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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Issurei Biah - Chapter Six, Issurei Biah - Chapter Seven, Issurei Biah - Chapter Eight

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Issurei Biah - Chapter Six

1

The bleeding of niddah, the bleeding of zivah, the bleeding before childbirth,1 the pure blood that follows childbirth,2 are all one type of bleeding. They [all] come from the uterus, from the same source. The laws applying [to this bleeding], however, change according to the time [and circumstance],3 causing the woman who discovers the bleeding to be considered as pure, a niddah, or a zavah.

א

דַם הַנִּדָּה וְדַם הַזָּבָה וְדַם הַקֹּשִׁי וְדַם יוֹלֶדֶת וְדַם טֹהַר שֶׁל יוֹלֶדֶת כֻּלּוֹ דָּם אֶחָד הוּא וּמִן הַמָּקוֹר הוּא בָּא. וּמַעֲיָן אֶחָד הוּא. וּבִזְמַנִּים בִּלְבַד הוּא שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּנֶּה דִּינוֹ וְתִהְיֶה רוֹאָה דָּם זוֹ טְהוֹרָה. וְזוֹ נִדָּה. וְזוֹ זָבָה:

2

What is implied? When a woman menstruates for the first time or when she menstruates at the fixed time at which it has been established that she will menstruate,4 she is a niddah for seven full days. [This applies] whether she continues to bleed throughout the seven days or she only discovered one drop of blood. If she discovers blood on the eighth day, this is the blood of zivah, because it comes "outside the time for niddah" [Leviticus 15:25].5

ב

כֵּיצַד. כְּשֶׁתִּרְאֶה הָאִשָּׁה דָּם תְּחִלָּה אוֹ כְּשֶׁתִּרְאֶה בִּשְׁעַת וֶסְתָּהּ וְהוּא הָעֵת שֶׁקָּבְעָה לְנִדָּתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ נִדָּה כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים. בֵּין רָאֲתָה כָּל שִׁבְעָה בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא רָאֲתָה אֶלָּא טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה בִּלְבַד. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי הֲרֵי זֶה דַּם זִיבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּלֹא עֵת נִדָּתָהּ:

3

Any blood that is discovered between one fixed time that a woman can be expected to menstruate and the next fixed time that she can be expected to menstruate is the blood of zivah. It is a halachah transmitted to Moses on Sinai that there are no more than eleven days between one menstrual bleeding and an another.

ג

וְכֵן כָּל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּמִים שֶׁבֵּין וֶסֶת נִדָּה לְוֶסֶת נִדָּה הֲרֵי הוּא דַּם זִיבָה. וַהֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי שֶׁאֵין בֵּין זְמַן נִדָּה לִזְמַן נִדָּה אֶלָּא אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם בִּלְבַד:

4

All of the seven days beginning with the day on which a fixed time that a woman can be expected to menstruate was established are called "the days of niddah." [This applies] whether the woman menstruates or not.6 Why are they called "the days of niddah"? Because they are fit [for a woman to be considered] a niddah? Any blood discovered during these days is considered as the blood of niddah.

ד

כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים שֶׁנִּקְבְּעָה לָהּ וֶסֶת בִּתְחִלָּתָן הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. בֵּין רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם בֵּין לֹא רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִקְרָאִין יְמֵי נִדָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לְנִדָּה. וְכָל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בָּהֶם דַּם נִדָּה יֵחָשֵׁב:

5

The eleven days that follow these seven are called "the days of zivah." [This applies] whether the woman discovers bleeding or not. Why are they called "the days of zivah"? Because they are fit [for a woman to be considered] a zivah? Any blood discovered during these days is considered as the blood of zivah. Take care with regard to these names: "the days of niddah" and "the days of zivah."

ה

וְכָל אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם שֶׁאַחַר הַשִּׁבְעָה הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. בֵּין רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם בֵּין לֹא רָאֲתָה. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָאִין יְמֵי זִיבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לְזִיבָה. וְכָל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בָּהֶן דַּם זִיבָה יֵחָשֵׁב. וְהִזָּהֵר בִּשְׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵן יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ:

6

Throughout her entire life, from the time she establishes a time when she can be expected to menstruate until she dies or until she transfers the time she can be expected to menstruate to another date,7 she should count seven days from the beginning of the day when she could be expected to menstruate and eleven days after them. Afterwards, [she counts] another seven days and another eleven days.8

Take care of this reckoning so that you will know [a woman's status] if she discovers blood. Was it in the days of niddah or the days of zivah? For throughout a woman's entire life, she [follows the same pattern]: seven days of niddah and eleven days of zivah unless the pattern was interrupted by a birth, as will be explained.9

ו

כָּל יְמֵי הָאִשָּׁה מִיּוֹם שֶׁיִּקָּבַע לָהּ וֶסֶת עַד שֶׁתָּמוּת אוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּעָקֵר הַוֶּסֶת לְיוֹם אַחֵר תִּסְפֹּר לְעוֹלָם שִׁבְעָה מִתְּחִלַּת יוֹם הַוֶּסֶת וְאַחֲרֵיהֶן אַחַד עָשָׂר [וְאַחֲרֵיהֶן] שִׁבְעָה וְאַחֲרֵיהֶן אַחַד עָשָׂר. וְתִזָּהֵר בַּמִּנְיָן כְּדֵי שֶׁתֵּדַע בְּעֵת שֶׁתִּרְאֶה דָּם אִם בִּימֵי נִדָּה רָאֲתָה אוֹ בִּימֵי זִיבָה. שֶׁכָּל יָמֶיהָ שֶׁל אִשָּׁה כָּךְ הֵן שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי נִדָּה וְאַחַד עָשָׂר יְמֵי זִיבָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִפְסִיקָה הַלֵּדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

7

When a woman discovers uterine bleeding during the days of zivah for only one day or for two consecutive days, she is called a minor zavah,10and she is called one who watches a day for a day.11 If she discovered [uterine bleeding] for three consecutive days, she is a zavah in the complete sense of the term. She is called a major zavah or merely referred to as a zavah without any further description. [This is derived from Leviticus 15:25]: "When a woman will have a flow of blood for many days...." The minimum implied by the plural form, "days," is two. "Many" indicates [at least] three.

ז

אִשָּׁה שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ יוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד אוֹ שְׁנֵי יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה נִקְרֵאת זָבָה קְטַנָּה וְנִקְרֵאת שׁוֹמֶרֶת יוֹם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם. וְאִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה גְּמוּרָה וְהִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה וְנִקְרֵאת זָבָה סְתָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כה) "וְאִשָּׁה כִּי יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים" מִעוּט יָמִים שְׁנַיִם רַבִּים שְׁלֹשָׁה:

8

There is no difference between a major zavah and a minor zavah except the counting of seven ["spotless" days] and the necessity to bring a sacrifice. For a major zavah must count seven "spotless" days [before immersing to regain ritual purity] and a minor zavah need only count one day. And a major zavah must bring a sacrifice when she purifies herself12 and a minor zavah need not. They are both impure and the prohibition against relations applies to both of them equally.

ח

אֵין בֵּין זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה לְזָבָה קְטַנָּה אֶלָּא סְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה וַהֲבָאַת קָרְבָּן. שֶׁזָּבָה גְּדוֹלָה צְרִיכָה לִסְפֹּר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְזָבָה קְטַנָּה אֵינָהּ סוֹפֶרֶת אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד. וְזָבָה גְּדוֹלָה מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן כְּשֶׁתִּטְהַר [וְזָבָה קְטַנָּה אֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן כְּשֶׁתִּטְהַר]. אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה וְאִסּוּר בִּיאָה שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת:

9

What is implied? If she discovered blood in the days of zivah - whether she discovered it in the beginning of the night or she discovered it at the end of the day - that entire day, she is impure. It is as if the bleeding did not cease from the time she discovered it until the sun sets. She should watch herself throughout the night.13If there are no signs of bleeding at night, she should arise in the morning and immerse herself after sunrise.14 She should watch herself for the entire day. If there are no signs of bleeding,15 there is then a pure day to compensate for the impure day and she is permitted to her husband at night.

ט

כֵּיצַד. רָאֲתָה דָּם בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ. בֵּין שֶׁרָאֲתָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה בֵּין שֶׁרָאֲתָה בְּסוֹף הַיּוֹם. הֲרֵי אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא פָּסַק הַדָּם מֵעֵת שֶׁרָאֲתָה עַד שֶׁשָּׁקְעָה הַחַמָּה וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל הַלַּיְלָה. וְאִם לֹא רָאֲתָה כְּלוּם בַּלַּיְלָה מַשְׁכֶּמֶת לְמָחָר וְטוֹבֶלֶת אַחַר שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל הַיּוֹם. אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה כְּלוּם הֲרֵי זֶה יוֹם אֶחָד טָהוֹר כְּנֶגֶד הַיּוֹם הַטָּמֵא וַהֲרֵי הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ לָעֶרֶב:

10

If she discovered [uterine] bleeding also on the second day, whether at night or whether during the day, after she immersed herself, that second day is also impure and she must watch herself for the entire third night. If there are no signs of bleeding at night, she should arise in the morning and immerse herself after sunrise. She should watch herself for the entire day.16 If there are no signs of bleeding, there is then a pure day to compensate for the two impure days17 and she is permitted to her husband at night.

י

רָאֲתָה דָּם גַּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי בֵּין בְּלֵילוֹ בֵּין בְּיוֹמוֹ אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה הֲרֵי הַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי טָמֵא וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל לֵיל שְׁלִישִׁי. אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה מַשְׁכֶּמֶת לְמָחָר וְטוֹבֶלֶת אַחַר שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל הַיּוֹם. אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה כְּלוּם הֲרֵי זֶה יוֹם אֶחָד טָהוֹר כְּנֶגֶד שְׁנֵי יָמִים הַטְּמֵאִים וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ לָעֶרֶב:

11

If she discovered [uterine] bleeding on the third day, whether during the day or at night, she is a major zavah and she must count seven pure days when there is no uterine bleeding [at all], as [Leviticus 15:28] states: "She must count seven days for herself." She immerses herself on the seventh day after sunrise and is permitted to her husband at night. On the eighth day, she brings her sacrifice, two turtle doves or two doves.

יא

רָאֲתָה דָּם גַּם בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בֵּין בְּיוֹמוֹ בֵּין בְּלֵילוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה וּצְרִיכָה לִסְפֹּר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים טְהוֹרִים בְּלֹא דָּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כח) "וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים" וְגוֹ' וְטוֹבֶלֶת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה וַהֲרֵי הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ לָעֶרֶב. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּנָהּ שְׁנֵי תּוֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה:

12

When a minor zavah immerses herself at night18 during the day she is watching or a major zavah immerses herself on the seventh night, it is as if she did not immerse herself.19 She is like a niddah who immerses herself within the seven days.

יב

זָבָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁל יוֹם הַשִּׁמּוּר אוֹ זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בְּלֵיל שְׁבִיעִי כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבְלָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּנִדָּה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעָה:

13

When a person has relations with a major zavah after she immersed herself on the seventh day of her counting [of "spotless" days] or with a minor zavah after she immersed herself on the day on which she must watch herself, he is not liable for kerait, because she immersed herself at the time she was fit to immerse herself when regaining ritual purity.20 This woman, however, possessed improper culture, for relations with her and things she touches are tenative.21

יג

הַבָּא עַל זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה בְּיוֹם שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁל סְפִירָה אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה אוֹ עַל זָבָה קְטַנָּה בְּיוֹם הַשִּׁמּוּר אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה פָּטוּר מִן הַכָּרֵת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁטָּבְלָה בַּזְּמַן הָרָאוּי לִטְבִילָתָהּ טְהוֹרָה. וּלְאִשָּׁה זוֹ יִהְיֶה לָהּ תַּרְבּוּת רָעָה שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּעִילָתָהּ וּמַגָּעָהּ תְּלוּיִין:

14

What is meant by their being "tentative"? If the day on which she immersed herself is completed without her discovering any uterine bleeding, everything which she touched after she immersed herself is ritually pure and there is no liability for relations with her. If, however, she discovers blood on this day after immersing herself, she is considered as a zavah retroactively. Anything which she touched is retroactively considered as impure and she and the man who engaged in relations with her are obligated to bring a sacrifice.22 Therefore she is forbidden to her husband until the evening, lest she bring herself to a situation involving doubt.

יד

כֵּיצַד הֵן תְּלוּיִין. אִם נִשְׁלַם הַיּוֹם אַחַר הַטְּבִילָה וְלֹא רָאֲתָה דָּם הֲרֵי כָּל שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ אַחַר טְבִילָתָהּ טָהוֹר וּבְעִילָתָהּ אַחַר הַטְּבִילָה אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ כְּלוּם. וְאִם רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּיוֹם זֶה אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה נִמְצֵאת זָבָה לְמַפְרֵעַ וְכָל שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ לְמַפְרֵעַ טָמֵא. וְהִיא וּבוֹעֲלָהּ חַיָּבִין בְּקָרְבָּן. וּלְפִיכָךְ הִיא אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ עַד לָעֶרֶב שֶׁלֹּא תָּבִיא עַצְמָהּ לִידֵי סָפֵק:

15

When a zavah counts six "spotless" days and discovers uterine bleeding on the seventh day, even if it is close to sunset,23 all of the days counted previously are invalidated24 and she begins a new reckoning of seven "spotless" days after the impure day.

