּמִיד. וְאַחַר כָּךְ זוֹרֵק הַדָּם זֶה שֶׁקִּבְּלוֹ:

3

After the blood is dashed on the altar, [the second priest] in the Sanctuary kindles five lamps19 and both of them leave the Sanctuary. The priests in the butchering area skin [the lamb] and cut it into portions.20 Each one brings the limb which he merited to the ramp. The limbs are placed on the lower half of the western portion of the ramp.21 The portions [of the animals sacrificed as] additional offerings are placed on the lower half of the eastern portion of the ramp. Those of the Rosh Chodesh are placed on the top of the altar between the horns, in the place where the priests walk to publicize that it is Rosh Chodesh.22 There they salt the limbs. They also salt the ramp, even on the Sabbath,23 so the priests will not slip and fall while bringing wood up to the ramp. Although the salt intervenes between [the priests'] feet and the ramp, it is not a concern since carrying this wood is not part of [the Temple] service.24

ג

וְאַחַר שֶׁזּוֹרְקִין אֶת הַדָּם מֵטִיב זֶה שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל חָמֵשׁ נֵרוֹת וְיוֹצְאִין שְׁנֵיהֶן מִן הַהֵיכָל. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם מַפְשִׁיטִין וּמְנַתְּחִין וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַעֲלֶה אֵיבָר שֶׁזָּכָה בּוֹ לַכֶּבֶשׁ. וְנוֹתְנִין הָאֵיבָרִים מֵחֲצִי כֶּבֶשׁ וּלְמַטָּה בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ. וְשֶׁל מוּסָפִין הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין אוֹתָן מֵחֲצִי כֶּבֶשׁ וּלְמַטָּה בְּמִזְרָחוֹ. וְשֶׁל רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים נוֹתְנִין עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלְּמַעְלָה בֵּין קֶרֶן לְקֶרֶן בִּמְקוֹם הִלּוּךְ רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים כְּדֵי לְפַרְסְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. וּמוֹלְחִין שָׁם אֶת הָאֵיבָרִים וְזוֹרְקִין מֶלַח עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחְלִיק וְיִפְּלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים שָׁם בְּעֵת הֲלִיכָתָן בָּעֵצִים לַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח חוֹצֵץ בֵּין רַגְלֵיהֶם וּבֵין הַכֶּבֶשׁ הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַהוֹלָכָה הַזֹּאת עֲבוֹדָה אֵינָן חוֹשְׁשִׁין:

4

After the limbs are brought to the ramp, all of the priests gather in the Chamber of Hewn Stone and the supervisor tells them: "Recite one blessing." They begin the recitation of the blessing Ahavas Olam,25 the Ten Commandments,26 the passage Shema, the passage Vehayah Im Shamoa,and the passage Vayomer,27 [the blessing] Emet VaYatziv,28 and the blessings Retzei and Sim Shalom.29 On the Sabbath, another blessing is added. It is recited by the members of the priestly watch that depart30 to the members of the watch that enter: "May He Who causes His name to rest in this house cause love, brotherhood, peace, and friendship to rest among you."

Afterwards, they hold the third and fourth lotteries.31 The priest who merits to offer the incense enters [the Sanctuary] and offers it.32 Afterwards, the one who merited to remove the ashes of the Menorah enters and kindles two candles.33 The priest who offered the incense and the one who removed the ashes of the Menorah depart and stand on the steps of the Entrance Hall together with his priestly brethren.34

ד

וְאַחַר שֶׁמַּעֲלִין הָאֵיבָרִים לַכֶּבֶשׁ מִתְכַּנְּסִין כֻּלָּן לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית. וְהַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרְכוּ בְּרָכָה אַחַת. וְהֵן פּוֹתְחִין וְקוֹרִין אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם וַעֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת וּשְׁמַע וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ וַיֹּאמֶר וֶאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב וּרְצֵה וְשִׂים שָׁלוֹם. וּבְשַׁבָּת מוֹסִיפִין בְּרָכָה אַחַת וְהִיא שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר הַנִּכְנָס. מִי שֶׁשִּׁכֵּן אֶת שְׁמוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה יַשְׁכִּין בֵּינֵיכֶם אַהֲבָה אַחְוָה שָׁלוֹם וְרֵעוּת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְפִיסִין פַּיִס שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי וְזוֹכֶה בַּקְּטֹרֶת מִי שֶׁזָּכָה וְנִכְנַס וּמַקְטִיר. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנַס זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה וּמֵטִיב שְׁתֵּי הַנֵּרוֹת וְיוֹצֵא זֶה שֶׁהִקְטִיר עִם מְדַשֵּׁן הַמְּנוֹרָה. וְעוֹמֵד עַל מַעֲלוֹת הָאוּלָם הוּא וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:

