ב"ה

# Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

## Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Eight

Classes on 1 Chapter Rambam

## Mechirah - Chapter Twenty Eight

1

The following rules apply when a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you a parcel of earth fit to sow a kor." If the land contains small hollows that are ten handbreadths deep even if they do not contain water, or rocks that are ten handbreadths high, they are not included in the above measure.The rationale is that a person does not want to pay money for one parcel of land and have it appear as two or three parcels. The purchaser acquires these rocks and hollows as part of the parcel of land fit to sow a kor without paying for them.

If the hollows or the rocks are smaller than ten handbreadths, they are measured together with the remainder of the field.

א

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ וְהָיוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדוֹת גֵּאָיוֹת קְטַנִּים עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן מַיִם אוֹ סְלָעִים גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אֵין נִמְדָּדִין בִּכְלַל הַבֵּית כּוֹר. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן מְעוֹתָיו בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְנִרְאִין כִּשְׁנַיִם אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת. וְלוֹקֵחַ אֵלּוּ הַגֵּאָיוֹת וְהַסְּלָעִים בִּכְלַל הַבֵּית כּוֹר בְּלֹא דָּמִים. הָיוּ פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן נִמְדָּדִין עִמָּהּ:

2

When does the above apply? When together, the area of all the rocks and the hollows was no more than the area necessary to sow four kabbim and was contained within an area where at least five kabbim could be sown, and was contained within the majority of the field.

If the area of the rocks and the hollows is more than the area necessary to sow four kabbim that area is very spread out, or it is contained within a lesser area than one in which five kabbim could be sown, they are not included in the measure of the field, even if they are not ten handbreadths high or deep.

All the following situations are questions left unresolved by the Talmud: The majority of the area necessary to sow four kabbim is contained in a small portion of the field, a small portion of the area necessary to sow four kabbim is contained in the majority of the field, the rocks are in a straight line, in a circle, in a triangle, they are in the shape of a star, or in a jagged line. In all these instances, because of the doubt involved, we follow the principle: One who desires to expropriate money from a colleague must prove his contention.Similarly, if there is earth on top and a rock beneath it, or a rock on top and earth beneath it, there is an unresolved doubt among our Sages, and the above principle is followed.

ב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בָּהֶן אֶלָּא בֵּית אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין וְהָיוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין מֻבְלָעִין בְּתוֹךְ חֲמֵשֶׁת קַבִּין וּמֻבְלָעִין בְּתוֹךְ רֻבָּהּ שֶׁל שָׂדֶה. אֲבָל הָיְתָה יֶתֶר עַל אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מְפֻזָּרִין הַרְבֵּה אוֹ אֵינָן מֻבְלָעִין. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן עֲשָׂרָה אֵינָן נִמְדָּדִין עִמָּהּ. הָיוּ נִבְלָעִין רֻבָּן בְּמִעוּטָהּ אוֹ מִעוּטָן בְּרֻבָּהּ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מֻחְלָקִין כְּמוֹ חוּט שָׁוֶה אוֹ כְּמוֹ עִגּוּל אוֹ כְּמוֹ מְשֻׁלָּשׁ אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ בַּצְּדָדִין אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ דֶּרֶךְ עֲקַלָּתוֹן. כָּל אֵלּוּ סָפֵק וְהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ עָפָר מִלְּמַעְלָה וְסֶלַע מִלְּמַטָּה אוֹ סֶלַע מִלְּמַעְלָה וְעָפָר מִלְּמַטָּה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק:

3

If there is one large rock, even if it is only as large as the area necessary to sow a quarter of a kav, it is not included in the measurement. If a rock is next to the border of a field, even if it is very small, it is not included in the measurement. If there is some earth between the rock and the boundary, there is an unresolved doubt among our Sages.