טו

זָבָה שֶׁסָּפְרָה שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים נְקִיִּים. וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי רָאֲתָה דָּם אֲפִלּוּ סָמוּךְ לִשְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה סוֹתֶרֶת הַכּל וְחוֹזֶרֶת לִמְנוֹת מֵאַחַר הַיּוֹם הַטָּמֵא שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים:

16

If [a woman] discharges semen25 during the days she is counting, she invalidates one day. She is like a zav who has a seminal emission who invalidates one day [in his counting].26

If she discovered uterine bleeding on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth days of her "days of zivah," she is not considered a major zavah. Instead, from the state of a minor zavah, she becomes a niddah. For the twelfth day is the beginning of her days of niddah27 and a woman who discovers bleeding in her days of niddah does not become a zavah, as we explained.28

טז

פָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה סוֹתֶרֶת יוֹם אֶחָד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּזָב שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי שֶׁסּוֹתֵר יוֹם אֶחָד. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּעֲשִׂירִי מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וּבְאַחַד עָשָׂר וּבִשְׁתֵּים עָשָׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה אֵינָהּ זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה. אֶלָּא יָצָאת מִזִּיבוּת קְטַנָּה לְנִדָּה שֶׁיּוֹם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מַתְחֶלֶת נִדָּתָהּ וְהָרוֹאָה בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ אֵינָהּ זָבָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

17

What is the intent of the Torah's wording [Leviticus 15:25]: "After the time for niddah"? That if she discovered bleeding on the three days that follow her niddah [bleeding], she is a zavah,29 i.e., she discovered bleeding on the eighth day after the onset of the days of niddah, the ninth day, and the tenth day, i.e., the first three of the eleven days of zivah.

[The following laws apply if a woman] discovers bleeding on the eleventh day of zivah and she immersed herself in the evening on the night of the twelfth day and engaged in relations.30 Although she is impure and the man who engaged in relations with her becomes impure and the laws regarding the impurity of the places where they both sit and lie apply, the couple are not liable for kerait. [The rationale is that] the twelfth day is not joined with the eleventh day for her to be considered a zavah. Her immersion that night is effective in saving her from [being liable to bring] a sacrifice.31

יז

וּמַה הוּא זֶה שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה אוֹ (ויקרא טו כה) "כִּי תָזוּב עַל נִדָּתָהּ". שֶׁאִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים סָמוּךְ לְנִדָּתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁרָאֲתָה בַּשְּׁמִינִי לְנִדָּתָהּ וּבַתְּשִׁיעִי וּבָעֲשִׂירִי שֶׁהֵן רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי מֵהָאַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם שֶׁהֵן יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּי''א מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וְטָבְלָה לָעֶרֶב שֶׁהוּא לֵיל י''ב וְשִׁמְּשָׁה מִטָּתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה וּבוֹעֲלָהּ טָמֵא וְעוֹשִׂין מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב אֵינָם חַיָּבִים כָּרֵת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין יוֹם י''ב מִצְטָרֵף לְיוֹם י''א לַעֲשׂוֹת זָבָה. הוֹעִילָה לָהּ טְבִילַת לֵיל זֶה לְהַצִּילָהּ מִן הַקָּרְבָּן:

18

If she immerses herself on the twelfth day after sunrise, she is forbidden to her husband until the evening as is the law with regard to any minor zavah.32 If [her husband] transgresses and engages in relations with her, neither of them are liable at all.33 Even if she discovers blood on the twelfth day after they engaged in relations it is of no significance. For this is the blood of niddah and it is not associated with [the bleeding of] the previous day.

יח

טָבְלָה בְּיוֹם י''ב אַחַר שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ עַד לָעֶרֶב כְּדִין כָּל זָבָה קְטַנָּה. וְאִם עָבַר וּבְעָלָהּ שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּטוּרִין מִכְּלוּם. וַאֲפִלּוּ רָאֲתָה דָּם אַחַר שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּיוֹם י''ב אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁזֶּה דַּם נִדָּה הוּא וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לַיּוֹם שֶׁלְּפָנָיו:

19

If she discovers bleeding at the conclusion of her seventh day of niddah during bein hashamashot,34 and then discovers bleeding on the ninth day and the tenth day, there is an unresolved doubt if she is considered a [major]35 zavah.36 For perhaps the [blood] discovered at first was on the eighth night and thus it is as if she discovered blood on three consecutive days at the beginning of her days of zivah.

Similarly, if she discovered bleeding on the ninth and tenth days of her days of zivah and discovered bleeding again at the conclusion of the eleventh day during bein hashamashot, there is an unresolved doubt if she is considered a [major] zavah. For perhaps the final discovery [of bleeding] was on the eleventh day and she will have discovered [bleeding] on three consecutive days during her days of zivah.

יט

רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּסוֹף שְׁבִיעִי לְנִדָּתָהּ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְרָאֲתָה בַּתְּשִׁיעִי וּבַעֲשִׂירִי הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. שֶׁמָּא רְאִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי הָיְתָה וְנִמְצֵאת שֶׁרָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה מִתְּחִלַּת יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּתְּשִׁיעִי וּבַעֲשִׂירִי מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וְרָאֲתָה בְּסוֹף יוֹם אַחַד עָשָׂר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. שֶׁמָּא רְאִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה בְּיוֹם אַחַד עָשָׂר הָיְתָה וַהֲרֵי רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ:

20

When a niddah inspects herself in the midst of her days of niddah and discovers that her bleeding has ceased, even if it ceased on the second37 day of her menstrual period, and either, inadvertently or intentionally, did not inspect herself again until many days after her [days of] niddah and discovers impurity,38 we do not say that she was impure for all those days and [hence,] she is a zavah.39 Instead, throughout the entire time that she did not inspect herself, we operate under the presumption that she is pure.40

If she inspected herself and found impurity, even if she checked herself on the seventh of her days of niddah, if she did not inspect herself again [before] bein hashamashot to separate herself from the impurity of niddah, but instead waited [several] days and afterwards inspected herself and found that she was pure, there is an unresolved doubt if she is considered a [major] zavah.41

If she discovered impurity, she is definitely a zavah. [The rationale is that since] at the beginning she discovered impurity and at the end, she discovered impurity, we operate under the presumption that she did not stop bleeding.42

On the first day of menstruation, even though a woman [conducted an inspection and] found that she was pure, it is as if she discovered impurity. For on the first day of menstruation, we operate under the presumption that a woman's flow will continue.43

כ

נִדָּה שֶׁבָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וּמָצְאָה שֶׁפָּסַק הַדָּם וַאֲפִלּוּ פָּסַק בְּשֵׁנִי לְנִדָּתָהּ וְשָׁגְגָה אוֹ הֵזִידָה וְלֹא בָּדְקָה עַד לְאַחַר נִדָּתָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים וּכְשֶׁבָּדְקָה מָצְאָה טֻמְאָה. אֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא כָּל אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה וְתִהְיֶה זָבָה אֶלָּא כָּל אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ וּמָצְאָה טְמֵאָה. אֲפִלּוּ בָּדְקָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִי לְנִדָּתָהּ וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לֹא בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ כְּדֵי לִפְרשׁ מִטֻּמְאַת נִדָּה אֶלָּא הִמְתִּינָה יָמִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּדְקָה וּמָצָאת טְהוֹרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. וְאִם מָצְאָה טְמֵאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה וַדָּאִית שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה מָצְאָה טְמֵאָה וּלְבַסּוֹף טְמֵאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק. וְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל נִדָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּצְאָה בּוֹ טְהוֹרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּמִי שֶׁמָּצְאָה טְמֵאָה. שֶׁיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן כֻּלּוֹ הֻחְזַק הַמַּעֲיָן פָּתוּחַ:

21

When a zavah inspects herself on the first day of [the seven days]44 she must count and finds herself pure and then did not inspect herself until the seventh day and found that she was pure, she can be assumed to be pure.45 It is as if she inspected herself for all of the seven days and discovered herself to be pure.

כא

זָבָה שֶׁבָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר וְלֹא בָּדְקָה עַד יוֹם שְׁבִיעִי וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה וּכְאִלּוּ בָּדְקָה כָּל שִׁבְעָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר:

22

Similarly, if she inspects herself on the first day of [the seven days] she must count and finds herself pure and [inspects herself] on the eighth day and found that she was pure, she can be assumed to be pure.46

If she checked herself on the third day of zivah and discovered that the bleeding had ceased, but did not check herself on the first day of counting and then checked herself on the seventh day, she can be assumed to be pure.47

The same laws apply to a zav48 with regard to all these inspections if he finds himself pure and it is considered as if he counted these days.

כב

וְכֵן אִם בָּדְקָה בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. בָּדְקָה בְּיוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי לְזִיבָתָהּ וּמָצְאָה שֶׁפָּסַק הַדָּם וְלֹא בָּדְקָה בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי בָּדְקָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְזָב בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַבְּדִיקוֹת שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר וְעָלוּ לוֹ יְמֵי סְפִירָה:

23

Whenever there is a doubt whether a woman is niddah or a zavah, she must count seven "spotless" days49 because of the doubt. She immerses herself on the night preceding the eighth day50 Afterwards, she is permitted to her husband. She must bring the sacrifice of a zavah, but it is not eaten as will be explained in the appropriate place.51

כג

כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא סְפֵק נִדָּה סְפֵק זָבָה צְרִיכָה לֵישֵׁב שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים מִסָּפֵק וְטוֹבֶלֶת בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּהְיֶה מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. וּמְבִיאָה קָרְבַּן זָבָה וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

Footnotes
1.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 1.

2.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 2,5.

3.

Niddah 96b states: "It [comes from] one source. [Here,] the Torah ruled it impure, and [here,] the Torah ruled it pure."

4.

I.e., this is speaking about a woman who has a regular day of the month or interval at which she menstruates.

5.

I.e., in addition to the impurity associated with niddah, ordinary menstrual bleeding, the Torah establishes a category of impurity when a woman suffers uterine bleeding at times other than the days she is a niddah. This category is referred to as zivah. A woman enters this category when she suffers uterine bleeding between the day following the seven days associated with her ordinary menstrual bleeding and the eighteenth day following those days. As will be explained in the commentary to the following halachot, there is a difference of opinion between the Rambam and the other Rishonim with regard to the definition of these seven days.

6.

As will be explained, according to the Rambam, the definition of days as "the days of niddah" is not dependent on whether a woman actually menstruates or not, but on the day when, according to the schedule established previously, she could be expected to menstruate.

7.

As occurs after birth, as stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 2.

8.

The simple meaning of the Rambam's words is that the same 18 day pattern - 7 days niddah, 11 days zivah - continues throughout a woman's life whether or not she menstruates on those days or not. When she menstruates she must see whether she is in the midst of the days of niddah or the days zivah and follow the appropriate laws.

Rashi and Ramban offer a different interpretation. According to their view, the day's of niddah and zivah depend on a woman's circumstances each month. When she menstruates, she begins the days of niddah. If she continues bleeding beyond seven days or if she discovers uterine bleeding after these seven days (but within the next eleven days), she becomes a zavah. She remains in that category until seven "spotless" days pass. After those seven days, when she discovers uterine bleeding again, she becomes a niddah. Similarly, if she does not discover uterine bleeding within the eleven days, the next time she discovers uterine bleeding, she is considered as a niddah.

There are Talmudic passages which appear to support both positions. The position of Rashi and the Ramban appears to be closer to a woman's actual physical pattern and the commentaries question why the Rambam - a doctor - did not take note of this dimension. The Tur (Yoreh De'ah 183) follows the view shared by Rashi and the Ramban. In practice, however, this difference of opinion is not relevant at all, for as stated in Chapter 11, at present, Jewish women have accepted the stringency of counting seven "spotless" days whenever they discover even the slightest uterine bleeding. Hence, whatever their status actually is, they will certainly not transgress.

9.

Chapter 7, Halachah 2.

10.

The distinctions between a minor zavah and a major zavah are discussed in the following halachah.

11.

As indicated in the following two halachot, the intent is that for the day(s) she is impure, she must observe one "spotless" day.

12.

See Hilchot Mechusrei Kapporah, ch. 1, for a description of this sacrifice.

13.

I.e., take note if there is any bleeding. It is sufficient to check and see on the following morning if there are any signs of bleeding.

14.

She may not, however, touch any articles that are ritually pure or engage in relations with her husband until nightfall, as explained in Halachot 13 and 14.

15.

If, however, there are signs of bleeding, her immersion is disqualified retroactively and it is as if she was impure for the entire day.

16.

Lest she discover uterine bleeding and become impure retroactively.

17.

The one day is sufficient. There is no need for two days, one for each of the impure days.

18.

See Rabbi Akiva Eiger who questions whether the Rambam would accept the immersion of a woman who immerses herself between dawn (alot hashachar) and sunrise.

19.

I.e., the immersion must be made after sunrise.

20.

Even if she later discovers uterine bleeding and is therefore considered impure, they are not considered to have transgressed intentionally, because at the time, the woman was potentially in a state of ritual purity.

21.

I.e., as stated in the following halachah, she can retroactively be considered impure.

22.

For inadvertently violating the transgression against relations with a zavah.

23.

If, however, the bleeding is not discovered until after nightfall, she is considered to have regained ritual purity and then become impure anew as a minor zavah.

24.

I.e., it is not only that she loses the one day; all of the days that she had counted previously are also invalidated. The seven "spotless" days must be consecutive [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 196:10)].

25.

I.e., she engaged in relations with a man and then discharged his semen from her vagina. This is speaking about a situation in which the couple engaged in relations when forbidden. Alternatively, she engaged in relations before becoming a zavah and discharged the semen after entering that state of impurity. For the semen to render her impure, it must be less than three full days old. See Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 196:11).

26.

See Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 3:2.

27.

As stated in Halachot 5 and 6, there are only eleven days of zivah. Afterwards, the days of niddah begin again.

28.

See Halachah 4 which states: "Any blood discovered during these days is considered as the blood of niddah." Thus she will have only discovered blood on two days of zivah. That is not sufficient to render her a major zavah.

29.

I.e., we do not say that her menstrual bleeding is extended. Instead, this bleeding is considered as a new phase, governed by different laws.

30.

For she is required to wait for one "spotless" day before engaging in relations (Ra'avad). The Maggid Mishneh explains that this is a Rabbinic requirement.

31.

Needless to say, however, she is forbidden to engage in such relations.

32.

By Rabbinic Law as stated in Halachah 14 and notes. She may, however, touch articles that are ritually pure, as stated in Hilchot Mitamei Mishkav UMoshav 5:8.

33.

Since she immersed herself, her previous impurity departs and any new bleeding is not associated with the bleeding of zivah as the Rambam continues to explain.

34.

The period between sunset and the appearance of three stars. There is an unresolved doubt among the Rabbis if this time is considered as the conclusion of the previous day, the beginning of the following day, or a separate time of its own. See Hilchot Shabbat 5:4.

35.

I.e., she is certainly a minor zavah.

36.

She must count seven "spotless" days before engaging in relations. Also, she brings a sacrifice, but it is not eaten, as explained in Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 1:6.

37.

On the first day, however, such an inspection is of no consequence, for as the Rambam states at the conclusion of the halachah, on the first day, we assume that she will continue to bleed.

38.

I.e., uterine bleeding.

39.

I.e., we do not consider her to have bled for the entire time from the time she first inspected herself until the time that she discovered the bleeding.

40.

I.e., we say that the uterine bleeding did not begin until it was discovered. This reflects a general principle: Once uterine bleeding is known to have stopped, we do not think that it has begun again until it is discovered. The Maggid Mishneh explains that this law applies whether the woman immersed herself or not.

41.

For perhaps she had continued bleeding from the conclusion of her days of niddah until shortly before she made an inspection. We have no way of knowing either way and hence, give her the status of a zavah because of the doubt.

42.

Although we do not have certain evidence that she continued to bleed for this entire time, we operate under that assumption for the reason the Rambam mentions.

43.

From the statements of the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 196:2) and the notes of the Dagul Mervavah, it would appear that if the woman's flow stops in the late afternoon of the first day, it is considered to have ceased.

44.

After making a hefsek taharah, an inspection that determines that the bleeding has ceased on the previous afternoon, before sunset.

45.

Nevertheless, at the outset, a woman should inspect herself twice on each of these seven days [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 196:4)].

46.

I.e., despite the fact that she waited an extra day and did not immerse herself as soon as she was allowed, she is still considered as pure.

47.

See Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 196:4) which mentions a difference of opinion on this matter, quoting also the opinion of Sefer Mitzvot Gadol who maintains that one must make an inspection on both the first and the seventh day.

48.

Who must also inspect himself and count seven "spotless" days. See Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah, ch. 3.

49.

As is required of a zavah.

50.

Like a niddah who may not immerse herself during the day.

51.

Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 1:6.

Issurei Biah - Chapter Seven

1

When a pregnant woman begins to feel pain, the labor pains take hold of her, and there is a flow of blood before she gives birth, that bleeding called "the blood of the throes."

What are the laws that govern it? If it comes during her days of niddah, it is considered as niddah bleeding and she is impure as a niddah. If it comes in her days of zivah, she is pure.1 [This is derived from Leviticus 15:19]: "When blood flows within her flesh." According to the Oral Tradition , we learn that the bleeding must come from herself, and not because of a child.

[The above applies] provided she gives birth to a living child. If, however, she miscarries, [the laws of "the blood of] the throes" do not apply.

Even if the blood is flowing together with contractions and pain for fourteen days2 before she gives birth, this is considered as "the blood of the throes" and she is pure. If, however, the bleeding began fifteen days or more before birth, the bleeding is considered as "the blood of zivah" and the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah apply to her.3

א

מְעֻבֶרֶת שֶׁהִתְחִילָה לְהִצְטַעֵר וַאֲחָזוּהָ חֶבְלֵי לֵדָה וְהִתְחִיל הַדָּם לָצֵאת קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּלֵד אוֹתוֹ הַדָּם הוּא הַנִּקְרָא דַּם הַקֹּשִׁי. וְהֵיאַךְ דִּינוֹ. אִם בָּא בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ הֲרֵי הוּא דַּם נִדָּה וַהֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה נִדָּה. וְאִם בָּא בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּזָבָה (ויקרא טו יט) "דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ זוֹבָהּ מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָהּ וְלֹא מֵחֲמַת וָלָד. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁתֵּלֵד וָלָד חַי. אֲבָל אִם הִפִּילָה אֵין קֹשִׁי לִנְפָלִים. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַדָּם שׁוֹתֵת וְיוֹרֵד עִם הַחֲבָלִים וְהַצַּעַר י''ד יוֹם קֹדֶם שֶׁתֵּלֵד הֲרֵי זֶה דַּם קֹשִׁי וְטָהוֹר. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל הַדָּם קֹדֶם הַלֵּדָה בְּט''ו יוֹם אוֹ יֶתֶר הֲרֵי זֶה דַּם זִיבָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב:

2

When does the above apply? When the contractions, throes, and pain did not cease, but instead, she continued having difficulty until she gave birth. If, however, she discovered bleeding for three days or more during her "days of zivah" amid pain and throes, but the pains cease and the throes ease after three days and she is able to remain comfortable for 24 hours or more, she is a zavah.4 For if the bleeding was coming as a result of the child, the pain and the throes would not cease [for that long]. If she gives birth afterwards, the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah apply to her.5

ב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁלֹּא פָּסְקוּ הַצִּירִים וְהַחֲבָלִים וְהַצַּעַר אֶלָּא מִתְקַשָּׁה וְהוֹלֶכֶת עַד שֶׁיָּלְדָה. אֲבָל אִם רָאֲתָה דָּם שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים אוֹ יֶתֶר בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ בְּצַעַר וַחֲבָלִים וּפָסַק לָהּ הַצַּעַר וְרָוַח לָהּ מִן הַחֲבָלִים אַחַר הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים וְעָמְדָה בְּנַחַת כ''ד שָׁעוֹת אוֹ יֶתֶר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק הַדָּם וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר הַצַּעַר וְהַחֲבָלִים אַחַר כ''ד שָׁעוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה. שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה הַדָּם מֵחֲמַת הַוָּלָד לֹא פָּסַק הַצַּעַר וְלֹא הַחֲבָלִים. וְאִם יָלְדָה אַחֲרֵי כֵן הֲרֵי זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב:

3

When she discovers bleeding for one day without pain and then for two days with difficulty and then gives birth, [discovers bleeding] for two days without pain and then for one day with difficulty and gives birth, or [discovers bleeding] for one day with difficulty, then for one day without pain, and then for one day with difficulty and gives birth, the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah do not apply to her.

If, however, she discovers bleeding for one day with difficulty and then for two days without pain and then6 gives birth, [discovers bleeding] for two days with difficulty and then for one day without pain and gives birth, or [discovers bleeding] for one day without pain, then for one day with difficulty, and then for one day without pain and gives birth, the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah apply to her.7

This is the general principle: When there are throes in proximity to birth, the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah do not apply to her. When there is ease in proximity to birth, the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah apply to her.

ג

רָאֲתָה יוֹם אֶחָד בְּלֹא צַעַר וּשְׁנַיִם בְּקֹשִׁי וְיָלְדָה. אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּלֹא צַעַר וְיוֹם אֶחָד בְּקֹשִׁי וְיָלְדָה. אוֹ יוֹם בְּקֹשִׁי וְיוֹם בְּלֹא צַעַר וְיוֹם בְּקֹשִׁי וְיָלְדָה אֵינָהּ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב. אֲבָל אִם רָאֲתָה יוֹם אֶחָד בְּקֹשִׁי וּשְׁנַיִם בְּלֹא צַעַר וְיָלְדָה. אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בְּקֹשִׁי וְאֶחָד בְּלֹא צַעַר וְיָלְדָה. אוֹ יוֹם בְּלֹא צַעַר וְיוֹם בְּקֹשִׁי וְיוֹם בְּלֹא צַעַר וְיָלְדָה הֲרֵי זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב. זֶה הַכְּלָל קֹשִׁי סָמוּךְ לַלֵּדָה אֵין זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב. שֹׁפִי סָמוּךְ לַלֵּדָה הֲרֵי זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב:

4

When the third day of her sighting blood is the day on which she gives birth, even if the entire day is characterized by ease, the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah do not apply to her. [The rationale is that] the day she gave birth is close to difficulty.8

If she discovered bleeding for two days and miscarried on the third day, but did not identify what emerged in the miscarriage,9 her status is doubtful. There is a question if the laws of zivah or the laws of a woman who gave birth apply to her.10

ד

חָל שְׁלִישִׁי לִרְאִיָּתָהּ לִהְיוֹת בְּיוֹם הַלֵּדָה אֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ בְּשֹׁפִי אֵין זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב. שֶׁהֲרֵי יוֹם הַלֵּדָה סָמוּךְ לַקֹּשִׁי. רָאֲתָה שְׁנֵי יָמִים וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁי הִפִּילָה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מַה הִפִּילָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק יוֹלֶדֶת וּסְפֵק זָבָה:

5

What are the laws that apply to a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah? She must abide seven spotless days.11 Afterwards, she immerses herself at night and is permitted to her husband. Only then do the laws of "the blood of purity" apply to her. She must bring an offering of a zavah and the offering of childbirth. Accordingly, if she gives birth to a male, even if her bleeding ceases on the day she gives birth, she should count seven "spotless" days and immerse herself. If she gives birth to a female and counts seven "spotless" days which conclude with the fourteen days [she is impure because of] birth or after them, she can immerse herself and she is permitted to her husband. If the days of her counting conclude within the fourteen days, she is forbidden to her husband until the fifteenth night.12

ה

כֵּיצַד דִּין יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב. צְרִיכָה לֵישֵׁב שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְטוֹבֶלֶת לָעֶרֶב. וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּהְיֶה מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִהְיֶה לָהּ דַּם טֹהַר וּמְבִיאָה קָרְבַּן זָבָה וְקָרְבַּן יוֹלֶדֶת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם יָלְדָה זָכָר אֲפִלּוּ פָּסַק הַדָּם בְּיוֹם הַלֵּדָה סוֹפֶרֶת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְטוֹבֶלֶת. וְאִם יָלְדָה נְקֵבָה וְסָפְרָה שִׁבְעָה נְקִיִּים וְשָׁלְמוּ עִם י''ד שֶׁל לֵדָה אוֹ לְאַחֲרֵיהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ טוֹבֶלֶת וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. וְאִם שָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה בְּתוֹךְ י''ד הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ עַד לֵיל ט''ו:

6

What is implied? If she discovered bleeding for three days and then counted seven "spotless" days, there are [only] ten days and she remains forbidden to her husband until the fifteenth night.13 For the entire fourteen days, she is like a niddah.