5

When [the priest who offered the incense] reaches the area between the Entrance Hall and the Altar,35 [a priest] takes a rake and throws it between the Entrance Hall and the Altar. It made a loud noise.36 It served three purposes:

a) one who heard its sound would know that his priestly brethren were entering [the Sanctuary] to prostrate themselves37 and he would [also] run and go.

b) a Levite who heard its sound would know that his Levitical brethren were gathering to begin the singing [that accompanied the offerings]38 and he would run and go.

c) when the head of the ma'amad39 heard its sound, he would have the impure people40 stand at the eastern gate41 because of the suspicion, i.e., so that everyone should know that they had not brought their atonement offerings as of yet.

Afterwards, [the priest] who merited [to bring up] the limbs brings the limbs up from the ramp to the altar. After the limbs are brought up,42 [the priests] standing on the steps of the Entrance Hall begin to recite the Priestly Blessing [as] one blessing43[reciting] God's explicit name, as explained in the appropriate place.44

Afterwards, they bring the flour of the accompanying offerings45 up [to the altar]. After the flour, they offer the chavitin on the pyre. After the chavitin, they offer the wine libation. While the wine is being poured, the Levites recite song and the musicians play on the various instruments in the Temple.46 Nine tekiot are sounded during the bars of the song.47

ה

כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ. נָטַל אֶחָד הַמַּגְרֵפָה וּזְרָקָהּ בֵּין הָאוּלָם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְהָיָה לָהּ קוֹל גָּדוֹל. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בָּהֶן. הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת קוֹלָהּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים נִכְנָסִין לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת וְהוּא רָץ וּבָא. וּבֶן לֵוִי הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת קוֹלָהּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֶחָיו הַלְוִיִּם נִכְנָסִין לְדַבֵּר בְּשִׁיר וְהוּא רָץ וּבָא. וְרֹאשׁ הַמַּעֲמָד כְּשֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת קוֹלָהּ הָיָה מַעֲמִיד אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים עַל שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח מִפְּנֵי הַחֲשָׁד. שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הַכּל שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הֵבִיאוּ כַּפָּרָתָן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲלֶה זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בָּאֵיבָרִים אֶת הָאֵיבָרִים מִן הַכֶּבֶשׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְאַחַר שֶׁמַּעֲלִין אֶת הָאֵיבָרִים. מַתְחִילִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁעַל מַעֲלוֹת הָאוּלָם וּמְבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים בְּרָכָה אַחַת בַּשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּמְקוֹמָהּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲלִין סלֶת הַנְּסָכִים. וְאַחַר הַסּלֶת מַקְטִיר הַחֲבִיתִין. וְאַחַר הַחֲבִיתִין מַעֲלִין אֶת הַיַּיִן לְנִסּוּךְ. וּבִשְׁעַת הַנִּסּוּךְ אוֹמְרִין הַלְוִיִּם הַשִּׁיר. וּמַכִּין הַמְשׁוֹרְרִין בְּמִינֵי נִגּוּן שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וְתוֹקְעִין תֵּשַׁע תְּקִיעוֹת עַל פִּרְקֵי הַשִּׁיר:

6

When they would give the wine to the priest who would perform the libation, there were two priests holding two trumpets in their hands who would stand on the table where the fats [were placed].48 The Segen49 stands on the corner of the altar with flags in his hands. [When he waves them], they would sound a tekiah, a teruah, and a tekiah.50 [The priests with the trumpets] would then stand next to the priest who was placed in charge of the cymbals,51 one to his right and one to his left.

