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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 1

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Maaseh Hakorbanot - Chapter 1

Introduction to Hilchot Maaseh Hakorbanot

They contain twenty three mitzvot: ten positive commandments and thirteen negative commandments. They are:

1) In offering up the burnt-offering to follow the procedure in the prescribed order;
2) Not to eat the flesh of the burnt-offering;
3) (To observe) the prescribed procedure of the sin-offering;
4) Not to eat the flesh of the holiest sin-offerings;
5) Not to divide asunder the fowl brought as a sin-offering;
6) (To observe) the prescribed procedure of the trespass offering;
7) That the priests shall eat the flesh of the holy sacrifices, within the Sanctuary;
8) That they shall not eat them outside the Courtyard of the Sanctuary;
9) That a stranger (not a priest) shall not eat any portion of the holy sacrifices;
10) (To observe) the prescribed procedure of the peace offerings;
11) Not to eat the flesh of the offerings that are holy in a minor degree before their blood has been sprinkled (on the altar);
12) In offering up a meal-offering to observe the procedure specifically prescribed for it in the Torah;
13) Not to put oil in a meal-offering brought as a sin-offering;
14) Not to put frankincense upon it;
15) That the meal-offering of a priest shall not be eaten;
16) That a meal-offering shall not be baked as leavened bread;
17) That the priests shall eat the rest of the meal-offering (after a handful has been offered up on the altar);
18) That one shall fulfill all his vows and bring his free-will offerings on the first of the three festivals (after making such vows or promising such offerings);
19) Not to delay fulfilling one's vow, or bringing one's free-will offering, or executing other obligations;
20) To offer all sacrifices in [G‑d’s] Chosen House;
21) To bring all hallowed things outside Israel to the national Sanctuary;
22) Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary);
23) Not to offer up a sacrifice outside the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary).

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות מעשה הקרבנות - הקדמה יש בכללן שלוש ועשרים מצוות: עשר מצוות עשה, ושלוש עשרה מצוות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן: (א) לעשות העולה כמעשיה הכתובים על הסדר.
(ב) שלא לאכול בשר עולה.
(ג) סדר החטאת.
(ד) שלא לאכול מבשר חטאת הפנימית.
(ה) שלא יבדיל בחטאת העוף.
(ו) סדר האשם.
(ז) שיאכלו הכהנים בשר קדשי קדשים במקדש.
(ח) שלא יאכלום חוץ לעזרה.
(ט) שלא יאכל זר מקדשי קדשים.
(י) סדר השלמים.
(יא) שלא לאכול בשר קדשים קלים קודם זריקת דמים.
(יב) לעשות כל מנחה כסדר מעשיה הכתובים בתורה.
(יג) שלא ישים שמן על מנחת חוטא.
(יד) שלא יתן עליה לבונה.
(טו) שלא תאכל מנחת כהן.
(טז) שלא תאפה מנחת חמץ.
(יז) שיאכלו הכהנים שיָרי מנחות.
(יח) שיביא אדם כל נדריו ונדבותיו ברגל שפגע בו ראשון.
(יט) שלא יאחר נדרו ונדבתו ושאר דברים שהוא חייב בהן.
(כ) להקריב כל הקרבנות בבית הבחירה.
(כא) להביא קדשי חוצה לארץ לבית הבחירה.
(כב) שלא לשחוט קרבנות חוץ לעזרה.
(כג) שלא להקריב קרבן חוץ לעזרה. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

All of the sacrifices of living animals comes from five species alone: a) cattle, b) sheep, c) goats, d) turtle doves, and e) small doves.1

א

כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁל מִינֵי נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בָּאִין מֵחֲמִשָּׁה מִינִין בִּלְבַד. מִן הַבָּקָר וּמִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים וּמִן הַתּוֹרִים וּמִן בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה:

2

All of the sacrifices - whether those brought by the community or by individuals - are of four types: a) burnt-offerings, b) sin-offerings, c) guilt-offerings, and d) peace-offerings.

ב

וְכָל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת בֵּין שֶׁל צִבּוּר בֵּין שֶׁל יָחִיד אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין. עוֹלָה. וְחַטָּאת. וְאָשָׁם. וּשְׁלָמִים:

3

There are also three other types of individual sacrifices: a) the Paschal sacrifice, b) the sacrifice of the firstborn,2 and d) the tithe3 sacrifice.4

ג

וְעוֹד יֵשׁ שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינֵי קָרְבַּן יָחִיד וְהֵם הַפֶּסַח. וְהַבְּכוֹר. וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר:

4

All of the communal offerings are burnt-offerings or sin-offerings. There are no communal peace-offerings except the two sheep offered with the bread that is waved on Shavuot.5 They are called "the sacrifices of communal peace offerings." The community never offers a guilt offering, nor a fowl.

ד

כָּל קָרְבָּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר הֵן עוֹלָה אוֹ חַטָּאת. וְאֵין בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר שְׁלָמִים חוּץ מִשְּׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים הַבָּאִים עִם לֶחֶם הַתְּנוּפָה בַּעֲצֶרֶת. וְהֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר. וְאֵין הַצִּבּוּר מַקְרִיבִין אָשָׁם לְעוֹלָם וְלֹא עוֹף:

5

The communal offerings are the two temidim6 offered every day,7 the additional offerings of the Sabbaths,8 Rashei Chodashim, and the festivals,9 and the sin-offering of a goat brought on Yom Kippur.10 Similarly, if [the High] Court11 inadvertently gave an erroneous ruling with regard to the worship of false deities, every tribe is required to bring a bull and a goat. The bull is brought as a burnt-offering and the goat as a sin-offering. These goats are called "the goats of false deities." If they inadvertently gave an erroneous ruling with regard to other mitzvot, they bring a bull as a sin-offering. It is called "the bull associated with the overlooking of a matter by the community."12

ה

קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר הֵם שְׁנֵי תְּמִידִין שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם. וּמוּסְפֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וְהַמּוֹעֲדוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וְכֵן אִם שָׁגְגוּ בֵּית דִּין וְהוֹרוּ בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה מֵבִיא כָּל שֵׁבֶט וְשֵׁבֶט פַּר וְשָׂעִיר. הַפָּר עוֹלָה וְהַשָּׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וְאֵלּוּ הַשְּׂעִירִים הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים שְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְאִם שָׁגְגוּ וְהוֹרוּ בִּשְׁאָר הַמִּצְוֹת מְבִיאִין פַּר לְחַטָּאת וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא פַּר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר:

6

The sacrifices [brought by] individuals include: a) the firstborn offerings,13

b) the tithe offerings,14

c) the Paschal offerings,15

d) the chagigah offerings, i.e., the peace offerings [brought in association with the pilgrimage festivals],

e) the pilgrimage offering which is a burnt-offering,16

f) the sacrifice brought by a convert, that involves a burnt-offering from a domesticated animal, two small doves or two turtle doves; both of them are burnt-offerings, or two domesticated animals, one as a burnt-offering and one as a peace-offering,17

g) one who vows18 or pledges19 a burnt-offering or a peace offering,20

h) peace-offerings that are accompanied by bread; they are called thanksgiving offerings,21

i) the sacrifices of a nazirite,22 which are a burnt-offering, a sin-offering, and a peace-offering,23

j) the sacrifices of a metzora,24 which are a sin-offering, and a guilt-offering, and a burnt-offering,25

k) the sacrifices of a zav26 a zavah,27 and a women after childbirth; they are a sin-offering and a burnt-offering,28

l) the sacrifice brought by a person who inadvertently violated a negative commandment punishable by karet;29 it is a sin-offering,30

m) if a person was unsure of whether he transgressed or not, that transgressor brings a guilt-offering; it is called a conditional guilt-offering,31

n) there are certain sins32 for which one brings a guilt-offering [to atone for their transgression]; this is called a definite guilt-offering,33

o) similarly, the ram brought as a burnt-offering and the bull the High Priest brings from his own resources as a sin-offering on Yom Kippur,34 are individual offerings; the bull is called "the bull of Yom Kippur."

All of these sacrifices are explicitly mentioned in the Torah and the laws governing each of them are explained in the appropriate places.

ו

קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד הֵם הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח. וְהַחֲגִיגָה וְהִיא שְׁלָמִים. וְהָרְאִיָּה וְהִיא עוֹלוֹת. וְקָרְבַּן הַגֵּר וְהוּא עוֹלָה מִן הַבְּהֵמָה. אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אוֹ שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים וּשְׁנֵיהֶן עוֹלָה. אוֹ שְׁתֵּי בְּהֵמוֹת אַחַת עוֹלָה וְאַחַת שְׁלָמִים. וְהַנּוֹדֵר אוֹ הַמִּתְנַדֵּב עוֹלָה אוֹ שְׁלָמִים. וּשְׁלָמִים הַבָּאִין עִם הַלֶּחֶם הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים תּוֹדָה. וְכֵן קָרְבְּנוֹת הַנָּזִיר וְהֵן עוֹלָה וְחַטָּאת וּשְׁלָמִים. וְקָרְבְּנוֹת מְצֹרָע וְהֵן חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם וְעוֹלָה. וְקָרְבְּנוֹת זָבִים וְיוֹלְדוֹת וְהֵן חַטָּאת וְעוֹלָה. וְקָרְבַּן הַשּׁוֹגֵג בְּמִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ כָּרֵת וְהוּא חַטָּאת. וְאִם נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם עָשָׂה אוֹ לֹא עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ הַחוֹטֵא מֵבִיא אָשָׁם וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא אָשָׁם תָּלוּי. וְיֵשׁ עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁמֵּבִיא עֲלֵיהֶן אָשָׁם וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא אָשָׁם וַדַּאי. וְכֵן אֵיל הָעוֹלָה וּפַר הַחַטָּאת שֶׁמַּקְרִיב כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִשֶּׁלּוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הֲרֵי הֵן קָרְבַּן יָחִיד. וּפַר זֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת מְפֹרָשִׁין הֵן בַּתּוֹרָה וְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן יִתְבָּאֲרוּ דִּינָיו בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

7

[The person bringing] any of the individual offerings is responsible for them and for their accompanying offerings35 with the exception of an animal pledged as sacrifice.36 [The community at large] is not responsible for sacrifices or their accompanying offerings.37 If a sacrifice was offered, they are responsible for its additional offerings.38 When an individual's sacrifice was required to be offered at a fixed time,39 it is like a communal offering and the person is not responsible for it.40

ז

כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן וּבְאַחֲרָיוּת נִסְכֵּיהֶן חוּץ מִן הַנְּדָבָה. וְכָל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר אֵינָן חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן וְלֹא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת נִסְכֵּיהֶן. וְאִם קָרַב הַזֶּבַח חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּת נִסְכֵּיהֶם. וְקָרְבַּן יָחִיד שֶׁקָּבוּעַ לוֹ זְמַן הֲרֵי הוּא כְּקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ:

8

All of the animals brought as burnt-offerings must only be male.41 It may be brought from sheep, goats, or cattle, whether large or small.42 They may also be brought from turtle doves and small doves, whether male or female.43

ח

כָּל עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה אֵינָהּ בָּאָה אֶלָּא מִן הַזְּכָרִים בִּלְבַד. וְהִיא בָּאָה מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים וּמִן הַבָּקָר בֵּין גְּדוֹלִים בֵּין קְטַנִּים. וּמִן הַתּוֹרִים וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה וְאֶחָד בָּהֶן הַזָּכָר וְהַנְּקֵבָה:

9

A sin-offering may be brought from these five species, from both males and females, from small ones and large ones.

ט

הַחַטָּאת בָּאָה מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים הָאֵלּוּ מִן הַזְּכָרִים וּמִן הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִן הַגְּדוֹלִים וּמִן הַקְּטַנִּים:

10

A guilt-offering may be brought only from male sheep. There are guilt-offerings that come from large members of this species44 and others which come from small members of this species.45

י

הָאָשָׁם אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא מִזִּכְרֵי כְּבָשִׂים בִּלְבַד. יֵשׁ אָשָׁם בָּא מִגְּדוֹלֵי מִין זֶה וְיֵשׁ אָשָׁם בָּא מִן הַקְּטַנִּים:

11

Peace offerings may be brought from sheep, goats, or cattle, from males and females, whether large or small. A fowl may not be brought as a peace offering.

[When describing an animal as] small, [the intent] is one between the eighth day46 and a full year, from day to day. If the year was declared a leap year, [the extra month is included]. "Large" implies until three full years from day to day for cattle, for flocks,47 until two full years from day to day. From this age onward, [the animal] is considered as "old" and it should not be brought as an offering.

יא

הַשְּׁלָמִים בָּאִים מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים וּמִן הַבָּקָר מִזְּכָרִים וּמִנְּקֵבוֹת מִן הַגְּדוֹלִים וּמִן הַקְּטַנִּים. וְאֵין הָעוֹף בָּא שְׁלָמִים. הַקְּטַנִּים הֵם מִבֶּן שְׁמוֹנַת יָמִים עַד שָׁנָה תְּמִימָה מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. אִם נִתְעַבְּרָה שָׁנָה נִתְעַבְּרָה לוֹ. וְהַגְּדוֹלִים בַּבָּקָר עַד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. וּבַצֹּאן עַד שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. יוֹתֵר עַל זֶה הֲרֵי הוּא זָקֵן וְאֵין מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתוֹ:

12

Although all of the sacrifices are acceptable if they are brought from the eighth day onward, as an initial preference, we do not bring [an animal] as a sacrifice until it is 30 days old or older48 with the exception of a firstborn offering,49 a Paschal offering, and a tithe offering.50 If one desires to offer these sacrifices from the eighth day onward, he may.

יב

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת כְּשֵׁרִין מִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה אֵין מַקְרִיבִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שְׁלֹשִׁים וָהָלְאָה. חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַפֶּסַח וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁאִם רָצָה לְהַקְרִיבָן בַּשְּׁמִינִי לְכַתְּחִלָּה מַקְרִיב:

13

Hours are counted with regard to consecrated animals,51 i.e., if their [lives] were an hour longer52 or an hour was subtracted from their [lives],53 they are unacceptable.

What is implied? When it is required that a sacrifice be less than a year old, if an hour was added to its year, it is invalidated. Even if it was merely a year old when it was slaughtered and additional time was added before its blood was sprinkled [on the altar], it is invalidated. It must be less than a year until the time the blood is sprinkled [on the altar]. Similar [laws] apply with regard to all the sacrifices.

יג

שָׁעוֹת מוֹנִין לְקָדָשִׁים. וְאִם הוֹסִיפוּ שָׁעָה אַחַת אוֹ פָּחֲתוּ שָׁעָה פְּסוּלִין. כֵּיצַד. קָרְבָּן שֶׁמִּצְוָתוֹ לִהְיוֹת בֶּן שָׁנָה אִם הוֹסִיף עַל הַשָּׁנָה שָׁעָה אַחַת נִפְסַל. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בֶּן שָׁנָה בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה וְהוֹסִיף עַל הַשָּׁנָה בִּשְׁעַת זְרִיקָה נִפְסַל עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֶּן שָׁנָה עַד שְׁעַת זְרִיקָה. וְכֵן בְּכָל הַזְּבָחִים:

14

Whenever the Torah uses the expressions, "a male sheep," "a female sheep," "sheep," the intent is [an animal] in its first year [of life]. "A ram" or "rams"54 implies males in their second year [of life]. When is an animal called a ram? When 31 days of its second year of life pass. On the thirtieth day, however, it is not acceptable, neither as a sheep, nor as a ram. [At this stage,] it is called a pilgas.55

Whenever the expression "a calf" is used, the intent is [an animal] in its first year [of life]. The term "bull" implies that the animal is in its second year of life. The term "a goat kid" implies that it is in its first year, "a goat," that it is in its second year. Throughout the second year, it is called a goat.56

יד

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה כֶּבֶשׂ אוֹ כַּבְשָׂה אוֹ כְּבָשִׂים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי שָׁנָה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אַיִל אוֹ אֵילִים הֵם הַזְּכָרִים בְּנֵי שְׁנָתַיִם. וּמֵאֵימָתַי יִקָּרֵא אַיִל מִשֶּׁיִּכָּנֵס בְּשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה אֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. אֲבָל בְּיוֹם שְׁלֹשִׁים אֵינוֹ כָּשֵׁר לֹא לְכֶבֶשׂ וְלֹא לָאַיִל וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא פִּלְגָּס. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ עֵגֶל הֲרֵי זֶה בֶּן שָׁנָה. פַּר בֶּן שְׁתַּיִם. שְׂעִיר עִזִּים [בֶּן שָׁנָה. שָׂעִיר] בֶּן שְׁתַּיִם. כָּל שָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה הוּא נִקְרָא שָׂעִיר:

15

All of the communal offerings are male. All57 of the communal sin offerings58 come from goats or from cattle, none are brought from sheep. All of the communal burnt offerings are from sheep or cattle; there are no burnt-offerings brought from goats.

All of the sin-offerings brought by individuals are female. They may be eaten by the priests and they do not come from cattle except three: a) the sin-offering of a nasi59 which is a goat60 and is eaten, b) the sin-offering of the anointed priest which is a bull,61 which is burnt;62 it is call "the bull that comes because of [the violation of] any mitzvah;" c) the bull brought by the High Priest on Yom Kippur;63 it is a sin-offering that is burnt.

טו

כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר זְכָרִים. וְכֵן חַטָּאוֹת שֶׁל צִבּוּר מִן הָעֵז אוֹ מִן הַבָּקָר. וְאֵין בָּהֶן מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים. וְכָל עוֹלוֹת הַצִּבּוּר מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הַבָּקָר. וְאֵין לָהֶן עוֹלָה מִן הָעֵז. כָּל חַטַּאת יָחִיד נְקֵבָה וְתֵאָכֵל לַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֵינָהּ בָּאָה מִן הַבָּקָר. חוּץ מִשָּׁלֹשׁ חַטָּאוֹת. חַטַּאת נָשִׂיא שֶׁהִיא עֵז וְנֶאֱכֶלֶת. וְחַטַּאת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁהוּא פַּר וְנִשְׂרֶפֶת וְהוּא פַּר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי פַּר שֶׁמֵּבִיא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְהוּא חַטָּאת וְנִשְׂרָף:

16

All of the communal sin-offerings are eaten with the exception of the goat offered on Yom Kippur whose partner is sent [to Azazel],64 the goats brought [because of the violation65 of the prohibition against] idol worship,66 and the bull [brought because of the violation] a law forgotten [by the High Court].67 "The bull that comes because of [the violation of] any mitzvah"68 and the bull [brought because of] a law forgotten [by the High Court] are called "the bulls that are burnt." The goats brought [because of the violation of the prohibition against] idol worship are called "the goats that are burnt."

Thus there are five sin-offerings that are burnt: two are individual offerings69 and three are communal offerings.70

טז

כָּל חַטָּאוֹת שֶׁל צִבּוּר נֶאֱכָלוֹת חוּץ מִשָּׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ מִשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. וְכֵן שְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וּפַר הֶעְלֵם נִשְׂרָפִין. וּפַר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת וּפַר הֶעְלֵם נִקְרָאִים פָּרִים הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה נִקְרָאִים שְׂעִירִים הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁחָמֵשׁ חַטָּאוֹת הֵם הַנִּשְׂרָפוֹת. שְׁתַּיִם לַיָּחִיד וְשָׁלֹשׁ לַצִּבּוּר:

17

All of these offerings are called zevachim.71 All of the burnt-offerings, sin-offerings, guilt-offerings, and the two sheep brought as peace-offerings on Shavuos are called "sacrifices of the highest order of sanctity."72 Peace offerings brought by an individual, the firstborn offerings, the tithe offerings, and the Paschal offerings, are called "sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity."73

יז

כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֵלּוּ נִקְרָאִים זְבָחִים. וְכָל הָעוֹלוֹת וְהַחַטָּאוֹת וְהָאֲשָׁמוֹת וּשְׁנֵי כַּבְשֵׂי שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל עֲצֶרֶת נִקְרָאִים קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים. אֲבָל שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל יָחִיד וְהַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח נִקְרָאִים קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים:

18

The limbs and organs that are burnt on the altar from the sin-offerings that are eaten, from the guilt-offerings, and from the peace-offerings74 are called eimorim.75 These are the eimorim of an ox or a goat: the fat that is on the inner organs,76 included with that is the fat that is on the maw,77 the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, together with the fat that is on the flanks, the lobe of the liver, and a small portion of the liver should also be taken with its lobe.78If the sacrifice is from sheep, he should add to these the fat tail79 in its entirety80together with the vertebrae from the spine until the place of the kidneys, as [Levitcus 3:9] states: "he shall remove it opposite the kidneys." All of the eimorim are burnt on the outer altar.81

יח

הָאֵיבָרִים שֶׁשּׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִן הַחַטָּאוֹת הַנֶּאֱכָלוֹת וּמִן הָאֲשָׁמוֹת וּמִן הַשְּׁלָמִים הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין אֵימוּרִין. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הָאֵימוּרִין שֶׁל שׁוֹר אוֹ שֶׁל עֵז. הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל הַקֶּרֶב וּבִכְלָלוֹ חֵלֶב שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַקֵּבָה וּשְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיוֹת וְחֵלֶב שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן עִם הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל הַכְּסָלִים וְיוֹתֶרֶת הַכָּבֵד וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַכָּבֵד מְעַט עִם הַיּוֹתֶרֶת. וְאִם הָיָה הַקָּרְבָּן מִמִּין הַכְּבָשִׂים מוֹסִיף עַל אֵלּוּ הָאַלְיָה תְּמִימָה עִם הַחֻלְיוֹת מִן הַשִּׁדְרָה עַד מְקוֹם הַכְּלָיוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ג ט) "לְעֵמַּת הֶעָצֶה יְסִירֶנָּה". וְכָל הָאֵימוּרִין נִשְׂרָפִין עַל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן:

19

If a [sacrificial] animal was pregnant, even though the fetus had been carried for a full term, and even if it was discovered to be alive [after the mother was slaughtered],82 its fat should not be offered together with the fat of its mother. Instead, only the fat of the mother is offered. The fetus is considered as one of its limbs.83

יט

הָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּלוּ חֳדָשָׁיו שֶׁל עֻבָּר וַאֲפִלּוּ נִמְצָא חַי אֵינוֹ מַעֲלֶה חֶלְבּוֹ עִם חֵלֶב אִמּוֹ אֶלָּא חֵלֶב אִמּוֹ בִּלְבַד. וַהֲרֵי הָעֻבָּר כְּאֶחָד מֵאֵיבָרֶיהָ:

Test Yourself on This Chapter

Footnotes
1.

See Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 3:2 with regard to the differences between these species. In this chapter, the Rambam outlines the different types of animal sacrifices and which animals are offered for each one.

2.

The sacrifice of the firstborn of one's cattle or flocks.

3.

I.e., the tithing of one's cattle or flocks.

4.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah, in the introduction to the order of Kodshim, the Rambam speaks of "peace-offerings and [offerings] that resemble peace-offerings." He later explains that the term "[offerings] that resemble peace-offerings" refers to the three types of sacrifices mentioned here, because they resemble peace-offerings." He elaborates on that theme in his commentary to Zevachim 5:5, explaining that the procedure in which these three sacrifices are offered resembles that of the peace-offerings with only minor differences. For that reason and because they are offerings which a person is required to bring only on specific and infrequent occasions, he does not consider them as a separate category of sacrifices.

5.

I.e., the two loaves offered that day. The Rambam is borrowing the wording of Leviticus 23:17.

6.

Literally "continuous offerings."

7.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 1:1-3.

8.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 4:9.

9.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim, chs. 7-10.

10.

See Hilchot Temidim UMusafim 10:2.

11.

The Sanhedrin of 71 judges who would hold their sessions in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.

12.

Both of these sacrifices are described in Hilchot Shegagot 12:1.

13.

See Hilchot Bechorot, ch. 1.

14.

See Hilchot Bechorot, ch. 6.

15.

See Hilchot Korban Pesach, ch. 1.

16.

Both of these sacrifices are described in Hilchot Chagigah, ch. 1.

17.

See Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah, ch. 1.

18.

A person vows to bring either a burnt-offering or a peace-offering.

19.

A person pledges to bring a particular animal as a burnt-offering or a peace-offering.

20.

See Chapter 14 of these halachot (Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot) which describes these sacrifices.

21.

See Chapter 9, Halachah 5, and onward which describe this sacrifice.

22.

One who took a vow not to drink wine.

23.

See Hilchot Nizirut, ch. 8.

24.

A person afflicted with tzara'at a skin ailment, similar, but not identical, to leprosy.

25.

See Hilchot Mechusrei Kaparah, ch. 4.

26.

A male who has emissions from his sexual organ similar to those resulting from a gonorrheal infection.

27.

A woman who experiences vaginal bleeding outside her menstrual cycle.

28.

See Hilchot Mechusrei Kaparah 1:3.

29.

Premature death at the hand of heaven and the soul being cut off in the World to Come.

30.

See Hilchot Shegagot, ch. 1.

31.

See Chapter 9 which describes both these types of sacrifices.

32.

When he engaged in relations with a maid-servant who was married, robbed, made mundane use of consecrated property. Similarly, a nazirite who became impure and a person afflicted with tzara'at must bring this offering.

33.

See Chapter 9 which describes both these types of sacrifices.

34.

See Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim, ch. 4, which describes the offering of these sacrifices.

35.

I.e., if the animal he designated as a sacrifice dies or the meal or wine offering designated for the sacrifices was spoiled, he must bring another one in its place.

36.

As will be explained in ch. 14, in that instance, the person is not vowing to bring a sacrifice, he is designated a particular animal as a sacrifice. Hence if that animal is lost, he is not obligated to replace it.

37.

We are speaking about sacrifices that are required to be brought at a specific time. If for some reason, the community was unable to bring them at that time, they are not required to bring them afterwards. As Berachot 26a states: "If the time passes, the sacrifice is nullified."

38.

For these additional offerings may be brought even at a later date, as will be explained in Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

39.

Like the Paschal or festive offerings.

40.

In this instance as well, since the time passed, the sacrifice cannot be brought. In truth, the matter is not at all dependent on whether an individual's sacrifice or a communal offering is involved. The determining factor is whether there is a specific time associated with the sacrifice or not (Radbaz).

41.

Leviticus 22:18-19 speaks of bringing the three species mentioned as burnt offerings and specifies that they must be male.

42.

Provided they are eight days old, as explained in Halachah 11.

43.

The Torah does not make any specification with regard to fowl.

44.

Those brought for the sins mentioned in note 32.

45.

The guilt offering brought by a nazirite.

46.

Before eight days, it is forbidden to bring an animal as a sacrifice, as stated in Hilchot Isssurei Mizbeiach 3:4.

47.

Both sheep and goats.

48.

If it was brought earlier, it is acceptable after the fact (Radbaz).

49.

Since Exodus 22:29 explicitly states that a firstborn animal may be offered on its eighth day of life, our Sages did not desire to place any restrictions on the offering. It may be offered on the eighth day even as an initial preference.

50.

The tithe offering and the Paschal sacrifice are, like the firstborn offering, sacrifices of lesser sanctity and the laws governing the pouring of their blood on the altar are the same. Hence, our Sages considered them the same in this instance as well [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Parah 1:4)].

The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh note that the mishnah cited also states that the same laws apply to offerings that were vowed or pledged and question why the Rambam does not mention them in this halachah. The Radbaz notes that the Rambam does not mention pledges and vows in his Commentary to the Mishnah and maintains that he possessed a different version of the mishnah.

51.

Generally, years are counted from day to day and not from hour to hour. For example, with regard to a child becoming Bar Mitzvah at age 13, if he was born at 3 PM on the sixteenth of Elul, he reaches Bar Mitzvah at nightfall on the sixteenth of Elul. He need not wait until 3 in the afternoon. With regard to sacrifices, however, Zevachim 18b uses Biblical exegesis to teach that we count from the hour of an animal's birth.

52.

As the Rambam describes in the following clause.

53.

This refers to an animal like a ram that is not acceptable for sacrifice until it is a year and 30 days old. It is not acceptable until the hour of its birth passes on the thirty-first day.

54.

The term, ayil, Hebrew for ram, is identified with strength. Implied is that the animal must reach a stage of maturity that endows it with strength and power.

55.

This is a Greek term. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Parah 1:3), the Rambam explains that the term carries an allusion to the Hebrew phrase peleg gas, implying that it has passed its limits exceedingly. Similarly, this animal is in an intermediate state, having left one category, but not entered another.

56.

Perhaps the Rambam's intent is that there is no concept of a pilgas with regard to goats.

57.

Our translation is based on early printing and authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah. The standard printed text has a slightly different version.

58.

Brought on Rosh Chodesh or the festivals and those mentioned in the following halachot.

59.

I.e., a king as stated in Hilchot Shegagot 15:6.

60.

I.e., as opposed to ordinary sin-offerings which can be either a goat or a sheep, the prince's offering must be a goat and it must be male in contrast to those offerings which are female.

61.

I.e. the High Priest, but only one who was anointed. If he assumed his office through wearing the garments of the High Priest (as did the High Priests of the Second Temple), he is not required to bring this sacrifice (Hilchot Shegagot, loc. cit.).

62.

I.e., and not eaten.

63.

See Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim 1:1; 4:1.

64.

See Hilchot Avodat Yom HaKippurim 1:1; 4:1.

65.

By people at large due to a erroneous ruling by the High Court.

66.

See Hilchot Shegagot 12:1.

67.

By people at large due to a erroneous ruling by the High Court.

68.

I.e. the High Priest, but only one who was anointed. If he assumed his office through wearing the garments of the High Priest (as did the High Priests of the Second Temple), he is not required to bring this sacrifice (Hilchot Shegagot, loc. cit.).

69.

The two bulls brought by the High Priest mentioned in the previous halachah.

70.

The bulls and the goats brought because of transgressions performed due to a erroneous ruling by the High Court and the goat offered as a sin offered on Yom Kippur [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Zevachim 12:5)]. Significantly, in his Commentary to Parah 8:3, the Rambam does not mention the goat offered on Yom Kippur among the goats that are burnt.

71.

The Radbaz notes that this appellation is found in Zevachim 47a. He questions the reason for the Rambam's inclusion of this point and explains that it can resolve a question that might arise if a person made a particular pledge.

72.

See Chapter 5, Halachot 2-3.

73.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 4.

74.

The Rambam does not mention the burnt offering, because then the entire animal is burnt.

75.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Introduction to the Order of Kodshim), the Rambam explains that this term is derived from the term emar, "spoke," i.e., these are the organs spoken about, i.e., specified by God to be burnt.

76.

The Biblical term kerev (Leviticus 3:3, et al) refers to the inner digestive organs. That verse speaks of "the fat that covers the inner organs" and "all the fat on the inner organs." The first term refers to a large membrane that covers all of these organs like a sack. The second term refers to the fat on the organs themselves.

77.

I.e., one of the animals four stomachs. Since the verse uses the term kol, "all," our Sages understood that additional fat was to be brought.

78.

These are also mentioned explicitly in Leviticus 3:10, et al.

79.

The tails of goat and cattle do not collect fat. Hence the term alyah, "fat tail" is not appropriate with regard to them and their tails are not offered (Radbaz).

80.

Leviticus 3:9 speaks of haalyah temimah. In this context, temimah means "entire."

81.

The inner altar is used only for incense and the blood sprinkled on it on Yom Kippur. See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 2:11.

82.

In which instance, its fat is forbidden to be eaten, as stated in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 7:3.

83.

We do not consider it as if two animals were offered as this sacrifice and the eimorim from each must be offered on the altar. Instead, only the mother is considered as the sacrifice and the fetus is considered as an appendage to it. If the sacrifice is a sin offering, it is given to the priests to partake of. If it is a peace offering, it is given to the owner. Females are not sacrificed as guilt offerings.

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Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah