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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Klei Hamikdash - Chapter 8

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Klei Hamikdash - Chapter 8

1

There are three types of priestly garments: the garments of an ordinary priest, [the High Priest's] golden garments and his white garments. An ordinary priest has four garments: a tunic, leggings, a hat, and a sash. They are all made from white linen with six-fold threads.1The sash2 alone was embroidered with wool.3

א

בִגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִים. בִּגְדֵי כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט. וּבִגְדֵי זָהָב. וּבִגְדֵי לָבָן. בִּגְדֵי כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט הֵם אַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים כֻּתֹּנֶת וּמִכְנָסָיִם וּמִגְבָּעוֹת וְאַבְנֵט. וְאַרְבָּעָתָן שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן לְבָנִים וְחוּטָן כָּפוּל שִׁשָּׁה. וְהָאַבְנֵט לְבַדּוֹ רָקוּם בְּצֶמֶר:

2

The golden garments are the garments of the High Priest.4 There were eight garments: The four of an ordinary priest, the cloak, the ephod, the breastplate, and the forehead plate. The sash of the High Priest was embroidered5 and was made in a similar manner as that of the ordinary priest. Similarly, the turban [the Torah] mentions with regard to Aaron6 corresponds to the hat mentioned with regard to his sons.7 [The difference is that the] turban of the High Priest is worn like fabric swathed around a hernia. The hat of the ordinary priest, by contrast, is worn like an ordinary hat;8 hence, its name.9

ב

בִּגְדֵי זָהָב הֵן בִּגְדֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְהֵם שְׁמֹנָה כֵּלִים. הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁל כָּל כֹּהֵן. וּמְעִיל וְאֵפוֹד וְחשֶׁן וְצִיץ. וְאַבְנֵטוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַעֲשֶׂה רֹקֵם הוּא וְהוּא דּוֹמֶה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו לְאַבְנֵט כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט. וּמִצְנֶפֶת הָאֲמוּרָה בְּאַהֲרֹן הִיא הַמִּגְבַּעַת הָאֲמוּרָה בְּבָנָיו. אֶלָּא שֶׁכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל צוֹנֵף בָּהּ כְּמִי שֶׁלּוֹפֵף עַל הַשֶּׁבֶר. וּבָנָיו צוֹנְפִין בָּהּ כְּכוֹבַע וּלְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת מִגְבַּעַת:

3

The white garments are the four garments that the High Priests would wear on Yom Kippur.10 They are: a tunic, leggings, a sash, and a turban. They are all white, their threads are six-fold, and they are made from linen alone.11 The High Priests had two other tunics for Yom Kippur: one he would wear in the morning12 and one he would wear in the evening.13 Both of them cost 30 maneh.14 They were purchased with communal funds.15 If he wished to add to their value, he must add from his own funds. He would consecrate the additional money and then use it to have the tunic made.

ג

בִּגְדֵי לָבָן הֵם אַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים שֶׁמְּשַׁמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. כֻּתֹּנֶת. וּמִכְנָסָיִם. וְאַבְנֵט. וּמִצְנֶפֶת. וְאַרְבָּעָתָן לְבָנִים וְחוּטָן כָּפוּל שִׁשָּׁה וּמִן הַפִּשְׁתָּן לְבַדּוֹ הֵם. וּשְׁתֵּי כֻּתָּנוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. אַחַת לֹבְשָׁהּ בַּשַּׁחַר וְאַחַת בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם. וּשְׁתֵּיהֶם בִּשְׁלֹשִׁים מָנֶה מִשֶּׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְאִם רָצָה לְהוֹסִיף מוֹסִיף מִשֶּׁלּוֹ וּמַקְדִּישׁ הַתּוֹסֶפֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹשֶׂה בָּהּ הַכֻּתֹּנֶת:

4

It is a mitzvah for the priestly garments to be new, attractive, and to hang low like the garments of the men of stature, as [implied by Exodus 28:2 which states that they must be made]: "for honor and for beauty." If they were soiled,16 torn,17 longer than his appropriate measure,18 shorter than his appropriate measure, hoisted up by the sash,19 and a priest performed service while wearing them, his service is invalid.20 If they were worn-out or they were too long and he hoisted them with the sash so that they would be appropriate to his measure, his service is valid.

