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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Mechirah - Chapter Thirty

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Mechirah - Chapter Thirty

1

When a person sells landed property or movable property to a colleague and someone acquires the property on the purchaser's behalf without the purchaser's knowledge, the option is given to the purchaser. If the purchaser desires to acquire the property, the seller cannot retract. If the purchaser does not desire to acquire the property, the property returns to its original owner.

Therefore, a deed of sale can be written for a seller even when the purchaser is not present. The purchaser, however, is always required to pay the scribe's fee. This applies even if a person sells his field because it is of inferior quality.

א

הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁמָּכַר קַרְקַע אוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין וְזָכָה בָּהֶן הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ יַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. וְאִם רָצָה לוֹקֵחַ אֵין הַמּוֹכֵר יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ וְאִם לֹא רָצָה תַּחְזֹר לִבְעָלֶיהָ. לְפִיכָךְ כּוֹתְבִין שְׁטָר לַמּוֹכֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ עִמּוֹ. וּלְעוֹלָם הַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן שְׂכַר הַסּוֹפֵר וַאֲפִלּוּ מָכַר שָׂדֵהוּ מִפְּנֵי רָעָתָהּ:

2

Similarly, when a Canaanite servant buys or sells property, or whether he gives a present or a present is given to him, the option is given to the servant's owner. If he desires to perpetuate the servant's act, the servant's acts are binding. If the master does not grant his consent, the servant's acts are nullified entirely.

The master may perpetuate or nullify the servant's act with merely a verbal statement. It is not necessary that he confirm his decision with a kinyan.

ב

וְכֵן הָעֶבֶד שֶׁקָּנָה אוֹ מָכַר אוֹ נָתַן מַתָּנָה אוֹ נְתָנָהּ לוֹ. יַד הָאָדוֹן עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. אִם רָצָה לְקַיֵּם מַעֲשָׂיו הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ קַיָּמִין וְאִם לֹא רָצָה בָּטְלוּ כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו. וּבִדְבָרִים בִּלְבַד הוּא שֶׁמְּקַיֵּם הָאָדוֹן אוֹ מְבַטֵּל וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם:

3

Similarly, when a woman sells or gives a present - whether of property belonging to her husband, property defined as nichsei tzon barzel that she brought him, property that he designated for her in her marriage contract, or property defined as nichsei m'log, whether landed property or movable property - the option is given to her husband. This ruling also applies if she purchases property or if she is given a present. If her husband desires to perpetuate the transfer, it is binding. If he desires to nullify it, it is nullified entirely.

Different rules apply when a husband sells or gives away property to which his wife shares a connection - e.g., land that she brought to him that was recorded in her marriage contract, land that he designated for her in consideration of goods she brought to the marriage, or property that he designated for her in her marriage contract. Even though the purchaser has the woman confirm her husband's deeds with a kinyan, whatever he has done is nullified, because she may rationalize her actions, stating: "I did it only to generate satisfaction for my husband."

ג

וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁמָּכְרָה אוֹ נָתְנָה מַתָּנָה. בֵּין בְּנִכְסֵי בַּעְלָהּ בֵּין בְּנִכְסֵי צֹאן בַּרְזֶל שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה לוֹ. בֵּין בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁיִּחֵד לָהּ בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ בֵּין בְּנִכְסֵי מְלוֹג. בֵּין בְּקַרְקָעוֹת בֵּין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין. וְכֵן אִם לָקְחָה אוֹ נָתְנָה [לָהּ מַתָּנָה] יַד הַבַּעַל עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְאִם רָצָה לְקַיֵּם יְקַיֵּם אִם רָצָה לְבַטֵּל יְבַטֵּל הַכּל. אֲבָל הַבַּעַל שֶׁמָּכַר אוֹ נָתַן בֵּין קַרְקַע שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ אוֹ קַרְקַע שֶׁהִכְנִיס לָהּ שׁוּם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. בֵּין קַרְקַע שֶׁיִּחֵד לָהּ בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אַחַר שֶׁקִּיְּמָה מַעֲשָׂיו הֲרֵי כָּל מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה בָּטֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת נַחַת רוּחַ עָשִׂיתִי לְבַעְלִי:

4

If the husband sold or gave as a present nichsei m'log, whether landed property or movable property, the option is granted the woman. If she desires to nullify the sale, she may. If, however she confirms her husband's actions, the purchaser acquires the property.

ד

מָכַר אוֹ נָתַן נִכְסֵי מְלוֹג בֵּין בְּקַרְקָעוֹת בֵּין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין יַד הָאִשָּׁה עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. רָצְתָה לְבַטֵּל מְבַטְּלָהּ וְאִם קִיְּמָה מַעֲשֶׂיהָ קָנוּ הַלָּקוֹחוֹת:

5

The following rule applies when a husband sells movable property that is classified to be nichsei tzon barzel or movable property that he gave his wife from his own property. Although he does not have the right to do so, if he transgresses and sells or gives away such property, it is acquired by the purchasers, and his wife may not expropriate it from them.

Similarly, the husband has the right to sell all of his property, even though it is under lien to his wife's marriage contract. If she is later granted the right to expropriate the property, she will expropriate it. This applies unless she first wrote a disclaimer for the purchaser, and confirmed it with a kinyan.

ה

בַּעַל שֶׁמָּכַר מִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁל נִכְסֵי צֹאן בַּרְזֶל אוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁנָּתְנָה לוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי אִם עָבַר וּמָכַר אוֹ נָתַן קָנוּ הַלָּקוֹחוֹת וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה יְכוֹלָה לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם. וְכֵן יֵשׁ לוֹ לַבַּעַל לִמְכֹּר כָּל נְכָסָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן תַּחַת יַד שִׁעְבּוּד הַכְּתוּבָה. וְאִם תָּבוֹא לִטְרֹף טוֹרֶפֶת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כָּתְבָה לַלּוֹקֵחַ תְּחִלָּה וְקָנוּ מִיָּדָהּ:

6

When a woman sells or gives nichsei tzon barzel to her husband, he does not acquire the property. Instead, she may expropriate it from him, as explained in Hilchot Ishut.

When a court sells or purchases property on behalf of orphans - whether landed property or movable property - both the purchase and sale are binding. If, however, it gives the orphans' property away as a present, the gift is of no consequence. The rationale is that a person may not give away something that does not belong to him.

The same principles apply with regard to an orphan's guardian, whether a guardian appointed by the court or one appointed by the orphan's father before his death.

ו

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁמָּכְרָה אוֹ נָתְנָה נִכְסֵי צֹאן בַּרְזֶל לְבַעְלָהּ לֹא קָנָה. וְיֵשׁ לָהּ לַחְזֹר וּלְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִישׁוּת. בֵּית דִּין שֶׁמָּכְרוּ אוֹ לָקְחוּ בְּנִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים בֵּין בְּקַרְקַע בֵּין בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין. וְכֵן הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹסִין בֵּין שֶׁמִּנּוּ אוֹתָם בֵּית דִּין בֵּין שֶׁמִּנָּה אוֹתָן אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים. מִקָּחָן מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרָן מִמְכָּר אֲבָל מַתְּנָתָם אֵינָהּ כְּלוּם שֶׁאֵין אָדָם נוֹתֵן דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ:

7

When a person sells or gives away property on the Sabbath - and needless to say, on the holidays - although he is punished by stripes, his deeds are binding.

Similarly, when a person enters into a kinyan chalifin on the Sabbath, the kinyan is binding. After the Sabbath, a legal record may be composed and the property transferred.

ז

הַמּוֹכֵר אוֹ הַנּוֹתֵן בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בַּיּוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשָׂיו קַיָּמִין. וְכֵן כָּל מִי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת הַקִּנְיָן קַיָּם וְכוֹתְבִין לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וְנוֹתְנִין:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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