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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Terumot - Chapter 1, Terumot - Chapter 2, Terumot - Chapter 3

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Terumot - Chapter 1

Introduction to Hilchos Terumot

They contain eight mitzvot: two positive commandments and six negative commandments. They are:

1) To separate terumah gedolah;
2) To separate terumas ma’aser;
3) Not to separate the terumot and the tithes in improper order, but instead to separate them in the prescribed order;
4) That one other than a priest should not partake of terumah;
5) That even a servant of a priest or his worker should not partake of terumah;
6) That an uncircumcised person not partake of terumah;
7) That an impure priest not partake of terumah;
8) That a challalah not partake of terumah or from the portions of the sacrifices given to priests;

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות תרומות - הקדמה

הלכות תרומות יש בכללן שמנה מצות שתים מצות עשה ושש מצות לא תעשה וזה הוא פרטן:

(א) להפריש תרומה גדולה
(ב) להפריש תרומת מעשר
(ג) שלא יקדים תרומות ומעשרות זה לזה אלא יפריש על הסדר
(ד) שלא יאכל זר תרומה
(ה) שלא יאכל אפילו תושב כהן או שכירו תרומה
(ו) שלא יאכל ערל תרומה
(ז) שלא יאכל כהן טמא תרומה
(ח) שלא תאכל חללה תרומה ולא מורם מן הקדשים

וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

According to Scriptural Law, [the obligation to separate] the terumot1 and the tithes2 applies only in Eretz Yisrael.3 [It applies] whether the Temple is standing or not.4 The prophets ordained that these obligations should be observed in Babylon as well, because it is adjacent to Eretz Yisrael and the majority of the Jewish people journey to and from there.5 The Sages of the early generations6 ordained that they also be observed in the lands of Egypt and the lands of Ammon and Moab, because they are on the peripheries of Eretz Yisrael.

א

התרומות והמעשרות אינן נוהגין מן התורה אלא בארץ ישראל בין בפני הבית בין שלא בפני הבית ונביאים התקינו שיהו נוהגות אפילו בארץ שנער מפני שהיא סמוכה לא"י ורוב ישראל הולכין ושבין שם והחכמים הראשונים התקינו שיהיו נוהגות אף בארץ מצרים ובארץ עמון ומואב מפני שהם סביבות לא"י:

2

Whenever Eretz Yisrael is mentioned, the intent is the lands conquered by the King of Israel or a prophet with the consent of the entire Jewish people. This is called "a conquest of the community."7 If, however, an individual Jew, a family, or a tribe go and conquer a place for themselves - even in the land given to Abraham8 - it is not considered as Eretz Yisrael in the sense that one is obligated to observe all the mitzvot there.9 For this reason, Joshua10 and his court divided the entire Land of Israel into tribal portions11 even though it was not conquered [entirely] at that time. In this way, when every tribe would ascend and conquer its portion, it would not be considered as merely an individual conquest.

ב

ארץ ישראל האמורה בכל מקום היא בארצות שכיבשן מלך ישראל או נביא מדעת רוב ישראל וזהו הנקרא כיבוש רבים אבל יחיד מישראל או משפחה או שבט שהלכו וכבשו לעצמן מקום אפילו מן הארץ שניתנה לאברהם אינו נקרא א"י כדי שינהגו בו כל המצות ומפני זה חלק יהושע ובית דינו כל א"י לשבטים אע"פ שלא נכבשה כדי שלא יהיה כיבוש יחיד כשיעלה כל שבט ושבט ויכבוש חלקו:

3

The lands which [King] David conquered outside of the Land of Canaan, e.g., Aram Naharaim, Aram Tzovah, Achlab,12 and the like, even though he was a King of Israel and he was acting with the consent of the High Court,13 is not considered as the Land of Israel with regard to all matters, nor is it like the Diaspora, i.e., Babylonia and Egypt with regard to all matters. Instead, it was removed from the category of the Diaspora, but did not enter the category of Eretz Yisrael.

Why was its level considered lower than that of Eretz Yisrael? Because David conquered them before he conquered all of Eretz Yisrael.14 Instead, there were still member of the seven nations there. If, however, he had conquered Eretz Yisrael entirely, in all of its boundaries, and afterwards conquered15 other lands,16 his entire conquest would have been equivalent to Eretz Yisrael with regard to all matters.17 The lands which [King] David conquered are called Syria.

ג

הארצות שכבש דוד חוץ לארץ כנען כגון ארם נהרים וארם צובה ואחלב וכיוצא בהן אף על פי שמלך ישראל הוא ועל פי בית דין הגדול הוא עושה אינו כא"י לכל דבר ולא כחוצה לארץ לכל דבר כגון בבל ומצרים אלא יצאו מכלל חוצה לארץ ולהיותן כא"י לא הגיעו ומפני מה ירדו ממעלת א"י מפני שכבש אותם קודם שיכבוש כל א"י אלא נשאר בה משבעה עממים ואילו תפס כל ארץ כנען לגבולותיה ואחר כך כבש ארצות אחרות היה כיבושו כולו כא"י לכל דבר והארצות שכבש דוד הן הנקראין סוריא:

4

There are dimensions of [the laws that apply to] Syria that resemble [the laws that apply in] Eretz Yisrael18 and there are dimensions of [its laws] that resemble [those which apply] in the Diaspora.19 A person who purchases landed property [in Syria] is comparable to one who purchases [land] in Eretz Yisrael with regard to terumot, tithes, and the Sabbatical year.20 All [the laws that apply] in Syria are of Rabbinic origin.21

ד

סוריא יש דברים שהיא בהן כא"י ויש דברים שהיא בהן כח"ל והקונה בה קרקע כקונה בא"י לענין תרומות ומעשרות ושביעית והכל בסוריא מדברי סופרים:

5

All of the lands that [the Jews] who ascended from Egypt took possession of were sanctified in the first consecration [of the land]. When they were exiled, that sanctity was nullified.22 [The rationale is that] the initial consecration came about because of the conquest. [Hence,] its consecration was effective for the time [it was under their rule], but not for all time.23 When, by contrast, the descendants of the exiles ascended [from Babylon] and took possession of a portion of the land,24 they consecrated it a second time.25 [This consecration] is perpetuated forever, for that time and for all time.26

[The Sages] left those places that had been settled by [the Jews who] ascended from Egypt, but were not settled by those who ascended from Babylon in their previous [halachic status] and did not exempt them from [the obligations of] terumah and tithes so that the poor could rely upon them in the Sabbatical year.27 Our holy teacher28 released Beit Shan29 from those places which [the Jews] who ascended from Babylon did not take hold of. He decided that Ashkelon should be exempted from the tithes.30

ה

כל שהחזיקו עולי מצרים ונתקדש קדושה ראשונה כיון שגלו בטלו קדושתן שקדושה ראשונה לפי שהיתה מפני הכיבוש בלבד קדשה לשעתה ולא קדשה לעתיד לבוא כיון שעלו בני הגולה והחזיקו במקצת הארץ קדשוה קדושה שנייה העומדת לעולם לשעתה ולעתיד לבוא והניחו אותם המקומות שהחזיקו בהם עולי מצרים ולא החזיקו בהם עולי בבל כשהיו ולא פטרום מן התרומה והמעשרות כדי שיסמכו עליהם עניים בשביעית ורבינו הקדוש התיר בית שאן מאותם המקומות שלא החזיקו בהם עולי בבל והוא נמנה על אשקלון ופטרה מן המעשרות:

6

Thus the entire earth is divided into three categories in relation to those mitzvot involving the land: Eretz Yisrael, Syria, and the Diaspora. Eretz Yisrael itself is divided into two categories: a) those portions settled by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia, and b) those portions that were settled only by the Jews who ascended from Egypt.

The Diaspora is divided into two categories: a) Egypt, Babylon, Ammon, and Moab in which the mitzvot are observed according to the decrees of the sages and the prophets and the other lands in which [the obligations of] the terumot and the tithes are not observed.

ו

נמצא כל העולם לענין מצות התלויות בארץ נחלקת לג' מחלוקות א"י וסוריא וח"ל וא"י נחלקת לשנים כל שהחזיקו עולי בבל חלק א' וכל שהחזיקו עולי מצרים בלבד חלק שני וח"ל נחלקת לשנים ארץ מצרים ושנער ועמון ומואב המצות נוהגות בהם מד"ס ונביאים ושאר הארצות אין תרומות ומעשרות נוהגות בהן:

7

What are [the boundaries of] the land settled by the Jews who ascended from Egypt? From Rekem which is in the east of Eretz Yisrael until the Mediterranean Sea. From Ashkelon31 which is in the south of Eretz Yisrael until Acre which is in the north. As one proceeds from Acre to Kziv,32 the area to one's right, on the east, can generally be assumed to be of the Diaspora - it is impure as is the lands of the nations33 and is exempt from [the mitzvot of] the tithes and the Sabbatical year - unless it is known that it was part of Eretz Yisrael. The area to one's left, to the west, can generally be assumed to be part of Eretz Yisrael - it is pure [from the impurity associated with] the lands of the nations and is obligated with regard to [mitzvot of] the tithes and the Sabbatical year - unless it is known to be part of the Diaspora.34 With regard to the entire area that slopes downward from the Samnum Mountains:35 The inner [portion]36 is Eretz Yisrael, the portion outside the Samnum Mountains is the Diaspora.

With regard to the islands in the sea, we consider their [status dependent] on an [imaginary] line extended from the Samnum Mountains until the River of Egypt.37 Those within this line are part of Eretz Yisrael. Those outside this line are part of the Diaspora. This is a depiction of the matter.38

ז

אי זו היא ארץ שהחזיקו בה עולי מצרים מרקם שהוא במזרח א"י עד הים הגדול מאשקלון שהיא לדרום א"י עד עכו שהיא בצפון היה מהלך מעכו לכזיב כל הארץ שעל ימינו שהוא מזרח הדרך הרי היא בחזקת ח"ל וטמאה משום ארץ העמים ופטורה מן המעשר ומן השביעית עד שיודע לך שאותו המקום מא"י וכל הארץ שעל שמאלו שהוא מערב הדרך הרי היא בחזקת א"י וטהורה משום ארץ העמים וחייבת במעשר ובשביעית עד שיודע לך שאותו מקום ח"ל וכל ששופע ויורד מטורי אמנום ולפנים א"י מטורי אמנום ולחוץ ח"ל והנסים שבים רואין אותן כאילו חוט מתוח עליהם מטורי אמנום ועד נחל מצרים מן החוט ולפנים א"י מן החוט ולחוץ ח"ל וזו היא צורתה:

8

Which area did the Jews who ascended from Babylonia settle in? [The area] from Kziv inward toward the east. They did not, however, take possession of the area from Kziv outward until Amana which is Samnum until the river, i.e., the River of Egypt.39 And they did not take possession of Kziv itself.

ח

מהיכן החזיקו עולי בבל מכזיב ולפנים כנגד המזרח ומכזיב ולחוץ עד אמנה והיא אמנום ועד הנהר והוא נחל מצרים לא החזיקו בו וכזיב עצמה לא החזיקו בה:

9

What constitutes Syria? From Eretz Yisrael and below40 parallel to Aram Naharaim and Aram Tzovah, the entire region of the Euphrates until Babylonia, e.g., Damascus, Achalev, Charan, Minbag, and the like until Shinar41 and Tzahar. These are considered like Syria. Acre, by contrast, is considered part of the Diaspora, like Ashkelon.42 These are the boundaries of Eretz Yisrael.

ט

אי זו היא סוריא מא"י ולמטה כנגד ארם נהרים וארם צובה כל יד פרת עד בבל כגון דמשק ואחלב וחרן ומגבת וכיוצא בהן עד שנער וצהר הרי היא כסוריא אבל עכו חוצה לארץ כאשקלון והם תחומי א"י:

10

When a gentile purchases land in Eretz Yisrael, he does not cause it to be absolved from [the observance of] the mitzvot.43 Instead, its holiness is still intact.44 Therefore, if a Jew purchases this land from [the gentile], it is not considered as a private conquest.45 Instead, he should separate the terumot and the tithes and bring the first fruits. All these [obligations] are Scriptural in origin, as if it was never sold to a gentile. When a gentile acquires land in Syria, his acquisition has the power to absolve [the land] from the obligations of tithes and the Sabbatical year,46 as will be explained.47

י

עכו"ם שקנה קרקע בא"י לא הפקיעוה מן המצוות אלא הרי היא בקדושתה לפיכך אם חזר ישראל ולקחה ממנו אינה ככיבוש יחיד אלא מפריש תרומות ומעשרות ומביא בכורים והכל מן התורה כאילו לא נמכרה לעכו"ם מעולם ויש קנין לעכו"ם בסוריא להפקיע מן המעשרות ומן השביעית כמו שיתבאר:

11

[The following laws apply with regard to] produce belonging to a gentile that grew on land that he purchased in Eretz Yisrael. If all the work involving the produce was completed in the possession of a gentile and the gentile straightened the edges of the grain heap,48 they are exempt, because [the verse mentioning the obligation to separate terumah, Deuteronomy 18:4] mentions "your grain," [thus excluding] the grain of a gentile.49

If a Jew purchases [the produce] after it was harvested, but before the tasks involved with it were completed and they were completed by a Jew, all [of the agricultural obligations apply with regard to the produce] according to Scriptural Law.50 He must separate the great terumah and give it to a priest and [separate] the terumat ma'aser and sell it to a priest.51 The first tithe belongs to him,52 because he can tell a Levite with regard to the tithes and a priest with regard to the terumat ma'aser: "I am coming in the stead of a person53 from which you could not have collected anything."54

Why do we say that he should not give the terumat ma'aser to a priest as [he gives him] the great terumah?55 Because with regard to terumat ma'aser, it is written: "When you take the tithes from the children of Israel...."56 [Implied is that from] untithed produced that you purchase from a Jew, you should separate terumat ma'aser and give it to a priest, but from untithed produce that you purchase from a gentile, you need not give the priest the terumat ma'aser you separate from it. Instead, you sell it to the priest and take the money.

יא

פירות העכו"ם שגדלו בקרקע שקנה בא"י אם נגמרה מלאכתם ביד עכו"ם ומרחן העכו"ם פטורין מכלום שנאמר דגנך ולא דגן עכו"ם ואם לקחן ישראל אחר שנתלשו קודם שתגמר מלאכתן וגמרן ישראל חייבין בכל מן התורה ומפריש תרומה גדולה ונותנה לכהן ותרומת מעשר ומוכרה לכהן ומעשר ראשון היא שלו מפני שהוא אומר ללוי במעשר ולכהן בתרומת מעשר אני באתי מכח איש שאין אתם יכולין ליטול ממנו כלום ומפני מה אמרו לא יתן תרומת מעשר לכהן כתרומה גדולה לפי שנאמר בתרומת מעשר כי תקחו מאת בני ישראל את המעשר טבל שאתה לוקח מישראל אתה מפריש ממנו תרומת מעשר ונותנה לכהן אבל טבל שאתה לוקח מן העכו"ם אין אתה נותן לכהן התרומת מעשר שהפריש ממנו אלא מוכרה לכהן ולוקח דמיה:

12

[The following laws apply if] a gentile sold his produce to a Jew while it was connected to the earth. If [he sold it] before it developed to a stage when he is obligated to separate tithes57 and the work [associated with it] was completed while it was owned by the Jew, [the Jew] is responsible for all of the agricultural obligations and should give the terumot and the tithes to their [appropriate] owners.58 If [the gentile] sold [the produce] after it developed to a stage when he is obligated to separate tithes, he should separate terumat ma'aser and the tithes and give them to their [appropriate] owners according to the [acceptable] reckoning.

What is implied? If he purchased grain that had been sown from a gentile after it reached a third of its growth and the work associated with its completion was performed while it was in the possession of a Jew, he should separate the terumot and the tithes, as we explained.59 He should give two thirds of the tithes to a Levite.60 [With regard to the] terumat ma'aser, he should give two thirds to the priest and sell him one third.61

יב

מכר העכו"ם הפירות שלו לישראל כשהן מחוברין בקרקע אם עד שלא בא לעונת המעשרות ונגמרו ביד ישראל חייבין בכל ונותן התרומות והמעשרות לבעלים ואם מכרן אחר שבאו לעונת המעשרות מפריש תרומת מעשר ומעשר ונותן מהן לבעלים לפי חשבון כיצד לקח תבואה זרועה מן העכו"ם אחר שהביאה שליש ונגמרה ביד ישראל מפריש תרומות ומעשרות כמו שביארנו ונותן שני שלישי המעשר ללוי ושני שלישי תרומת מעשר לכהן ומוכר לו השליש:

13

[The following laws apply if] a Jew sold his produce to a gentile before it developed to a stage when he is obligated to separate tithes and the work [associated with it] was completed by the gentiles, it is exempt from the terumot and the tithes.62 If [he purchased it] after it developed to a stage when the tithes are obligated to be separated, even if the gentile completed the work associated with it, all of the agricultural obligations are incumbent upon it according to Rabbinic decree.63

Similarly, if a gentile completed [the work associated with] produce belonging to a Jew,64 since the work associated with them was completed by a gentile, the obligation for terumot and tithes is incumbent upon them, but it is only Rabbinic in origin.65

יג

ישראל שמכר פירותיו לעכו"ם קודם שיבואו לעונת המעשרות וגמרן העכו"ם פטורין מן התרומה ומן המעשרות ואם אחר שבאו לעונת המעשרות אף ע"פ שגמרן העכו"ם חייב בכל מדבריהם וכן העכו"ם שגמר פירות ישראל הואיל ודיגונן ביד עכו"ם אינן חייבין בתרומה ומעשרות אלא מדבריהן:

14

If a gentile sold produce that was still connected to the earth after it reached the stage when the tithes are obligated to be separated and [another] gentile straightened the edges of the grain heap in the possession of a Jew, [the produce] is not obligated in the terumot or the tithes.66 Since the produce reached the stage when the tithes are obligated to be separated in the possession of a gentile and a gentile straightened the edges of the grain heap,67 [the fact] the produce belongs to a Jew [is not significant].68

יד

מכר עכו"ם לישראל פירות מחוברין אחר שבאו לעונת המעשרות ומירחן העכו"ם ברשות ישראל אינן חייבין בתרומה ומעשרות הואיל ובאו לעונת המעשרות ברשות עכו"ם ומירחן העכו"ם אעפ"י שהן ברשות ישראל:

15

When a person purchases a field in Syria, he is obligated by Rabbinic decree to separate terumot and tithes like one who purchases [a field] in Jerusalem69 according to Scriptural Law, as we explained.70 If, however, a person [merely] purchases produce from a gentile - whether it was harvested or [still] connected to the earth - he is exempt, because [the produce] does not come from his land.71 [This applies] even if [he purchases the produce] before it develops to a stage when the tithes are obligated to be separated [and] even though a Jew straightened the edges of the grain heap.72

טו

הקונה שדה בסוריא חייב בתרומות ומעשרות מדבריהם כמו שיתחייב מן התורה הקונה בירושלים כמו שביארנו אבל הקונה פירות מן העכו"ם בסוריא בין תלושין בין מחוברים אפי' קודם שבאו לעונת המעשרות אע"פ שמירחן ישראל הואיל ואינו מקרקע שלו פטור:

16

[The following laws apply when a person] purchases land in Syria to which produce is attached. If it reached a stage when the tithes are obligated to be separated while in the possession of a gentile, it is exempt.73 [Conversely,] if it did not reach a stage when the tithes are obligated to be separated [in his possession],74 [the Jewish purchaser] is obligated to tithe it, since he purchased it together with the land.

טז

קנה קרקע מן העכו"ם בסוריא ופירות מחוברין בה אם הגיעו לעונת המעשרות ביד העכו"ם פטורין ואם עדיין לא הגיעו לעונת המעשרות הואיל וקנה אותם עם הקרקע חייב לעשר:

17

When a Jew is working as a sharecropper for a gentile in Syria, his produce is exempt from the tithes, because he does not own the land itself at all. A gentile's purchase of land in Syria causes it to be absolved from [the obligation of] the tithes, as we explained.75 The same laws apply when one rents a field, but stipulates that the payment will be made in produce,76 enters into a sharecropping agreement as a mekabel,77 or rents a field for money from a gentile in Syria, he is absolved [from the obligations of] terumot and tithes.78

יז

ישראל שהיה אריס לעכו"ם בסוריא פירותיו פטורין מן המעשרות לפי שאין לו בגוף הקרקע כלום ויש לעכו"ם קנין בסוריא להפקיע מן המעשרות כמו שביארנו וכן החוכר והמקבל והשוכר שדה מן העכו"ם בסוריא פטור מן התרומות ומן המעשרות:

18

[The following law applies when] a Jew purchases a field from a gentile in Syria before [the crops] reached a third of their development and sells it to a gentile after the crops reach a third of their development. If a Jew purchases it a second time,79 he is obligated [to separate] the terumot and the tithes,80 because [the field] incurred that obligation in the possession of a Jew.81

יח

ישראל שלקח בסוריא שדה מן העכו"ם עד שלא הביאה שליש וחזר ומכרה לעכו"ם מאחר שהביאה שליש אם חזר ישראל ולקחה פעם שנייה ה"ז חייב בתרומות ומעשרות שהרי נתחייבה ביד ישראל:

19

When a Jew owns land in Syria and he hired a sharecropper and the sharecropper sent him produce,82 he is not obligated to separate [the terumot and tithes], for it is possible to say that [the sharecropper] purchased [the produce he gave him] from the marketplace.83 [This applies] provided this species is available in the marketplace.

יט

ישראל שהיה לו קרקע בסוריא והוריד לה אריס ושלח לו האריס פירות הרי אלו פטורים שאני אומר מן השוק לקחן והוא שיהיה אותו המין מצוי בשוק:

20

There is an obligation [to separate] the terumot and the tithes [from crops grown on land owned in] partnership with a gentile.

What is implied? When a Jew and a non-Jew purchased a field in partnership - even if they divided the field while the grain was standing,84 and needless to say, if they divided it after it was collected in a grain heap85 - tevel86 and ordinary produce are mixed together in each and every stalk of grain in the gentile's share.87 [This applies] even if the gentile straightened the edges of the grain heap and thus the obligation is Rabbinic in origin,88 as explained.89

כ

שותפות העכו"ם חייבת בתרומות ומעשרות כיצד ישראל ועכו"ם שלקחו שדה בשותפות אפילו חלקו שדה בקמתה ואין צריך לומר אם חלקו גדיש הרי טבל וחולין מעורבין בכל קלח וקלח מחלקו של עכו"ם אף על פי שמרחן העכו"ם וחיובם מדבריהם כמו שבארנו:

21

When does the above apply? In Eretz Yisrael, where [the obligation to] tithe is Scriptural in origin, and according to Scriptural Law, the principle of bereirah does not apply. If, however, he purchased a field in Syria, since [the obligation to] tithe there is Rabbinic in origin, even if they divided a grain heap, the portion of the gentile is exempt entirely.90

כא

במה דברים אמורים בא"י שהמעשרות של תורה ובשל תורה אין ברירה אבל אם לקחו שדה בסוריא הואיל והמעשרות שם מדבריהם אפילו חלקו הגדיש חלקו של עכו"ם פטור מכלום:

22

When produce from Eretz Yisrael is taken to the Diaspora, it is exempt from the obligations of challah, the terumot, and the tithes, [for one of the prooftexts requiring the separation of these gifts, Numbers 15:18]91states: "[the land] to which I am bringing you." [Implied is that] these obligations exist there alone. In the Diaspora, one is exempt.92 If [the produce] was taken to Syria, one is obligated by Rabbinic decree.

Conversely, we are obligated [to separate] challah from produce from the Diaspora that was brought into Eretz Yisrael, as [suggested by the phrase] "to which." [Implied is that] one is liable [to make these gifts] there, whether the produce is from Eretz Yisrael or the Diaspora. If the obligation [to separate challah or the tithes] was established [because of the actions] of a Jew after the produce entered Eretz Yisrael, there is an obligation of Rabbinic origin to separate the tithes.93

כב

פירות א"י שיצאו חוצה לארץ פטורין מן החלה ומן התרומות ומן המעשרות שנאמר אשר אני מביא אתכם שמה שמה אתם חייבין בח"ל פטורין ואם יצאו לסוריא חייבין מדבריהם וכן פירות חוצה לארץ שנכנסו לארץ חייבין בחלה שנאמר שמה שמה אתם חייבין בין בפירות הארץ בין בפירות חוצה לארץ ואם נקבעו למעשר ביד ישראל אחר שנכנסו לארץ חייבין במעשרות מדבריהם:

23

When earth from the Diaspora is brought to Eretz Yisrael by ship, if the ship's [bottom] comes in contact with the earth [of Eretz Yisrael],94 terumah and tithes must [be separated from produce] growing on [the earth in the ship] and the Sabbatical laws must be observed as if [the produce] was growing in Eretz Yisrael itself.95

כג

עפר חוצה לארץ שבא בספינה לארץ בזמן שהספינה גוששת לארץ הרי הצומח בו חייב בתרומה ומעשרות ושביעית כצומח בא"י עצמה:

24

When a tree is standing in the Diaspora and its foliage leans into Eretz Yisrael or it is standing in Eretz Yisrael and its foliage leans into the Diaspora, [the determination of its status] depends on its roots.96 If some of its roots were in Eretz Yisrael and others were in the Diaspora - even if they were separated by glistening stone, [it is considered as if] tevel and ordinary produce are mixed together [throughout the entire produce].

כד

אילן שעומד בחוצה לארץ ונופו נוטה לארץ או עומד בארץ ונופו נוטה לחוצה לארץ הכל הולך אחר העיקר היו מקצת שרשיו בארץ ומקצתן חוצה לארץ אפילו היה צחיח סלע מבדיל ביניהן הרי טבל וחולין מעורבין זה בזה:

25

[The following rules apply when] a plant in a flowerpot with a hole has not sprouted roots [outside the flowerpot]. If its roots where in Eretz Yisrael and its foliage in the Diaspora, [the determination of its status] depends on its foliage.97

כה

עציץ נקוב שהיה בו זרע שלא השריש והיה עיקרו בארץ ונופו חוצה לארץ הולכים אחר הנוף:

26

In the present era, even in the areas settled by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia, even those [settled] in the era of Ezra,98 [the obligation to separate] terumah does not have the status of a Scriptural commandment, merely that of a Rabbinic decree. [The rationale is that] the Scriptural [commandment to separate] terumah applies only in Eretz Yisrael and only when the entire99 Jewish people are located there. [This is derived from the phrase]100 "When you enter...." [Implied is that] the entire [Jewish people] must enter [the land], as they did when they took possession of the land originally101 and as will happen in the future when they take possession of the land a third time.102 In contrast, the second time [the people] took possession of the land, in the time of Ezra, only a portion entered.103Hence, they were not obligated according to Scriptural Law.104 Similarly, it appears to me that the same concept applies with regard to the tithes.105 In the present era, this obligation [as well] has the status of a Rabbinic decree like terumah.106

כו

התרומה בזמן הזה ואפילו במקום שהחזיקו עולי בבל ואפילו בימי עזרא אינה מן התורה אלא מדבריהן שאין לך תרומה של תורה אלא בא"י בלבד ובזמן שכל ישראל שם שנאמר כי תבואו ביאת כולכם כשהיו בירושה ראשונ' וכמו שהן עתידין לחזור בירושה שלישית לא כשהיו בירושה שנייה שהיתה בימי עזרא שהיתה ביאת מקצתן ולפיכך לא חייבה אותן מן התורה וכן יראה לי שהוא הדין במעשרות שאין חייבין בזמן הזה אלא מדבריהם כתרומה:

Footnotes
1.

The plural term is used in this halachah and in many instances in this text, because there are two types of terumot: a) "the great terumah," i.e., the terumah separated initially, and b) terumat ma'aser, the terumah the Levites separate from the tithes that are given them. See Hilchot Matanot Aniyim, ch. 6, for details regarding the separation of these allocations.

2.

Here also the plural term is used because there are several tithes: the first tithe given to Levites, the second tithe which must be brought to Jerusalem, and the tithe for the poor. See Hilchot Matanot Aniyim, loc. cit.

3.

Kiddushin 36b states that all the mitzvot involving the produce of the earth apply only in Eretz Yisrael.

4.

Although the agricultural laws apply even when the Temple is not standing, there is a restriction to the time when they apply according to Scriptural Law. The entire Jewish people must be located in our holy land, as stated in Halachah 26. (See also Hilchot Shemitah VeYovel 10:8-9.)

5.

Even though Babylonia is further away than the other lands mentioned in this halachah, it had a larger Jewish community and there was far more contact between its populace and the Jewish community of Eretz Yisrael. Hence, the prophets gave it precedence over the other lands (Radbaz).

6.

The Sages of the generation that followed Ezra [Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura (Yadayim 3:3).

7.

See also Hilchot Melachim 5:6.

8.

The Rambam speaks of the land being given to Abraham, not merely being promised to him, since from the time God said that the land was his, spiritually, it became his possession. Moreover, as the Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 5:1) states, from Abraham's time onward, even though the land was still possessed by the Canaanites, the Jews were already its legal owners. See also Bava Batra 119b.

9.

I.e., the agricultural mitzvot that must be observed in Eretz Yisrael.

10.

A king and a prophet.

11.

I.e., since Joshua and his court had made this division, when the tribe went to conquer its portion, it was acting on behalf of the entire Jewish people.

12.

These regions are located in contemporary Syria.

13.

The wars to conquer these lands are classified as voluntary wars, and a voluntary law requires the consent of the High Court (Hilchot Melachim 5:1).

14.

See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 6:11) where he criticizes King David for this approach, quoting the Sifri (Parshat Ekev) that states that he did not act in accordance with the Torah. Since the designation of the land as Eretz Yisrael is through Divine fiat as expressed through the Torah. Accordingly, a conquest that is not in accord with the Torah cannot bring about such a designation (Likkutei Sichot, Vol. V, p. 9).

15.

With the consent of the High Court.

16.

Even lands outside of the homeland promised to Abraham (Radbaz).

17.

And the agricultural laws would have to be observed there.

18.

In addition to those points the Rambam mentions below, among the other examples of this principle are: its air is not considered as a source of impurity (Hilchot Tuma'at Meit 11:6); it is permitted to have a gentile compose a deed of purchase for land there on the Sabbath so that one will acquire the land (Hilchot Shabbat 6:11).

19.

Among the examples of the relevant laws: its earth is considered as a source of ritual impurity (Hilchot Tuma'at Meit, loc. cit.); a servant from Eretz Yisrael sold there is granted his freedom (Hilchot Avadim 8:6).

20.

See Halachah 15.

21.

For according to Scriptural Law, it is not part of Eretz Yisrael.

22.

In Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 6:16, the Rambam states: "It was no longer Eretz Yisrael," i.e., none of the halachic obligations apply there.

23.

Since it was established by conquest, it could be nullified by conquest. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah, loc. cit. The Radbaz explains that when the Jews ascended from Egypt, they did not make a statement, consecrating the land. Therefore its holiness could be nullified.

24.

As Yevamot 16a states: "Much of the land that was conquered by [the Jews who] ascended from Egypt was not conquered by [the Jews who] ascended from Babylon.

25.

Nevertheless, since the entire Jewish people did not return together with Ezra, this consecration is only of Rabbinic origin.

26.

And thus at present, Ezra's consecration of the land is still effective.

In his gloss to Hilchot Beit HaBechirah, loc. cit., the Kessef Mishnah finds these statements difficult to accept because of the following questions:

a) On what basis is chazakah considered a more effective means of acquisition than conquest?

b) After the initial conquest of Eretz Yisrael, the Jewish people manifested their ownership over it and thus, effected a chazakah. If so, why is Ezra's chazakah, which was not preceded by conquest, more effective than the chazakah which followed the original conquest? Why should the conquest detract from the consecration of the land?

To explain: As mentioned above, the Jewish people's ownership of the land began with God's promise of the land to Abraham. The sanctity of the land, by contrast, did not begin until the Jewish people actually took possession of it, upon their reentry into the land after the exodus from Egypt and the journey through the desert. At that time, they were commanded to conquer the land and take it forcefully from the Gentiles (see Numbers 32:29,Deuteronomy 3:21, et al). Since God made the consecration of the land dependent upon its conquest by the Jewish people, it follows that conquest by a Gentile nation can nullify its holiness.

In contrast, Ezra was not commanded to reconquer Eretz Yisrael, but to settle it. In this instance, God made the sanctity of the land dependent on the Jewish people manifesting their ownership over it. In other words, the sanctity came from manifesting the true reality: that Eretz Yisrael is a Jewish land. Accordingly, since Eretz Yisrael remains our land, regardless of how many times it has been conquered by Gentiles, the sanctity effected by that manifestation of ownership also continues eternally (Likkutei Sichot, Vol. XV, pp. 102-109).

27.

And receive the tithe of the poor.

28.

Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi.

29.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that Beit Shan was released only from those obligations that are of Rabbinic origin.

30.

The Kessef Mishneh relates that Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi released these cities from the obligation of the tithes, because they were not populated by Jews and were not close to the area settled by Jews.

31.

Ashkelon - and similarly, the other cities the Rambam refers to - is located near, but not exactly on the same cite - as the city presently called by that name. With regard to Ashkelon in particular, there is discussion of the issue by the commentaries, for some sources (see Radbaz and Kessef Mishneh) explain that it was part of the land conquered by the Jews who ascended from Egypt. It was not, however, conquered by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia.

32.

I.e., proceeding northward.

33.

Our Sages decreed that merely touching the earth of the Diaspora is sufficient to impart ritual impurity. See Hilchot Tuma'at Meit, ch. 11.

34.

I.e., as depicted in the map drawn by the Rambam to accompany the Mishneh Torah, the borders of Eretz Yisrael ascend northward from Acre to Kziv, but there is a strip of land in the center that did not become part of Eretz Yisrael.

35.

Our text is based on authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah as cited in the Rav Shabsie Frankel edition. The standard printed text refers to the Umenum Mountains. See also the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Sh'vi'it 6:1).

In the map the Rambam drew to depict this matter, the Samnum Mountains are located in the southeastern corner of Eretz Yisrael, near Ashkelon. Most of the other commentaries understand this term as referring to the Umenum Mountain range in Northern Lebanon.

36.

I.e., to the south.

37.

According to the Radbaz, this refers to Wadi el Arish and not the Nile. Most other commentaries, however, identify "the River of Egypt" as the Nile.

38.

I.e., the Rambam included the accompanying map so that the matter would be clearly understood.. This reflects his thrust throughout the Mishneh Torah: to provide his readers with an applicable text without any ambiguity.

39.

Thus it appears that the entire coastal range of Eretz Yisrael was not settled by the Jews who ascended from Babylon.

40.

The term "below" in this context is problematic. It does not mean "south," because significant portions of Syria are more northerly than Eretz Yisrael. Some commentaries understand it as meaning in height, because as Kiddushin 69b states, Eretz Yisrael is higher than other lands.

41.

Shinar itself, however, is part of the Diaspora, as evident from Halachah 1.

42.

As mentioned above, there are commentaries who consider Ashkelon to be part of the land conquered by the Jews who ascended from Egypt, but not that conquered by the Jews ascending from Babylonia. Some also place Acre in this category.

43.

See the following halachah for the practical application of this principle.

44.

Gittin 47a derives this concept from Leviticus 25:23: "The entire land is Mine." Implied is that the land belongs to God and His ownership cannot be absolved through conquest by any earthly power.

This ruling was a point of question for the Rambam. As indicated by the notes of Rav Kappach to his translation of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 4:9; Gittin 4:9, et al), the Rambam changed his mind concerning the issue several times and amended his text of the Commentary to the Mishnah accordingly. At first, he stated the opinion quoted here, then adopted the opposite view, that a gentile's acquisition does cause the agricultural obligations to be absolved, and finally returned to his original position. The Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 331:3-4) follow the Rambam's ruling here. See also Hilchot Shemitah VeYovel 4:29 where this issue is also discussed.

45.

In which instance, the agriculture laws would not be applicable, as stated in Halachah 2.

46.

The entire obligation to observe the agricultural laws in Syria is Rabbinic in origin (Halachah 4) and our Sages did not enforce their decrees in this instance.

47.

Halachot 15-19.

48.

I.e., completed the work involved in preparing them. See Hilchot Ma'aser 3:13.

49.

From the interpretation of the term by the Sages (Bechorot 11b), the intent seems to be that not only that the grain must belong to a Jew, but that he must perform the work to complete its preparation for use.

50.

I.e., for the produce to be obligated in the agricultural laws according to Scriptural Law, it must belong to the Jew and the Jew must complete the work involved with preparing it. If only one of these conditions was met, the obligations must be fulfilled only because of Rabbinic decree. See Halachah 13.

51.

The terumat ma'aser is sold to the priest and not given to him for the reason explained shortly afterwards by the Rambam. It cannot be kept by the owner, because he is forbidden to partake of it. Instead, it is consecrated and must be eaten by a priest in a state of ritual purity (Siftei Cohen 331:10).

52.

I.e., he must separate the first tithe to fulfill the agricultural obligations incumbent upon the produce, but is not obligated to give it to the Levites. There is no difficulty in him keeping the tithes, because, as the Rambam explains, he is not obligated to give them to the Levite and there is no prohibition against him partaking of them, because they are not consecrated at all and any person may partake of them, even when he is not in a state of ritual purity.

53.

The gentile.

54.

Had the gentile completed the tasks associated with preparing the grain, he would not have been under any obligation to make any of these separations. Hence, although the Jew is obligated to separate the various allocations, the obligation is primarily a ritual one and not a financial one. With the exception of the great terumah, he is not obligated to accept any loss and may keep the first tithes for himself.

55.

I.e., like the first tithe, the terumat ma'aser must be separated, but it need not be given to the priest.

56.

There is, by contrast, no such verse stated with regard to the great terumah. Hence, it is not considered the property of the owner, but instead, must be given - and not sold - to a priest.

57.

See below and Hilchot Ma'aserot 2:5 for a definition of this concept.

58.

I.e., the tithes to a Levite and the terumot to a priest. It is as if the produce grew on land belonging to the Jew from the outset.

59.

I.e., as explained in the previous halachah and notes, the terumot and the tithes must be separated even if they - or a portion of them - are kept by the owner.

60.

He may keep one-third of the tithes as his own. The rationale is that since the produce reached one third of its growth in the possession of the gentile, the Jew is not liable to give away the terumat ma'aser and the tithes for that portion of the crop. With regard to that portion, the concepts stated in the previous halachah apply. With regard to the remaining two thirds, it is considered as produced owned by a Jew and is obligated in all agricultural laws.

61.

As stated in the previous halachah, he must give the great terumah to the priest without receiving any return whatsoever.

62.

It is as if the produce grew in the possession of the gentile from the outset in which instance, they are exempt from all agricultural obligations, as stated in Halachah 11.

The Ra'avad objects to this ruling based on the principle stated in Halachah 10: "When a gentile purchases land in Eretz Yisrael, he does not cause it to be absolved from [the observance of] the mitzvot. Instead, its holiness is still intact." The Radbaz explains that this principle applies only when the gentile purchases the land, but not when he purchases merely produce. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 331:6) quotes the Rambam's view.

63.

I.e., if the produce is later sold to a Jew, the Jew must separate the terumot and the tithes. The rationale is that since the produce grew in a Jew's possession, it is considered as Jewish produce.

64.

Our translation is based on the interpretation of Rav Yosef Corcus as quoted by the Kessef Mishneh. He explains that, based on the exegesis of Deuteronomy 18:4 by Bechorot 11b (see Halachah 11 and notes), as long as the work is completed by a gentile, the fact that the produce belongs to a Jew is not significant.

65.

In one of his responsa, the Rambam writes (based on Menachot 67a) that this decree was enacted lest Jewish landowners have gentiles complete the work associated with the crops to avoid having to separate the tithes.

66.

I.e., even according to Rabbinic Law.

67.

I.e., performs the task which completes the work associated with the produce at which time the obligation to separate the terumot and tithes takes effect.

68.

I.e., it is as if the produce belonged entirely to the gentile and the laws stated in Halachah 11 apply.

69.

The Rambam is referring to the wording of Challah 4:11: "One who purchases [land] in Syria is comparable to one who purchases [land] in the suburbs of Jerusalem."

70.

Halachah 4.

