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Shechenim - Chapter Thirteen

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Shechenim - Chapter Thirteen


When a person gives landed property as a gift, the rights of a neighbor do not apply. When the deed recording a gift states: "The giver accepts financial responsibility for this gift," the rights of a neighbor do apply. Since the deed mentions financial responsibility, it is obvious that the transfer was a sale; it used the term "gift," only to nullify the rights of the neighbor. How much should the neighbor pay? The value of the property.


הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה אֵין בָּהּ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. הָיָה כָּתוּב בִּשְׁטַר מתָּנָה שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּת מַתָּנָה זוֹ עַל הַנּוֹתֵן יֵשׁ בָּהּ דִּין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ אַחֲרָיוּת מְכִירָה הִיא וְלֹא כָּתַב מַתָּנָה אֶלָּא לְבַטֵּל זְכוּת בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. וְכַמָּה נוֹתֵן לוֹ. מַה שֶּׁהִיא שָׁוָה:


In the above situation, if the purchaser admits the ruse, saying: "Yes, we tried to perpetrate deception. It was a sale, and this is the price I paid for it," he must support his claim by taking an oath while holding a sacred article. He may then collect his claim, as is the law concerning agents.

It appears to me that the purchaser must claim only a price that is appropriate for the property or slightly more. If, however, he claims to have paid 200 zuz for a property worth 100, his word is not accepted.


אָמַר הַלּוֹקֵחַ כֵּן הוּא וְהַעֲרָמָה עָשִׂינוּ וּמְכִירָה הִיא בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ קְנִיתִיהָ נִשְׁבָּע בִּנְקִיטַת חֵפֶץ וְנוֹטֵל כְּדִין הַשְּׁלוּחִין. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטְעֹן דָּמִים שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין אוֹ יֶתֶר מְעַט. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר עַל שְׁוֵה מֵאָה בְּמָאתַיִם קָנִיתִי אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן:


If the deed recording a gift states: "I accept financial responsibility for this gift. If it is expropriated from the recipient, I will give him 200 zuz," the neighbor must pay the recipient 200 zuz. Only afterwards, may he displace him. This applies even if the property is worth only a maneh.


הָיָה כָּתוּב בִּשְׁטַר מַתָּנָה וְקִבַּלְתִּי עָלַי אַחֲרָיוּת מַתָּנָה זוֹ שֶׁאִם תֵּצֵא מִיָּדוֹ אֶתֵּן לוֹ מָאתַיִם נוֹתֵן לוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר מָאתַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַלְּקוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה אֶלָּא מָנֶה:


When a person exchanges a courtyard for another courtyard,a neighbor is not given the right to displace one of the recipients.

When a person exchanges a courtyard for an animal or for movable property, we evaluate the worth of that animal or movable property. The neighbor then gives this amount to the purchaser and displaces him. The purchaser cannot tell the neighbor: "Give me an article like the one I used for the purchase." For this is a ruse, and it is not reckoned with at all.


הֶחְלִיף חָצֵר בְּחָצֵר אֵין בָּהּ דִּין בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר. הֶחְלִיף חָצֵר בִּבְהֵמָה אוֹ בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין רוֹאִין דְּמֵי אוֹתָהּ הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ דְּמֵי אוֹתָם הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וּמְסַלְּקוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי כַּמָּה שֶׁלָּקַחְתִּי בּוֹ שֶׁזֶּה הַעֲרָמָה הִיא וְאֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם:


The following rules apply when a person sells a colleague a small portion of land in the midst of his field, and then sells him a larger portion of land next to that field. We evaluate the property. If the small portion that he sold him first is of greater or lesser value than the portion of the land he sold him afterwards, the purchaser acquires the desired land, and the neighbor cannot displace him. For the purchaser himself is a neighbor by virtue of the small amount of land he purchased in the center.

If the small portion of land in the center is of the same value as the portion on the side, this is an act of deception, and the neighbor is entitled to displace the purchaser from the second portion of the field that he bought.


מָכַר לוֹ קַרְקַע מְעַט בְּאֶמְצַע שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָכַר לוֹ קַרְקַע בְּצַד אוֹתָהּ שָׂדֶה שֶׁבָּאֶמְצַע. רוֹאִין אִם אוֹתוֹ הַמְּעַט שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ תְּחִלָּה הִיא עִידִית אוֹ זִבּוּרִית לְגַבֵּי זֹאת הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה זָכָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְאֵין בֶּן הַמֵּצַר יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא עַצְמוֹ בֶּן מֵצַר הוּא מִפְּנֵי אוֹתוֹ מְעַט שֶׁקָּנָה בָּאֶמְצַע. וְאִם אוֹתוֹ מְעַט שֶׁקָּנָה בָּאֶמְצַע כְּמוֹ זֹאת שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ בַּסּוֹף מִצִּדּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲרִים וּבֶן הַמֵּצַר מְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ מִן הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁקָּנָה בַּסּוֹף:


When a person sells a property within the context of a conditional agreement, whether the condition was stipulated by the seller or the purchaser, a neighbor cannot displace the purchaser until all the conditions are met and the purchaser acquires the property entirely without the original owner retaining any connection to it. Only then may the neighbor displace him.


הַמּוֹכֵר עַל תְּנַאי בֵּין שֶׁהִתְנָה מוֹכֵר בֵּין שֶׁהִתְנָה לוֹקֵחַ אֵין בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתְקַיְּמוּ הַתְּנָאִין וְיִזְכֶּה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּקַּרְקַע וְלֹא תִּשָּׁאֵר בָּהּ עִלָּה עִמּוֹ כְּלָל וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ:


When the purchaser has built or improved the property he purchased, or destroyed or impaired it, when the neighbor displaces him, he must pay him the money that is appropriate for him. In all his deeds, he is considered the agent of the neighbor.

Similarly, if the purchaser took a loan before the neighbor displaced him and the neighbor displaced afterwards, his creditor may not expropriate the property from the neighbor.

The following principle governs all these laws: Whenever a person purchases property bordering on a colleague's property line, he is considered that person's agent, and it is as if he were sent only to better his interests and not to impair them. Thus, if he improves the property, he receives only his expenses. If he impairs the value of the property by digging, destroying or partaking of its produce, we reduce the money paid to him.

When do we take into account the produce of which he partook? When he partook of this produce after the neighbor came and brought money to displace him. This does not apply with regard to the produce of which he partook before that time. On the contrary, he is considered to have partaken of his own produce, and none of it is taken into account.


הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁבָּנָה וְהִשְׁבִּיחַ אוֹ סָתַר וְהִפְסִיד בֶּן הַמֵּצַר מְסַלְּקוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ דָּמִים הָרְאוּיִין לוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו כְּמוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ. וְכֵן אִם לָוָה הַלּוֹקֵחַ קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּסַלֵּק אוֹתוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְסִלְּקוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר אֵין בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁלּוֹ טוֹרֵף מִיַּד בֶּן הַמֵּצַר. זֶהוּ הָעִקָּר בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדִּינִין שֶׁכָּל הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּצַד מֵצַר חֲבֵרוֹ הוּא כְּמוֹ שָׁלִיחַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וּלְתַקֵּן שְׁלָחוֹ וְלֹא לְעַוֵּת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִשְׁבִּיחַ נוֹטֵל הוֹצָאָה. וְאִם הִפְסִיד וְחָפַר וְהָרַס אוֹ אָכַל הַפֵּרוֹת מְנַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁמְּחַשְּׁבִין לוֹ הַפֵּרוֹת בְּשֶׁאֲכָלָן אַחַר שֶׁבָּא בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְהֵבִיא מָעוֹת לְסַלְּקוֹ. אֲבָל כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁאָכַל מִקֹּדֶם שֶׁלּוֹ הוּא אוֹכֵל וְאֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין אוֹתָן:


When a person purchases a field from two owners, and a neighbor comes and desires to displace him only from the portion of the property that he purchased from one, he is not given that right. He must either displace him from the entire property, or leave him with the entire property.

When, by contrast, a person sells a property to two people, a neighbor has the right either to displace them both, or to displace one and leave the other.


אֶחָד שֶׁלָּקַח שָׂדֶה אַחַת מִשְּׁנַיִם וּבָא בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר לְסַלְּקוֹ מַחֲצִית בִּלְבַד שֶׁלָּקַח מִן הָאֶחָד אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ. אוֹ מְסַלְּקוֹ מִכֻּלָּהּ אוֹ מַנִּיחַ כֻּלָּהּ. אֲבָל הַמּוֹכֵר קַרְקַע לִשְׁנַיִם יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַמֵּצַר לְסַלֵּק שְׁנֵיהֶם אוֹ לְסַלֵּק אֶחָד וּלְהַנִּיחַ אֶחָד:


When a neighbor comes to displace the purchaser, but before he displaces him he sells him the field he owns that borders on the property, he forfeits his right.


בֶּן הַמֵּצַר שֶׁבָּא לְסַלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיְּסַלְּקוֹ מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עַל הַמֵּצַר אִבֵּד אֶת זְכוּתוֹ:


When an agent conducts the sale of a property and he himself is a neighbor, he does not have the right to displace the purchaser. Since he himself sold him the property, there is no greater waiver possible.


שָׁלִיחַ שֶׁמָּכַר וַהֲרֵי הוּא בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר אֵינוֹ מְסַלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מָכַר לוֹ וְאֵין לְךָ מְחִילָה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ:


When a creditor of the seller expropriates a field from the neighbor, the neighbor should collect his due from the purchaser whom he displaced. The purchaser in turn should collect his due from the seller.


בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁל מוֹכֵר שֶׁטָּרַף הַשָּׂדֶה מִיַּד בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר הֲרֵי בַּעַל הַמֵּצַר חוֹזֵר וְטוֹרֵף מִן הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁסִּלְּקוֹ וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ חוֹזֵר וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַמּוֹכֵר:


Whenever a creditor expropriates property as payment for an outstanding debt, a neighbor has the right to displace him. For a person expropriating property should not have a greater right than one who purchases.

If at any later date the original owner desires to pay back the money that he owed, the ownership of his field will revert to him; he always has this right, as will be explained in the appropriate place.


כָּל בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁטָּרַף בְּחוֹבוֹ יֵשׁ לְבַעַל הַמֵּצַר לְסַלְּקוֹ. לֹא יְהֵא כֹּחַ הַטּוֹרֵף גָּדוֹל מִכֹּחַ הַלּוֹקֵחַ. וְאִם יִרְצֶה הַנִּטְרָף לִתֵּן הַדָּמִים שֶׁהָיוּ עָלָיו בְּחוֹבוֹ תַּחְזֹר לוֹ שָׂדֵהוּ לְעוֹלָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:


When a minor is a neighbor and the court sees that it is to his benefit, it displaces the purchaser on his behalf or enables him to share in the division of the property among the other neighbors, as it sees fit.


קָטָן שֶׁהָיָה בֶּן הַמֵּצַר וְרָאָה בֵּית דִּין שֶׁזְּכוּת הוּא לוֹ מְסַלְּקִין לוֹ אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ אוֹ יִטּל לוֹ חֶלְקוֹ עִם שְׁאָר בַּעֲלֵי הַמֵּצַר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְאוּ:


When a man's wife owns property that borders on a property that is being sold, the husband has the right to displace the purchaser. For all of his wife's property is in his domain, and he has the right to exercise every privilege that would be hers.

Even if the woman performed a kinyan affirming that she waives this right on behalf of the purchaser, her act is of no consequence and her husband may displace him.

The following rules apply if the wife took the initiative and displaced the purchaser, or a servant who carried on business affairs on behalf of his master displaced the purchaser. If the husband or the master acquiesces to the displacement, he confirms their deeds. If he desires, he may not confirm their deeds, and the wife or the servant must return the property.


בַּעַל שֶׁהָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ בֶּן הַמֵּצַר הֲרֵי זֶה מְסַלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ שֶׁכָּל נִכְסֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְכָל זְכוּת שֶׁתָּבוֹא לְיָדָהּ זְכוּת הוּא לוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ קָנוּ מִיַּד אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁמָּחֲלָה בִּזְכוּת זוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא הַבַּעַל מְסַלְּקוֹ. עָמְדָה הָאִשָּׁה מִדַּעְתָּהּ וְסִלְּקָה אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְכֵן הָעֶבֶד שֶׁהָיָה נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בְּנִכְסֵי אֲדוֹנָיו שֶׁסִּלֵּק אֶת הַלּוֹקֵחַ אִם רָצָה הַבַּעַל אוֹ הָאָדוֹן מְקַיֵּם עַל יְדֵיהֶן וְאִם רָצָה לֹא יְקַיֵּם וְתַחְזֹר לַלּוֹקֵחַ וְיַחְזִיר הַדָּמִים:

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