Why do we not require a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah to count seven "spotless" days after the seven days [of impurity that follow] the birth of a male or the fourteen days [of impurity that follow] the birth of a female?14Because the days following birth and the days of niddah in which blood is not sighted are counted as part of the seven "spotless" days, as will be explained.15

ו

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְסָפְרָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים הֲרֵי עֲשָׂרָה. וַעֲדַיִן הִיא אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ עַד לֵיל ט''ו. שֶׁכָּל י''ד הִיא כְּנִדָּה. וְלָמָּה אֵין מַצְרִיכִין אֶת הַיּוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב לִסְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה אַחַר שִׁבְעָה שֶׁל זָכָר וְאַחַר י''ד שֶׁל נְקֵבָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיְּמֵי לֵדָתָהּ וִימֵי נִדָּתָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ רוֹאָה בָּהֶן עוֹלִין לָהּ לִסְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

7

When a woman who gives birth while in the state of zivah does not cease bleeding,16 [the laws of] "the blood of purity" do not apply to her. Instead, any uterine bleeding is considered as the bleeding of zivah. If, however, she counted seven "spotless" days, completed the fourteen days [following the birth of] a female, and then immersed herself, [the laws of] "the blood of purity" apply to her [should] she sight bleeding during the 40 days following the birth of a male and the 80 days following the birth of a female.17

ז

יוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק דָּמָהּ אֵין לָהּ דַּם טֹהַר. אֶלָּא כָּל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה כְּדַם זִיבָה הוּא. אֲבָל אִם סָפְרָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְשָׁלְמוּ י''ד שֶׁל נְקֵבָה וְטָבְלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבָּעִים שֶׁל זָכָר וּשְׁמוֹנִים שֶׁל נְקֵבָה הֲרֵי זֶה דַּם טֹהַר:

8

If she counted seven "spotless" days, but did not immerse herself immediately and afterwards18 discovered bleeding, she may [nevertheless] immerse herself. She is permitted to her husband immediately, for all of the days of purity are not fit neither for niddah, nor for zivah.19 Nevertheless, until she immerses herself, the blood itself is impure and renders others impure like the blood of niddah.20

ח

סָפְרָה שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְלֹא טָבְלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָאֲתָה דָּם הֲרֵי זוֹ טוֹבֶלֶת וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ מִיָּד. שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי טֹהַר אֵינָן רְאוּיוֹת לֹא לְנִדָּה וְלֹא לְזִיבָה. אֲבָל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל דָּם טָמֵא וּמְטַמֵּא כְּדִין דַּם הַנִּדָּה עַד שֶׁתִּטְבּל:

9

[The following laws apply when a woman] gives birth to a female and after the fourteen days of impurity, she becomes pregnant again. She then [begins to miscarry and] the blood of childbirth begins to flow with the 80 days [of blood of purity]. This is also considered as "pure" blood. Although generally, we do not consider bleeding which precedes miscarriage as bleeding which precedes childbirth,21 [an exception is made in this instance]. For any blood that she sights during the days of purity is pure until she [actually] miscarries. When she miscarries, she becomes impure because of the birth. If [the fetus] she miscarries was male, she is impure as if she gave birth to a male. If [the fetus] she miscarries was female, she is impure as if she gave birth to a female. She counts the days of impurity and then the days of purity from the second "birth."

Even if she was pregnant with twins and miscarried one on one day and miscarried the other after several days passed, she counts days of impurity and days of purity from the second [miscarriage].

ט

הַיּוֹלֶדֶת נְקֵבָה וְאַחַר י''ד שֶׁלָּהּ נִתְעַבְּרָה וְהִתְחִיל דַּם הַקֹּשִׁי לָבֹא לָהּ בְּתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים הֲרֵי הוּא דַּם טֹהַר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין קֹשִׁי לִנְפָלִים שֶׁכָּל דָּמִים שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי טֹהַר טָהוֹר הוּא עַד שֶׁתַּפִּיל הַוָּלָד. וּכְשֶׁתַּפִּיל תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה לֵדָה. אִם הִפִּילָה זָכָר טֻמְאַת זָכָר וְאִם הִפִּילָה נְקֵבָה טֻמְאַת נְקֵבָה. וּמוֹנָה יְמֵי טֻמְאָה וִימֵי מְלֹאת מִוָּלָד שֵׁנִי. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ תְּאוֹמִים וְהִפִּילָה הַיּוֹם אֶחָד וְהִפִּילָה הָאַחֵר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים מוֹנָה לַשֵּׁנִי יְמֵי טֻמְאָה וִימֵי מְלֹאת:

10

When the flow of a zavah ceases, she begins to count her seven "spotless" days, and then the blood of the throes of childbirth comes in the midst of the "spotless" days, it does not nullify her counting. [On the contrary,] the days of bleeding are counted as part of the seven days.22

Similarly, if she gave birth in the midst of the seven "spotless" days, the birth does not nullify her counting. Indeed, the days of birth can be counted in the seven ["spotless"] days23 even though she is impure. [This is indicated by Leviticus 15:28]: "If she has become pure from her zivah." Implied is that since she has become pure from her zivah - even though she is impure for other reasons, e.g., the impurity of childbirth, the impurity of niddah, or the impurity of tzara'at24 - she may count on them. These types of impurity and the like do not nullify her counting.

י

זָבָה שֶׁפָּסַק זוֹבָהּ וְהִתְחִילָה לִמְנוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים וּבָא לָהּ דַּם קֹשִׁי בְּתוֹךְ יָמִים נְקִיִּים אֵינוֹ סוֹתֵר. וִימֵי הַקֹּשִׁי עוֹלִים לְמִנְיַן שִׁבְעָה. וְכֵן אִם יָלְדָה בְּשִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים אֵין הַלֵּדָה סוֹתֶרֶת. וִימֵי הַלֵּדָה עוֹלִין לָהּ לְמִנְיַן שִׁבְעָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה בָּהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כח) "וְאִם טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ" כֵּיוָן שֶׁטָּהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה טֻמְאָה אַחֶרֶת כְּגוֹן טֻמְאַת לֵדָה אוֹ טֻמְאַת נִדָּה אוֹ טֻמְאַת צָרַעַת הֲרֵי זוֹ סוֹפֶרֶת בָּהֶן. וְאֵין טֻמְאוֹת אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן סוֹתְרִין הַסְּפִירָה:

11

When a woman does not discover bleeding in her niddah days25 and the days following childbirth, they may be counted as part of her seven "spotless" days. If she does discover bleeding during these days, these days are not counted, nor do they nullify her previous reckoning. Instead, she completes her counting, adding to the days counted previously, when her bleeding ceases. For the only bleeding that nullifies a woman's counting is zivah bleeding. These types of bleeding invalidate only that very day.

יא

יְמֵי לֵדָתָהּ וִימֵי נִדָּתָהּ אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ עוֹלִין לָהּ לִסְפִירַת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְאִם רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם אֵין עוֹלִין לָהּ יְמֵי הָרְאִיָּה וְלֹא סוֹתְרִין כָּל הַיָּמִים. אֶלָּא מַשְׁלֶמֶת עַל הַיָּמִים שֶׁסָּפְרָה כְּשֶׁיִּפְסֹק הַדָּם. שֶׁאֵין סוֹתֵר הַכּל אֶלָּא רְאִיָּה שֶׁל זוֹב אֲבָל אֵלּוּ סוֹתְרִין יוֹמָן בִּלְבַד:

12

After you have understood all the fundamental principles which we have explained, you will be able to comprehend our Sages' statement26 that a woman may discover uterine bleeding for 114 consecutive days without becoming a [major] zavah.

What is implied? [The first days are] the last two days before her days of niddah.27 [They are followed by] the seven days of niddah, two days [of zivah] which follow the days of niddah,28 14 days of [pre-birth] difficulty, the 80 days associated with the birth of a female, the seven days of niddah, and two days [of zivah] which follow the days of niddah.

From this, one learns that any bleeding that a woman discovers after the completion of the days associated with childbirth marks the beginning of her days of niddah. We do not pay attention to the previously existing times when she would be expected to menstruate.

Accordingly, there is a doubt whether a woman who discovers bleeding bein hashamashot29 is a niddah. For perhaps it is considered as if she discovered the bleeding at night, when her days of niddah could begin.

יב

מֵאַחַר שֶׁתָּבִין כָּל הָעִקָּרִים שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. יִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁתִּרְאֶה הָאִשָּׁה דָּם מִן הַמָּקוֹר יוֹם אַחַר יוֹם מֵאָה וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם וְלֹא תִּהְיֶה זָבָה. כֵּיצַד. שְׁנַיִם לִפְנֵי נִדָּתָהּ וְשִׁבְעָה יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וּשְׁנַיִם לְאַחַר יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר קֹשִׁי. וּשְׁמוֹנִים שֶׁל נְקֵבָה. וְשִׁבְעָה יְמֵי נִדָּה. וּשְׁנַיִם אַחַר יְמֵי נִדָּה. הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה הָאִשָּׁה אַחַר יוֹם מְלֹאת הוּא תְּחִלַּת נִדָּתָהּ וְאֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין עַל וְסָתוֹת שֶׁמִּקֹּדֶם. לְפִיכָךְ הָרוֹאָה דָּם בְּסוֹף יוֹם מְלֹאת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נִדָּה שֶׁמָּא בַּלַּיְלָה רָאֲתָה הַדָּם שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ:

13

We have already explained30 that when a woman continues her niddah bleeding for seven days, she is permitted to engage in relations on the night of the eighth day after she immerses herself.31 A minor zavah who watches herself for one pure day and immerses herself is permitted to engage in relations in the evening. A major zavah must count seven "spotless" days. Then she immerses herself and is permitted to engage in relations on the night of the eighth day. There are only eleven days between [one set of] the "days of niddah" and a second set. During these eleven days, [a woman who discovers uterine bleeding will be either a minor zavah or a major zavah.

יג

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַנִּדָּה שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם כָּל שִׁבְעָה מֻתֶּרֶת לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי אַחַר שֶׁתִּטְבּל. וְזָבָה קְטַנָּה מְשַׁמֶּרֶת יוֹם אֶחָד טָהוֹר וְטוֹבֶלֶת וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְשַׁמֵּשׁ לָעֶרֶב. וְזָבָה גְּדוֹלָה סוֹפֶרֶת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְטוֹבֶלֶת וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי. וְאֵין בֵּין זְמַן נִדָּה לְנִדָּה אֶלָּא אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם בִּלְבַד. וּבְאוֹתָן הָאַחַד עָשָׂר תִּהְיֶה זָבָה קְטַנָּה אוֹ גְּדוֹלָה:

14

When you will remember all of these fundamental points, you will understand our Sages' statement32 that a woman who has established a fixed [continuous] pattern in which she discovers bleeding on one day and does not discover it on the following day. At the outset, she may engage in relations on the night and day of the eighth day,33 i.e., the first day after her "days of niddah." [On the whole,] she may engage in relations only four nights34 during eighteen days.35 She may not engage in relations during the days which are pure, because the days must be watched because of the [previous] impure day.36 Accordingly, if on the impure days, she always discovers bleeding at the beginning of the night, she may only engage in relations on the eighth day which is the first day after her "days of niddah."

יד

וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁתִּהְיֶה זוֹכֵר כָּל אֵלּוּ הָעִקָּרִים יִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ זֶה שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים. הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהֻחְזְקָה כָּל יָמֶיהָ יוֹם תִּרְאֶה דָּם וְיוֹם לֹא תִּרְאֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי וּבְיוֹם שְׁמִינִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹם אֶחָד אַחַר יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּכָל י''ח יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה לֵילוֹת בִּלְבַד. וְאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בַּיָּמִים הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁהַיּוֹם הַטָּהוֹר הוּא שׁוֹמֵר לַיּוֹם הַטָּמֵא. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה רוֹאָה הַדָּם בְּכָל יוֹם טָמֵא מִתְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה אֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶלָּא בַּשְּׁמִינִי בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא יוֹם אֶחָד אַחַר יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ:

15

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for two impure days and then to experience two pure days, she may engage in relations on the eighth, the twelfth, the sixteenth, and the twentieth.37

טו

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה שְׁנֵי יָמִים טְמֵאִין וּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טְהוֹרִים מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בַּשְּׁמִינִי וּבַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר וּבַעֶשְׂרִים:

16

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for three impure days and then to experience three pure days, she may engage in relations on two of the three pure days that follow her "days of niddah." For the first of them must be watched because of the two impure days that following her "days of niddah."38 Afterwards, she may never engage in relations again. For she will be established as a major zavah,39 but will never count seven "spotless" days [to purify herself].40

טז

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים טְמֵאִין וּשְׁלֹשָׁה טְהוֹרִין מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שְׁנֵי יָמִים מֵהַשְּׁלֹשָׁה הַטְּהוֹרִין שֶׁאַחַר יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. שֶׁהָאֶחָד מֵהֶן שָׁמוּר לַשְּׁנַיִם הַטְּמֵאִין הַסְּמוּכִין לְנִדָּתָהּ. וְשׁוּב אֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְעוֹלָם שֶׁהֲרֵי הֻחְזְקָה זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה וְאֵין לָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים:

17

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for four impure days and then to experience four pure days, she may engage in relations on one day after her ["days of] niddah."41 Afterwards, she may never engage in relations again.42

יז

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים טְמֵאִים וְאַרְבָּעָה יָמִים טְהוֹרִין מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת יוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁאַחַר נִדָּתָהּ וְשׁוּב אֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְעוֹלָם:

18

13If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for five impure days and then to experience five pure days, she may engage in relations on three days after her ["days of] niddah."43 Afterwards, she may never engage in relations again.

יח

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה חֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים טְמֵאִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים טְהוֹרִים. מְשַׁמֶּרֶת הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה הַסְּמוּכִים לְנִדָּתָהּ וְשׁוּב אֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְעוֹלָם:

19

13If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for six impure days and then to experience six pure days, she may engage in relations on five days after her ["days of] niddah."44 Afterwards, she may never engage in relations again.

יט

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה שִׁשָּׁה יָמִים טְמֵאִין וְשִׁשָּׁה יָמִים טְהוֹרִין מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בַּחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים הַסְּמוּכִים לְנִדָּתָהּ תְּחִלָּה וְשׁוּב אֵינָהּ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְעוֹלָם:

20

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for seven impure days and then to experience seven pure days, she may engage in relations during the first pure week that follows her ["days of] niddah." That is followed by an impure week which establishes her as a zavah.45 The week which follows is required to count [seven "spotless" days] and it is forbidden to engage in relations during it. Thus in four weeks she is allowed to engage in relations for only one week. Throughout her entire life, she may engage in relations for eighteen days in eighteen weeks.46

What is implied? During the fifth week, she is a zavah. The sixth week in which she is pure is required to count [seven "spotless" days]. During the seventh week, she is a zavah. During the eighth week, she must count. During the ninth week, when she discovers bleeding, five of these days are [during her] "days of niddah" and two are [during] the beginning of her "days of zivah."47 [Hence,] she must watch one day48 of the tenth week and may engage in relations for six [days]. During the eleventh week when she discovers bleeding, two are the conclusion of the days of zivah49 and five are during "the days of niddah." During the twelfth pure week, she may engage in relations for five days.50 During the thirteenth week, she is a zavah. During the fourteenth week, she must count. During the fifteenth week, she is a zavah. During the sixteenth week, she must count. During the seventeenth week, she is a zavah. During the eighteenth week, she must count.

She continues to count in this manner forever.51 Thus she will be able to engage in relations on eighteen days in eighteen weeks. If she did not have such a physical difficulty, and she would be a niddah for a week and be pure for eleven days, she would be able to engage in relations for eleven weeks, i.e., 77 days, out of the eighteen weeks.

כ

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה שִׁבְעָה טְמֵאִין וְשִׁבְעָה טְהוֹרִין. מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ הָרִאשׁוֹן הַטָּהוֹר הַסָּמוּךְ לְנִדָּתָהּ וְיָבוֹא אַחֲרָיו שָׁבוּעַ טָמֵא תִּקָּבַע בּוֹ זָבָה וְהַשָּׁבוּעַ הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁיָּבוֹא אַחֲרָיו לִסְפִירָה וַאֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בּוֹ. נִמְצֵאת שֶׁלֹּא שִׁמְּשָׁה מִטָּתָהּ בְּאַרְבָּעָה שָׁבוּעוֹת אֶלָּא שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד. וְכָל יָמֶיהָ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר יוֹם בְּכָל שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר שָׁבוּעוֹת. כֵּיצַד. שָׁבוּעַ חֲמִישִׁי הֲרֵי הִיא זָבָה. שָׁבוּעַ שִׁשִּׁי שֶׁהִיא בּוֹ טְהוֹרָה לִסְפִירָה. שָׁבוּעַ שְׁבִיעִי זָבָה. שָׁבוּעַ שְׁמִינִי לִסְפִירָה. שָׁבוּעַ תְּשִׁיעִי שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה בּוֹ. חֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים מִמֶּנּוּ מִימֵי נִדָּה. וּשְׁנַיִם מִתְּחִלַּת יְמֵי זִיבָה. מְשַׁמֶּרֶת יוֹם אֶחָד מִן הַשָּׁבוּעַ הַעֲשִׂירִי הַטָּהוֹר וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שִׁשָּׁה. שָׁבוּעַ אַחַד עָשָׂר שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה בּוֹ שְׁנַיִם מִסּוֹף יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ. וַחֲמִשָּׁה מִתְּחִלַּת יְמֵי נִדָּה. וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת חֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים מִשָּׁבוּעַ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר הַטָּהוֹר. שָׁבוּעַ י''ג זָבָה וְשָׁבוּעַ י''ד לִסְפִירָה. וְכֵן שָׁבוּעַ ט''ו זָבָה. שָׁבוּעַ ט''ז לִסְפִירָה. וְשָׁבוּעַ י''ז זָבָה. וְשָׁבוּעַ י''ח לִסְפִירָה. וְסוֹפֶרֶת עַל דֶּרֶךְ זוֹ לְעוֹלָם. נִמְצֵאתָ אוֹמֵר שֶׁבְּכָל י''ח שָׁבוּעוֹת מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת י''ח יוֹם. וְאִלּוּ לֹא אֵרַע לָהּ חלִי זֶה וְהָיְתָה שָׁבוּעַ נִדָּה וְי''א יוֹם טְהוֹרָה הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּכָל הַי''ח שָׁבוּעוֹת י''א שָׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁהֵן שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁבְעִים יוֹם:

21

When she discovers bleeding for one impure week and then is pure for a week, and thus can engage in relations for eighteen days, this is approximately52 one fourth of the days [on which she would ordinarily be allowed to engage in relations]. This is what our Sages53 [implied when] saying: "She may engage in relations for a fourth of her days."

כא

וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה שָׁבוּעַ טָמֵא וְשָׁבוּעַ טָהוֹר מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת י''ח יוֹם שֶׁהֵם כְּמוֹ רְבִיעַ הַיָּמִים. וְזוֹ הִיא שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת רְבִיעַ יָמֶיהָ:

22

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for eight impure days and then to experience eight pure days, she may engage in relations for fifteen days amid 48 days.54

What is implied? Of the first eight days, seven are her "days of niddah" and one is the first of the "days of zivah" that follow the "days of niddah." She must watch one of the eight pure days and can engage in relations on seven of them. Afterwards, come seven impure days. Two of them are the final days of her "days of zivah" and six are in her days of niddah. Then come eight pure days. The first of them is the conclusion of her "days of niddah."55 She may engage in relations on the remaining seven.

Then come eight impure days. Four of them are the final days of her "days of zivah" and four are in her "days of niddah." Thus she is a major zavah and must count seven "spotless" days. Afterwards, come seven pure days. She counts for seven of them and may engage in relations for one day. Thus she may engage in relations for fifteen days in each 48.56

כב

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה שְׁמֹנָה יָמִים טָמֵא וּשְׁמֹנָה יָמִים טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת ט''ו יוֹם מִתּוֹךְ מ''ח יָמִים. כֵּיצַד. שְׁמוֹנָה טָמֵא שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה שִׁבְעָה מֵהֶן יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. וְיוֹם אֶחָד זִיבוּת סָמוּךְ לְנִדָּתָהּ מְשַׁמֶּרֶת לוֹ יוֹם אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁמוֹנָה הַטְּהוֹרִין וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שִׁבְעָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָבוֹאוּ לָהּ שְׁמוֹנָה טְמֵאִין. מֵהֶן שְׁנַיִם תַּשְׁלוּם יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. וְשִׁשָּׁה מִימֵי נִדָּתָהּ. וְיָבוֹאוּ שְׁמֹנָה טְהוֹרִין יוֹם אֶחָד מֵהֶן תַּשְׁלוּם יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שִׁבְעָה שְׁנִיּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָבוֹאוּ לָהּ שְׁמוֹנָה טְמֵאִים. מֵהֶן אַרְבָּעָה תַּשְׁלוּם יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. וְאַרְבָּעָה מִימֵי נִדָּתָהּ. נִמְצֵאת זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה וּצְרִיכָה סְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה. יָבוֹאוּ לָהּ שְׁמֹנָה טְהוֹרִים. סוֹפֶרֶת מֵהֶן שִׁבְעָה וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת יוֹם אֶחָד. נִמְצֵאת מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת ט''ו יוֹם בְּכָל מ''ח:

23

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for nine impure days and then to experience nine pure days, she may engage in relations for eight days in every eighteen days forever.57

What is implied? Of the nine impure [days]: Seven of them are her "days of niddah" and two are "days of zivah" that follow her "days of niddah." She must watch one day58 of the nine pure days and may engage in relations on the remaining eight. This pattern continues forever.

כג

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה תִּשְׁעָה יָמִים טְמֵאִים וְתִּשְׁעָה יָמִים טְהוֹרִין מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שְׁמֹנָה יָמִים בְּכָל י''ח יוֹם לְעוֹלָם. כֵּיצַד תִּשְׁעָה הַטְּמֵאִים. שִׁבְעָה מֵהֶן נִדָּתָהּ וּשְׁנַיִם זִיבוּת סָמוּךְ לְנִדָּתָהּ מְשַׁמֶּרֶת לָהֶן יוֹם אֶחָד מִן הַתִּשְׁעָה הַטְּהוֹרִין וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שְׁמוֹנָה וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם:

24

If [a woman's established pattern] is to discover bleeding for ten impure days and then to experience ten pure days - and the same rules prevail for more than ten, indeed even 1000 days, if the same number of days are pure as impure59 - the number of days when she may engage in relations will equal the number of days [from when she began bleeding]60 as a zavah.

What is implied? If there are ten impure days, seven of them are days of niddah and three days of zivah. [Therefore on] her ten pure days, she must count seven and may engage in relations on three. Thus there will be three days when she may engage in relations and three days of zivah. Similarly, when she is impure for 100 days and pure for 100 days. The first seven are days of niddah and the following 93 [start on] her "days of zivah." Hence, of her 100 pure days, seven must be counted and she may engage in relations on 93 of them. Similar principles apply with regard to 1000 days or any other number of days.

כד

הָיְתָה רוֹאָה עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים טָמֵא וַעֲשָׂרָה טָהוֹר. וּמֵעֲשָׂרָה וּלְמַעְלָה אֲפִלּוּ אֶלֶף יוֹם טָמֵא וְאֶלֶף יוֹם טָהוֹר יִהְיֶה יְמֵי שִׁמּוּשָׁהּ כְּמִנְיַן זִיבָתָהּ. כֵּיצַד עֲשָׂרָה הַטְּמֵאִים. מֵהֶם שִׁבְעָה נִדָּה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה זִיבָה. עֲשָׂרָה הַטְּהוֹרִים סוֹפֶרֶת מֵהֶן שִׁבְעָה וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שְׁלֹשָׁה. נִמְצְאוּ יְמֵי הַשִּׁמּוּשׁ שְׁלֹשָׁה וִימֵי הַזָּבוּת שְׁלֹשָׁה. וְכֵן מֵאָה יוֹם טְמֵאִין וּמֵאָה טְהוֹרִין. וּמֵאָה הַטְּמֵאִין שִׁבְעָה מֵהֶן לְנִדָּה וְצ''ג זִיבוּת. הַמֵּאָה הַטְּהוֹרִין שִׁבְעָה מֵהֶן לִסְפִירָה צ''ג לְשִׁמּוּשׁ. וְכֵן אֶלֶף וְכֵן כָּל מִנְיָן וּמִנְיָן עַל דֶּרֶךְ זוֹ:

Footnotes
1.

This law applied in the Talmudic era. As explained in Chapter 11, in subsequent generations, Jewish women accepted further stringencies upon themselves and such bleeding was considered as impure.

2.

Even though there are only eleven "days of zivah and thus some of this bleeding must come during her "days of niddah," since the bleeding began during the "days of zivah," she is granted an additional leniency. Niddah 38b derives this concept through Biblical exegesis.

3.

As explained in Halachot 5-7.

4.

I.e., the bleeding is considered as ordinary "blood of zivah."

5.

As explained in Halachot 5-7.

6.

From the following halachah, the intent appears to be "on the next day," i.e., on the fourth day of this sequence.

7.

As indicated by the general principle the Rambam cites. If the bleeding before birth is not accompanied by pain, it is not coming as a result of the birth.

8.

Since she gave birth on that day, she certainly experienced difficulty on it. For it is impossible to give birth without difficulty. Hence, the bleeding on the third day is attributed to the birth (Kiryat Sefer).

9.

We are not sure if she discharged a fetus without bleeding or merely an extensive amount of bleeding. See Niddah 21b. This reinforces the position that it is possible for the uterus to open without bleeding.

10.

In which instance, she is impure because of the birth. She must, however, count one "spotless" day before immersing herself, because of the two days on which she experienced bleeding.

11.

I.e., seven days without uterine bleeding. This is extremely rare after birth. Hence it is undesirable for a woman to be given this status.

12.

She must immerse herself on the fifteenth night. For within the fourteen days, she is considered as a niddah and her immersion is of no consequence (Kessef Mishneh).

13.

Because of the birth of a female. We do not allow her to immerse herself during the day like a zavah.

14.

Seemingly, that would be necessary, for she is impure at the time she is counting.

15.

In Halachah 11.

16.

For seven "spotless" days.

17.

For once she immersed herself after counting seven "spotless" days, her bleeding is no longer impure, as reflected in the following halachah.

18.

I.e., on the day(s) after the seven "spotless" days and the fourteen days associated with the birth of a female were completed.

19.

Thus the fact that she discovered bleeding does not change her state.

20.

See Hilchot Mitamei Mishkav UMoshav 5:2.

21.

I.e., bleeding which precedes miscarriage renders a woman impure, while bleeding in the throes of childbirth does not.

22.

The Rambam's ruling is based on the concept that since this blood is not impure, there is no reason why it should interrupt her counting. It is only impure bleeding that nullifies a woman's calculations.

The Ra'avad and others differ with the Rambam's ruling, explaining (based on Niddah 37a) that although the blood that precedes childbirth does not nullify a woman's counting, since she sights bleeding on these days, they cannot be considered as "spotless" days and therefore are not included in her reckoning.

23.

Provided she does not discover bleeding on them. If, however, she discovers bleeding, as stated in the following halachah, her counting is not nullified, but the days cannot be counted as "spotless," because this blood is impure (Maggid Mishneh).

24.

An affliction which is popularly - though incorrectly - translated as leprosy. See Leviticus ch. 13 and Hilchot Tumat Tzara'at.

25.

With this statement, the Rambam is implying two points:

a) as mentioned above, a woman returns to her cycle of niddah at the advent of the appropriate day, regardless of whether she has counted seven "spotless" days or not.

b) The seven "spotless" days need not be consecutive.

As mentioned in Chapter 6, the Ramban and others differ with the Rambam concerning these points (Maggid Mishneh). To reiterate, none of these points are at all relevant in the present day. For, as will be explained in ch. 11, from the late Talmudic era onward, Jewish women accepted the practice of counting seven "spotless" days after any and all uterine bleeding.

26.

Niddah 38a. By quoting this and the other instances mentioned until the end of the chapter, the Rambam is also supporting his interpretation of "the days of niddah" and "the days of zivah," explaining these passages according to his conception of these principles.

27.

I.e., the tenth and eleventh days of the days of zivah.

28.

From this, we see that the three days of zivah bleeding must be consecutive. If they are interrupted by other days, even by days on which the woman suffers uterine bleeding, she is not considered as a zavah.

29.

Between sunset and nightfall, at which time, there is, as explained above, a doubt whether it should be considered part of the previous day or the coming day.

30.

Chapter 4, Halachah 6; Chapter 6, Halachot 9-11.

31.

Provided of course, the bleeding ceases before nightfall.

32.

Niddah 54a.

33.

For as stated in the previous halachah, a woman may immerse herself and engage in relations directly after her "days of niddah" even if she discovered bleeding on the last day.

34.

I.e., the nights, but not the days.

35.

After eighteen days, the entire cycle repeats itself for her "days of niddah" begin again.

36.

I.e., a minor zavah must watch one day for every impure day. Therefore the woman must watch the tenth day, because of the bleeding of the ninth, the twelfth day, because of the bleeding of the eleventh, etc. In addition to the day and the night preceding and following the eighth day, he is allowed to engage in relations only on the nights preceding the eleventh, thirteenth, fifteenth, and seventeenth days. For the days which precedes these nights are pure. The other nights were preceded by days in which she discovered uterine bleeding.

37.

After the eighteenth day, she returns to her "days of niddah." The Rambam, nevertheless, mentions the twentieth day, because she is permitted to engage in relations on that day, because although it is in her "days of niddah," since she does not discover bleeding, she is not rendered impure. Although the cycle does not repeat itself in exactly the same manner צ i.e., her status in the second 18 days is opposite from the first צ she may engage in relations the same number of nights.

She is not permitted to engage in relations on the eleventh, fifteenth, and nineteenth days, for these days must be watched because of the impurity of the preceding two days.

38.

I.e., she will have discovered bleeding on the eight and ninth days, rendering her a minor zavah and requiring that she watch one pure day.

39.

After discovering blood on the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth days.

40.

For she only has three "pure" days, before she bleeds again.

41.

For the eighth day, the day immediately following her days of niddah is not impure.

42.

For as explained in the previous halachah, she will never reach seven "spotless" days to purify herself from the state of zivah. This principle also applies in the following two halachot.

43.

For the eighth, ninth, and tenth days are pure.

44.

For the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth days are pure.

45.

For the first four days of this week of impurity fall during her "days of zivah."

46.

After eighteen weeks, she returns to her original situation, discovering bleeding for her seven "days of niddah" and then begins the entire cycle again.

47.

Since she discovered bleeding during only two days of zivah, she is not considered as a major zavah and is not required to count seven "spotless" days.

48.

As is required of a minor zavah.

49.

Since she discovered bleeding during only two days of zivah, she is not considered as a major zavah and is not required to count seven "spotless" days.

50.

For the first two days are "days of niddah" that where preceded by days on which she discovered bleeding. Hence she is forbidden to engage in relations on them.

51.

For as stated above, every eighteen weeks, she returns to her original cycle.

52.

A day and a fraction less.

53.

Niddah 54a. This represents the Rambam's understanding of that passage. As the Maggid Mishneh relates, the Ramban has a different conception of the meaning of "days of niddah" and "days of zivah." According to his conception, our Sages' words can be interpreted exactly."

54.

The Maggid Mishneh notes that there is a difficulty, because the cycle does not renew itself after 48 days. Instead, it is not until 144 days that the cycle is renewed. Again, it is because of his interpretation of "days of niddah" and "days of zivah" that he somewhat contorts the interpretation of Niddah, loc. cit.. The Maggid Mishneh notes that in this instance as well, the interpretation of the Ramban leads to a straightforward explanation of that passage.

55.

Hence she may not engage in relations on it. It nevertheless serves as a "spotless" day to release the prohibition from the two days of zivah bleeding.

56.

In truth in the first 48 out of 144 as stated above.

57.

In this instance, the Rambam's interpretation also produce an effective calculation. For the woman's physical cycle is renewed every eighteen days and precisely that time is duration of the cycle of niddah and zivah.

58.

For she does not become a major zavah if she bleeds for two days.

59.

In this instance, the pattern will always return to the same starting point, for in all instances, the woman will have three days of zivah among her impure days and seven "spotless" days among her pure days. She will thus always become a zavah and require seven "spotless" days to become pure. Even though in the subsequent cycles, the first day she discovers bleeding may not be one of her "days of niddah," the same laws still apply.

60.

We have made this addition so that the Rambam's statements follow his interpretation of "days of zivah." See the Maggid Mishneh.

Issurei Biah - Chapter Eight

1

There are women who have vesetot, established times [when they menstruate] and other women who do not have vesetot. Instead, they feel nothing until the blood is actually released1 and they do not have a fixed day on which they menstruate.

[The intent when speaking of] a woman who has a veset is that there is a specific day - [e.g.,] from the twentieth [day of the month] to the twentieth or from the twenty-fourth to the twenty-fourth, or more or less - [on which she begins to menstruate].

א

יֵשׁ אִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת וְיֵשׁ אִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ וֶסֶת אֶלָּא לֹא תַּרְגִּישׁ בְּעַצְמָהּ עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַדָּם וְאֵין לָהּ יוֹם קָבוּעַ לִרְאִיָּתָהּ. וְזֶהוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת הִיא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ יוֹם קָבוּעַ. אוֹ מֵעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם לְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם. אוֹ מִכ''ד יוֹם לְכ''ד יוֹם. אוֹ פָּחוֹת אוֹ יוֹתֵר:

2

Before the onset of menstruation, she will demonstrate physical symptoms,2 [e.g.,] she yawns, sneezes,3 feels anxiety at the opening to her stomach and lower intestinal area, the hairs of her flesh will stand up, her flesh will become warm, or any similar physical symptoms.4 She will experience these - or at least one of these - symptoms at the fixed time when she [will menstruate] on the established day.

ב

וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹא הַדָּם תַּרְגִּישׁ בְּעַצְמָהּ. מְפַהֶקֶת וּמִתְעַטֶּשֶׁת וְחוֹשֶׁשֶׁת פִּי כְּרֵסָהּ וְשִׁפּוּלֵי מֵעֶיהָ וְיִסְתַּמֵּר שַׂעֲרַת בְּשָׂרָהּ אוֹ יֵחַם בְּשָׂרָהּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּמְאֹרָעוֹת אֵלּוּ. וְיָבוֹאוּ לָהּ וְסָתוֹת אֵלּוּ אוֹ אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּשָׁעָה הַקְּבוּעָה לָהּ מִיּוֹם וֶסְתָּהּ:

3

We have already explained5 that any woman who does not have a [fixed] veset is forbidden to engage in relations until she makes an internal examination first. If she has a [fixed] veset, she is forbidden to engage in relations through the entire time of the veset. If her veset is during the day, she is forbidden to engage in relations throughout the entire day.6 If her veset is during the night, she is forbidden to engage in relations throughout the entire night. She should begin counting her "days of niddah" and her "days of zivah"7 from the day of the veset at all times.8

ג

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ וֶסֶת אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ עַד שֶׁתִּבְדֹּק עַצְמָהּ תְּחִלָּה. וְשֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּכָל עוֹנַת הַוֶּסֶת. אִם וֶסְתָּהּ בַּיּוֹם אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. וְאִם וֶסְתָּהּ בַּלַּיְלָה אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה. וּמִתְּחִלַּת יוֹם הַוֶּסֶת תִּסְפֹּר יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ לְעוֹלָם:

4

Therefore women must be careful with regard to vesetot until they know the day and the hour when a veset is established. If her pattern was to begin menstruation on the twentieth day9 and the twentieth day came and she did not menstruate and she did menstruate on the twenty-third, she is forbidden [to engage in relations on] the twentieth and twenty-third.10

Similarly, if a second time she did not menstruate on the twentieth and [instead,] began to menstruate on the twenty-third day, both days remain forbidden.11 If for a third time, she did not menstruate on the twentieth and [instead,] began to menstruate on the twenty-third day, the twentieth day is purified12 and the veset is transferred to the twenty-third day. For a woman does not establish a veset until she establishes it three times, nor does she uproot a veset until she bypasses it three times.

ד

לְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכוֹת הַנָּשִׁים לְהִזָּהֵר בִּוְסָתוֹת עַד שֶׁתֵּדַע הַיּוֹם וְהַשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּקְבְּעָה בָּהּ וֶסְתָּהּ. הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִרְאוֹת בְּיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וּבָא יוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְלֹא רָאֲתָה וּבָא יוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְרָאֲתָה הֲרֵי יוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְיוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים שְׁנֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִין. וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה בְּיוֹם כ''ג וְלֹא רָאֲתָה בְּיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים עֲדַיִן שְׁנֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִין. רָאֲתָה פַּעַם שְׁלִישִׁית בְּיוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְלֹא רָאֲתָה בְּיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים טָהַר יוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְנֶעֱקָר הַוֶּסֶת לְיוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים. שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה קוֹבַעַת וֶסֶת עַד שֶׁתִּקְבָּעֶנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים. וְאֵינָהּ מִטַּהֶרֶת מִן הַוֶּסֶת עַד שֶׁתֵּעָקֵר מִמֶּנָּה שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים:

5

When a veset is established because of outside factors, even if recurs several times, it is not a veset, because [menstruation] came as a result of an outside factor.13

If a woman jumped14 and menstruated and [again] jumped and menstruated, she establishes a veset for the specific day without considering whether she jumped. What is implied? She jumped on Sunday and menstruated. After an interval of 20 days,15 she again jumped on Sunday and menstruated. Then after an interval of 19 days, she jumped on the Sabbath and did not menstruate, but menstruated after the Sabbath without jumping, she establishes [a fixed veset] for Sunday after a twenty day interval.16 For it is clear that the interval causes her to menstruate and not jumping,17 and the interval has been established as the onset of menstruation on three occasions. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ה

כָּל וֶסֶת שֶׁנִּקְבַּע מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס אֲפִלּוּ רָאֲתָה בּוֹ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים אֵינוֹ וֶסֶת שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי הָאֹנֶס רָאֲתָה. קָפְצָה וְרָאֲתָה קָפְצָה וְרָאֲתָה קָבְעָה לָהּ וֶסֶת לְיָמִים בְּלֹא קְפִיצוֹת. כֵּיצַד. קָפְצָה בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְרָאֲתָה דָּם. וּלְאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים יוֹם קָפְצָה בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְרָאֲתָה דָּם. וּלְאַחַר י''ט קָפְצָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא רָאֲתָה דָּם וּלְאַחַר שַׁבָּת רָאֲתָה בְּלֹא קְפִיצָה. הֲרֵי נִקְבָּע אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת אַחַר עֶשְׂרִים. שֶׁהֲרֵי נוֹדַע שֶׁהַיּוֹם גָּרַם לָהּ לִרְאוֹת וְלֹא הַקְּפִיצָה. וּכְבָר נִקְבַּע יוֹם זֶה שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

6

When a woman begins menstruating on the fifteenth of one month, and menstruates on the sixteenth of the following month, the seventeenth of the month which follows that, and the eighteen of the month which follows that, she establishes a veset which advances.18

If during the fourth month, she begins menstruating on the seventeenth, the veset is not established.19 Instead, [in the following month,] she suspects that she will menstruate on the day on which she menstruated during the previous month.20If that day arrives and she does not menstruate, that day becomes pure and is no longer suspected. For only a date that has been established by three [consecutive onsets] need be uprooted by three consecutive occasions when menstruation does not occur.