ו

כְּשֶׁהָיוּ נוֹתְנִין הַיַּיִן לַמְנַסֵּךְ. הָיוּ שְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים עוֹמְדִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן הַחֲלָבִים וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בְּיָדָן. וְהַסְּגָן עוֹמֵד עַל קֶרֶן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַסּוּדָרִין בְּיָדוֹ. וְתָקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקְעוּ. וּבָאוּ וְעָמְדוּ אֵצֶל זֶה הַמְמֻנֶּה עַל הַצִּלְצָל. אֶחָד מִימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ:

7

When the [priest who offered the libation] bent down to pour it, the segen would wave the flags,52 [the priest] with the cymbals would sound them and the others would sound the trumpets. The Levites began singing.53 When they reached [the end] of a bar, [the priests] would sound the trumpets54 and all the people in the Courtyard would prostrate themselves.

At [the conclusion of] every bar [of the song],55 they would sound the trumpets and at every trumpet sounding, [the people] would prostrate themselves. There were a total of nine trumpet blasts56 sounded for the continuous offering, as we explained.57

ז

שָׁהָה הַמְנַסֵּךְ לַנֶּסֶךְ. מֵנִיף הַסְּגָן בְּסוּדָרִין. הִקִּישׁ זֶה בַּצִּלְצָל וְתָקְעוּ אֵלּוּ בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וְדִבְּרוּ הַלְוִיִּם בְּשִׁיר. הִגִּיעוּ לְפֶרֶק תָּקְעוּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ כָּל הָעָם שֶׁבָּעֲזָרָה. עַל כָּל פֶּרֶק תְּקִיעָה וְעַל כָּל תְּקִיעָה הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה. וְכָל הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁעַל הַתָּמִיד תֵּשַׁע כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

Song is recited only over the communal burnt-offerings and peace-offerings which are mentioned in the Torah. Song is not recited over the free-will burnt-offerings that are offered from the remaining funds of the Temple collection58 even though they are communal offerings. Similarly, when the additional offerings are brought independently, song is not recited over them.59

ח

אֵין אוֹמְרִין שִׁירָה אֶלָּא עַל עוֹלוֹת הַצִּבּוּר וְזִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיהֶם הָאֲמוּרִין בַּתּוֹרָה. אֲבָל עוֹלוֹת נְדָבָה שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין מִמּוֹתַר תְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל צִבּוּר אֵין אוֹמְרִין שִׁירָה עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן נְסָכִים הַבָּאִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן אֵין אוֹמְרִין עֲלֵיהֶן שִׁירָה:

9

[These are] the songs that the Levites would recite:60 On Sunday, they would recite "The earth and its fullness is God's" (Psalm 24).61 On Monday, they would recite "God is great and exceedingly praised in the city of our Lord" (Psalm 48).62 On Tuesday, they would recite "God stands in the council of judges, among the judges, He delivers judgment" (Psalm 82).63 On Wednesday, they would recite "The Lord is a God of retribution, O God of retribution reveal Yourself" (Psalm 94).64 On Thursday, they would recite "Raise joyous song to God our strength; sound the shofar to the God of Jacob" (Psalm 81).65 On Friday, they would recite "God is King. He clothes Himself with grandeur. God has robed Himself. He has girded Himself with strength" (Psalm 93).66 On the Sabbath, they would recite: "A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day" (Psalm 92).67

For the Musaf offering of the Sabbath, the song Haazinu (Deuteronomy, ch. 32) is recited. It is divided into six segments: haziv lech68 just as it is read in the synagogue.69 One segment is recited each Sabbath. After the song is completed on six Sabbaths, they would return to the beginning.

In the afternoon on the Sabbath, they would recite from "Then Moses sang..." and from "Who is like You...."70 For the Musaf offering of Rosh HaShanah, they would recite "Raise joyous song to God our strength."71 If [Rosh HaShanah] fell on Thursday,72 they would recite "I have removed his shoulder from the burden" (Psalm 81:7).73 In the afternoon on Rosh HaShanah, they would recite: "The voice of God causes the desert to tremble" (ibid. 29:8).74

ט

הַשִּׁיר שֶׁהָיוּ הַלְוִיִּם אוֹמְרִין. בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים כד א) "לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ". בַּשֵּׁנִי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים מח ב) "גָּדוֹל ה' וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד בְּעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַר קָדְשׁוֹ" וְגוֹ'. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים פב א) "אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט". בִּרְבִיעִי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים צד א) "אֵל נְקָמוֹת ה' אֵל נְקָמוֹת הוֹפִיעַ". בַּחֲמִישִׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים פא ב) "הַרְנִינוּ לֵאלֹהִים עוּזֵּנוּ הָרִיעוּ לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב". בַּשִּׁשִּׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים צג א) "ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ לָבֵשׁ ה' עֹז הִתְאַזָּר" וְגוֹ'. בְּשַׁבָּת הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים צב א) "מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת". בְּמוּסְפֵי שַׁבָּת אוֹמְרִים שִׁירַת (דברים לב א) "הַאֲזִינוּ" וְחוֹלְקִין אוֹתָהּ לְשִׁשָּׁה פְּרָקִים הַזִּי''ו לָ''ךְ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹרְאִין אוֹתָהּ שִׁשָּׁה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. וְאוֹמְרִין פֶּרֶק בְּכָל שַׁבָּת. גָּמְרוּ הַשִּׁירָה בְּשִׁשָּׁה שַׁבָּתוֹת חוֹזְרִין לָרֹאשׁ. בְּמִנְחָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר (שמות טו א) "אָז יָשִׁיר משֶׁה" וּ(שמות טו יא) "מִי כָמֹכָה" וְגוֹ'. בְּמוּסָף שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין הַרְנִינוּ לֵאלֹהִים עוּזֵּנוּ. וְאִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי אוֹמֵר (תהילים פא ז) "הֲסִירוֹתִי מִסֵּבֶל שִׁכְמוֹ" וְגוֹ'. בְּמִנְחָה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (תהילים כט ח) "קוֹל ה' יָחִיל מִדְבָּר" וְגוֹ':

10

When Rosh Chodesh falls on the Sabbath, the song of Rosh Chodesh75 takes priority over that of the Sabbath76 in order to publicize that the day is Rosh Chodesh.

י

רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבַּת שִׁירָה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ דּוֹחֶה אֶת שִׁירָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְפַרְסֵם שֶׁהַיּוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ:

11

On the Sabbath, the two bowls of frankincense77 are offered on the altar's pyre together with the additional offerings before the wine libation that accompanied those offerings.78

The order that was followed [for the sacrifices offered] in the morning is followed [for the sacrifices offered] in the afternoon79 with the exception of the removal of the ashes from the outer altar,80 the arrangement of the arrays [of wood on the altar], and the lotteries which are only performed each day in the morning, as we explained.81

יא

בְּשַׁבָּת מַקְטִירִין אֶת שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה עִם הַמּוּסָפִין. קֹדֶם נִסּוּךְ הַיַּיִן שֶׁל מוּסָפִין. וְכַסֵּדֶר שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּכָל יוֹם בַּבֹּקֶר כָּךְ עוֹשִׂין בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. חוּץ מֵהֲרָמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן מִמִּזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן וְסִדּוּר הַמַּעֲרָכוֹת וְהַפְּיָסוֹת. שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא בְּכָל יוֹם בַּשַּׁחַר לְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

The term "dawn" refers to the first shining of the rays of the sun on the horizon, more than an hour before sunrise. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 1:2) which explains that the meaning of the term "the call of the gever" used by that source.

2.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 1:2) which refers to the Song of Songs 5:2: "The voice of my beloved comes knocking," i.e., a gentle, beckoning knock.

3.

As indicated by Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 8:11, the supervisor would come from the chayl and knock on the outer door of the Chamber of the Hearth where the priests slept. By knocking, he would wake them. They would open the door for him.

Now the Chamber of the Hearth was located in the midst of the wall on the north side of the Temple Courtyard. Half was consecrated and half was not. There were two gates leading to the Temple Courtyard from the Chamber of the Hearth. A large gate which would be opened at dawn and a smaller gate whose keys were hanging in the Chamber of the Hearth. The supervisor would take those keys and enter the Courtyard.

4.

As described in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah, loc. cit.

5.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:2 with regard to how this offering was prepared.

6.

It appears that, according to the Rambam, these two lotteries were performed one after the other. The commentaries have noted that from Yoma 22a, 24b, it would appear that there was a span of time between the two.

7.

See Chapter 4, Halachot 1, 5-6.

8.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

9.

The Rambam does not mention the third array which was kept to maintain a fire, because that was kept burning at all times. Nevertheless, if it was necessary to place wood on it, the same priest would do so (Radbaz).

10.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 2, and Chapter 4, Halachah 5.

11.

The location of this chamber is not mentioned in Hilchot Beit HaBecghirah, nor in the Mishnah of Middot.

12.

Tamid 3:4 speaks of removing 93 utensils.

13.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 9.

14.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 4:6-7.

15.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 5:5.

16.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 4, and Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

17.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 10, and Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

18.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

19.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 16.

20.

As described in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 6:1.

21.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah, the Ra'avad explains that they were placed there so that they would be "before God," closer to the entrance to the Temple.

22.

I.e., to place them in an openly visible place.

23.

Even though causing the salt to dissolve would be forbidden in other circumstances on the Sabbath.

24.

Implied is that while bringing the limbs to the altar - which is part of the Temple service - there should not be any such intervening substances.

25.

The blessing recited before the recitation of the Shema. The blessing Yotzer Or (which precedes Ahavat Olam in the prayer service) is recited afterwards, when the sun rises, because the order of the blessings of the Shema is not an absolute requirement [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:1)].

26.

There the Rambam writes that the Ten Commandments were chosen because they comprise the fundaments of our faith. Indeed, they should be recited every day as part of the prayer service outside the Temple as well. Nevertheless, our Sages [Berachot 12a; Jerusalem Talmud (Berachot 1:5)] refrained from doing so, lest the heretics say that these alone are the foundation of the Jewish faith.

27.

I.e., they read the three passages of the Shema. Even though the optimum time for the recitation of the Shema has not arrived, the priests are allowed to recite it early (and fulfill their obligation), because afterwards they will be occupied with the Temple services and we fear that they might forget to do so (Rashi, Yoma 37b).

28.

The blessing that follows the Shema.

29.

Two of the final three blessings of the Shemoneh Esreh. These blessings are chosen because they are all prayers for the sake of the Jewish people [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc cit.)].

30.

After the conclusion of their week of service in the Temple, because the priestly watches switch on the Sabbath afternoon (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3).

31.

See Chapter 4, Halachot 7-8.

32.

All authorities agree that an interruption is made between kindling the five lamps and kindling the two lamps. There is, however, a difference of opinion between the Sages and Abba Shaul with regard to the service that intervenes. Here the Rambam follows the opinion of the Sages that it is the offering of the incense. In our daily prayers, however, we read the passage "Abbaye would recount the order of the offerings on the altar... according to Abba Shaul" (Yoma 33a). That passage states that the blood of the daily sacrifice was offered on the altar between the kindling of the lamps and the incense was offered afterwards. The Eshkol explains that even though Abbaye's reckoning does not follow the halachah in this instance, it is still included in the prayers, because it is a concise review of all the Temple services

33.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 16.

34.

Where they recite the priestly blessing, as stated in the following halachah.

35.

The Kessef Mishneh maintains that on the basis of Tamid 5:6, this was performed when the priest entered the Sanctuary to offer the incense and not when he departed.

36.

Tamid, loc. cit., states that its noise was so loud that no one in Jerusalem could hear his fellow man speaking to him at that time. And Tamid3:8 states that the noise could be heard even in Jericho.

37.

The prostration was not performed until after the continuous offering had been offered.

38.

In this instance as well, as indicated by the conclusion of the halachah, the singing did not actually begin until later, but the preparations were begun.

39.

The term ma'amad refers to the Israelites who would be present during the offering of the sacrifices as explained in Hilchot K'lei Hamikdash, ch. 6.

40.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:6), the Rambam explains that this refers to people who had been afflicted by tzara'at (a skin malediction similar to leprosy) and had been cured, but had not brought their offerings as of yet.

41.

I.e., the Gate of Nicanor which is the main entrance to the Temple Courtyard. See also Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 4:2.

42.

This follows the order initiated by Aaron, the High Priest, at the dedication of the altar who did not bless the people until he had completed the offering of the sacrifices (see Leviticus, ch. 9).

43.

I.e., in contrast to the practice outside the Temple, the people would not respond after each blessing. Instead, when all three blessings are completed, they would say: "Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever" (Hilchot Tefilah UNesiat Kapayim 14:9).

44.

Ibid.:10. I.e., they would pronounce the name Y-H-V-H as it is written.