ד

בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה מִצְוָתָן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ חֲדָשִׁים נָאִים וּמְשֻׁלְּשָׁלִים כְּדֶרֶךְ בִּגְדֵי הַגְּדוֹלִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כח ב) (שמות כח מ) "לְכָבוֹד וּלְתִפְאָרֶת". הָיוּ מְטֻשְׁטָּשִׁין אוֹ מְקֹרָעִין אוֹ אֲרֻכִּין יֶתֶר עַל מִדָּתוֹ אוֹ קְצָרִים פָּחוֹת מִמִּדָּתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁסִּלְקָּן בָּאַבְנֵט וְעָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. הָיוּ מְשֹׁחָקִין אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ אֲרֻכִּים וְסִלְקָּן בָּאַבְנֵט עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ כְּמִדָּתוֹ וְעָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

5

Whenever any of the priestly garments become soiled, they are not bleached or laundered. Instead, they are left to be used for wicks and he should wear new ones.21 When the garments of the High Priest22 become worn out, they should be entombed.23 The white garments which the High Priest wears on the day of the fast should not be worn a second time at all. Instead, they are entombed in the place where he removes them, as [Leviticus 16:23] states: "And he shall leave them there." It is forbidden to benefit from them.

ה

כָּל בֶּגֶד מִבִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ צוֹאִין אֵין מְלַבְּנִין אוֹתָן וְאֵין מְכַבְּסִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא מַנִּיחָן לִפְתִילוֹת וְלוֹבֵשׁ חֲדָשִׁים. וּבִגְדֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּלוּ גּוֹנְזִין אוֹתָן. וּבִגְדֵי לָבָן שֶׁעוֹבֵד בָּהֶם בְּיוֹם הַצּוֹם אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵד בָּהֶם פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא נִגְנָּזִין בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁיִּפְשֹׁט אוֹתָם שָׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כג) "וְהִנִּיחָם שָׁם" וְהֵם אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה:

6

They would make wicks from the leggings and the sashes of the ordinary priests that wore out.24 They were used to kindle lamps in the Temple for the rejoicing that accompanied the water libation.25 The tunics of the ordinary priests26 that wore out were used to make wicks for the Menorah lit continually.27

ו

מִכְנְסֵי כֹּהֲנִים הֶדְיוֹטִים שֶׁבָּלוּ וְאַבְנֵטֵיהֶם הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין מֵהֶן פְּתִילוֹת וּמַדְלִיקִין בָּהֶן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּשִׂמְחַת בֵּית הַשּׁוֹאֵבָה. וְכֻתְּנוֹת כֹּהֲנִים הֶדְיוֹטִים שֶׁבָּלוּ הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין מֵהֶן פְּתִילוֹת לִמְנוֹרַת תָּמִיד:

7

All of the priestly garments come from communal funds. When one individual donates one of the priestly garments, he may donate it to the community and then it is permitted to be used. Similarly, the sacrificial vessels and the wood for the altar arrangement that an individual donated to the community are acceptable.28 Even all the communal sacrifices which an individual donates from his own resources to the community are acceptable, provided he gives them to the community.

ז

כָּל בִּגְדֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים אֵינָן בָּאִים אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וְיָחִיד שֶׁהִתְנַדֵּב בֶּגֶד מִבִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה מוֹסְרוֹ לַצִּבּוּר וּמֻתָּר. וְכֵן כָּל כְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וַעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה שֶׁמְּסָרָן יָחִיד לַצִּבּוּר הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשֵׁרִין. אַף כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר שֶׁהִתְנַדֵּב אוֹתָן יָחִיד מִשֶּׁלּוֹ כְּשֵׁרִים וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּמְסְרֵם לַצִּבּוּר:

8

They would make many sets29 of clothes for ordinary priests. There were 96 lockers in the Temple30 in which to place the clothes, four lockers for each watch. The name of each watch was written on the lockers and they were all closed. When the men of the watch began their priestly service on the Sabbath, they would open their lockers throughout their week and take their garments. When they departed, they would return the clothes to their lockers and close them.

ח

בִּגְדֵי כֹּהֲנִים הֶדְיוֹטִים הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין מֵהֶן מַחֲלָצוֹת רַבּוֹת. וְשִׁשָּׁה וְתִשְׁעִים חַלּוֹן הָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ לְהָנִיחַ בָּהֶן הַבְּגָדִים אַרְבָּעָה חַלּוֹנוֹת לְכָל מִשְׁמָר. וְשֵׁם כָּל מִשְׁמָר כָּתוּב עַל חַלּוֹנוֹתָיו. וְכֻלָּן סְתוּמוֹת. וּכְשֶׁיִּכָּנְסוּ אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר לַעֲבוֹדָה בַּשַּׁבָּת שֶׁלָּהֶן פּוֹתְחִין חַלּוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן כָּל יְמֵי שַׁבָּתָן וְנוֹטְלִין הַכֵּלִים. וּכְשֶׁיֵּצְאוּ מַחֲזִירִין הַבְּגָדִים לְחַלּוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן וְסוֹתְמִין:

9

Why did they make four lockers for each watch? So that the garments would not be intermingled.31 Instead, all of the leggings were [stored] in one locker on which was written: Leggings. Similarly, the sashes were [stored] in one locker on which was written: Sash. Similarly, the hats and the tunics each had their own locker.

ט

וְלָמָּה עָשׂוּ אַרְבָּעָה חַלּוֹנוֹת לְכָל מִשְׁמָר. לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַכֵּלִים מְעֹרָבִין. אֶלָּא כָּל הַמִּכְנָסָיִם בְּחַלּוֹן אֶחָד וְכָתוּב עָלָיו מִכְנְסַיִם. וְכל הָאַבְנֵטִים בְּחַלּוֹן אֶחָד וְכָתוּב עָלָיו אַבְנֵט. וְכֵן הַמִּצְנָפוֹת כֻּלָּן בְּחַלּוֹן אֶחָד. וְהַכֻּתָּנוֹת כֻּלָּן בְּחַלּוֹן אֶחָד:

10

The High Priest would leave his golden garments in his chamber32 at night or when he left the Temple.

י

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב בַּלִּשְׁכָּה שֶׁלּוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה אוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ:

11

It is permitted to derive benefit from the priestly garments.33 Therefore [the priests] wear them on the day of their Temple service even when they are not performing service with the exception of the sash, because it is shaatnez.34

יא

בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן. לְפִיכָךְ לֹבְשָׁם בְּיוֹם עֲבוֹדָתוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה חוּץ מִן הָאַבְנֵט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שַׁעַטְנֵז:

12

It is, however, forbidden for an ordinary priest to wear it except during his service. The [clothes] the priests wear for their service are of wool and linen alone.

יב

אָסוּר לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט לְלֹבְשׁוֹ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה. אֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים לוֹבְשִׁין לַעֲבוֹדָה אֶלָּא צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים בִּלְבָד:

13

Whenever the Torah uses the word sheish or bad, it is referring to flax, i.e., linen. Whenever the term techeilet is used, it refers to wool which is dyed sky-blue, i.e., lighter35 than dark blue. The term argaman refers to wool that is dyed red.36 And tola'at sheni refers to wool dyed with a gnat.37

יג

וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה שֵׁשׁ אוֹ בַּד הוּא הַפִּשְׁתִּים וְהוּא הַבּוּץ. וּתְכֵלֶת הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם הִיא הַצֶּמֶר הַצָּבוּעַ כְּעֶצֶם שָׁמַיִם שֶׁהוּא פָּתוּךְ מִן הַכֹּחַל. הָאַרְגָּמָן הוּא הַצֶּמֶר הַצָּבוּעַ אָדוֹם. וְתוֹלַעַת הַשָּׁנִי הוּא הַצֶּמֶר הַצָּבוּעַ בְּתוֹלַעַת:

14

Whenever the Torah uses the term sheish or "spun sheish," it is necessary that the strand be sixfold.38 Where the term bad is used, it is valid, if one strand alone is used. [Even in such situations,] the most desirable manner of performing the mitzvah is that it be sixfold. Whenever the term meshizar39 is used alone, the intent is a thread that is eightfold.

יד

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה שֵׁשׁ אוֹ שֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַחוּט כָּפוּל שִׁשָּׁה. וּמָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּד אִם הָיָה חוּט אֶחָד לְבַדּוֹ כָּשֵׁר. וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כָּפוּל שִׁשָּׁה. וּמָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ מָשְׁזָר בִּלְבָד צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חוּטָן כָּפוּל שְׁמֹנֶה:

15

Whenever the Torah uses the term "a work of embroidery," the intent is that the design which is woven will be seen on one side of the fabric. When it uses the term "a work of craft," the intent is that the design will be seen on both sides of the fabric, front and back.

טו

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה מַעֲשֶׂה רֹקֵם הוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶינָה הַצּוּרוֹת הַנַּעֲשׂוֹת בַּאֲרִיגָה נִרְאוֹת מִצַּד אֶחָד בִּפְנֵי הָאָרִיג. וּמַעֲשֶׂה חשֵׁב הוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַצּוּרָה נִרְאֵית מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדִין פָּנִים וְאָחוֹר:

16

How are the clothes made? The tunic - whether of the High Priest or an ordinary priest - was made with a boxlike knit. The knit had sequences of squares as is the structure of an animal's maw,40 in the manner which weavers make firm garments. Its sleeve was woven separately and then sown to the body of the tunic.

טז

וְכֵיצַד מַעֲשֶׂה הַבְּגָדִים. הַכֻּתֹּנֶת בֵּין שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בֵּין שֶׁל כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט מִשְׁבְּצֹת הָיְתָה שֶׁהִיא בָּתִּים בָּתִּים בַּאֲרִיגָתָהּ כְּמוֹ בֵּית הַכּוֹסוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין הָאוֹרְגִין בַּבְּגָדִים הַקָּשִׁים. וּבֵית יָד שֶׁלָהּ נֶאֱרָג בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וּמְחַבְּרִין אוֹתוֹ עִם גּוּף הַכֻּתֹּנֶת בִּתְפִירָה:

17

The length of the tunic extended until slightly above the heel.41 The length of the sleeve extended until his wrist and its width was the width of his hand.

יז

אֹרֶךָ הַכֻּתֹּנֶת עַד לְמַעְלָה מִן הֶעָקֵב. וְאֹרֶךְ בֵּית יָד שֶׁלָהּ עַד פַּס יָדוֹ. וְרָחְבּוֹ כְּרֹחַב הַיָּד:

18

The leggings - whether of the High Priest or an ordinary priest - extend from the loins until the thighs, i.e., from above the navel, close to the heart, until the end of the thigh, i.e., until the knee. They had straps.42 They did not have a special feature for the anus, nor for the male organ. Instead, they would surround the body like a pouch.

יח

הַמִּכְנָסָיִם בֵּין שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בֵּין שֶׁל כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט הֵם מִמָּתְנַיִם עַד יְרֵכַיִם שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִן הַטִּבּוּר קָרוֹב מִן הַלֵּב עַד סוֹף הַיָּרֵךְ שֶׁהוּא הָאַרְכּוּבָה. וּשְׁנָצִים יֵשׁ לָהֶם. וְאֵין לָהֶם לֹא בֵּית הַנֶּקֶב וְלֹא בֵּית הָעֶרְוָה אֶלָּא מֻקָּפִין כְּמִין כִּיס:

19

The turban - whether of an ordinary priest or a High Priest - was sixteen cubits long.43 The sash was about three fingerbreadths44 wide and 32 cubits long. [The priest would] wrap it around himself, winding after winding. The priestly garments were not sown, rather they woven, as [Exodus 39:22] states: "weavers' craft."

יט

הַמִּצְנֶפֶת שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אוֹ הֶדְיוֹט אָרְכּוֹ שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמּוֹת. וְהָאַבְנֵט רָחְבּוֹ כְּמוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וְאָרְכּוֹ שְׁנַיִם וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה. מַקִּיפוֹ וּמַחֲזִירוֹ כֶּרֶךְ עַל גַּבֵּי כֶּרֶךְ. וּבִגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה כֻּלָּן אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן מַעֲשֶׂה מַחַט אֶלָּא מַעֲשֶׂה אוֹרֵג שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כח לב) (שמות לט כב) (שמות לט כז) "מַעֲשֶׂה אוֹרֵג":

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Footnotes
1.

As mentioned in the notes to the previous chapter, the Radbaz explains that this is implied by the very Hebrew term used for linen sheish, for that term also means "six." See Halachah 14.

2.

The Torah (Exodus 39:29) mentions the use of woolen fabrics only with regard to the sash of the High Priest, but through the process of Biblical exegesis, our Sages (Yoma 12b) also derived that the sash of an ordinary priest also contains these fabrics.

3.

Although the combination of these fabrics violates the prohibition against shaatnez (see Hilchot Kilayim, ch. 12), the positive commandment of wearing the Priestly Garments overrides the negative commandment of shaatnez. Nevertheless, this applies only when it is a mitzvah to wear them, i.e., when involved in the Temple service. Otherwise, it is forbidden to wear them (Hilchot Kilayim 10:3).

4.

As the Rambam continues to explain, these garments were not all golden. Nevertheless, they are called golden because certain garments were golden.

7.

Ibid.:40.

8.

The Kessef Mishneh cites the Ramban who states that the headgear of both the ordinary priests and the High Priests were turbans. This is also indicated by Halachah 18 which speaks of their length. The turban of the High Priest, however, was round, while those of the ordinary priests were cone-shaped like hats. Other authorities (Rashi and the Ra'avad) differ and maintain that the ordinary priests wore hats and not turbans.

9.

With regard to this point as well, the Kessef Mishneh cites the Ramban who states that the letters kuf and gimmel can be interchanged. Thus migba'at parallels mikva'at that relates to the word kova, hat.

10.

More particularly, they are the garments that he would wear when he performed the service unique to Yom Kippur. For he would also wear his golden garments on that day and carry out the service that was also peformed on other days while wearing them. See Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim 2:1.

11.

I.e., even the sash was made from linen alone. On this day, it was not of sha'tnez.

12.

To perform the sacrificial service of Yom Kippur.

13.

To remove from the Holy of Holies the ladle that had carried the incense.

14.

A maneh is 100 silver pieces. Thus these were very expensive garments, made of fine fabric. The commentaries note that Yoma 35a states that the garments the High Priest would wear in the morning were more valuable than those he would wear in the evening and question why the Rambam does not mention this point. See also the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Yoma 3:7) which states that the only difference between the two was their cut.

15.

I.e., funds from terumat halishkah, the Temple treasury collected to purchase the communal sacrifices and all their needs. See Halachah 7 and Hilchot Shekalim 4:2.

16.

Our translation is based on Rashi's commentary to Zevachim 18b.

17.

The commentaries have drawn attention to an apparent contradiction in the Rambam's words, for in Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 1:14, he rules that, after the fact, when a priest performs service in torn garments, although he is liable to die at the hand of heaven, his service is acceptable. Among the resolutions offered is that here, the Rambam is speaking about clothes that remain torn. Hence, it is as if he is no longer wearing that garment. In Hilchot Bi'at Hamikdash, by contrast, he is speaking about torn garments that were mended. As the Radbaz explains (in his gloss there), the Rambam is speaking about a tear like the tear made when one rends his garments in mourning which can be mended. Here, he is speaking about a garment that was torn in many places.

18.

I.e., they should reach slightly above the ground, extending until above the priest's heel (Halachah 17). If they drag along the ground, they are disqualified. That is the intent of the phrase "too long" mentioned later (Kessef Mishneh).

19.

It is as if the material hoisted up by the sash was cut off (Zevachim 18b).

20.

It is as if he performed the service without wearing priestly garments at all.

21.

For there should be no expressions of poverty in a place of wealth (Zevachim 88b).

22.

I.e., the golden garments.

23.

Although this is not stated explicitly, it is deduced from a comparison to the white garments (Yoma 12b).

24.

These were not used for the Menorah. The rationale is that since the sash contains wool, it will not serve as an effective wick (see Shabbat 20b-21a). And it is improper to use the leggings for that purpose since the priest wore them on his lower body (Tifferet Yisrael, Sukkah 5:3).

25.

See the conclusion of Hilchot Lulav where this rejoicing is described. Significantly, however, there the Rambam does not connect the rejoining with the water libation.

26.

The Kessef Mishneh asks why the Rambam does not mention the hats of the ordinary priests. He offers two possible resolutions: a) their fabric was thin and not suitable for wicks at all;

b) they were in fact used for the Menorah.

27.

In contrast to the lamps for the water libation rejoicing which took place only during the Sukkot holiday.

28.

I.e., generally, we think of the community purchasing these items by using funds from the Temple treasury. If, however, an individual donates these substances to the Temple treasury they also become communal property and then can be used for whatever purpose the community desires.

29.

I.e., a set with four garments: leggings, a tunic, a sash, and a hat.

30.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 5:6), the Rambam speaks of 24 lockers. Rambam LeAm suggests that each watch had one large locker which in turn had four compartments.

31.

Having the garments sorted individually made it easier for the priests to put on the garments in the proper order: first, the leggings, then, the tunic, the sash, and the hat [see Chapter 10, Halachah 1; see also the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:3)].

32.

The Chamber of the High Priest. See Chapter 5, Halachah 7.

Har Hamoriah writes that since the Talmud does not mention that there was a locker for the High Priest's garments, we can assume there was none and that he would leave them in his chamber.

33.

Tosafot, Yoma 69a, suggests that as an initial preference, a priest should not benefit from them. In practice, however, that is not possible, because "the Torah was not given to the ministering angels" and it is impossible for the priests to remove the priestly garments immediately after their Temple service was completed (Kiddushin 54b). Hence they were consecrated with the stipulation that the priests would derive personal benefit from them.

34.

A prohibited mixture of fabrics. During the Temple service, however, it may be worn, because then it is a mitzvah to do so and the observance of a positive mitzvah supersedes the observance of a prohibition. The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that the sash may be worn throughout the day, as long as the priest is in the Temple.

Rav Yosef Corcus mentions that the ephod and the breastplate of the High Priest also involved a forbidden mixture of fabrics. He explains, however, that according to the Rambam, the prohibition against mixed fabrics does not apply to them, because they are not worn to provide the body with warmth, and if a garment is worn for a purpose other than that, this prohibition does not apply (Hilchot Kilayim 10:19).

35.

See Hilchot Tuma'at Tzara'at 1:4 where the Rambam defines patuch as a color mixed with white. See also Hilchot Tzitzit 2:1.

36.

There are some who interpret the term as referring to a purplish dye. Others explain that it is mixture of several dyes of thread. See Ra'avad and Kessef Mishneh.

37.

See Hilchot Parah Adumah 3:2 where the Rambam writes that this dye is produced from a seed that has a small gnat in it that produces a scarlet color.

38.

I.e., one strand made up of six thinner threads.

39.

Often translated as twisted.

40.

See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Chulin 3:1). The boxes were indented slightly, like small pockets.

41.

For as mentioned in Halachah 4, the priests' garments should be fit to their measure, neither too long or too short. Compare to the description of the clothes of Torah scholars in Hilchot De'ot 5:9.

42.

To tighten them around the priest's waist.

43.

As explained in Halachah 2, according to the Rambam, the difference was the manner in which they wrapped the turbans. The actual cloth was the same.

44.

A fingerbreadth is about 2 cm according to Shiurei Torah.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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