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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 3

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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 3

1

When two people desired to bring a peace-offering or a burnt-offering in partnership,1 they may whether it was pledged or vowed.2 Even a fowl3 may be brought in partnership.

א

שְׁנַּיִם שֶׁרָצוּ לְהָבִיא שְׁלָמִים אוֹ עוֹלָה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת מְבִיאִין בֵּין בְּנֵדֶר בֵּין בִּנְדָבָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ עוֹף יָבוֹא בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת:

2

Men, women, and, servants may bring all of these types of sacrifices.4 From gentiles, by contrast, we accept only burnt offerings, as [derived from Leviticus 22:28]: "From the hand of an alien, you shall not offer the food of your God [from all of these]."5 Even a burnt offering of fowl may be accepted from a gentile,6 even if he worships false deities.7

We do not, however, accept peace-offerings,8 meal-offerings, sin-offerings, or guilt-offerings9 from a gentile. Similarly, burnt-offerings that do not come as vows or pledges are not accepted from gentiles, e.g., a burnt-offering from a women who gave birth or the like or other burnt-offerings that do not come as vows or pledges.

ב

וְאֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים אוֹ עֲבָדִים מְבִיאִין כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. אֲבָל הָעַכּוּ''ם אֵין מְקַבְּלִין מֵהֶן אֶלָּא עוֹלוֹת בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב כה) "וּמִיַּד בֶּן נֵכָר לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֶת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֵיכֶם". אֲפִלּוּ עוֹלַת הָעוֹף מְקַבְּלִין מִן הַנָּכְרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. אֲבָל אֵין מְקַבְּלִין מֵהֶן שְׁלָמִים וְלֹא מְנָחוֹת וְלֹא חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת. וְכֵן עוֹלוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאוֹת בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה אֵין מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתָן מִן הַנָּכְרִי כְּגוֹן עוֹלַת יוֹלֶדֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מֵעוֹלוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאוֹת מִשּׁוּם נֵדֶר וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם נְדָבָה:

3

When a gentile brings peace-offerings, they should be sacrificed as burnt-offerings, for [the intention of] a gentile's heart is [for the sake] of heaven.10 If he gives them to a Jew with the intent that a Jew receive atonement,11 the Jew may partake of them like the peace-offerings of the Jewish people. Similarly, if he gives them to a priest, the priest may partake of them.

ג

נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁלָמִים מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתָן עוֹלוֹת שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם לִבּוֹ לַשָּׁמַיִם. נָדַר שְׁלָמִים וּנְתָנָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מְנָת שֶׁיִּתְכַּפֵּר בָּהֶן לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹכְלִין אוֹתָן הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִים כְּשַׁלְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן אִם נְתָנָן לַכֹּהֵן כֹּהֵן אוֹכְלָן:

4

When a Jew is an apostate who worships false deities or who desecrates the Sabbath in public,12 we do not accept any sacrifices from him at all. Even a burnt-offering that is accepted from a gentile is not accepted from this apostate. [This is derived from Leviticus 1:2 which] states: "A man from you who will sacrifice." According to the Oral Tradition,13 we learned: "From you," i.e., not all of you, excluding an apostate.

If, however, one was a heretic with regard to other transgressions, any sacrifice [he brings] is accepted so that he will repent. If, however, he was a heretic with regard to a transgression and it is public knowledge that he commits it and he has become accustomed to doing so, a sacrifice [that he brings atoning for] that transgression - whether committed to anger [God]14 or out of desire15 -is not accepted.16 What is implied? If a person was accustomed to eat fat - whether committed to anger [God] or out of desire - and then he inadvertently partook of fat and brought a sin-offering [for this transgression], it is not accepted.

ד

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהוּא מוּמָר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אוֹ מְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא אֵין מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ קָרְבָּן כְּלָל. אֲפִלּוּ הָעוֹלָה שֶׁמְּקַבְּלִין אוֹתָהּ מִן הַנָּכְרִים אֵין מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתָהּ מִן הַמּוּמָר הַזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא א ב) "אָדָם כִּי יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ מִכֶּם וְלֹא כֻּלְּכֶם לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַמּוּמָר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מוּמָר לִשְׁאָר עֲבֵרוֹת מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר בִּתְשׁוּבָה. הָיָה מוּמָר לַעֲבֵרָה וְהוּא מְפֻרְסָם וְיָדוּעַ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וְהֻרְגַּל בָּהּ בֵּין לְהַכְעִיס בֵּין לְתֵאָבוֹן אֵין מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ קָרְבָּן לְאוֹתָהּ עֲבֵרָה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה רָגִיל לֶאֱכל חֵלֶב בֵּין לְהַכְעִיס בֵּין לְתֵאָבוֹן וְשָׁגַג וְאָכַל חֵלֶב וְהֵבִיא חַטָּאת אֵין מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ:

5

Gentiles do not bring accompanying offerings17 for the burnt-offerings they bring, as [can be inferred from Numbers 15:13]: "Every native among you shall do this."18 The accompanying offerings for their sacrifices are, however, brought from communal funds,19 as [ibid.:12] states: "So shall you do for each one according to their number."20 [These burnt offerings] do not require semichah,21 for semichah is performed only by a Jew, and by a male and not a female.22

ה

עוֹלוֹת הָעַכּוּ''ם אֵין מְבִיאִין עִמָּהֶן נְסָכִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו יג) "כָּל הָאֶזְרָח יַעֲשֶׂה כָּכָה". אֲבָל נִסְכֵּיהֶם קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו יב) "כָּכָה תַּעֲשׂוּ לָאֶחָד כְּמִסְפָּרָם". וְאֵינָן טְעוּנוֹת סְמִיכָה שֶׁאֵין סְמִיכָה אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בַּאֲנָשִׁים לֹא בְּנָשִׁים:

6

All of the offerings from domesticated animals that an individual brings23- whether those in which he is obligated or those promised through a vow - [require] semichah while they are alive with the exception of the firstborn offering, the tithe offering, and the Paschal sacrifice. [This is derived from Leviticus 3:2]: "And he shall lean his hand on the head of his offering." According to the Oral Tradition,24 we learned that this refers to all the sacrifices with the exception of the firstborn offering, the tithe offering, and the Paschal sacrifice.

ו

כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁיַּקְרִיב הַיָּחִיד בֵּין חוֹבָה בֵּין נְדָבָה סוֹמֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּשֶׁהֵן חַיִּין. חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ג ב) "וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ קָרְבָּנוֹ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁכָּל קָרְבָּן בְּמַשְׁמָע חוּץ מִפֶּסַח וּבְכוֹר וּמַעֲשֵׂר:

7

[A sacrifice of] a fowl does not require semichah.25

We already explained in Hilchot Shekalim26 that the law is that all the money concerning which it was decided that it should be given to the chest for freewill offerings27 should be used to purchase burnt-offerings. The person to which this money belonged does not perform semichah on that animal, nor does he bring the accompanying offerings.28 Instead, the accompanying offerings are brought from communal funds.29 Even if he was a priest, the service [of offering the sacrifice] and its hide belong to the men of the watch.30

ז

הָעוֹף אֵינוֹ טָעוּן סְמִיכָה. וְכֵן כָּל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁדִּינָן שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ לַתֵּבוֹת שֶׁל נְדָבָה שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁקָלִים שֶׁכֻּלָּן יָבוֹאוּ עוֹלוֹת אֵין בַּעַל אוֹתָן הַמָּעוֹת סוֹמֵךְ עַל אוֹתָהּ הָעוֹלָה וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא עָלֶיהָ נְסָכִים אֶלָּא נְסָכֶיהָ מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה כֹּהֵן עֲבוֹדָתָהּ וְעוֹרָהּ שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר:

8

All people may perform semichah with the exception of a deafmute, a mentally and/or emotionally unstable individual, a minor,31 a servant, a woman,32 a blind man, and a gentile.33 An agent does not perform semichah, for semichah is performed only by the owners, as [implied by the prooftext]: "And he shall lean his hand." "His hand" and not the hand of his wife, his servant, or his agent.

ח

הַכּל סוֹמְכִין חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן וְעֶבֶד וְאִשָּׁה וְסוּמָא וְנָכְרִי. וְאֵין הַשָּׁלִיחַ סוֹמֵךְ שֶׁאֵין סְמִיכָה אֶלָּא בִּבְעָלִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ג ב) "וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ" לֹא יַד אִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא יַד עַבְדּוֹ וְלֹא שְׁלוּחוֹ:

9

When five individuals bring a sacrifice [in partnership], they all perform semichah, one after the other. They should not perform semichah at the same time. 34

When a person died and left a sacrifice of a burnt offering or a peace offering, his heir should have it offered, perform semichah on it, and bring its accompanying offerings.35

ט

חֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ זֶבַח אֶחָד כֻּלָּן סוֹמְכִין עָלָיו זֶה אַחַר זֶה. לֹא שֶׁיִּסְמְכוּ כֻּלָּן בְּבַת אַחַת. מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ קָרְבָּנוֹ עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים הֲרֵי יוֹרְשׁוֹ מְבִיאוֹ וְסוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו וּמֵבִיא נְסָכָיו:

10

Semichah is not performed with regard to communal offerings except with regard to two sacrifices: the goat sent to Azazel36 and the bull brought because of a law being forgotten.37 Three members of the Sanhedrin perform semichah on it. This is a law conveyed by Moses our teacher that semichah is not performed on communal offerings other than these two.38

י

אֵין סְמִיכָה בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר חוּץ מִשְּׁתֵי סְמִיכוֹת. עַל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְעַל פַּר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה מִן הַסַּנְהֶדְרִין סוֹמְכִין עָלָיו. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִפִּי משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ שֶׁאֵין בְּצִבּוּר אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי סְמִיכוֹת:

11

Semichah is performed only in the Temple Courtyard.39 If one performed semichah outside the Temple Courtyard, he should perform it again inside. If the one bringing the sacrifice was standing outside [the Temple Courtyard] and he extended his hands into [the Courtyard] and performed semichah, his semichah is valid,40 provided he performed semichah with all his strength.41

Only a person who is ritually pure may perform semichah. If a person who is ritually impure performed semichah, the semichah [is acceptable].42

יא

אֵין סוֹמְכִין אֶלָּא בָּעֲזָרָה. סָמַךְ חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה חוֹזֵר וְסוֹמֵךְ מִבִּפְנִים. וְאִם הָיָה בַּעַל הַקָּרְבָּן עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ וְהִכְנִיס יָדוֹ לְפָנִים וְסָמַךְ סְמִיכָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּסְמֹךְ בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ. וְאֵין סוֹמֵךְ אֶלָּא טָהוֹר וְאִם סָמַךְ הַטָּמֵא סָמַךְ:

12

The animal should be slaughtered in the place where semichah is performed.43 The animal must be slaughtered directly after semichah. If one slaughtered it in a different place or waited [before slaughtering it], the slaughter is acceptable.

Semichah is an incremental aspect of the mitzvah. Accordingly, if one did not perform semichah, the sacrifice [still] brings atonement; [the semichah] is not an indispensable requirement. Nevertheless, it is considered as if the sacrifice did not bring atonement.44

יב

וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין שׁוֹחֲטִין. וְתֵכֶף לִסְמִיכָה שְׁחִיטָה. וְאִם שָׁחַט בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁהָה שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְהַסְּמִיכָה שְׁיָרֵי מִצְוָה הִיא לְפִיכָךְ אִם לֹא סָמַךְ כִּפֵּר וְאֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מַעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ לֹא כִּפֵּר:

13

The person performing semichah must do so with all his power, [placing] both hands45 on the head of the animal, as [Leviticus 1:4] states: "on the head of the burnt-offering." [Implied is his hands must be placed on the head] and not on the [animal's] neck or the side of its face,46 and that should not be any intervening substance between his hands and the animal.

יג

וְצָרִיךְ הַסּוֹמֵךְ לִסְמֹךְ בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל רֹאשׁ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא א ד) "עַל רֹאשׁ הָעלָה" לֹא עַל הַצַּוָּאר וְלֹא עַל הַצְּדָדִין. וְלֹא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּין יָדָיו וּבֵין הַבְּהֵמָה:

14

How is semichah performed? If the sacrifice was one of the offerings of the most sacred order, he should have the animal stand in the northern portion of the Temple Courtyard,47 facing the west. The person performing semichah stands to the east with his face to the west. He should place both his hands between its two horns and recite [the appropriate] confession, for a sin-offering, the sin which warrants a sin-offering and for a guilt-offering, the sin which warrants a guilt offering. For a burnt offering, he confesses the sin of [negating the observance of] a positive commandment or of a negative commandment that can be corrected by the observance of] a positive commandment.

יד

וְכֵיצַד סוֹמֵךְ. אִם הָיָה הַקָּרְבָּן קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים מַעֲמִידוֹ בַּצָּפוֹן וּפָנָיו לַמַּעֲרָב וְהַסּוֹמֵךְ עוֹמֵד בַּמִּזְרָח וּפָנָיו לַמַּעֲרָב וּמַנִּיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו בֵּין שְׁתֵּי קַרְנָיו וּמִתְוַדֶּה עַל חַטָּאת עֲוֹן חַטָּאת וְעַל אָשָׁם עֲוֹן אָשָׁם. וְעַל הָעוֹלָה מִתְוַדֶּה עֲוֹן עֲשֵׂה וַעֲוֹן לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנִּתַּק לַעֲשֵׂה:

15

How does he confess? He says: "I sinned, I transgressed, I committed iniquity, and I did this-and-this,48 and I have repented before You and this is my atonement.49

If he is bringing a peace-offering, he should perform semichah with all of his strength anywhere he desires within the Temple Courtyard,50 where [the animal] will be slaughtered. It appears to me that one does not confess on a peace-offering.51 Instead, he says words of praise.52

טו

כֵּיצַד מִתְוַדֶּה. אוֹמֵר חָטָאתִי עָוִיתִי פָּשַׁעְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי כָּךְ וְכָךְ וְחָזַרְתִּי בִּתְשׁוּבָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְזוֹ כַּפָּרָתִי. הָיָה הַקָּרְבָּן שְׁלָמִים סוֹמֵךְ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מִן הָעֲזָרָה בִּמְקוֹם שְׁחִיטָה. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְוַדֶּה עַל הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲבָל אוֹמֵר דִּבְרֵי שֶׁבַח:

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Footnotes
1.

See Halachah 9.

2.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 6, with regard to the distinction between these types of offerings.

3.

I.e., an entity of seemingly little value. One might think that bringing such an offering in partnership is not becoming to the altar. Even so, if one's intent is desirable, the offering is accepted (Radbaz, based on Menachot 110a).

4.

In this chapter, the Rambam outlines the types of individuals who may bring a sacrifice and the rite of semichah because that is an obligation on the person bringing the sacrifice.

5.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Avodah Zarah 2:1) notes that the prooftext states that it is forbidden to accept an offering from a gentile from a blemished animal. One can infer that if the animal is unblemished, the offering may be accepted.

The verse uses the term lechem, "food." That term is understood as referring only to a burnt-offering, as Numbers 28:2 states: "My food for my fires."And the burnt-offering is the only type of offering, consumed entirely by the fire of the altar (Radbaz).

6.

Although the prooftext speaks only of animals, our Sages understood that the leniency applies to fowl as well (Radbaz).

7.

As mentioned in Halachah 4, burnt offerings are not accepted from a Jew who worships false deities. Nevertheless, such restrictions are not placed upon gentiles.

8.

To offer them as peace-offerings. They are, however, brought as burnt-offerings, as stated in the following halachah.

9.

For the concept of atonement applies only with regard to the Jews' relationship with God.

10.

Rashi (Menachot 73b) interprets this as meaning that the gentile desires that his sacrifices be offered entirely to God and not have mortals partake of them.

11.

The Radbaz notes that peace-offerings are not intended to bring atonement and explains that this is referring to an instance where a Jew vowed to bring a peace offering and the gentile offered to bring it for him. One might think that since the gentile is bringing them they would be offered as burnt-offerings. Hence it is necessary to explain that they are peace offerings.

12.

See the conclusion of Hilchot Shabbat where the Rambam explains that the public desecration of the Sabbath is equivalent to idol worship, because they are both cornerstones of the Jewish faith. "Public" refers to a matter known about by ten people.

The Radbaz adds that we do not accept the sacrifices of a Jew who has abandoned Judaism and accepted a faith like Islam which does not involve idol worship. Such a person is included in the category (Hilchot Teshuvah 3:9) of an apostate with regard to the entire Torah.

13.

Chulin 5a-b.

14.

I.e., he had two cuts of meat before him of equal quality, one kosher and one non-kosher and he ate the non-kosher one solely for the intent of angering God (Gittin 47a).

15.

Similarly, in Hilchot Edut 10:3, a distinction is not made with regard to the motivations for the transgression. There are other instances - see Hilchot Teshuvah, loc. cit., Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 8;14, Hilchot Gezeilah ViAveidah 11:2, and Hilchot Rotzeach 4:10 - where the Rambam does make such a distinction.

16.

Since he frequently violates this transgression, we assume that he is not sincere in his desire for atonement for it, because a request for atonement must be accompanied by sincere regret. Sacrifices brought for other transgressions are, however, accepted from him. See Hilchot Shegagot 3:7.

17.

A meal offering and a wine libation.

18.

This verse concludes the passage commanding the offering of the accompanying offers, implying that it is only a native - i.e., a member of the Jewish people - who is required to bring them.

19.

I.e., the Temple treasury.

20.

Implying that the sacrifices themselves require that the accompanying offerings be brought.

21.

Leaning on the animal with all one's strength, as the Rambam proceeds to explain in the concluding halachot of the chapter.

22.

The prooftext for the obligation to perform semichah speaks of "the children of Israel," and uses the male form. Menachot 93b understands this to exclude gentiles and Chagigah 16b understands it as excluding women. See also Halachah 8.

23.

This also includes offerings brought in partnership. The exclusion is only of communal offerings. See Halachah 10.

24.

Sifra to the verse; Menachot 92b.

25.

The Sifra derives this concept from the exegesis of Leviticus 1:4: "And he will lean his hand on the head of the burnt-offering." "The" implies that there are some burnt-offerings to which this does not apply.

26.

Hilchot Shekalim 2:3; 3:14.

27.

Money that was found between the chest of the freewill offerings and the chest of the shekalim that was closer to the chest of the freewill offerings.

28.

Since the money was placed in the chest for the freewill offering, it is no longer considered as his personal property, but as the property of the community. Hence, he is not the owner of the sacrifices and may not perform semichah on them. For that same reason, the community brings the accompanying offerings.

29.

A meal offering and a wine libation.

30.

The priests designated to serve in the Temple that week. Even though the person whose money was used is a priest and he has the right to offer sacrifices that he brings (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:7), in this instance, he cannot demand the right to offer the sacrifice.

31.

These three individuals are not considered as responsible for their actions and are free of the responsibility for all mitzvot.

32.

See Halachah 5.

33.

Gentiles are not obligated in any of the mitzvot. Hence the obligation of semichah does not apply to them.

34.

The Radbaz states that this concept is derived from the fact that the prooftext uses the term "his hand" in the singular.

35.

For he is acting in the place of the original owner.

36.

During the Yom Kippur services. The High Priest performs semichah on it.

37.

In both these instances, there is an explicit verse (Leviticus 16:21; 4:15) requiring semichah for the sacrifice.

38.

I.e., were it not for that tradition, we might have derived the need for semichah for communal offerings from these two instances using Biblical exegesis [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 9:7)].

39.

Zevachim 32b explains that just as the slaughter of the animal must be performed "before God," in the Temple Courtyard, so too, semichah must be performed "before God," in that same place.

40.

This is indeed what is done when the atonement process of the people bringing the sacrifice has not been completed and they are not allowed to enter the Temple Courtyard until the sacrifice is offered.

41.

As required by Halachah 13.

42.

After the fact.

43.

Menachot 93b derives this concept from the subsequent law: that slaughter must be performed directly after semichah. It thus follows that one must slaughter the animal in the same place where semichah was performed, for otherwise, this is not considered as directly afterwards.

44.

Tosafot Yesheinim, Yoma 5a, explains that the intent is that although the person is not obligated to bring another sacrifice, in G‑d's eyes, his atonement is lacking.

45.

This is derived from Leviticus 16:21 which states such a requirement with regard to the goat sent to Azazel.

46.

Its cheeks (Rashi, Menachot 93b).

47.

The sacrifices of the most sacred order must be slaughtered in this portion of the Temple Courtyard, as stated in Chapter 5, Halachot 2-3. See also Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:16.

48.

See Hilchot Teshuvah 2:5 which states that a person seeking to repent must mention the particular sins that he violated.

49.

This is necessary, for without teshuvah, a sacrifice will not bring the person atonement (Hilchot Shegagot 3:10).

50.

For as stated in Chapter 5, Halachot 2-3, sacrifices of lesser sanctity (of which the peace offering is one) may be slaughtered anywhere in the Temple Courtyard.

51.

For a peace-offering is not offered to atone for a sin.

52.

As an example, the Or Sameach cites Psalm 100. The popular translation of II Chronicles 30:22 speaks of the people reciting confessions on their peace-offerings. Rashi and Metzudot, however, render the verb as meaning "offer thanks."

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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