ו

רָאֲתָה יוֹם ט''ו בְּחֹדֶשׁ זֶה וְיוֹם ט''ז בְּחֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו וְיוֹם י''ז בְּחֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו וְיוֹם י''ח לְחֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו הֲרֵי קָבְעָה לָהּ וֶסֶת לְדִלּוּג. בָּא חֹדֶשׁ רְבִיעִי וְרָאֲתָה בְּיוֹם י''ז עֲדַיִן לֹא נִקְבָּע לָהּ וֶסֶת. וְכָל יוֹם שֶׁרָאֲתָה בּוֹ חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לוֹ לְהַבָּא. כֵּיוָן שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וְלֹא תִּרְאֶה טָהַר אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מִן הַוֶּסֶת שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ עֲקִירַת שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים אֶלָּא יוֹם שֶׁנִּקְבַּע שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים:

7

If her pattern had been to begin menstruation on the fifteenth and she changed21 to the sixteenth, [relations] are forbidden on both.22 If, [in the following month,] she changed to the seventeenth, the sixteenth is released and the seventeenth becomes prohibited. The fifteenth remains prohibited.23 If, [in the following month,] she changed to the eighteenth, the eighteenth becomes prohibited24 and all the other dates are released.

ז

הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִהְיוֹת רוֹאָה יוֹם ט''ו וְשִׁנְּתָה לְט''ז שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִין. שִׁנְּתָה לְי''ז הֻתַּר ט''ז וְנֶאֱסַר י''ז וְט''ו בְּאִסּוּרוֹ עוֹמֵד. שִׁנְּתָה לְי''ח נֶאֱסַר י''ח וְהֻתְּרוּ כֻּלָּם:

8

If her pattern had been to begin menstruation on the twentieth day and she changed to the twenty-second, they are both forbidden.25 If, [in the following month,] the twentieth arrives and she does not menstruate, but she does menstruate on the twenty-second, they both remain forbidden. If, [in the following month,] the twentieth arrived and she began menstruating, she is considered to have returned to her fixed pattern.26 The twenty-second is released, because it was not established through three [onsets of menstruation].

ח

הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִרְאוֹת יוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁנְּתָה לְיוֹם כ''ב שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִין. הִגִּיעַ עֶשְׂרִים וְלֹא רָאֲתָה כ''ב וְרָאֲתָה עֲדַיִן שְׁנֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִין. הִגִּיעַ יוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְרָאֲתָה טָהַר יוֹם כ''ב. שֶׁהֲרֵי חָזְרָה לְוֶסְתָּהּ הַקָּבוּעַ וְנֶעֱקַר כ''ב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִקְבַּע שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים:

9

A woman does not establish a veset in the midst of her "days of niddah" during which she has menstruated.27 Since she menstruates on one of these days, she cannot establish a veset in any of the seven. Similarly, a woman does not establish a veset in her eleven "days of zivah." She may, however, establish a fixed veset in her "days of niddah" when she has not menstruated.

If she established a veset in her "days of zivah,"28 she must show concern over that veset.29 Whenever a veset is established in [a woman's] "days of zivah," it is uprooted if it is bypassed even once. It does not have to be bypassed three times. [The rationale is that] it is an accepted presumption that a woman's [menstrual] blood is withdrawn on these days.30

ט

אֵין הָאִשָּׁה קוֹבַעַת לָהּ וֶסֶת בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ שֶׁרָאֲתָה בָּהֶן. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאֲתָה יוֹם אֶחָד אֵינָהּ קוֹבַעַת לָהּ וֶסֶת בְּכָל הַשִּׁבְעָה. וְכֵן אֵין הָאִשָּׁה קוֹבַעַת וֶסֶת בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ שֶׁהֵן אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם. אֲבָל קוֹבַעַת הִיא וֶסֶת בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ רוֹאָה בָּהֶן. וְאִם נִקְבָּע לָהּ וֶסֶת בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְוֶסְתָּהּ. וְכָל וֶסֶת שֶׁקָּבְעָה בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ אִם נֶעֶקְרָה אֲפִלּוּ פַּעַם אַחַת נֶעֶקְרָה וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְהֵעָקֵר שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים שֶׁחֶזְקַת דָּמִים מְסֻלָּקִין הֵן לְיָמִים אֵלּוּ:

10

What is meant by "she must show concern over that veset"? If she sighted bleeding on this veset for even one day, she must wait as a niddah because of the doubt.31 [In the following month,] she is forbidden to engage in relations on that day even if she did not sight bleeding as32 on the other days of the vesetot. If she discovers bleeding for three successive days, she is a zavah.33

י

כֵּיצַד חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְוֶסֶת. אִם רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּוֶסֶת זוֹ אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם אֶחָד תֵּשֵׁב לְנִדָּתָהּ מִסָּפֵק וַאֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם. וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא רָאֲתָה בִּשְׁאָר יְמֵי הַוְּסָתוֹת. וְאִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה:

11

When a woman frequently inspects herself at all times, her conduct is praiseworthy.34 [This applies] even if she has established a fixed veset. For bleeding may come at times other than her veset.

During the eleven days of zivah, we assume that she is pure.35 [Hence,] she need not inspect herself. After her days of zivah,36 however, she should inspect herself.

יא

כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁמַּרְבָּה לִבְדֹּק עַצְמָהּ תָּמִיד הֲרֵי זוֹ מְשֻׁבַּחַת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת קְבוּעָה. שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיָּבוֹא דָּם בְּלֹא שְׁעַת הַוֶּסֶת. וְכָל י''א יוֹם שֶׁל יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ הֲרֵי הִיא בָּהֶן בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה בְּדִיקָה. אֲבָל אַחַר יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ צְרִיכָה לִבְדֹּק:

12

When a woman remains passive37 and does not inspect herself, either because of forces beyond her control or intentionally, she is assumed to be pure until she inspects herself and discovers [that she is] impure.38

יב

שָׁכְחָה וְלֹא בָּדְקָה בֵּין בְּאֹנֶס בֵּין בְּרָצוֹן הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה עַד שֶׁתִּבְדֹּק וְתִמָּצֵא טְמֵאָה:

13

[The following laws apply when] a woman did not inspect herself at the time of her veset39 and inspected herself a few days afterwards and discovered that she was impure. Retroactively, she is considered impure from the time of her veset with regard to matters of ritual purity and impurity, as will be explained.40 Nevertheless, she does not render a man who engaged in relations with her impure retroactively41 and she may not count [the days of niddah] except from the time she discovered the bleeding.42 If [in the inspection], she discovered that she is pure, we operate under the assumption that she is pure.43

יג

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בִּשְׁעַת וֶסְתָּהּ וּלְאַחַר יָמִים בָּדְקָה וּמָצְאָה טָמֵא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה לְמַפְרֵעַ עַד שְׁעַת וֶסְתָּהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה. הֲרֵי זוֹ אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה אֶת בּוֹעֲלָהּ לְמַפְרֵעַ. וְאֵינָהּ מוֹנָה אֶלָּא מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם. וְאִם מָצְאָה עַצְמָהּ טְהוֹרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טְהוֹרָה:

14

Similarly, when a woman discovers bleeding due to a wound that she has in her uterus, she is pure, even if she discovers the bleeding at the time of her veset.44 The blood is also pure. [The rationale is that the obligation to show concern for] vesetot is Rabbinic in origin, as will be explained in Hilchot Mitamei Mishkav UMoshav.45

יד

וְכֵן אִשָּׁה שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם מֵחֲמַת מַכָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ בַּמָּקוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאֲתָה בִּשְׁעַת וֶסְתָּהּ הִיא טְהוֹרָה וְהַדָּם טָהוֹר. שֶׁהַוְּסָתוֹת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת מְטַמְּאֵי מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב:

15

A blind woman should conduct an internal examination herself and show [the ed] to her friends.46 A deaf-mute47 and a mentally or emotionally incapacitated woman must be inspected by intellectually capable women48 so that their vesetot can be established. [Afterwards,] they are permitted to their husbands.49

טו

הַסּוּמָא בּוֹדֶקֶת עַצְמָהּ וּמַרְאָה לַחֲבֵרְתָהּ. אֲבָל הַחֵרֶשֶׁת וְהַשּׁוֹטָה צְרִיכוֹת פִּקְחוֹת לִבְדֹּק אוֹתָן וְלִקְבֹּעַ לָהֶן וְסָתוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן:

16

Should a woman err and be unaware of the day when her "days of niddah"50 begins, if she menstruates, she must be concerned that she is a zavah.51 Therefore if she menstruated for one day or day, she must nevertheless wait a full seven52 lest the blood have come in her "days of niddah." And if she discovers bleeding for three days, she must count seven "spotless" days, lest she be in the midst of her "days of zivah."

טז

כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁטָּעֲתָה וְלֹא יָדְעָה עֵת וֶסְתָּהּ וְרָאֲתָה דָּם חוֹשֶׁשֶׁת לְזִיבוּת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָאֲתָה יוֹם אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם יוֹשֶׁבֶת תַּשְׁלוּם שִׁבְעָה שֶׁמָּא דָּם זֶה בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ הִיא. וְאִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים סוֹפֶרֶת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים שֶׁמָּא בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ הִיא עוֹמֶדֶת:

17

What must she do to redefine when her "days of niddah" begin, to know if she is definitely a zavah or that if there is a question concerning that53, and to know when her "days of zivah" begin? Everything is dependent on [the number of days] during which she discovers [bleeding].

If she discovered bleeding for one day or for two days, she counts the remainder of the seven54 and begins counting the eleven55 days after these seven.56

יז

וְכֵיצַד הִיא עוֹשָׂה לְתַקֵּן וֶסְתָּהּ וְלֵידַע אִם הִיא זָבָה וַדָּאִית אוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה וְלֵידַע יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. הַכּל לְפִי יָמִים שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בָּהֶן. כֵּיצַד. רָאֲתָה יוֹם אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם מַשְׁלֶמֶת עֲלֵיהֶן הַשִּׁבְעָה וְתַתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת הָאַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם מֵאַחַר הַשִּׁבְעָה:

18

If she discovered bleeding for three days, there is a doubt whether she is a zavah.57 For perhaps one of these days preceded her "days of niddah" and two were at the beginning of her "days of niddah." Similarly, if she discovered bleeding for four days, [there is a doubt whether she is a zavah]. For perhaps two of these days preceded her "days of niddah" and two were at the beginning of her "days of niddah." She must observe the five as the remainder of the seven and [count] the eleven days after these five.

יח

רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה שֶׁמָּא יוֹם אֶחָד מֵהֶן קֹדֶם נִדָּתָהּ וּשְׁנַיִם בִּתְחִלַּת הַנִּדָּה. וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה אַרְבָּעָה שֶׁמָּא שְׁנַיִם קֹדֶם הַנִּדָּה וּשְׁנַיִם מִתְּחִלַּת הַנִּדָּה וְיוֹשֶׁבֶת חֲמִשָּׁה תַּשְׁלוּם יְמֵי נִדָּה וְאַחַד עָשָׂר יְמֵי זִיבָה אַחַר הַחֲמִשָּׁה:

19

Similarly, if she discovered bleeding for nine days,58 there is a doubt whether she is a zavah. Perhaps two of the days preceded her days of niddah" and seven are her "days of niddah." She begins counting the eleven days after the ninth day [on which] the bleeding stopped. Similarly, if she discovered bleeding for eleven days,59 there is a doubt whether she is a zavah. Perhaps two of the days preceded her days of niddah," seven are her "days of niddah," and two days followed her "days of niddah." Thus there remain nine days within her "days of zivah."60

יט

וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה תִּשְׁעָה יָמִים הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה שֶׁמָּא שְׁנַיִם קֹדֶם יְמֵי נִדָּה וְשִׁבְעָה שֶׁל נִדָּה וּמַתְחֶלֶת לִמְנוֹת אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם מֵאַחַר הַתִּשְׁעָה שֶׁפָּסַק הַדָּם. וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. שֶׁמָּא שְׁנַיִם קֹדֶם הַנִּדָּה וְשִׁבְעָה שֶׁל נִדָּה וּשְׁנַיִם שֶׁל אַחַר הַנִּדָּה וְנִשְׁאַר לָהּ מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ תִּשְׁעָה:

20

If she discovered bleeding for twelve days, she is definitely a zavah. For even if two of the days preceded her days of niddah" and seven are her "days of niddah," there are three days61 followed her "days of niddah. Thus there remain eight days within her "days of zivah." The same laws apply if she discovered bleeding for thirteen days. There remain seven days within her "days of zivah" and they are the days on which she counts [seven "spotless" days].

כ

רָאֲתָה שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר יוֹם הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה וַדָּאִית. שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מֵהֶן שְׁנַיִם לִפְנֵי הַנִּדָּה וְשִׁבְעָה שֶׁל נִדָּה הֲרֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה לְאַחַר הַנִּדָּה וְיִשָּׁאֵר לָהּ מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ שְׁמוֹנָה. וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם יִשָּׁאֵר לָהּ מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ שִׁבְעָה וְהֵן יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה:

21

Even if a women's menstruation continues for even 1000 days, as soon as the bleeding stops, she should count seven "spotless" days. After these seven days, a woman who erred begins anew her "days of niddah."62

כא

מָשְׁכָה בִּרְאִיַּת הַדָּם אֲפִלּוּ רָאֲתָה אֶלֶף יוֹם כְּשֶׁיִּפְסֹק הַדָּם סוֹפֶרֶת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים. וְאַחַר הַשִּׁבְעָה יַתְחִילוּ יְמֵי הַנִּדָּה לְזוֹ שֶׁטָּעֲתָה:

22

Thus we learn: Whenever a woman errs, she never counts less than seven days from the time which her bleeding stops. Nor does she count more than seventeen. Afterwards, come her "days of niddah."

What is implied? If she discovered bleeding for one day and then it stopped, she should count seventeen days. Six to complete her "days of niddah" and eleven as her "days of zivah." If she discovers bleeding for thirteen days or more she counts seven "spotless" days after the bleeding ceases. Afterwards, her "days of niddah" begin as explained [above].

כב

הִנֵּה לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל הַטּוֹעָה אֵינָהּ מוֹנָה מִשֶּׁיִּפְסֹק הַדָּם פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁבְעָה וְלֹא יוֹתֵר עַל י''ז וְיָבוֹאוּ יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. כֵּיצַד. רָאֲתָה יוֹם אֶחָד וּפָסַק הַדָּם מוֹנָה י''ז שִׁשָּׁה לְתַשְׁלוּם נִדָּתָהּ וְי''א יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ וְיָבוֹאוּ יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. וְאִם רָאֲתָה י''ג אוֹ יֶתֶר מוֹנָה שִׁבְעָה מִשֶּׁיִּפְסֹק הַדָּם וְיָבוֹאוּ יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Footnotes
1.

I.e., the onset of menstruation is not associated with a specific physical symptom, as stated in Halachah 2.

2.

From the Rambam's wording, it appears that for a woman to establish a veset, two factors are necessary: a) that there be a fixed monthly pattern when menstruation begins, and b) the onset of menstruation be preceded by physical symptoms. The other halachic authorities do not rule in this manner. They maintain that either of these two factors is independently powerful enough to establish a veset (Maggid Mishneh). Their view is followed by the Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah, ch. 189).

3.

Our translation of these two terms is based on Rav Kapach's translation of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Niddah 9:8). There are other commentaries who offer different interpretations.

4.

For these physical symptoms to be considered as a veset, they must be repeated three times before the onset of menstruation (Niddah 63a).

5.

Chapter 4, Halachah 16. As mentioned in the notes to that halachah, most other authorities differ with the Rambam with regard to these requirements.

6.

The Tzemach Tzedek notes that Hilchot Mitamei Mishkav UMoshav 3:6 states that a woman may touch ritually pure articles during the time her veset is expected. It is only when she actually discovers bleeding that she conveys ritual impurity upon these articles. He explains the difference between that law and the laws governing relations based on Shulchan Aruch HaRav 189:97 by saying that we fear that relations will cause menstruation to come earlier.

7.

I.e., the seven "days of niddah" and the eleven "days of zivah."

8.

The commentaries have noted somewhat of a difficulty with the Rambam's statements. As he stated in Chapter 6, according to his conception, the cycle of niddah and zivah begin again after eighteen days. Now what if a woman has a 20 day cycle or a 25 day cycle? According to the Rambam's statements here it would seem that "days of niddah" and the "days of zivah" should be counted from the day of the veset, i.e., each 20 days or 25 days.

9.

The Maggid Mishnehinterprets this law as speaking about the intervals between the onset of menstruation (veset haflagah). This interpretation is borne out by the manner in which the Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 189:14) quote this law. From the Siftei Cohen 189:40, it appears that the Rambam is speaking about the twentieth and the twenty-third of the month (veset hachodesh in halachic terminology).

10.

The twentieth is forbidden because as the Rambam continues to explain, once a veset has been established, it is not uprooted until it passes three times without the woman menstruating. The twenty-third is forbidden, because since she began menstruating on that day, we fear that she will begin menstruated upon it in the following month. See also Halachah 8.

11.

For the same reasons as stated in the previous note.

12.

I.e., she is no longer forbidden to engage in relations on that day.

13.

According to the Maggid Mishneh, the "jumping" mentioned in the following clause illustrates this principle. The "jumping" is an external factor that is not dependent on a woman's internal physical pattern. Even if on three separate occasions, a woman menstruates as a result of "jumping," she is not considered to have established a fixed veset. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 189:17) quotes this principle. The Rama quotes the Hagahot Maimoniot which state that although the jumping is not regarded with the severity of a fixed veset, it is considered as an irregular veset. Until a situation passes when the woman does not menstruate after jumping, she is forbidden to engage in relations afterwards. The Tur rules that even an external factor can cause a veset if a pattern recurs on three consecutive occasions.

14.

Perhaps "jumping" can be interpreted as "undergoing strenuous exercise" which could be considered as a cause for hastening the onset of menstruation.

15.

I.e., the day of menstruation is not counted in the interval.

16.

The Maggid Mishneh deals with question what would happen if the woman jumped and menstruated on Sunday for a third consecutive time. Would her veset be established for the interval only in connection with jumping? Or would the interval itself be considered as a veset. There would be a difference in law if on the fourth occasion after the interval, she did not jump. Is she forbidden to engage in relations or not. The Maggid Mishneh maintains that according to the Rambam, she would be forbidden, because the Rambam does not attach any significance to the external factors. Other authorities - and this view is sustained by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 189:18) - maintain that unless she jumps, she is not forbidden after the fourth interval.

17.

Even though she jumped on the previous day, that jumping is not considered as significant and is not associated with her monthly pattern. Note the Maggid Mishneh's explanation of the approach of the Rashba which differs.

18.

There must be four months in the cycle, so that there are three months during which she advanced a day. In such a situation in the fifth month, she must expect to menstruate on the nineteenth.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 189:7) quotes the Rambam's ruling, but also that of Rabbenu Chananel and the Ra'avad which maintains that a veset is established even after only three months of such a pattern.

19.

For she did not increase a day in the fourth month.

20.

I.e., on the seventeenth of the month. She does not have to be concerned with the fifteenth and the sixteenth. Since she did not begin menstruating on that day in the month which followed it, she need not be concerned with it any longer.

This requirement applies to any woman who does not have a veset kevua, a fixed time when she is known to begin menstruating. According to the halachah at present, a woman in such a situation must refrain from relations on three occasions: the day or the night of the date of the month on which she menstruated in the previous month, the day or the night which matches the interval between her onset of menstruation in the previous and that of the month which preceded it, the day and night of the thirtieth day since the onset of menstruation.

21.

On one occasion.

22.

On the fifteenth because of the existing pattern, and on the sixteenth because of her menstruation in the previous month. The point of this halachah is that when a woman deviates from an established veset, she must show concern both for that established veset and for the date (and interval) resulting from the previous month.

23.

Because it must pass three times without her menstruating upon it.

24.

In his Kessef Mishneh, Rav Yosef Caro questions the Rambam's ruling. Seemingly, in this instance, since she increased by one day each month, she established a fixed veset according to that pattern. Thus in the following month, she must show concern over the nineteenth.

In his Kessef Mishneh, Rav Yosef Caro explains that in addition to showing concern for the nineteenth, the woman must show concern for the eighteenth, since this was the day on which her menstruation actually began. In his Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 189:7), however, he does not mention this point.

25.

The twentieth as a fixed veset and the twenty-second because of the deviation in the previous month.

26.

And it must be bypassed on three new occasions to be uprooted. As long as the veset is not uprooted by being bypassed on three successive months, it becomes reaffirmed when the onset of menstruation recurs on it once.

27.

According to the Rambam's interpretation of "days of niddah," the interpretation of this ruling is straightforward. Once a woman has sighted bleeding in her "days of niddah," she cannot establish a veset on any of her other days of niddah. According to interpretation of the Ramban, the explanation is somewhat more complex. See the gloss of the Maggid Mishneh. Similarly, with regard to the other instances mentioned in this halachah, the explanation according to the approach of the Ramban - which as stated previously is accepted as halachah by most authorities - the explanation differs from that of the Rambam.

28.

The same laws would apply if she discovered bleeding only once during her "days of zivah" (without the phenomenon recurring three times). Perhaps the Rambam's intent is to emphasize that even if the phenomenon recurs three timmes, it can be uprooted when it is bypassed once.

29.

As described in the following halachah.

30.

I.e., since it is unlikely that she will menstruate on these days, we treat any veset that has been established as an extraordinary event. Although she must take it into consideration, it can be uprooted easily.

31.

Like a niddah, she is forbidden to engage in relations for seven days.

32.

Our translation follows an emendation of the text based on authoritative manuscripts. See the Noda B'Yehudah, Vol. II, Responum 93, which explains this version.

33.

And must wait until seven "spotless" days pass. I.e., because of the doubt concerning her status, she is given both the stringency applying to a niddah - she is forbidden for seven days after even one sighting of blood - and the stringency associated with a zavah - she must count seven "spotless" days if she sights bleeding for three consecutive days (Maggid Mishneh).

34.

The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 184:1) interprets the Rambam's ruling as applying not at the time of relations. (For if she inspects herself before relations, her husband might think there is reason to refrain from relations.) At present, however, Rabbis have counseled woman not to inspect themselves unless there is a reason. For at times, the inspection itself can cause bleeding. See also Chapter 4, Halachah 16.

35.

For it is unlikely for her to menstruate then.

36.

When it is likely for her to menstruate.

37.

Our translation is based on authoritative manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. The standard printed text reads "If she forgot and did not...."

38.

For we do not suspect that she became impure unless she actually discovers bleeding. Slightly different principles apply with regard to the veset on which she can be expected to begin menstruation arrives as explained in the following halachah and notes.

39.

The initial and preferred course of conduct is that when a veset passes without a woman discovering uterine bleeding, she should inspect herself to ensure that this is so. She is forbidden to engage in relations unless she makes such an inspection. See Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 189:4).

40.

Hilchot Mitamei Mishkav UMoshav 3:5. There it is explained that since she discovered bleeding afterwards, we assume that she menstruated at the expected time and became impure.

41.

A man who engages in relations with a niddah becomes impure. Nevertheless, a man who engaged in relations with a woman between the time of her veset and the time she discovered the bleeding is not placed in this category. For although we suspect that the woman became impure, there is no certainty that indeed this took place.

42.

A woman who is a niddah remains impure for seven days. These seven days do not begin from her veset, but from the time when she actually discovered the bleeding.

43.

For although we suspect that menstruation will begin on the veset, if there is no evidence that this indeed happened, we do not assume that it did.

44.

The basic principle upon which this law is based is stated in Chapter 4, Halachah 20. In this halachah, the Rambam is merely clarifying that the fact that a woman has a fixed veset does not change the basic position.

45.

Chapter 3, Halachah 9. I.e., according to Scriptural Law, a woman is not impure until she actually discovers bleeding. Our Rabbis ordained that she should show concern for her veset, but they also limited the extent of that concern as reflected in the above laws.

46.

Since she cannot see, she obviously cannot inspect the ed, the cloth used for the examination. The Rambam (based on Niddah 13b) is emphasizing that she is relied upon to carry out a thorough internal examination.

47.

Who is considered the same as a mentally incapacitated individual. If, however, she is merely deaf or mute, she is considered as a mentally capable individual [Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 196:8)].

48.

For these women cannot be relied upon to carry out a proper internal examination themselves.

49.

A word of clarification is necessary. Our Rabbis ordained a marriage arrangement for deaf-mutes. They did not, however, ordain such an arrangement for mentally or emotionally incapable individuals.

50.

Although in this and the following halachah, the Rambam uses the term veset, the intent of the term in this context is reflected by our translation.

51.

I.e., she must observe both the stringencies incumbent on a niddah and those incumbent on a zavah as the Rambam continues to explain.

52.

Before purifying herself as is required of a niddah.

53.

See the following halachah.

54.

Days of niddah.

55.

Days of zivah.

56.

The Maggid Mishneh explains that according to the Ramban's understanding of the terms "days of niddah" and "days of zivah," this entire discussion is unnecessary. And according to the Rambam's understanding of these terms, it is somewhat difficult. For as stated above, the Rambam maintains that from the first time a woman menstruates her "days of niddah" are set. Nevertheless, in this situation, the Rambam maintains that, rather than leave a woman in a situation where she is continuously in doubt, our Sages advised her to begin counting "her days of niddah" anew from the time she menstruated.

57.

I.e., and therefore she must keep both sets of stringencies as mentioned above. The rationale for this ruling is that it is possible that the bleeding took place in her "days of zivah." But, as the Rambam continues to explain, it is possible that this is not the case.

58.

The same ruling obviously applies if she discovers bleeding for from five to eight days. It is unnecessary for the Rambam to state this, because it is readily apparent. The Rambam feels it necessary to mention nine days, because this includes a new concept: that we allow for the possibility that she was bleeding for all seven days of niddah. Thus in addition to these seven days, we add two days of zivah.

59.

The same ruling obviously applies if she discovers bleeding for ten days. It is unnecessary to mention, for the rationale is the same as for eleven days.

60.

And her "days of niddah" begin when they are completed.

61.

The number of days necessary for her to be considered a major zavah.

62.

I.e., this is sufficient for her to correct her reckoning.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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