ג

הָיָה בָּהּ סֶלַע יְחִידִי אֲפִלּוּ בֵּית רֹבַע לְכוֹר אֵין נִמְדָּד עִמָּהּ. וְאִם הָיָה סָמוּךְ לַמֵּצַר אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֵין זֶה נִמְדָּד עִמָּהּ. הִפְסִיק עָפָר בֵּין סֶלַע לַמֵּצַר הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק:

4

When the seller tells the purchaser: "I am selling you a parcel of earth like the area fit to sow a kor" different rules apply. Even if it has hollows that are ten or more handbreadths deep or stones that are ten or more handbreadths high, they are included in its measure.

ד

אָמַר לוֹ כְּבֵית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ בָּהּ גֵּאָיוֹת עֲמֻקוֹת עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר אוֹ סְלָעִים גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אוֹ יוֹתֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִמְדָּדִין עִמָּהּ:

5

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you a parcel of earth fit to sow a kor, as measured with a rope" the measurement must be exact. If the land is even slightly smaller, the purchaser may reduce the payment proportionally. If it is even slightly larger, the extra amount should be returned to the seller.

ה

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ מִדָּה בְּחֶבֶל. אִם פִּחֵת כָּל שֶׁהוּא מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים וְאִם הוֹתִיר כָּל שֶׁהוּא יַחְזִיר לוֹ:

6

When the seller tells the purchaser: "I am selling you a parcel of earth fit to sow a kor," it is as if he said "approximately a parcel of earth fit to sow a kor, perhaps more, perhaps less."

The following laws apply. If the measure was one twenty-fourth less - i.e., a fourth of a kav, for each parcel of earth fit to sow a se'ah, it is considered to be within the terms of the original agreement. If the deviation is larger than that, he should calculate the amount due for all the parcels of land fit to sow a fourth of a kav that are either lacking or additional. He should deduct from the price for the entire amount that is less than the parcel of earth necessary to sow a kor or make restitution to the seller for everything that is more than that amount.

ו

אָמַר בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר בֵּין חָסֵר בֵּין יָתֵר. וְאִם פִּחֵת מִן הַמִּדָּה אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שֶׁהוּא רֹבַע לְכָל סְאָה אוֹ הוֹתִיר כָּךְ רֹבַע לְכָל סְאָה הִגִּיעוֹ. יֶתֶר עַל כֵּן יַחְשֹׁב עִמּוֹ עַל כָּל הָרְבָעִים כֻּלָּן שֶׁחָסְרוּ אוֹ הוֹסִיפוּ. וְכָל שֶׁפִּחֵת מִבֵּית כּוֹר יְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים וְכָל שֶׁהוֹסִיף עַל בֵּית כּוֹר יַחְזִיר לוֹ:

7

How should restitution be made to the seller? If the additional amount is less than an area fit to sow nine kabbim, the purchaser should return to the seller the percentage of the price paid at the time of the sale. This is done to strengthen the position of the seller.

If the extra portion of land is located next to another field belonging to the seller, the purchaser should return the land itself. For the seller can include it with his other fields and will not suffer any loss.

If the additional amount is more than an area fit to sow nine kabbim, the purchaser should return to the seller a fourth of a kav for each parcel of earth fit to sow a se'ah. If the remainder besides these fourths of-a-kav parcels is an area fit to sow nine kabbim, the purchaser should give the seller these fourths of-a-kav parcels and the additional land. If the seller does not desire the land, the purchaser has the option of paying the seller according to the price at the time of purchase.

ז

וּמַה הוּא מַחְזִיר לוֹ. אִם הָיְתָה הַתּוֹסֶפֶת פְּחוּתָה מִתִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין מַחְזִיר לוֹ דָּמִים כִּשְׁעַת הַמְּכִירָה לְיַפּוֹת כֹּחַ הַמּוֹכֵר. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַתּוֹסֶפֶת סְמוּכָה לְשָׂדֶה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל מוֹכֵר מַחְזִיר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ הַתּוֹסֶפֶת קַרְקַע שֶׁהֲרֵי סוֹמֵךְ אוֹתָהּ לִשְׁאָר שְׂדוֹתָיו וְאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיד כְּלוּם. הָיְתָה הַתּוֹסֶפֶת יְתֵרָה עַל תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין נוֹתְנִין רֹבַע לְכָל סְאָה וּסְאָה. וְהַנִּשְׁאָר יֶתֶר עַל הָרְבָעִים אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין נוֹתֵן לוֹ כָּל הָרְבָעִים כֻּלָּן עִם הַיֶּתֶר מִן הַקַּרְקַע וְנוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁלְּקָחָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ:

8

When does the above apply? When the land was inexpensive at the time of the sale and rose in value at the time when restitution is being made. If, however, the land was expensive and decreased in value, we tell the purchaser: "If you desire, pay him for the entire additional amount, giving him the price at the time of the sale. If you desire to give him land, give it to him according to its present value."

ח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהִיא בְּזוֹל בִּשְׁעַת מִמְכָּר וְהוֹקִירָה בִּשְׁעַת הַחְזָרַת הַיֶּתֶר. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה בְּיֹקֶר וְהוּזְלָה. אוֹמְרִין לַלּוֹקֵחַ אִם רָצִיתָ לִתֵּן לוֹ דְּמֵי הַתּוֹסֶפֶת כֻּלָּהּ תֵּן לוֹ דָּמִים כְּפִי הַמִּמְכָּר וְאִם רָצִיתָ לִתֵּן לוֹ קַרְקַע תֵּן לוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁוֶה עַכְשָׁו:

9

The same laws that apply to an area fit to sow nine kabbim in a field apply to an area fit to sow half a kav in a garden. If there is less than half a kav in addition to the fourths of a kav for each parcel of earth fit to sow a se'ah, the purchaser is required only to return money. If there is an additional half kav, the purchaser should pay him for all the additional fourths and the extra amount or return the land to him even if its price decreased at the time it is being returned.

ט

וְדִין חֲצִי קַב בְּגִנָּה כְּדִין תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין בְּשָׂדֶה. שֶׁאִם הוֹתִירָה בְּגִנָּה פָּחוֹת מֵחֲצִי קַב עַל הָרְבָעִים אֵינוֹ מַחְזִיר לוֹ אֶלָּא דָּמִים. הוֹתִיר חֲצִי קַב מַחְזִיר לוֹ אֶת כָּל הָרְבָעִים עִם הַיֶּתֶר בְּדָמִים אוֹ קַרְקַע כִּשְׁעַת הַזּוֹל שֶׁל עֵת הַחֲזָרָה:

10

When a person sells a field and it becomes a garden while in the possession of the purchaser, or he sells a garden and it becomes a field while in the possession of the purchaser, there is a doubt whether the laws are determined according to its state at the time of the sale or its immediate state.

י

מָכַר שָׂדֶה וְנַעֲשֵׂית גִּנָּה בְּיַד לוֹקֵחַ. אוֹ גִּנָּה וְנַעֲשֵׂית שָׂדֶה. הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם מְחַשֵּׁב לוֹ כְּדִין שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּעֵת הַמֶּכֶר אוֹ כְּדִין שֶׁהִיא עַתָּה:

11

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you a parcel of earth fit to sow a kor, as measured with a rope, perhaps more, perhaps less," or if he says: "I am selling you a parcel of earth fit to sow a kor, perhaps more, perhaps less, as measured with a rope," one should follow the less committing of the implications. The purchaser does not receive more according to the principle: "When a person desires to expropriate property from a colleague, the burden of proof is on him," whether the seller's statements imply more or less.

יא

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ מִדָּה בְּחֶבֶל בֵּין חָסֵר בֵּין יָתֵר. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר בֵּית כּוֹר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ בֵּין חָסֵר בֵּין יָתֵר מִדָּה בְּחֶבֶל. הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַפָּחוּת שֶׁבַּלְּשׁוֹנוֹת וְאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא כַּדִּין אִם חָסֵר אִם יָתֵר:

12

When a person sells a colleague a parcel of land fit to sow a kor and states signs and boundaries for it that are a sixth less or a sixth more than the area fit to sow a kor, the sale is binding. If it is less than that amount by more than a sixth, the seller must subtract from the sum the purchaser pays. If the field was more than a sixth larger, the purchaser should give him either money or land as appropriate for the extra amount. If the extra amount was less than an area fit to sow nine kabbim in a field, or less than an area fit to sow half a kav in a garden and it was not located next to a field belonging to the seller, the purchaser should return the appropriate amount of money.

יב

מָכַר לוֹ בֵּית כּוֹר וְאָמַר לוֹ בַּסִּימָנִין וּבַמְּצָרִים. פִּחֵת שְׁתוּת אוֹ הוֹתִיר שְׁתוּת הִגִּיעוֹ. פִּחֵת יֶתֶר עַל שְׁתוּת יְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים. הוֹסִיף לוֹ יֶתֶר עַל שְׁתוּת יִתֵּן לוֹ דָּמִים אוֹ קַרְקַע הַכּל לְפִי הַשִּׁיּוּר. אִם הַנִּשְׁאָר בַּשָּׂדֶה פָּחוֹת מִתִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין וּבַגִּנָּה פָּחוֹת מֵחֲצִי קַב וְלֹא הָיָה סָמוּךְ לַשָּׂדֶה הַמּוֹכֵר מַחְזִיר לוֹ הַדָּמִים:

13

The following rule applies when a person sells to a colleague a field with which the colleague is familiar and knows its boundaries. Even if he tells him that its measurement is 200, and in truth it is only 150 the sale is binding. For he knew the field and accepted it. By saying its measure is 200, he was stressing its importance. It is as if he had said: "It is as valuable as a field that is 200 in measure."

יג

הַמּוֹכֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שָׂדֶה שֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ יוֹדֵעַ אוֹתָהּ וְאֶת מְצָרֶיהָ וּכְבָר הֻרְגַּל בָּהּ. אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר לוֹ יֵשׁ בִּמְשִׁיחָתָהּ מָאתַיִם וְנִמְצֵאת בָּהּ מֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים הִגִּיעָתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי יְדָעָהּ וְקִבֵּל עָלָיו. וְזֶה שֶׁהִזְכִּיר לוֹ הַחֲשִׁיבוּת, כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהִיא יָפָה כְּמוֹ שָׂדֶה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּמְשִׁיחָתָהּ מָאתַיִם:

14

When a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you this and this parcel of land fit to sow a kor" even though when measured, it is fit to sow only a letech, the sale is binding. For he sold him a place that was called "fit to sow a kor." For this reason, the seller must bring proof that the parcel of land is called "fit to sow a kor."

Similarly, if a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you my vineyard in this and this place," even if there are no vines on the land, the sale is binding, provided the place is described as a vineyard.

Similarly, if a person tells a colleague: "I am selling you this orchard," even if there are no pomegranates on the land, the sale is binding, provided the place is described as an orchard. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

יד

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ בֵּית כּוֹר פְּלוֹנִי אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בִּמְשִׁיחָתוֹ אֶלָּא לֶתֶךְ הִגִּיעוֹ. שֶׁלֹּא מָכַר לוֹ אֶלָּא מָקוֹם הַנִּקְרָא בֵּית כּוֹר. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ הַמּוֹכֵר לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהוּא נִקְרָא בֵּית כּוֹר. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ כֶּרֶם שֶׁלִּי בְּמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ גְּפָנִים הִגִּיעוֹ וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ קוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ כֶּרֶם. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ פַּרְדֵּס זֶה אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ. אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ רִמּוֹנִים הִגִּיעוֹ וְהוּא שֶׁיִּקָּרֵא פַּרְדֵּס. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

15

All the above rules apply only in a place where there is no prevailing local custom, as we have explained. When, by contrast, there is a prevailing local custom, that custom should be followed. Similarly, we follow the implied meanings of the expressions used by the majority of the local people.

טו

וְכֵן כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִנְהָג הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמִּנְהָג וְאַחַר לְשׁוֹן רֹב אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם הַיְדוּעִים לָהֶן: