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ב"ה

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 2

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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 2

1

The wine and the fine flour that are brought together with an offering are called accompanying offerings.1 The fine flour alone is called the accompanying meal-offering. The accompanying meal-offering need not be waved, brought [to the corner of the altar], nor [offered with] frankincense.2 It requires salt3 and it is burnt on the outer altar in its entirety.4

The wine is poured over the altar. It is not poured over the fire. Instead, the priest should lift up his hands5 and pour it on [the altar's] base6 and from there, it descends to the shittin.7

א

הַיַּיִן וְהַסּלֶת שֶׁמְּבִיאִין עִם הַקָּרְבָּן הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִין נְסָכִים. וְהַסּלֶת לְבַדָּהּ נִקְרֵאת מִנְחַת נְסָכִים. וּמִנְחַת נְסָכִים אֵינָהּ טְעוּנָה לֹא תְּנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה. אֲבָל טְעוּנָה מֶלַח. וְכֻלָּהּ נִשְׂרֶפֶת עַל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן. וְיִתְנַסֵּךְ הַיַּיִן עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הָאֵשׁ אֶלָּא מַגְבִּיהַּ יָדוֹ וְיוֹצֵק עַל הַיְסוֹד וְהוּא יוֹרֵד לַשִּׁיתִין:

2

Accompanying offerings are required only for an animal brought as a burnt-offering or as a peace-offering. Whether it was a communal sacrifice, an individual sacrifice, a sheep brought by a woman who gave birth, or the ram brought by the High Priest,8 since it was a burnt-offering, it requires the accompanying offerings. Accompanying offerings are not brought for [sacrifices of] fowl,9 guilt-offerings, sin-offerings, with the exception of the sin-offering and guilt-offering of a person who had been afflicted with tzara'at, for those accompanying offerings are explicitly mentioned in the Torah.10

ב

אֵין טָעוּן נְסָכִין אֶלָּא עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה וּשְׁלָמִים בִּלְבַד בֵּין הָיוּ קָרְבַּן צִבּוּר אוֹ קָרְבַּן יָחִיד אוֹ כֶּבֶשׂ יוֹלֶדֶת וְאֵילוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הוֹאִיל וְהֵן עוֹלוֹת טְעוּנִים נְסָכִים. אֲבָל הָעוֹף וְהָאֲשָׁמוֹת וְהַחַטָּאוֹת אֵין מְבִיאִין עִמָּהֶם נְסָכִים. חוּץ מֵחַטַּאת מְצֹרָע וַאֲשָׁמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְשׁוּ נִסְכֵּיהֶם בַּתּוֹרָה:

3

What is the source that teaches that accompanying offerings should not be brought together with sin-offerings and guilt-offerings? [When speaking about the accompanying offerings, Numbers 15:3] states: "to utter a vow or pledge," [implying that these offerings are necessary only for sacrifices] brought because of a vow or pledge. [This] excludes a sin-offering, guilt-offering, firstborn offering, tithe offering, and Paschal sacrifice. Since [these offerings] are not brought because of a vow or a pledge, they do not require accompanying offerings.

Which is the source that teaches to include the festive peace-offerings and the pilgrimage burnt-offerings?11 [The above verse] states: "Or on your festivals."

ג

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין נְסָכִים עִם הַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו ג) "לְפַלֵּא נֶדֶר אוֹ נְדָבָה" דָּבָר הַבָּא בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה יָצְאוּ חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם וּבְכוֹר וּמַעֲשֵׂר וּפֶסַח הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן בָּאִין בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה אֵין טְעוּנִין נְסָכִים. וּמִנַּיִן לְהָבִיא שַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה וְעוֹלַת רְאִיָּה לִנְסָכִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו ג) "אוֹ בְּמֹעֲדֵיכֶם":

4

What is the measure of the accompanying offerings? The accompanying offering for a male or female sheep is an isaron12 of fine flour mixed with a quarter of a hin13 of oil and a quarter of a hin of wine as a wine libation. These are also [the accompanying offerings] for a goat whether small14 or large15 and whether male or female and for a ewe, even if she is large. The accompanying offerings of a ram, however, are two esronim mixed with a third of a hin of oil and a third of a hin of wine as a libation. The accompanying offerings of a cow or a calf, whether male or female, are three esronim mixed with a half of a hin of oil and a half of a hin of wine as a libation.

ד

כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר נְסָכִים. נִסְכֵּי כֶּבֶשׂ אוֹ כַּבְשָׂה עִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת בָּלוּל בִּרְבִיעִית הַהִין שֶׁמֶן וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ רְבִיעִית הַהִין. וְכֵן נִסְכֵּי הָעֵז בֵּין קָטָן בֵּין גָּדוֹל בֵּין זָכָר בֵּין נְקֵבָה אוֹ נִסְכֵּי רָחֵל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא גְּדוֹלָה. אֲבָל נִסְכֵּי אַיִל הֵן שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנִים סלֶת בָּלוּל בִּשְׁלִישִׁית הַהִין שֶׁמֶן וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ שְׁלִישִׁית הַהִין. וְנִסְכֵּי הַפָּר אוֹ הָעֵגֶל בֵּין זְכָרִים בֵּין נְקֵבוֹת שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרוֹנִים סלֶת בָּלוּל בַּחֲצִי הַהִין שֶׁמֶן וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ חֲצִי הַהִין:

5

These measures are applicable for the accompanying offerings for burnt-offerings and peace-offerings for each animal offered,16 as [implied by ibid.:12]: "According to the number that you offer, so shall you do for [each] one according to their number." We may not increase these measures, nor may we decrease them. [Indeed,] if one increases or decreases [the measure by] even the slightest amount, one disqualifies [the accompanying offering]. The only exception is the sheep offered as a burnt offering on the day of the waving of the omer.17 The accompanying offering for it is two esronim mixed with a third of a hin of oil.18 Although the measure of flour was doubled,19 the measure of wine was not and [only] a quarter of a hin is brought as a libation.

ה

אֵלּוּ הֵן הַנְּסָכִים בֵּין לָעוֹלָה בֵּין לַשְּׁלָמִים כַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו יב) "כַּמִּסְפָּר אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשׂוּ כָּכָה תַּעֲשׂוּ לָאֶחָד כְּמִסְפָּרָם". אֵין מוֹסִיפִין עַל הַשִּׁעוּרִין הָאֵלּוּ וְאֵין גּוֹרְעִין מֵהֶן. וְאִם גָּרַע אוֹ הוֹסִיף כָּל שֶׁהוּא פָּסוּל. חוּץ מִכֶּבֶשׂ הָעוֹלָה שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין בְּיוֹם הֲנָפַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהַנְּסָכִים שֶׁלּוֹ שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנִים בָּלוּל בִּשְׁלִישִׁית הַהִין שֶׁמֶן. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְפְּלָה סָלְתּוֹ לֹא נִכְפְּלוּ יֵינוֹ [וְשַׁמְנוֹ] אֶלָּא יַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ רְבִיעִית הַהִין:

6

A person who had been afflicted with tzara'at must bring three esronim of flour [as accompanying offerings] for the three sheep which he brings as a sin-offering, a guilt-offering, and a burnt-offering.20 According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that they come because of the sacrifices he brings,21 an isaron for each sheep mixed with a quarter of a hin of oil. A revi'it of wine should be brought with each of the esronim as is the rule for the accompanying offering for all sheep. When one brings a pilgas,22 he should bring with it the accompanying offerings for a ram, [nevertheless,] it is not considered as if he brought [the appropriate] sacrifice.23

ו

הַמְצֹרָע מֵבִיא עִם שְׁלֹשָׁה כְּבָשִׂים שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁהֵן חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם וְעוֹלָה שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרוֹנִים. וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁהֵן בָּאִין בִּכְלַל הַזְּבָחִים שֶׁלּוֹ עִשָּׂרוֹן עִם כָּל כֶּבֶשׂ בָּלוּל בִּרְבִיעִית הַהִין שֶׁמֶן. וּרְבִיעִית יַיִן עִם כָּל עִשָּׂרוֹן מִשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן כִּשְׁאָר נִסְכֵּי הַכְּבָשִׂים. וְהַמַּקְרִיב אֶת הַפִּלְגָּס מֵבִיא עִמּוֹ נִסְכֵּי אַיִל וְלֹא עוֹלֶה לוֹ זִבְחוֹ:

7

A hin comprises twelve log. We have already stated the measure of a log together with other measures in Hilchot Eruvin.24 An isaron is an omer which is the measure [of dough from which] challah must be separated. We have already explained this measure with regard to [the mitzvah of] challah.25

ז

הַהִין הוּא שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר לוֹג. וּכְבָר הוֹדַעְנוּ שִׁעוּר הַלּוֹג עִם מִדּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת בְּהִלְכוֹת עֵרוּבִין. וְהָעִשָּׂרוֹן הוּא הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא שִׁעוּר חַלָּה וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּעִנְיַן חַלָּה:

8

When the accompanying offerings or the meal offerings are measured, whether for an individual offering or a communal offering, they should not be measured in a measure of three esronim for a bull or two esronim for a ram. Instead, everything should be measured with the measure of one isaron that existed in the Temple.26 Similarly, the oil for the accompanying offerings should be measured with the appropriate measure in the Temple.27 The oil for a meal offering brought by an individual is measured in the measure of a log that existed in the Temple;28 the number of lugim [of oil] is determined by the number of esronim [of flour].29

ח

כְּשֶׁמּוֹדְדִין הַנְּסָכִים אוֹ הַמְּנָחוֹת בֵּין מִנְחַת יָחִיד בֵּין מִנְחַת צִבּוּר אֵין מוֹדְדִין אוֹתוֹ בְּמִדָּה שֶׁל שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרוֹנִים לַפָּר אוֹ שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם לָאַיִל אֶלָּא מוֹדֵד הַכּל בְּעִשָּׂרוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְכֵן הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁל נְסָכִים מוֹדְדִין אוֹתוֹ בְּמִדָּתוֹ שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְשֶׁמֶן שֶׁל מִנְחוֹת הַיָּחִיד בְּלוֹג שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. כְּמִנְיַן הָעֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת כָּךְ מִנְיַן הַלּוֹגִין:

9

The overflow of the measures of flour are considered to be ordinary flour,30 because the outer side of the isaron measure is not consecrated.31 The overflow of the wine and oil, by contrast, is consecrated, because it flows down the back of the utensil and both the inside and the outside of the liquid measures were anointed.

Why were the overflows consecrated even though the person measuring only intended to sanctify what was within the utensil?32 So that it would not be said that [substances] are used for ordinary purposes after having been in a sacred utensil.33

ט

בֵּירוּצֵי הַמִּדּוֹת שֶׁל סלֶת חֹל שֶׁאֵין גַּב הָעִשָּׂרוֹן קֹדֶשׁ. וּבֵירוּצֵי הַיַּיִן וְהַשֶּׁמֶן קֹדֶשׁ לְפִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹרֵד עַל גַּב הַכְּלִי. וּכְלֵי הַלַּח נִמְשְׁחוּ מִבִּפְנִים וּמִבַּחוּץ. וְלָמָּה יִתְקַדְּשׁוּ הַבֵּירוּצִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנַת הַמּוֹדֵד אֶלָּא לְמַה שֶּׁבַּכְּלִי בִּלְבַד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ מוֹצִיאִין מִכְּלֵי שָׁרֵת לְחל:

10

What would they do with the overflows? If there was another sacrifice, they would sacrifice them with it. [In that instance,] if they remained overnight,34 they became disqualified accordingly.35 If not, they were [redeemed36 and the proceeds] used to provide "dessert for the altar."37

י

מַה הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין בַּבֵּירוּצִין. אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם זֶבַח אַחֵר יַקְרִיבוּ עִמּוֹ. וְאִם לָנוּ יִפָּסְלוּ בְּלִינָה. וְאִם לָאו מְקַיְּצִין בָּהֶן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:

11

What is implied? Burnt offerings are purchased [with the proceeds of] their [sale]. The meat is offered to God and the hides are given to the priests.

יא

כֵּיצַד לוֹקְחִין בָּהֶם עוֹלוֹת. הַבָּשָׂר לַשֵּׁם וְהָעוֹרוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים:

12

The flour mixed with oil38 of the accompanying offerings are not indispensable requirements preventing [the offering of] the wine libation, nor is the wine libation an indispensable requirement preventing their offering, nor are the accompanying offerings an indispensable requirement preventing the offering of the sacrifices.39 Instead, a person may bring his sacrifice one day and his accompanying offerings after ten days. [This applies to] both individual offerings and communal sacrifices, provided the accompanying offerings were not consecrated in a sacred utensil. If, however, they were consecrated in a sacred utensil, they are disqualified if they remain overnight.

יב

הַסּלֶת עִם הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁל נְסָכִים אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַיַּיִן וְלֹא הַיַּיִן מְעַכְּבָן. וְלֹא הַנְּסָכִים מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַזֶּבַח אֶלָּא מֵבִיא אָדָם קָרְבָּנוֹ הַיּוֹם וּנְסָכָיו אַחַר עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים אֶחָד יָחִיד וְאֶחָד צִבּוּר. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא קָדְשׁוּ הַנְּסָכִים בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת אֲבָל אִם נְתָנָן לִכְלִי שָׁרֵת אִם לָנוּ יִפָּסְלוּ בְּלִינָה:

13

The accompanying offerings may only be brought from ordinary produce. They may not be brought from terumah, the second tithes, or the first fruits.40 Even for the thanksgiving offering whose bread may be brought from the [second] tithe, its accompanying offerings should only be brought from ordinary produce.41

יג

אֵין מְבִיאִין נְסָכִים אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין. לֹא יְבִיאֵם לֹא מִן הַתְּרוּמָה וְלֹא מִמַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְלֹא מִן הַבִּכּוּרִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ תּוֹדָה שֶׁמֵּבִיא לַחְמָהּ מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לֹא יְבִיאוֹ נְסָכִים אֶלָּא מִן הַחֻלִּין:

14

All of the measures of the accompanying offerings mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel,42 the listing of the sacrifices, and the order of service written there are all inauguration offerings and will not be practiced in generations to follow.43 Instead, the prophet commanded and outlined how the inauguration offerings will be brought at the time of the dedication of the altar at the time of the coming of the King Mashiach when the Third Temple will be built.44

יד

כָּל שִׁעוּרֵי הַנְּסָכִים הָאֵמוּרִין בְּסֵפֶר יְחֶזְקֵאל וּמִנְיַן אוֹתָן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת וְסִדְרֵי הָעֲבוֹדָה הַכְּתוּבִים שָׁם כֻּלָּם מִלּוּאִים הֵן וְאֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְדוֹרוֹת אֶלָּא הַנָּבִיא צִוָּה וּפֵרֵשׁ כֵּיצַד יִהְיוּ מַקְרִיבִין הַמִּלּוּאִין עִם חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בִּימֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ כְּשֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בַּיִת שְׁלִישִׁי:

15

Just as the princes45 offered sacrifices at the dedication of the altar [of the Sanctuary in the desert], bringing offerings that were not brought in coming generations, and they brought them on the Sabbath, so too, a prince will bring a dedication offering on the Sabbath in the Ultimate Future, as stated explicitly there.46 Similarly, the sacrifices which the people who returned [to Zion] from the [Babylonian] captivity in the days of Ezra,47 were inaugural offerings and will not be practiced in generations to come. The practices to be followed in generations to come are the words of the Torah that we have explained as they were copied from Moses our teacher.48 We may not add to them49 or subtract from them.50

טו

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִים בַּחֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין כְּמוֹתָן לְדוֹרוֹת וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּשַׁבָּת כָּךְ הַנָּשִׂיא מַקְרִיב חֲנֻכָּתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לֶעָתִיד כַּאֲשֶׁר מְפֹרָשׁ שָׁם. וְכֵן קָרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ בִּימֵי עֶזְרָא הַבָּאִים מֵהַשְּׁבִי מִלּוּאִים הָיוּ וְאֵינָן נוֹהֲגִין לְדוֹרוֹת. אֲבָל דְּבָרִים הַנּוֹהֲגִים לְדוֹרוֹת הֵם דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁנוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֶעֱתִיקוּם מִפִּי משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ אֵין לְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם וְאֵין לִגְרֹעַ:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

The term nesachim is used continually throughout the Torah, e.g., Numbers, ch. 15. Literally, it means "libations." We have not used that term, because it is not appropriate with regard to the meal offerings. In his introduction to the tractate of Menachot, the Rambam states that the Torah uses the term in a general sense without attention to its particular meaning.

Since every sacrifice is accompanied by such offerings, before delineating the details of the sacrifices, the Rambam describes these accompanying offerings.

2.

As stated in Chapter 12, Halachot 6-7, all of the meal offerings brought independently must be brought to the corner of the altar and frankincense must be offered with them. Some also must be waved.

3.

For Leviticus 2:13 states that salt must be brought on all sacrifices.

4.

In contrast, there are other meal offerings which are fit to be eaten.

5.

The Kessef Mishneh notes that Sukkah 48b gives that instruction with regard to the water libation brought on Sukkot. Nevertheless, that text questions why this instruction is mentioned here with regard to the wine libation, for seemingly, there would be no reason to do so.

6.

The Ra'avad notes that Sukkah 48a,b speaks of two cups on the southwest corner of the altar, i.e., on the upper level around which the priests would walk. The wine and water libations would be poured into these cups and they would extend to the shittin. The Radbaz notes that the Rambam himself (Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 6:5; see also Chapter 7, Halachah 11) speaks of bringing the wine to the top of the altar. Hence, he maintains that the Rambam agrees with the Ra'avad concerning this issue. The Kessef Mishneh differs and maintains that these cups were only used during Sukkot. Otherwise, the wine was poured on the altar's base and from there, it flowed into the shittin.

7.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:11 which explains that these were two cavities in the southwest corner of the altar.

8.

These two offerings are singled out because they are individual burnt-offerings that are not dependent on an individual's pledge or vow. Menachot 91b cites an explicit verse that teaches that accompanying offerings are required for these sacrifices.

9.

Even those brought as burnt offerings.

10.

Menachot 91a derives the need for such accompanying offerings from a juxtaposing Leviticus 14:10 and Numbers 15:5. In his Commentary to the Mishnah, the Rambam explains that accompanying offerings are brought for these sacrifices, because they do not come because of a sin.

11.

Which are obligations and not dependent on a person's volition.

12.

An isaron is equivalent to the size of 43.2 eggs. In modern measure, the size of an egg is 57.6 cc according to Shiurei Torah, and 99.5 cc according to Chazon Ish.

13.

As stated in Halachah 7, a hin is equivalent to twelve log. Each log comprises four revi'iot. In modern measure, a revi'it is 86 cc according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 150 cc according to Chazon Ish. Thus a hin is 48 times this amount.

14.

In its first year of life, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 11.

15.

In its second year of life (ibid.).

16.

I.e., even if a person pledged to bring several sacrifices of a given type, he must bring the required accompanying offerings for each animal.

17.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 7:3 where this sacrifice is mentioned.

18.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that only a quarter of a hin of oil should be used. The Radbaz notes that Menachot 89b appears to support the Ra'avad's position. Although he explains that the Rambam's position could be justified, he admits that it is somewhat difficult. The Kessef Mishneh also suggests that a printing error crept into the text of the Mishneh Torah.

19.

Usually, only one isaron of flour was brought for a burnt-offering of a sheep, as stated in the previous halachah.

20.

See Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 1:3. Bringing accompanying offerings for these sacrifices is an exception to the general rule, as stated in Halachah 2. The obligation to bring these three esronim is explicitly stated in Leviticus 14:10. The Oral Tradition (Menachot 91a) teaches that each one is designated for a different sacrifice.

21.

This version is found in some of the authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah and is also suggested by the Or Sameach. The standard published text follows a slightly different version.

22.

A ram that is between one year and one year and a month old (Chapter 1, Halachah 14).

23.

I.e., regardless of whether he pledged a ram or a male sheep, he is not considered to have fulfilled his obligation by bringing a pilgas, for it is too old for the latter type sacrifice and not old enough for the former.

24.

Hilchot Eruvin 1:13.

25.

Hilchot Bikkurim 6:15.

26.

See Hilchot Klei HaMikdash 1:16 which describes the various measures that existed in the Temple.

27.

As stated (ibid.:17), there were measures of a half a hin, a third of a hin, and a quarter of a hin in the Temple.

28.

I.e., a person should not measure out the flour in a private measure he has outside the Temple. Instead, the measurement should be made with the Temple's measure (Radbaz).

29.

See Chapter 12, Halachah 7 and Chapter 13, Halachah 5.

30.

I.e., they are not consecrated.

31.

Flour, wine, and oil that come in contact with sacred utensils become consecrated. Nevertheless, only the inside of the dry measures were consecrated. The outside remained unconsecrated. Hence, the fact that the flour came in contact with it does not change its status. See Hilchot Klei HaMikdash 1:19.

32.

As stated in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 3:20, an object placed in a sacred utensil does not become consecrated unless the person placing it there did so intentionally. Hence, even though the overflows came in contact with a sacred utensil, seemingly, there was no intent for them to become consecrated.

33.

I.e., a safeguard instituted by our Sages lest a mistaken impression be created.

The Kessef Mishneh notes that even though this rationale is advanced by Menachot 90a in support of a minority opinion, it would still be accepted by the majority.

34.

I.e., there was another offering and it was thought they would be offered with it, but for some reason they were not and remained overnight.

35.

For once they were placed in a sacred utensil, remaining overnight would disqualify them, as stated in Halachah 12.

36.

It is permitted to redeem them, because when consecrating them, there was the intent that they would be redeemed in such an eventuality (Radbaz).

37.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Shekalim 4:4), where he explains that the term kayitz refers to the time of the fig and grape harvest. These fruits are served as dessert, after a person has eaten his major meal. Similarly, these offerings do not represent the fundamental "food" of the altar, but instead, are offered only when the altar is free.

38.

The flour and the oil are, however, absolute requirements. One cannot be offered without the other (Radbaz).

39.

I.e., the person is required to bring both of these elements of the accompanying offering. Nevertheless, the offering of one is not dependent on the other as the Rambam continues to explain.

40.

All of these have a certain dimension of holiness and are not considered as ordinary property. It is forbidden to use them for any purpose other than partaking of them in the ordinary manner. Hence they may not be used for these offerings.

41.

The bread from the thanksgiving offering may be eaten by an ordinary person. Hence, it is permitted for it to be brought from the second tithes. The accompanying offerings, as stated above, are offered on the altar entirely. Hence, they may not be brought from the second tithes (Radbaz).

42.

These differ greatly for the measures usually employed.

43.

The Radbaz explains that since we are speaking about a directive for a specific time and not an ongoing practice, as a prophet, Ezekiel had the right to speak of offerings not prescribed by the Torah. This does not constitute a violation of the prohibition to add to the Torah's commandments. See Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah, ch. 9.

44.

All authorities agree that Ezekiel's prophecy referred to special sacrifices and was not to be followed continuously. Rashi (Menachot 45b) interprets it as referring to the Second Temple, while the Rambam understands it as applying to the era of Mashiach.

45.

The leaders of the tribes as related in Numbers, ch. 7.

48.

I.e., from the Torah scrolls which he wrote.

49.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 313) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 454) count the prohibition against adding to the Torah as one of its 613 mitzvot.

50.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 314) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 455) count the prohibition against adding to the Torah as one of its 613 mitzvot.

The above is not merely a point of law, but a fundamental issue of Jewish faith. As the Rambam states in the ninth of his Thirteen Principles of Faith (Commentary to the Mishnah, Sanhedrin, ch. 10) declaring:

The ninth principle is that the Torah of Moses will never be nullified.... There can be no additions to it, nor any deletions from it - neither in its text nor in its explanation. And thus we are commanded: "Do not add to it and do not detract it from it."

(Our translation is taken from the original manuscript versions of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah. The standard published text varies slightly.)

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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