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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 9

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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 9

1

It is a positive commandment to offer the guilt-offerings1 according to its statutes as they are written in the Torah. How are the guilt-offerings brought? Both the definite guilt offerings2 and the conditional guilt-offerings3 should be slaughtered and their blood should be sprinkled on the altar, as we explained.4 They are skinned,5 the portions offered on the altar6 are removed, salted,7 and tossed on [the altar's] pyre. If one desires to carry [these portions] to the altar in a [sacred] utensil, he may. The remainder of the meat is eaten by males of the priestly family according to [the laws that govern the consumption of] sin-offerings.8

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת כְּמִצְוָתָן הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה. וְכֵיצַד מַעֲשֵׂה הָאֲשָׁמוֹת בֵּין אָשָׁם וַדַּאי בֵּין אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. שׁוֹחֵט וְזוֹרֵק הַדָּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמַפְשִׁיט וּמוֹצִיא הָאֵימוּרִין וּמוֹלְחָן וְזוֹרְקָן עַל גַּב הָאִשִּׁים. וְאִם רָצָה לְהוֹלִיכָן בִּכְלִי מוֹלִיךְ. וּשְׁאָר בְּשָׂרָם נֶאֱכָל לְזִכְרֵי כְּהֻנָּה בָּעֲזָרָה כַּחַטָּאת:

2

There is a difference with regard to [the laws governing] the acceptance of the blood of the guilt offering brought by a person who had been afflicted with tzara'at,9 as will be explained in Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah.10 Nevertheless, all of its other procedures, the sprinkling of its blood on the altar, and its consumption are analogous to that required for other guilt-offerings in all regards.11

ב

אֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע יֵשׁ בְּקַבָּלַת דָּמוֹ שִׁנּוּי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת מְחֻסְּרֵי כַּפָּרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן שְׁאָר מַעֲשָׂיו וּזְרִיקַת דָּמוֹ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַאֲכִילָתוֹ כִּשְׁאָר הָאֲשָׁמוֹת לְכָל דָּבָר:

3

It is a positive commandment to offer all the peace-offerings12 as commanded. There are four types: one is the communal peace-offerings13 and the [other] three are individual peace offerings.14

ג

עֲשִׂיַּת כָּל שְׁלָמִים כְּמִצְוָתָן מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה וְהֵן אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין. הָאֶחָד שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר וְהַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד:

4

What is the procedure for bringing the communal peace offerings? [The sacrificial lambs] should be slaughtered and their blood should be sprinkled on the altar, as we explained.15 They are skinned,16 the portions offered on the altar17 are removed, salted,18 and brought to be consumed by [the altar's] pyre. The remainder [of the meat] is eaten by males of the priestly family according to [the laws that govern the consumption of] a sin-offering and a guilt-offering, for these [sacrifices] are also sacrifices of the most sacred order, as we explained.19

ד

וְכֵיצַד מַעֲשֵׂה שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר. שׁוֹחֵט וְזוֹרֵק הַדָּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמַפְשִׁיט וּמוֹצִיא הָאֵימוּרִים וּמוֹלְחָן וּמַקְטִירָן. וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לְזִכְרֵי כְּהֻנָּה בָּעֲזָרָה כַּחַטָּאת וְכָאָשָׁם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

5

There are three types of individual peace-offerings:

a) a peace-offering that is brought without bread, e.g., the festive peace-offering20 or the peace-offering of celebration,21 they are called peace-offerings;

b) peace-offerings brought with bread because of a vow or a pledge;22 these are called thanksgiving offerings and the bread is called the bread of the thanksgiving offering;

c) the peace-offering brought by a nazirite on the day he completes his nazirite vow; this offering is accompanied by bread and is called the nazirite's ram.23

ה

שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין. הָאֶחָד הוּא הַבָּא שְׁלָמִים בְּלֹא לֶחֶם כְּגוֹן שַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא שְׁלָמִים. וְהַשֵּׁנִי שְׁלָמִים הַבָּאִים עִם הַלֶּחֶם בְּנֵדֶר אוֹ נְדָבָה וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא תּוֹדָה וְאוֹתוֹ הַלֶּחֶם נִקְרָא לֶחֶם תּוֹדָה. וְהַמִּין הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שְׁלָמִים שֶׁמַּקְרִיב הַנָּזִיר בְּיוֹם מְלֹאת נִזְרוֹ וְהֵם בָּאִים עִם לֶחֶם וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא אֵיל נָזִיר:

6

What is the procedure for bringing these three [types of offerings]? [The sacrificial animals] should be slaughtered and their blood should be sprinkled on the altar, as we explained.24 They are skinned25 and the portions offered on the altar26 are removed. Afterwards, the meat is cut up and the breast and the right thigh are set aside.27 The portions to be offered together with the breast and the thigh are placed on the hands of the owners. A priest places his hands below the hands of the owner and performs tenufah28 with all these items "before God," to the east [of the Altar].29 Whenever there is a requirement for tenufah, it is performed to the east [of the Altar].

ו

וְכֵיצַד מַעֲשֵׂה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן. שׁוֹחֵט וְזוֹרֵק הַדָּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמַפְשִׁיט וּמוֹצִיא הָאֵימוּרִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְנַתֵּחַ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר וּמַפְרִישׁ הֶחָזֶה וְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין וְנוֹתֵן הָאֵימוּרִין עִם הֶחָזֶה וְהַשּׁוֹק עַל יְדֵי הַבְּעָלִים וְכֹהֵן מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ תַּחַת יְדֵי הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵנִיף הַכּל לִפְנֵי ה' בַּמִּזְרָח. וְכֵן כָּל הַטָּעוּן תְּנוּפָה בַּמִּזְרָח מְנִיפִין אוֹתוֹ:

7

How is tenufah performed? [The items] are taken [to each of the directions]30 and returned, lifted up and brought low.31 If the sacrifice was a thanksgiving offering, one should be taken from each [of the four] groups of ten breads that are brought with it32 and placed together with the breast, the thigh, and the portions offered on the altar. Tenufah should be performed with all of these items upon the owner's hands, as explained.33

ז

וְכֵיצַד הוּא מֵנִיף. מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד. וְאִם הָיָה הַקָּרְבָּן תּוֹדָה לוֹקֵחַ מִן הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּא עִמָּהּ אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה וּמַנִּיחוֹ עִם הֶחָזֶה וְהַשּׁוֹק וְהָאֵימוּרִים וּמֵנִיף הַכּל עַל יְדֵי הַבְּעָלִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

How are they placed on the owner's hands? The fats are placed on the owner's hands with the breast and the thigh above them. The two kidneys and the lobe of the liver are placed above them and if [the offering includes] bread, it is placed above them34 and tenufah is performed with all these items.

ח

וְכֵיצַד מַנִּיחָן עַל יְדֵי הַבְּעָלִים. נוֹתֵן אֶת הַחֲלָבִים עַל יְדֵי הַבְּעָלִים וְחָזֶה וְשׁוֹק לְמַעְלָה וּשְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיוֹת וְיוֹתֶרֶת הַכָּבֵד לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶם. וְאִם יֵשׁ שָׁם לֶחֶם מַנִּיחוֹ לְמַעְלָה וּמֵנִיף הַכּל:

9

If the sacrifice was a nazirite's ram, [the priest] should remove the portions to be offered on the altar, set aside the breast and the thigh, and cook the remainder of the ram in the Women's Courtyard.35 The priest takes the cooked foreleg from the ram36 and one from each [of the two] groups of ten breads that are brought with it,37 together with the breast, the thigh, and the portions offered on the altar and places everything on the nazirite's hands. The priest places his hands under the owner's hands and moves all [items] as we described.38

ט

הָיָה הַקָּרְבָּן אֵיל נָזִיר מוֹצִיא הָאֵימוּרִין וּמַפְרִישׁ חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק וּמְבַשֵּׁל שְׁאָר הָאַיִל בְּעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים. וְלוֹקֵחַ הַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ בְּשֵׁלָה מִן הָאַיִל עִם אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה מִן הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּא עִמּוֹ עִם הֶחָזֶה וְהַשּׁוֹק וְהָאֵימוּרִין וּמַנִּיחַ הַכּל עַל יְדֵי הַנָּזִיר. וְהַכֹּהֵן מַנִּיחַ יָדָיו תַּחַת יְדֵי הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵנִיף הַכּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

10

What is meant by the breast? The portion [of the animal's body] that faces the ground that extends from the neck until the belly. Two ribs on either side should be cut off [and given to the priest] together with it. What is meant by the foreleg? The portion from the upper-joint until the ankle joint; two limbs, one connected with the other.39 The foreleg that is mentioned refers to the right foreleg. The corresponding portion in the rear leg is the thigh that is referred to universally.

י

אֵי זֶהוּ חָזֶה כָּל הָרוֹאֶה אֶת הַקַּרְקַע לְמַעְלָה עַד הַצַּוָּאר. לְמַטָּה עַד הַכָּרֵס. וְחוֹתֵךְ עִמָּהּ שְׁתֵּי צְלָעוֹת אֵילָךְ וְאֵילָךְ. וְאֵי זֶהוּ זְרוֹעַ מִן הַפֶּרֶק שֶׁל אַרְכֻּבָּה עַד כַּף שֶׁל יָד שֶׁהֵם שְׁנֵי אֵיבָרִים מְעֹרִין זֶה בָּזֶה. וְהַזְּרוֹעַ הָאֲמוּרָה הִיא זְרוֹעַ שֶׁל יָמִין. וְשֶׁכְּנֶגְדָהּ בָּרֶגֶל הוּא הַשּׁוֹק הָאָמוּר בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

11

After tenufah is performed with [these portions], they are offered on the pyre of the altar except for the breast and the thigh that are eaten by the priests,40 as [Leviticus 7:34] states: "but the breast with which tenufah was performed and the thigh that was lifted up...." The remainder of the peace-offerings are consumed by the owner.41 The priests do not acquire the breast and the thigh until after the portions to be offered on the altar were placed on its pyre.42

יא

וְאַחַר שֶׁמְּנִיפָן מוֹלֵחַ הָאֵימוּרִין וּמַקְטִירָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. אֲבָל הֶחָזֶה וְהַשּׁוֹק נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז לד) "כִּי אֶת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה". וּשְׁאָר הַשְּׁלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִים לַבְּעָלִים. וְאֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים זוֹכִין בְּחָזֶה וְשׁוֹק אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הֶקְטֵר הָאֵימוּרִין:

12

Similarly, the bread with which tenufah was performed from the thanksgiving offering and the nazirite's ram and the cooked foreleg are eaten by the priests. The remainder of the bread and the remainder of the meat are eaten by the owner. The bread with which tenufah was performed together with the breast and the thigh is referred to43 as "the elevated portion from the thanksgiving offering." The cooked foreleg together with the breast and the thigh and the bread with which tenufah was performed are referred to as "the elevated portion from the nazirite's ram."

יב

וְכֵן הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁמֵּנִיף בְּתוֹדָה וּבְאֵיל נָזִיר וְהַזְּרוֹעַ הַבְּשֵׁלָה נֶאֱכָלִין לַכֹּהֲנִים. וּשְׁאָר הַלֶּחֶם עִם שְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים. וְהַלֶּחֶם שֶׁמֵּנִיף עִם הֶחָזֶה וְהַשּׁוֹק הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִין מוּרָם מִתּוֹדָה. וְהַזְּרוֹעַ בְּשֵׁלָה עִם הֶחָזֶה וְהַשּׁוֹק עִם הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁמֵּנִיף הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִין מוּרָם מֵאֵיל נָזִיר:

13

There is an unresolved doubt whether the bread from the elevated portion of the thanksgiving offering44 is categorized as terumah or not.45 Therefore one is not liable for death,46 nor to repay an additional fifth, [as one is when partaking of] terumah. Nor is a mixture of it subject to the laws of dimua47 as is a mixture of terumah.48

יג

הַלֶּחֶם הַמּוּרָם מִן הַתּוֹדָה סְפֵק תְּרוּמָה הוּא. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו מִיתָה וְחֹמֶשׁ כִּתְרוּמָה וְאֵינוֹ מְדַמֵּעַ כִּתְרוּמָה:

14

If the person bringing the thanksgiving offering was a priest, the remainder of the bread may be eaten by the owner like a thanksgiving offering brought by an Israelite. For the bread that accompanies a thanksgiving offering or a nazrite's ram is not called a meal offering.49

יד

הָיָה בַּעַל הַתּוֹדָה כֹּהֵן. הֲרֵי שְׁאָר הַלֶּחֶם נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים כְּתוֹדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל. שֶׁאֵין הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּא עִם הַתּוֹדָה אוֹ עִם אֵיל נָזִיר קָרוּי מִנְחָה:

15

When two people bring a peace-offering in partnership, one should perform tenufah with the other's permission.50 Even if there are 100 [partners], one should perform tenufah for the sake of all of them. This does not apply with regard to semichah.51

טו

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ שְׁלָמִים בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת הָאֶחָד מֵנִיף בִּרְשׁוּת חֲבֵרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הֵם מֵאָה אֶחָד מֵנִיף עַל יְדֵי כֻּלָּן. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּסְמִיכָה:

16

When a woman is the one bringing a sacrifice, she does not perform tenufah with it. The priest must perform that rite,52 for the sacrifice requires that tenufah be performed with it and a woman is unacceptable to perform that rite. A woman never performs tenufah except in two instances: a sotah53 and a female nazirite, as we explained.54 Tenufah should always be performed before [the elements of the sacrifice] are brought close to the altar.55

טז

הָיְתָה אִשָּׁה בַּעֲלַת הַקָּרְבָּן אֵינָהּ מְנִיפָה. אֲבָל הַכֹּהֵן מֵנִיף שֶׁקָּרְבָּנָהּ טָעוּן תְּנוּפָה וְהִיא פְּסוּלָה לִתְנוּפָה. וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין אִשָּׁה מְנִיפָה אֶלָּא הַסּוֹטָה וְהַנְּזִירָה בִּלְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּתְנוּפָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְהַגָּשָׁה בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

17

What is meant by the bread that is brought together with the thanksgiving offering? One should take 20 isaronim56 of fine flour. He should make ten isaronim leavened and ten unleavened. The ten that are made leaven should be made into ten loaves.

יז

כֵּיצַד הוּא הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁמֵּבִיא עִם הַתּוֹדָה. לוֹקֵחַ עֶשְׂרִים עִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת וְעוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶם עֲשָׂרָה עֶשְׂרוֹנִים חָמֵץ וַעֲשָׂרָה מַצָּה. הָעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָם עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת:

18

How are they made leavened? He should bring enough yeast to cause the dough to leaven and place it in the measure of an isaron. He then fills the measure. Even though ultimately, [the measure] will be lacking or excessive because of the yeast,57 for at times [the yeast] will be thick and hard58 and at times it will be soft [and inflated],59 we are concerned only with its measure at the present time. Hence he should measure full isaronim.

From the ten isaronim for the unleavened bread, he should make 30 loaves of the same size, ten of each [of the following three] types: ten loaves baked in an oven, ten loaves of flat-cakes, and ten loaves of fried cakes.60

יח

וְכֵיצַד מְחַמְּצָן. מֵבִיא שְׂאוֹר כְּדֵי חִמּוּצָן וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַמִּדָּה וּמְמַלֵּא אֶת הַמִּדָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסּוֹפָהּ לִהְיוֹת חֲסֵרָה אוֹ יְתֵרָה מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׂאוֹר שֶׁפְּעָמִים יִהְיֶה עָבֶה וְקָשֶׁה וּפְעָמִים רַכָּה אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין אֶלָּא עַל מִדָּתָהּ עַתָּה וַהֲרֵי הוּא מוֹדֵד עִשָּׂרוֹן עִשָּׂרוֹן שְׁלָמִים. וְהָעֲשָׂרָה עֶשְׂרוֹנִים שֶׁל מַצָּה עוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶן שְׁלֹשִׁים חַלּוֹת שָׁווֹת. עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת מִכָּל מִין. עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת מַאֲפֵה תַּנּוּר. וְעֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת רְקִיקִים. וְעֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת מֻרְבֶּכֶת:

19

How are the fried cakes prepared? [The cakes] should be scalded with boiling water.61 Then they should be baked slightly and then fried in oil in a roasting pot or the like, like doughnuts and fried. A large amount of oil is used for them. This is the deep frying process mentioned in all places.

יט

וְכֵיצַד הִיא הַמֻּרְבֶּכֶת. חוֹלְטָהּ בְּרוֹתְחִין וְאוֹפֶה אוֹתָהּ מְעַט וְאַחַר כָּךְ קוֹלֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּשֶׁמֶן עַל הָאִלְפָּס וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹלִין הַסֻּפְגָּנִין. וּמַרְבִּין בְּשַׁמְנָהּ. וְזֶהוּ הָרִבּוּךְ הָאָמוּר בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

20

How much oil is used to prepare these 30 loaves?62 Half a log of oil.63 This measure is a halachah communicated to Moses from Sinai. A fourth is used for the fried doughballs, an eighth for the loaves [baked in the oven], and an eighth for the wafers.64

כ

וּבְכַמָּה שֶׁמֶן הוּא עוֹשֶׂה הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים חַלּוֹת. בַּחֲצִי לוֹג שֶׁמֶן. וְשִׁעוּר זֶה הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. רְבִיעִית מִמֶּנּוּ לִרְבוּכָה. וּשְׁמִינִית לְחַלּוֹת. וּשְׁמִינִית לִרְקִיקִין:

21

With regard to the loaves [that are baked]: their flour should saturate in the eighth [of a log]. Afterwards, they should be kneaded and baked. The oil should be poured over the wafers after they have been baked.

The priest takes four loaves from the entire [mixture], one of each type, as [Leviticus 7:14] states: "One from each [type], a sacrifice."

כא

הַחַלּוֹת לוֹתֵת הַסּלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן בִּשְׁמִינִית שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ לָשׁ וְאוֹפֶה אוֹתָן. וְהָרְקִיקִין מוֹשְׁחָן בַּשְּׁמִינִית שֶׁלָּהֶן אַחַר אֲפִיָּתָן. וְהַכֹּהֵן לוֹקֵחַ מִן הַכּל אַרְבַּע חַלּוֹת אַחַת מִכָּל מִין וּמִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יד) "אֶחָד מִכָּל קָרְבָּן":

22

When one made [only] four loaves for the bread for the thanksgiving offering, he has fulfilled his obligation. [The Torah] mentions 40 only as [the optimum way of fulfilling] the mitzvah. [This applies] provided he separates a challah from each of the types of sacrifices while they are still dough.65 For a piece of bread may not be separated [as a sacrificial portion].66 [This is implied by the prooftext:] "One from each [type], a sacrifice," that the priest should not receive a portion.

כב

וְלַחְמֵי תּוֹדָה שֶׁאָפָה אוֹתָן אַרְבַּע חַלּוֹת יָצָא. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אַרְבָּעִים אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ הַחַלָּה שֶׁלָּהֶן אַחַת מִכָּל קָרְבָּן כְּשֶׁהֵן בָּצֵק. שֶׁאֵין מַפְרִישִׁין פְּרוּסָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יד) "אֶחָד מִכָּל קָרְבָּן" שֶׁלֹּא יִטּל פָּרוּס:

23

What is meant by the bread that is brought together with the nazirite's ram? He should take six and two thirds isaronim of flour and make 20 equal sized loaves from them. They must all be unleavened bread.67 Ten should be wafers with oil poured over them and ten loaves whose flour was saturated in oil. The entire amount should be baked in an oven. A fourth [of a log] of oil is used for them.68 This measure is a halachah communicated to Moses at Sinai. The priest takes two of the loaves, one from each type.69

כג

וְכֵיצַד הוּא הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּא עִם אֵיל נָזִיר. לוֹקֵחַ שִׁשָּׁה עֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת וּשְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי עִשָּׂרוֹן וְעוֹשֶׂה מֵהֶן עֶשְׂרִים חַלּוֹת שָׁווֹת וְהַכּל מַצָּה. עֲשָׂרָה רְקִיקִין מְשׁוּחִין בְּשֶׁמֶן. וְעֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת לוֹתֵת הַסּלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן בְּשֶׁמֶן. וְהַכּל מַאֲפֵה תַּנּוּר וְשֶׁמֶן שֶׁלָּהֶן רְבִיעִית. וְשִׁעוּר זֶה הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. וְהַכֹּהֵן לוֹקֵחַ מֵהֶן שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת אַחַת מִכָּל מִין:

24

Each of the two types of bread [brought by] a Nazirite and the four types of bread brought for the thanksgiving offering is an absolute necessity.70 The bread for both these offerings is prepared outside the Temple Courtyard.71

כד

שְׁנֵי מִינֵי לֶחֶם שֶׁבְּנָזִיר וְאַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי לֶחֶם שֶׁבְּתוֹדָה מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וּמַעֲשֵׂה הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶן חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה:

25

How are the firstborn, tithe, and Paschal sacrifices offered? After their blood is poured on the altar as we explained,72 they are skinned, the portions offered on the altar are removed,73 salted, and placed on [the altar's] pyre.74 The remainder of the meat of the firstborn offering is eaten by the priests. The remainder of the meat of the tithe sacrifice is eaten by the owner. The remainder of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice is eaten by those enumerated upon it according to its laws, as will be explained in Hilchot [Korban] Pesach.

כה

כֵּיצַד מַעֲשֵׂה הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח. אַחַר שֶׁזּוֹרֵק דָּמָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ מַפְשִׁיט וּמוֹצִיא הָאֵימוּרִים וּמוֹלְחָן וּמַקְטִירָן. וּשְׁאָר בְּשַׂר הַבְּכוֹר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים. וּשְׁאָר בְּשַׂר הַמַּעֲשֵׂר נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים. וּשְׁאָר הַפֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל לִמְנוּיָיו כְּהִלְכוֹתָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת הַפֶּסַח:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 65) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 140) include this as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

2.

See Hilchot Shegagot, Chapter 9, for a description of the transgressions for which these sacrifices are brought.

3.

See Hilchot Shegagot, Chapter 8, for a description of the situations which warrant bringing these sacrifices.

4.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 2, with regard to slaughter, and Halachah 6 of that chapter with regard to sprinkling the blood on the altar.

5.

As stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 18.

6.

The fats, the lobe of liver, and the kidneys described in Leviticus 7:3-4.

7.

For every element of a sacrifice offered on the altar must be salted (Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 5:11).

8.

For Leviticus 7:7 establishes an equation between the guilt-offering and the sin-offering. See also Chapter 10, Halachah 3.

9.

A skin affliction similar to, but not identical to leprosy, that afflicts people, their clothes, and their homes because of spiritual inadequacies, in particular speaking lashon hara, uncomplimentary gossip (the conclusion of Hilchot Tuma'at Tzara'at).

10.

Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 4:2.

11.

This sacrifice is given as an example of one of the Thirteen Principles of Biblical Exegesis taught by Rabbi Yishmael (Sifra 1:4), It describes an entity (the guilt offering brought by a person afflicted by tzara'at) that was once included in a general category (all guilt offerings), but was singled out with regard to a new stipulation (that its blood be received in a different manner). Hence the laws that apply to that general category apply to it only because there is an explicit verse (Leviticus 14:13) that returns it to the general category.

12.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 66) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 141) include this as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

13.

The two lambs offered on Shavuot (Leviticus 23:19).

14.

The Radbaz emphasizes that there is a difference between peace-offerings and other sacrifices. Most of the peace-offerings are brought voluntarily, while most of the other offerings are brought due to an obligation.

15.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 2, with regard to slaughter, and Halachah 6 of that chapter with regard to sprinkling the blood on the altar.

16.

As stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 18.

17.

The fats, the lobe of liver, and the kidneys described in Leviticus 7:3-4.

18.

For every element of a sacrifice offered on the altar must be salted (Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 5:11).

19.

Chapter 1, Halachah 17; Chapter 5, Halachah 3.

20.

Brought when making the festive pilgrimages (Hilchot Chagigah 1:1).

21.

Additional peace-offerings brought at the time of the festive pilgrimages (ibid.).

22.

The term "vow" refers to a promise to bring a sacrifice. The term "pledge" refers to a promise to bring a particular animal as a sacrifice (Hilchot Nedarim 1:2).

23.

See Hilchot Nezirut 8:1.

24.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 2, with regard to slaughter, and Halachah 6 of that chapter with regard to sprinkling the blood on the altar.

25.

As stated in Chapter 5, Halachah 18.

26.

The fats, the lobe of liver, and the kidneys described in Leviticus 7:3-4.

27.

Ultimately, they will be given to the priests as stated in Halachah 12.

28.

As explained in the following halachah.

29.

Our translation is based on Rashi, Menachot 61a. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 5:6), the Rambam writes: "With regard to the guilt-offering brought by a person afflicted with tzara'at..., it is written (Leviticus 14:12): 'And tenufah should be performed with them before God.' A tradition has been received interpreting 'before God' as meaning 'in the east.'

Rashi (loc. cit.) interprets this to mean that even the area to the east of the altar is considered as "before God," but the area to the west certainly warrants that description. The Rambam does not accept this understanding. His interpretation is questioned by the Kessef Mishneh and others, for the Holy of Holies was to the west of the altar. Seemingly, the closer one comes to it, the more one is "before God."

30.

The bracketed addition is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 5:5). This is also the perspective of Rashi (Menachot 62a) based on our Sages' statements that this action is intended to prevent destructive winds.

31.

This is intended to prevent harmful dews (ibid.).

32.

See Halachot 17-22 for a description of the breads which would accompany the thanksgiving offering.

33.

In the previous halachah.

34.

In this way, the bread will not be spoiled through excessive contact with the meat (Radbaz). In his gloss (based on Menachot 61b), he cites exegetical reasons why the other items are placed in the order mentioned.

35.

More particularly, as mentioned in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:8, there was a chamber in the southeast portion of the Women's Courtyard set aside for this purpose.

36.

As commanded by Numbers 6:19. The Radbaz explains that it would appear that the foreleg would be placed above the other portions of the sacrifice, but below the bread.

37.

See Halachah 23.

38.

In the previous two halachot.

39.

An animal's foreleg is comprised of three bones. According to the Rambam, the lower two are given to the priest. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Chulin 10:4). Others maintain the upper two should be given to the priest.

40.

See Chapter 10, Halachah 4.

41.

And any - both male and female - with whom he desires to share the meat.

42.

Pesachim 59b derives this law from the order in which the concepts are stated in the Torah. Similarly, the owner may not partake of his portion until that time (Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 18:7).

43.

See Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:21; Hilchot Bikkurim 1:15.

44.

There is, however, no such doubt with regard to the elevated portion of the nazirite's ram (Radbaz).

45.

For Leviticus 7:14 uses the word terumah when describing this offering. Nevertheless, since we find exclusions with regard to penalties associated with terumah in other verses, it is possible that they do not apply with regard to these breads. Accordingly, Menachot 77b leaves the matter unresolved.

46.

Hilchot Terumot 6:6.

47.

As stated in Hilchot Terumot 13:1-2, in such an instance, one hundred times the amount of terumah is required before the mixture is permitted.

48.

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh note that if these breads become mixed with ordinary breads, seemingly, there is a question whether a Scriptural prohibition applies and one should rule stringently. They explain that as long as there is a majority of permitted substances, the Scriptural prohibition is considered as nullified and the prohibition is only Rabbinic in origin (see Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 15:13). This also applies with regard to a mixture of terumah (Hilchot Terumot 14:7). Accordingly, in this instance, since it is possible that the laws of terumah are not applied to these breads, we do not impose the Rabbinic prohibition.

49.

As will be stated (Chapter 12, Halachah 9), in contrast to the meal offerings brought by Israelites, meal offerings brought by the priests are consumed entirely by the altar's pyre. Hence, the Rambam felt it necessary to clarify that these breads are not in that category.

50.

If the two partners would perform tenufah each one holding part of the items, neither would be performing the rite as required. If one put his hand below the hand of the other one, there would be an interposition between that person's hand and the sacrificial items. And it is also impossible for them to perform tenufah, one after the other, because the Torah speaks about tenufah, using the singular, and not tenufot, using the plural (Menachot 94a).

51.

That rite must be performed by each of the partners individually (Chapter 3, Halachah 9).

52.

The Radbaz suggests that if she is married, her husband should perform this rite on her behalf.

53.

A woman suspected of adultery who is required to bring an offering as part of her process of atonement.

54.

Hilchot Sotah 3:15; Hilchot Nizirut 8:4.

55.

Menachot 61a derives this concept from Numbers 5:25 which speaks of tenufah being performed with a sotah's offering and then of it being brought to the altar.

56.

An isaron is defined as a measure equivalent to the volume of 43 and 1/5 eggs.

57.

I.e., the space intended for the flour will be taken by the yeast.

58.

And thus take up only a small amount of space.

59.

And thus take up a lot of space.

60.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 9:3), the Rambam writes that he has found no definition for the term murbechet, but that appears to him that it implies that a large quantity of oil is used in the preparation of the cakes.

61.

See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:6; Menachot 9:3), where he describes how these fried cakes are made.

62.

Those loaves which are leavened do not require oil [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 7:4)].

63.

A half a log is 172 cc. according to Shiurei Torah and 300 cc. according to Chazon Ish.

64.

The Radbaz maintains that the measure of half a log was communicated to Moses, but the breakdown of how this measure should be used was not. Hence, after the fact, the sacrifice is not disqualified if there was some deviation.

65.

Although the person desires to bake only four loaves, he must also separate one loaf of each type for the priest. This separation must be done beforehand, as the Rambam precedes to explain. Thus one tenth of each type of dough must be separated and prepared for the priest.

66.

I.e., it would not be deferential to give the priest a piece of each of the four doughs as his sacrificial portion.

67.

The nazirite is bringing two thirds of the unleavened bread brought in connection with a thanksgiving offering. Hence, he uses two thirds the amount of flour.

68.

I.e., a similar amount of oil is used as is used for the corresponding loaves of the thanksgiving offering.

69.

As stated in Numbers 6:19.

70.

I.e., if any of the types of bread are lacking, the sacrifice is unacceptable and nothing should be brought at all.

71.

In his gloss to the Mishnah (Menachot 3:7), Tosafot Yom Tov writes that these breads were baked in Beit Pagi, a small settlement, outside, but close to the Temple Mount.

72.

Chapter 5, Halachah 17.

73.

Chapter 5, Halachah 18.

74.

See Hilchot Korban Pesach 1:14; Hilchot Bechorot 1:2; 6:4.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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