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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 3

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 3

1

It is a positive commandment to offer the incense1 offering2 on the Golden Altar3 in the Sanctuary, twice each day, in the morning and in the afternoon, as [Exodus 30:7] states: "And Aaron shall burn on it the incense of fragrant spices."

If one did not offer it in the morning, he should offer it in the afternoon even if [the omission] was intentional.4 The Golden Altar may be dedicated only with the incense offering of the afternoon.5

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהַקְטִיר הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל פַּעֲמַיִם בְּכָל יוֹם בַּבֹּקֶר וּבֵין הָעַרְבַּיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ל ז) "וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים". לֹא הִקְטִירוּ בַּבֹּקֶר יַקְטִירוּ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מְזִידִין. וְאֵין מְחַנְּכִין מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב אֶלָּא בִּקְטֹרֶת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

2

How much [incense] was offered every day? [An amount that] weighed 100 dinarim,6 50 in the morning and 50 in the afternoon.

If the altar was removed from its place, the incense offering should, nevertheless, be offered there.7 When incense - even a grain of it - flies off the altar, it should not be returned.8

ב

כַּמָּה מַקְטִירִין מִמֶּנָּה בְּכָל יוֹם. מִשְׁקַל מֵאָה דִּינָרִין. חֲמִשִּׁים בַּבֹּקֶר וַחֲמִשִּׁים בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר מַקְטִירִין הַקְּטֹרֶת בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וּקְטֹרֶת שֶׁפָּקְעָה מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲפִלּוּ קְרָטִין שֶׁבָּהּ אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתָן:

3

When the incense is offered in the Sanctuary every day,9 all of the people depart from the Sanctuary and from [the area] between the Entrance Hall and the altar. No one should be there until [the priest] who offers the incense offering departs. Similarly, at the time when [a priest] enters [to sprinkle] the blood of a sin-offering that is offered inside [the Temple],10 everyone departs from from [the area] between the Entrance Hall and the altar until he departs, as [Leviticus 16:17] states: "And no person should be in the Tent of Meeting when he enters to atone in the holy place." [This is] a general principle11 [applying] to all atonement [made] in the holy place: No [other] person should be there.

ג

בְּעֵת שֶׁמַּקְטִירִין הַקְּטֹרֶת בַּהֵיכָל בְּכָל יוֹם פּוֹרְשִׁין כָּל הָעָם מִן הַהֵיכָל וּמִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִהְיֶה שָׁם אָדָם עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא זֶה שֶׁהִקְטִיר הַקְּטֹרֶת. וְכֵן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בְּדַם חַטָּאוֹת הַנַּעֲשׂוֹת בִּפְנִים פּוֹרְשִׁים הַכּל מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יז) "וְכָל אָדָם לֹא יִהְיֶה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּבֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ" וְגוֹ' בִּנְיַן אָב לְכָל כַּפָּרָה שֶׁבַּקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שָׁם אָדָם:

4

What is the order of the offering of the incense offering each day? [The priest] who merited12 to remove the ashes from the inner altar enters [the Sanctuary] [holding a] consecrated vessel called a teni.13 It was gold14 and would contain two and a half kabbin.15 He would place the teni on the ground in front of him and scoop up the ashes and the coals on the altar with his hands16 and deposit them in the teni. At the end, he would sweep off the remainder into it. He would leave [the teni] in the Sanctuary and depart.17

The one who merited to bring the incense offering18 would take a vessel filled to overflowing with incense. [The vessel] had a cover and was called a bezech.19 He would place the bezech in another vessel that was called a kaf. He would cover the kaf with a small cloth and hold the kaf in his hand. [Another priest]20 would enter [the Sanctuary] with him holding a fire-pan with fire.21