As stated in the above source, after the death of Simon the Just, the priests stopped using this name, lest it be learned by a person of improper character.

45.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:1.

46.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 3:2-4.

47.

See Halachot 6-7. Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 7:5

48.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 6:6), the Rambam states that this refers to the marble table that was positioned to the west of the ramp. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:15.

49.

The assistant to the High Priest. See ibid. 4:16.

50.

The trumpets were sounded like the shofar is sounded on Rosh HaShanah: one long blast (tekiah), a series of staccato blasts (teruah), and then another long blast (tekiah).

51.

See ibid. 7:7.

52.

As a sign for the others to perform their activities.

53.

The songs are recited at this time, because "song is recited only over wine" (Berachot 35a). The songs the Levites would sing are mentioned in Halachah 9.

54.

I.e., a series of tekiah, teruah and tekiah blasts.

55.

Each song had three bars.

56.

I.e., three series of three.

57.

Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 7:5.

58.

See Hilchot Shekalim 4:9.

59.

See ibid 3:2 where the concepts mentioned here are explained in slightly greater detail.

60.

These psalms are also recited as "the song of day" in our daily prayers to recall the Temple Service.

61.

This psalm was associated with Sunday, for the world was created on Sunday and this psalm states how all existence is His [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 6:7, based on Rosh HaShanah 31a)].

62.

For God's greatness was manifest in the division of the waters, the creation of the second day (ibid.).

63.

For on this day, the earth - the place were judgment is carried out - came into existence (ibid.).

64.

On this day, the sun and the moon were created and this song is a prayer that God will take retribution against those who worship these celestial bodies (ibid.).

65.

On this day, animal life was created. This is truly wondrous and arouses within man a desire to sing praises to the Creator (ibid.).

66.

For on this day, with the creation of man, God's work of creation was brought to its ultimate fulfillment, because man acknowledges God's Kingship (ibid.).

67.

For God rested on the seventh day (Rosh HaShanah 31b). And as the Mishnah (Tamid, loc. cit.) concludes, this is "a song for the ultimate future which will be entirely Sabbath and rest for life everlasting."

68.

I.e., the Hebrew letters are an acronym for the words which begin the verses of these segments: Ha'azinu (32:1), Z'chor (32:7), Yarkiveihu (32:13), Vayar (32:19), Lu (32:29), Ki (32:40).

69.

I.e., as the Torah reading is divided up into aliyot. See Hilchot Tefilah 13:5.

70.

The song of redemption after the splitting of the sea. They would read from the beginning of the song until "Who is like You" (Mi Chamocha, Exodus 15:1-11) on one Sabbath afternoon, and then from that verse until the end of the song on the next Sabbath afternoon. The standard published text of Rosh HaShanah, loc. cit., states that on the third Sabbath they would recite the song of the well (Numbers 21:17), but apparently the Rambam's version of the text did not include that point.

71.

For this psalm also includes the verse "Sound the shofar on the day of the new moon."

72.

When Psalm 81 was recited as the psalm of the day.

73.

I.e., the second half of the psalm. Since the psalm was already recited in the morning, they did not desire to repeat it in its entirety. From Rosh HaShanah 31b, it would appear that when Rosh HaShanah falls on Thursday, they would recite the second half of the psalm in the morning and the first half (which includes the verse concerning the sounding of the shofar) for the Musaf offering. The Rambam's ruling is based on the Jerusalem Talmud (Rosh HaShanah 4:8).

74.

Rashi (Rosh HaShanah, loc. cit.) explains that this verse recalls the sounding of the shofar at Mount Sinai.

75.

There is no Rabbinic source which is extant that mentions which psalm was recited on Rosh Chodesh.

76.

I.e., for the Musaf offering.

77.

That had been on the Golden Table together with the showbread.

78.

The Kessef Mishneh questions the Rambam's source for the concept that the offering of the frankincense preceded the wine libation. Rav Yosef Corcus explains that were there not a verse that teaches otherwise, we would think that the offering of the frankincense takes precedence over the additional offering as well. Hence once the additional offering has been brought, it is offered next.

79.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 10.

80.

The ashes were, by contrast, removed from the Menorah and the inner altar in the afternoon, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 10.

81.

See Chapter 2, Halachot 2 and 11, and Chapter 4, Halachah 8.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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