ד

כֵּיצַד סֵדֶר הַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּכָל יוֹם. מִי שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי נִכְנַס בִּכְלִי קֹדֶשׁ וְטֶנִי הָיָה שְׁמוֹ וְשֶׁל זָהָב הָיָה וּמַחֲזִיק קַבַּיִם וָחֵצִי. מַנִּיחַ הַטֶּנִי בָּאָרֶץ לְפָנָיו וְחוֹפֵן בְּיָדָיו הָאֵפֶר וְהַפֶּחָם שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַטֶּנִי. וּבָאַחֲרוֹנָה מְכַבֵּד אֶת הַשְּׁאָר לְתוֹכוֹ וּמַנִּיחוֹ שָׁם בַּהֵיכָל וְיוֹצֵא. וּמִי שֶׁזָּכָה בַּקְּטֹרֶת נוֹטֵל כְּלִי מָלֵא קְטֹרֶת גָּדוּשׁ. וְכִסּוּי הָיָה לוֹ וּבָזָךְ הָיָה שְׁמוֹ וְנוֹתֵן הַבָּזָךְ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי אַחֵר וְכַף הָיָה שְׁמוֹ. וּמְכַסֶּה אֶת הַכַּף בְּבֶגֶד קָטָן וְאוֹחֵז הַכַּף בְּיָדוֹ וְנִכְנַס עִמּוֹ אֶחָד בַּמַּחְתָּה שֶׁל אֵשׁ בְּיָדוֹ:

5

How does he collect the coals with the fire-pan? He takes a silver fire-pan22 and ascends to the top of the altar and moves the coals to the side,23 taking the coals that have been consumed by the fire in the second array24 and descends and places them into a golden fire-pan.25 If a kab or less of the coals have become scattered [on the ground],26 he should sweep them into the channel [for the outflow].27 On the Sabbath, he should cover them with the pisachter.28 If more than a kab become scattered, he should collect more with the fire-pan.

ה

וְכֵיצַד חוֹתֶה. זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בְּמַחְתָּה לוֹקֵחַ מַחְתָּה שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְעוֹלֶה לְרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמְפַנֶּה אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים אֵילָךְ וְאֵילָךְ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁנִּתְאַכְּלוּ בְּמַעֲרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה. וְיוֹרֵד וּמְעָרָן לְתוֹךְ מַחְתָּה שֶׁל זָהָב. אִם נִתְפַּזְּרוּ מִן הַגֶּחָלִים כְּמוֹ קַב אוֹ פָּחוֹת מְכַבְּדָן לָאַמָּה. וּבְשַׁבָּת כּוֹפֶה עֲלֵיהֶן הַפְּסַכְתֵּר. וְאִם נִתְפַּזֵּר יֶתֶר עַל קַב חוֹזֵר וְחוֹתֶה:

6

The pisachter would serve three functions: It was used to cover coals and a [dead] crawling animal on the Sabbath29 and it was used to remove the ashes from the altar.30

ו

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים הָיָה הַפְּסַכְתֵּר מְשַׁמֵּשׁ. כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַגֶּחָלִים. וְעַל הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּשַׁבָּת. וּמוֹרִידִין בּוֹ אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:

7

[The priest] who removed the ashes from the inner altar31 would proceed before them, he would take the teni that contained the ashes from the altar,32 prostrate himself33 and depart. [The priest] holding the fire pan would array the coals on the surface of the inner altar, spreading them out with the bottom of the fire-pan. [He would then] prostrate himself and depart.

The one holding the kaf would remove the bezech from the kaf and give it to a friend or relative.34 He checks if some of the incense spilled out [from the bezech] into the kaf. His friend or relative places the incense that spilled and that which is in the bezech in his hands. [He then] prostrates himself and departs.

ז

וּמַקְדִּים לִפְנֵיהֶם זֶה שֶׁדִּשֵּׁן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְנוֹטֵל הַטֶּנִי שֶׁבּוֹ דִּשׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא. וְזֶה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ הַמַּחְתָּה צוֹבֵר אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וּמְרַדְּדָן בְּשׁוּלֵי הַמַּחְתָּה וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא. וְזֶה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ הַכַּף נוֹטֵל אֶת הַבָּזָךְ מִתּוֹךְ הַכַּף וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְאוֹהֲבוֹ אוֹ לִקְרוֹבוֹ וְרוֹאֶה אִם נִתְפַּזֵּר מִן הַקְּטֹרֶת מְעַט בְּכַף אוֹהֲבוֹ אוֹ קְרוֹבוֹ נוֹתֵן לוֹ לְתוֹךְ חָפְנָיו זֶה שֶׁנִּתְפַּזֵּר עִם הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁבַּבָּזָךְ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא:

8

The one who offers the incense is warned:35 "Be careful. Do not begin [releasing the incense] in front of you, lest you become burned."36 He begins to pour the incense on the fire gently, like one who sifts flour until it is spread over the entire fire.

ח

וְאוֹמְרִין לָזֶה הַמַּקְטִיר הִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תַּתְחִיל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּוֶה. וּמַתְחִיל וּמַשְׁלִיךְ הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל הָאֵשׁ בְּנַחַת כְּמִי שֶׁמְּרַקֵּד סלֶת עַד שֶׁתִּתְרַדֵּד עַל כָּל הָאֵשׁ:

9

The priest who offers the incense does not offer it until the overseer37 tells him: "Offer the incense." If the High Priest is the one offering the incense, the overseer says: "My sir, High Priest,38 offer the incense." After he says this, all of the people depart [from the area in front of the Temple Building].39 He then offers the incense, prostrates himself and departs.

ט

וְאֵין הַמַּקְטִיר מַקְטִיר עַד שֶׁהַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַקְטֵר. וְאִם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַמְמֻנֶּה אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הַקְטֵר. וְאַחַר שֶׁאוֹמֵר יִפְרְשׁוּ כָּל הָעָם וְיַקְטִיר הַמַּקְטִיר וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיֵצֵא:

10

The removal of the ashes from the lamps of the Menorah and their kindling40 in the morning41 and the afternoon is a positive commandment,42 as [Exodus 27:21] states: "Aaron and his sons shall arrange it." The kindling of the lamps supersedes [the prohibitions of forbidden labor] on the Sabbath43 and [the restrictions of] ritual impurity,44 as do the [other] sacrifices that [are offered at] a fixed time,45 as [ibid.:20] states: "To raise up a continuously [burning] lamp."

י

דִּשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה וַהֲטָבַת הַנֵּרוֹת בַּבֹּקֶר וּבֵין הָעַרְבַּיִם מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כא) "יַעֲרֹךְ אֹתוֹ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו". וְהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה כְּקָרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁקָּבוּעַ לָהֶן זְמַן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כ) (ויקרא כד ב) "לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד":

11

How much oil should be put in each lamp? Half a log.46 [This is implied by the phrase (ibid.:21):] "From the morning until the evening," Implied is that one must use a measure of oil that will enable it to burn from the afternoon until the morning.47 The Menorah may be dedicated only with the kindling of the seven lamps in the afternoon.

יא

וְכַמָּה שֶׁמֶן הוּא נוֹתֵן לְכָל נֵר. חֲצִי לוֹג שֶׁמֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כא) (ויקרא כד ג) "מֵעֶרֶב עַד בֹּקֶר" תֵּן לוֹ כַּמִּדָּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה דּוֹלֵק מֵעֶרֶב עַד בֹּקֶר. וְאֵין מְחַנְּכִין אֶת הַמְּנוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּהַדְלָקַת שִׁבְעָה נֵרוֹתֶיהָ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

12

What is meant by the expression "the removal of the ashes of the Menorah"?48 Every lamp that has burnt out should have its wick and its [remaining] oil removed and it should be cleaned. The priest should place another wick and other oil in it, using the half log measure. [The wick and oil he removed] should be placed in the ash-heap near the [outer] altar together with the ashes removed from the inner alter and the outer altar.49 He should kindle [any] lamp that was extinguished. Kindling the lamps is what is meant by the term hatavah.50 When one discovers a lamp that has not been extinguished, he should restore it.51

יב

מַהוּ דִּשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה. כָּל נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מֵסִיר הַפְּתִילָה וְכָל הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּנֵּר וּמְקַנְּחוֹ וְנוֹתֵן בּוֹ פְּתִילָה אַחֶרֶת וְשֶׁמֶן אַחֵר בְּמִדָּה וְהוּא חֲצִי לוֹג. וְזֶה שֶׁהֵסִיר מַשְׁלִיכוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הַדֶּשֶׁן אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עִם דִּשׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְהַחִיצוֹן וּמַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה. וְהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת הִיא הֲטָבָתָם. וְנֵר שֶׁמְּצָאוֹ שֶׁלֹּא כָּבָה מְתַקְּנוֹ:

13

When the western lamp52 becomes extinguished, after the ash is removed, it should be rekindled only [from fire] from the outer altar.53 When any of the other lamps are extinguished, by contrast, they may be rekindled from each other.54

יג

נֵר מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁכָּבָה אֵין מַדְלִיקִין אוֹתוֹ אַחַר דִּשּׁוּנוֹ אֶלָּא מִמִּזְבַּח הַחִיצוֹן. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַנֵּרוֹת כָּל נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מֵהֶן מַדְלִיקוֹ מִנֵּר חֲבֵרוֹ:

14

How are [the lamps of the Menorah] kindled? One should pull its wick out55 until he kindles it [from another one of the lamps].56 He must extend the wicks,] because the lamps are permanently affixed within the Menorah.57 And he may not use another lamp, because that would be disrespectful.58

יד

וְכֵיצַד מַדְלִיקוֹ. מוֹשֵׁךְ הַפְּתִילָה עַד שֶׁמַּדְלִיקָהּ וּמַחֲזִירָהּ. לְפִי שֶׁהַנֵּרוֹת קְבוּעִים בַּמְּנוֹרָה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַדְלִיק בְּנֵר אַחֵר מִשּׁוּם בִּזָּיוֹן:

15

All of the substances that are forbidden to be used as wicks on the Sabbath59 are forbidden to be used [as wicks] in the Temple for the Menorah.60 [This is derived from Exodus 27:20 which] states: "To raise up a continuously [burning] lamp." The flame must rise up on its own.61

טו

כָּל הַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַדְלִיק בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהַדְלִיק בָּהֶן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ בַּמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כ) (ויקרא כד ב) "לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד" שֶׁתְּהֵא שַׁלְהֶבֶת עוֹלָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ:

16

[The priest] would not kindle all the lamps at once. Instead, he would kindle five lamps and make an interruption. In the interim, another service was performed.62 Afterwards, he would reenter and kindle the other two in order to attract the attention of everyone in the Temple Courtyard.63

טז

לֹא הָיָה מֵטִיב כָּל הַנֵּרוֹת בְּפַעַם אַחַת אֶלָּא מֵטִיב חֲמִשָּׁה נֵרוֹת וּמַפְסִיק וְעוֹשִׂין עֲבוֹדָה אַחֶרֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָס וּמֵטִיב הַשְּׁנַיִם. כְּדֵי לְהַרְגִּישׁ אֶת כָּל הָעֲזָרָה:

17

Whenever one of the lamps of the Menorah was extinguished, we kindle it from another lamp as we explained.64

What is the order in which they were kindled? [The priest] who merited to remove the ashes of the Menorah enters the Sanctuary65 carrying a vessel referred to as a kuz. It was made of gold and resembled a large pitcher. He would place the wicks that were extinguished and the oil that remained in the lamp in it.66 He would then kindle five lamps and leave the kuz on the second step of the three steps positioned before [the Menorah]67 and depart. Afterwards,68 he would reenter and kindle two lamps, take the kuz in his hand, prostrate himself, and depart.

יז

כָּל נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מַדְלִיקִין אוֹתוֹ מִנֵּר אַחֵר מֵהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵיצַד סֵדֶר הַהֲטָבָה. זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה נִכְנָס וּכְלִי בְּיָדוֹ וְכוּז שְׁמוֹ וְשֶׁל זָהָב הָיָה דּוֹמֶה לְקִיתוֹן גָּדוֹל. מְדַשֵּׁן בּוֹ אֶת הַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁכָּבוּ וְאֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן הַנִּשְׁאָר בַּנֵּר וְמֵטִיב חֲמִשָּׁה נֵרוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ הַכּוּז שָׁם לִפְנֵי הַמְּנוֹרָה עַל מַעֲלָה שְׁנִיָּה מִשָּׁלֹשׁ מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ וְיוֹצֵא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָס וּמֵטִיב שְׁנֵי הַנֵּרוֹת וְנוֹטֵל הַכּוּז בְּיָדוֹ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא:

18

It is a positive commandment to offer the chavitin69 offering of the High Priest each day,70 half in the morning together with the continuous offering of the morning and half in the afternoon together with the continuous offering of the afternoon. Kneading [these cakes] and baking them supersede [the prohibitions of forbidden labor] on the Sabbath and [the restrictions of] ritual impurity, as do the [other] sacrifices that [are offered at] a fixed time,71 as [implied by Leviticus 6:14 which] states [that these cakes must be] tufinei [which allows for the interpretation that they must be] naeh, "attractive," i.e., and thus not baked on the preceding day.72 Moreover, were they to have been baked on the preceding day, they would have been disqualified by the passage of the night,73 for the deep frying pan74 is one of the sacred utensils, as we explained.75

יח

חֲבִיתֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהַקְרִיבָן בְּכָל יוֹם מֶחֱצָה בַּבֹּקֶר עִם תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר וּמֶחֱצָה בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם עִם תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְלִישָׁתָן וַאֲפִיָּתָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה כְּכָל קָרְבָּן שֶׁקָּבוּעַ לוֹ זְמַן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו יד) "תֻּפִינֵי" שֶׁתְּהֵא נָאָה וְלֹא תֵּאָפֶה מִבָּעֶרֶב. וְעוֹד אִם תֵּאָפֶה מִבָּעֶרֶב תִּפָּסֵל בְּלִינָה שֶׁהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת מִכְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ הִיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

19

Grinding the flour for them and sifting it, [which is performed] outside [the Temple Courtyard],76 does not supersede [the prohibitions of forbidden labor] on the Sabbath.77

יט

טְחִינַת סָלְתָּן וְהֶרְקֵדָן בַּחוּץ וְאֵינָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת:

20

When a [High] Priest offered half [of the cakes] in the morning and then died, or became impure,78 or contracted a disqualifying physical blemish79 and another [High] Priest was appointed in his stead,80 [the latter] should not bring half an isaron81 [of flat cakes] from home [in the afternoon]. Nor should he bring the half an isaron [remaining] from [the offering of] the first [High Priest]. Instead, he should bring a complete isaron.82 Half is offered and half is destroyed.83

כ

כֹּהֵן שֶׁהִקְרִיב מֶחֱצָה בְּשַׁחֲרִית וּמֵת אוֹ נִטְמָא אוֹ נוֹלַד לוֹ מוּם וּמִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו לֹא יָבִיא חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן מִבֵּיתוֹ וְלֹא חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן. אֶלָּא מֵבִיא עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם וְחוֹצֵהוּ וּמַקְרִיב מֶחֱצָה וּמֶחֱצָה אָבֵד:

21

Thus two half [esronim] will be offered and two will be destroyed. The two halves that will be destroyed should be left until their form is no longer recognizable84 and then be taken out to the place of burning. The same laws apply if the half [of a High Priest's offering that was set aside until] the afternoon was lost or became impure.85

Where should they be burnt? In the Temple Courtyard.86

כא

נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי חֲצָאִים קְרֵבִין וּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאִין אוֹבְדִין. וְאֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי הַחֲצָאִין הָאוֹבְדִים מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁתְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתָן וְיוֹצְאִין לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. וְכֵן אִם אָבַד אוֹ נִטְמָא הַחֵצִי שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְהֵיכָן שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתָן, בָּעֲזָרָה:

22

If the High Priest died in the morning after he offered the half of an isaron and another [High] Priest was not appointed, the heirs of the first should bring an entire isaron as atonement for the first. It was also offered complete.87

If the High Priest died in the morning before offering [the chavitin] and another [High] Priest was not appointed in his stead, [his heirs] should offer a complete isaron in the morning and a complete isaron in the afternoon.88 [The amount of] oil and the frankincense offered with it should not be doubled even though [the amount of] flour is doubled.89 Instead, three lugim of oil and a handful of frankincense is set aside for them, a log and half of oil and half a handful of frankincense for the isaron of the morning90 and a log and half of oil and half a handful of frankincense for the isaron of the afternoon.

כב

מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּשַׁחֲרִית אַחַר שֶׁהִקְרִיב חֲצִי הָעִשָּׂרוֹן וְלֹא מִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר מְבִיאִין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם עֲבוּר כַּפָּרָתוֹ וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ חֲבִיתִין וּשְׁלֵמָה הָיְתָה קְרֵבָה. מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּקְרִיבוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר וְלֹא מִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתוֹ עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם בַּבֹּקֶר וְעִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאֵין כּוֹפְלִין שַׁמְנָהּ וּלְבוֹנָתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְפְּלָה הַסּלֶת. אֶלָּא מַפְרִישִׁין לָהֶם שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגֵי שֶׁמֶן וְקֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה. לוֹג וּמֶחֱצָה שֶׁמֶן וַחֲצִי קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה לְעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל בֹּקֶר וְלוֹג וּמֶחֱצָה שֶׁמֶן וַחֲצִי קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה לְעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

See the description of the way in which the incense offering was prepared in Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash, ch. 2.

2.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 28) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 103) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot. Preparing the incense for the offering is not considered as a mitzvah (Sefer HaMitzvot, General Principle 10). Significantly, the Ramban (Hosafot to the negative commandments) maintains that the morning incense offering and the afternoon one should be considered as separate mitzvot.

3.

See the description of the Golden Altar in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:17.

4.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 4:4), the Rambam writes that it was rare that the priests willfully omitted offering the incense offering, because offering it brought blessings for prosperity.

5.

Note the contrast to the daily offering (Chapter 1, Halachah 12).

6.

A dinar is approximately 4 grams in modern measure.

7.

For the altar itself need not be there for the offering to be acceptable. Note the parallel in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbonot 19:15.

8.

From the exegesis of Leviticus 6:3, Yoma 45b derives that the limbs of a sacrifice that fly off the altar should be returned to it, but not the grains of incense. The grain should be entombed (Radbaz).

9.

The Kessef Mishneh states that this phrase is making a distinction between the incense offering brought each day and that brought on Yom Kippur. Since the latter offering is brought into the Holy of Holies, it is necessary to depart only from the Temple Building. One may remain in the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar. See Hilchot Avodat Yom Kippurim 4:2.

10.

This refers to the bull brought by a High Priest as a sin-offering, the bull brought as atonement for a law forgotten by the High Court, and the goats that are brought to atone for idolatry (see Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 5:13).

11.

This translates the Talmudic term binyan av. Note the Radbaz who explains that although Yoma 44a appears to derive this concept through the exegetical method referred to as a gezeirah sheveh (a textual association), the intent is really a binyan av.

12.

I.e., who was chosen in the lottery, as described in Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

13.

The term is used in several contexts in the Talmudic literature to refer to a metal container. In his gloss to Tamid 3:6, Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura states that it has the same root as the word tene used by Deuteronomy 26:2 to refer to the container used to carry the first fruits.

14.

As a sign of wealth and prosperity. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 1:19.

15.

A kab is 1376 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 2400 cc according to Chazon Ish.

16.

They were already burnt out and there was no danger of him being burnt.

17.

Yoma 21a states this was done so because of the miracle that occurred. To explain: Our Sages relate the ashes from the Menorah and from the Golden Altar would be miraculously swallowed up in their place each day. In order not to require God to perform this miracle twice each day, the ashes from the Golden Altar would be put aside until those from the Menorah were collected. See Halachah 12.

18.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 7; Chapter 6, Halachah 4.

19.

In his translation of the Torah, Onkelos translates the word kaf, generally translated as "spoon," as bezech. Both the kaf and the bezech were utensils resembling ladles, i.e., they had a receptacle and a long arm leading to it.

20.

The one who merited to remove the ashes from the altar, as stated in Chapter 4, Halachah 5.

21.

I.e., with burning coals, as explained in the following halachah.

22.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:5), the Rambam writes that this fire-pan would hold four kabbim.

23.

The Rambam's statements are based on his text of the Mishnah (Tamid 5:5). Apparently, the Ra'avad had a slightly different version.

24.

See Chapter 2, Halachot 4 and 8.

25.

This fire-pan would hold three kabbim [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)]. Yoma 45a explains that gathering the coals would damage the fire-pan slightly and over time, it would have to be replaced. Hence rather than damage a golden one, the Sages took the financial needs of the Jewish people into consideration and did not require that a golden one be used each day.

26.

Since the golden fire-pan was smaller than the silver one, it was natural that this would occur (ibid.).

27.

As stated in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:11, there was a channel for outflow that ran through the Temple Courtyard. The priest would sweep the coals there [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)]. The Radbaz questions why the priest would be allowed to intentionally extinguish the coals. Perhaps his question can be answered on the basis of Hilchot Tuma'at Ochalin 8:9 which states that these coals no longer have any holiness.

28.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam explains that in his Targum (Exodus 27:3), Onkelos uses the term pisachter for the Hebrew sir, meaning "pot."

29.

See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 3:20.

30.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 13.

31.

Tamid 6:1 states that he would be accompanied by the priest who would clean the Menorah. The Rambam does not mention this point, because it is not germane to the discussion at hand.

32.

Which he had left previously in the Temple Sanctuary, as stated in Halachah 4.

33.

As appropriate for one who completed his Temple service and depart.

34.

I.e., thus four priests would enter: a) one to clean the altar; b) one to place the coal on it; c) one to pour incense into the hands of the priest who would offer it; and d) one to offer the incense on the coals (Radbaz).

35.

As mentioned in Chapter 4, Halachah 7, the incense offering would be given to a priest who never offered it previously. Hence he would not be experienced and required these warnings (Radbaz).

36.

I.e., the person offering the incense stands to the east of the altar. He should begin pouring the incense on the western side of the altar. Otherwise, he will have to lean over the altar while the incense is burning and he could be burned in this manner.

37.

Rashi (Yoma 28a) maintains that this term refers to the segen, the High Priest's assistant. Tosafot maintains that it refers to the priest who apportions the Temple service by lottery. From Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:16, it is obvious that the Rambam accepts Rashi's view.

38.

I.e., as expression of deference.

39.

As stated in Halachah 3.

40.

See Halachah 12 which describes what this service entails.

41.

The Rambam's view that the Menorah was kindled both in the afternoon and the morning is not accepted by all authorities. Many maintain that it was kindled only in the afternoon. And there is an intermediate view that one (or two) lamps also burned during the day.

42.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 25) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 98) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

43.

Although kindling light is usually forbidden on the Sabbath, in this instance it is permitted.

44.

If the majority of priests or sacred utensils are impure, the Menorah may still be kindled.

45.

See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 4:10.

46.

172 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 300 cc according to Chazon Ish.

47.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Yoma 2:2) maintains that since the winter nights are longer than the summer nights, the priests would compensate for that by using thicker wicks in the winter and thinner ones in the summer. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 9:3), however, the Rambam writes that a medium sized wick was used at all times. The Radbaz explains that position, stating that if some oil was left over, it was not significant, for the Temple sacrifices should be offered in a spirit of wealth and prosperity.

48.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Me'ilah 3:4) where the Rambam writes that deshen means "ash" and the remainder of the wicks and the coals produced are considered as ash.

49.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

50.

Other authorities interpret hatavah as referring to the cleaning of the lamps. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 3:9), the Rambam explains that this term means "the cleaning of the lamps, rekindling what was extinguished, and changing their wicks." See also Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 3:7 where it appears that the Rambam interprets this term as meaning cleaning and preparing the Menorah.

As the Kessef Mishneh mentions, many other commentaries follow the approach of Rashba (Responsa 79 and 309) who maintains that the term hatavah means only the cleaning and preparing of the Menachot. This difference of opinion regarding the definition of this term is dependent on a larger issue. Were all the lamps kindled in the morning or not? As mentioned in Halachah 10, the Rambam maintains that they were. The Rashba and those who follow his approach differ. Accordingly, they differ in their interpretation of Exodus 30:7 "when he performs hatavah for the lamps, he shall offer the incense." According to the Rambam, this refers to the kindling of the lamps, while according to the Rashba, this refers only to cleaning them.

Exodus 30:8 uses a different term for kindling the lamps at night (as the Rashba states in support of his approach). Perhaps hatavah can refer only to the rekindling of the lamps in the morning as indicated by the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah cited above. See the gloss of the Lechem Mishneh.

51.

I.e., add oil so that it will burn until nightfall.

52.

As mentioned in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:8, the Rambam maintains that the Menorah was positioned from north to south. Accordingly, this refers to the center lamp that was positioned opposite the Holy of Holies. Others differ, maintaining that the Menorah is positioned from east to west and the term "western lamp" refers to the second lamp from the east which is "western" in relation to the more eastern one.

53.

Yoma 45b derives this concept from Leviticus 6:6 which reads "A continuous fire shall burn on the altar." Using the rules of Biblical exegesis, our Sages explain that the verse can be interpreted. Whenever a continuous fire will burn - and the Menorah is also referred to as a continuous fire - it shall be kindled from the altar.

The Ra'avad differs with this ruling and maintains that when possible, even the western lamp should be kindled from the other lamps of the Menorah. Only when there is no alternative, it should be kindled from the altar. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, give support for the Rambam's view.

54.

Indeed, as stated in the following halachah, it is desirable to do so rather than use another candle.

55.

With tweezers. This was possible, because the wicks were long.

56.

The Radbaz suggests that each lamp would be kindled from the lamp next to it. Thus one would not have to stretch any of the wicks that far.

57.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:6-7.

58.

Even if one would light the ordinary lamp from the lamp of the Menorah, it would be unacceptable, because it is not respectful to light an ordinary lamp from the lamp of the Menorah (Kessef Mishneh, based on Maggid Mishneh, Hilchot Chanukah 3:9).

59.

See Hilchot Shabbat 5:5. The substances mentioned there are unacceptable, because they do not allow for a steadily burning flame. Instead, the flames they produce sputter.

60.

They may, however, be used for other purposes, e.g., as wicks for the lanterns used to illuminate the Temple Courtyard during the Simchat Beit HaShoevah celebrations (Shabbos 21b).

61.

This excludes substances which will prevent the fire from ascending smoothly on its own.

62.

The limbs of the sacrifices would be brought up to the altar and the incense offering was brought, as stated in Chapter 6, Halachot 3-4.

63.

By extending the duration of time in which this service is performed, it will be noticed by all those present [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 3:9)].

64.

Halachah 13.

65.

The lottery through which this priest is selected is described in Chapter 4, Halachah 6. As mentioned in Chapter 6, Halachah 1, this priest would enter the Sanctuary together with the priest who removed the ashes from the inner altar. The Rambam does not mention that fact here, because it is not a point of present concern.

66.

The wicks and oil were placed in the ash-pile near the outer altar as stated in Halachah 12. The commentaries have questioned the intent of the gloss of the Radbaz.

67.

As stated in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:11, there was a stone positioned before the Menorah into which three steps were carved. The priest would stand on it while cleaning and kindling the Menorah.

68.

I.e., after the limbs were brought up to the altar as stated above.

69.

This offering resembled flat cakes. The Rambam describes their preparation in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:2-4.

70.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 40) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 136) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

71.

See the notes to Halachah 10, for details concerning the above.

72.

For day-old cakes are not attractive.

The Radbaz asks: Since the chavitin offering is considered one of the communal offerings, why is it necessary to add this and the subsequent rationale. He explains that they are valuable for the lessons that they teach independent of the concept they are quoted to support.

73.

For an article kept in a sacred vessel overnight is disqualified.

74.

The Lechem Mishneh questions why the Rambam speaks of the deep frying pan when in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:3, he states that the High Priest's offering was prepared using the flat frying pan.

75.

Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:23. Both the flat and deep frying pans are mentioned there.

76.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, op. cit.

77.

But instead, must be performed on Friday.

78.

Although Halachah 18 stated that the offering of the chavitin supersedes the restrictions of ritual impurity, that refers to an instance when the majority of the Jewish community, the majority of the priests, or the majority of the Temple utensils are impure. In this instance, only the High Priest is impure and that difficulty can be remedied by temporarily appointing another in his place (Radbaz).

79.

These latter two instances are not mentioned in Menachot 50b, the source for the Rambam's ruling. Nevertheless, the concept follows logically, because in these states, the High Priest cannot serve (Radbaz).

80.

In the latter two instances, if and when the first High Priest regains ritual purity or is healed from his blemish, he is restored to his position (ibid.).

81.

I.e., half the measure required to make the flat-cakes for the entire day, the measure required for the afternoon offering.

82.

From his own property.

83.

As explained in the following halachah.

84.

This term is interpreted to mean that they should be left until they become disqualified because they remained overnight. They cannot, however, be destroyed immediately, because since the disqualifying factor is not integral to the sacrificial food itself, destroying them would be an act of disrespect.

85.

I.e., the High Priest must bring a complete isaron and half is offered and half is destroyed.

86.

To the east of the altar, as stated in the notes to Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 7:3.

87.

Menachot 51b derives this concept from Leviticus 6:15: "The priest... from his sons should offer it," i.e., his heirs should offer it, the entire offering, bringing it in his place.

88.

Menachot, op. cit., derives this concept from the fact that the prooftext states "It shall be offered on the pyre in its entirety."

89.

For there is a verse requiring the doubling of the flour and no such verse with regard to the oil and the frankincense (Menachot, op. cit.).

90.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:2,4.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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