71.

Since the entire obligation to separate the terumot and tithes in Syria is Rabbinic in origin, our Sages applied it only when the Jew owned the land itself. Since the obligation to separate tithes when one purchases produce alone is merely Rabbinic in origin even in Eretz Yisrael, our Sages did not apply it in Syria.

72.

I.e., performs the task which completes the work associated with the produce at which time the obligation to separate the terumot and tithes takes effect.

73.

I.e., it is considered as if it was the gentile's produce entirely.

74.

The previous growth of the produce is not significant.

75.

Halachah 10.

76.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's definition of the term chocher in Hilchot Sechirut 8:1.

77.

Both the terms aris and mekabel refer to sharecropping agreements. The difference between them is that an aris is working for the owner of the field for a percentage of the crops (see Hilchot Shluchin 8:5), while a mekabel is renting the field from the owner for a percentage of the crops (Hilchot Sechirut 8:2).

78.

The motivating principle behind these laws is that renting the field is not equivalent to purchasing it, for the land itself does not become his (Avodah Zarah 15a).

In Eretz Yisrael, by contrast, a person entering any one of these types of agreements would be obligated to separate the tithes (Radbaz).

79.

See the Kessef Mishneh who debates whether, to be obligated, the Jew must purchase the field or it is sufficient for him to purchase the produce alone without purchasing the land. It appears that he concludes that if one does not purchase the field, he is exempt as indicated by Halachah 15.

80.

The Radbaz states that the Jew may not deduct from the tithes the portion of the produce that grew in the gentile's possession. Since it incurred the obligation for tithes while in the Jew's possession and was completed by him, everything else is not of consequence.

81.

I.e., when it reached a third of its development.

82.

As payment of the produce due the owner from his field.

83.

I.e., we allow for the possibility that the sharecropper sold the produce from the field and then purchased other produce to pay the owner his due. The rationale for this leniency is that since the obligation to tithe in Syria is Rabbinic in origin, as long as we are not definitely certain that it applies, we rule leniently. In Eretz Yisrael, he would have to separate the tithes (Radbaz).

84.

In such a situation, there is room to say that the principle of bereirah applies. Bereirah means that retroactively, it is considered as if the division that was ultimately made was made at the outset (see Hilchot Ma'aser 7:1). To explain within the context of the present situation: Were a portion of the field to belong to the gentile, there would be no obligation to separate the tithes from the grain that grew in that portion. To apply the principle of bereirah would mean that, after the division of the crops, it is clarified that at the outset, the portion of the field where the crops given to the gentile grew belonged to him. There is a debate among the Sages whether the principle of bereirah can be applied and with regard to halachah, the accepted general principle is that in question of Scriptural Law, it does not apply. Thus in Eretz Yisrael, where the obligation to tithe is one of Scriptural Law, we do not accept this principle and maintain that the Jew has a share in the grain given to the gentile and hence, it is under obligation to be tithed.

85.

In this instance, all authorities agree that the principle of bereirah is not applied.

86.

Produce which is forbidden because the terumot and the tithes were not separated from it.

87.

Hence if a Jew purchases that produce, he must separate the terumot and the tithes.

88.

In such an instance, there is room to say that the principle of bereirah should be applied, because the obligation to separate the tithes is Rabbinic in origin. Nevertheless, since the fundamental obligation is Scriptural, we rule stringently even with regard to this dimension which is Rabbinic (Radbaz).

89.

Halachah 13.

90.

When quoting these laws, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 331:11) states that in the present age, when the obligation to separate terumot and tithes in Eretz Yisrael is Rabbinic in origin (see Halachah 26), the laws applying to produce grown in Syria also apply to produce grown in Eretz Yisrael.

91.

And from that verse which speaks of the obligation to separate challah, we learn that one is also obligated to separate the terumot and the tithes.

92.

The Ra'avad differs and maintains that the exemption from the obligation to tithe applies only according to Scriptural Law. According to Rabbinic Law, all authorities agree that one is obligated, for this produce is comparable to that of Ammon and Moav. The Radbaz does not accept this perspective, stating that there is no source which maintains that a Rabbinic obligation exists. The Radbaz does, however, qualify the Rambam's ruling, explaining that it applies only when the work that makes the produce obligated to be tithed is completed in the Diaspora. If this work is completed in Eretz Yisrael, the obligation to separate the tithes has already been incurred and they must be separated even if the produce was later taken to the Diaspora. For this reason, in most instances, terumah and tithes must be separated from produce that is grown in Eretz Yisrael in the present age and later exported to the Diaspora. This, however, applies to fruits only, not vegetables as stated in Chapter 2, Halachah 6.

93.

The Kessef Mishneh questions why the obligation to separate the tithes is only of Rabbinic origin. Since the concept is based on the exegesis of the same Biblical term as mentioned above, if the work that made the produce obligated to be tithed was performed in Eretz Yisrael, why is the obligation not Scriptural in origin? The Kessef Mishneh answers that since the prooftext mentions "the bread of the land," one can conclude that the obligation applies only to produce grown in the Holy Land itself. Alternatively, the Kessef Mishneh suggests that indeed if the work that makes the produce obligated to be tithed is completed only in Eretz Yisrael, the obligation is indeed Scriptural in origin. This ruling is quoted by the Siftei Cohen 331:22.

94.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 2:2).

95.

Even if it does not have a hole, since wood is porous, it is as if the earth on the ship is connected to the earth in Eretz Yisrael.

96.

I.e., if the trunk is located in Eretz Yisrael, the tithes must be separated from the produce. If it is located in the Diaspora, they need not.

The Rambam LeAm notes that the laws in this halachah must be qualified on the basis of Halachah 22. For if as stated there, everything depends on where the work that makes the produce obligated in the tithes is completed, of what difference does it make where the produce grows. That text explains that if the person separates tithes from produce that grew in the Diaspora before the work that makes the produce obligated in the tithes is completed, even if that work is completed in Eretz Yisrael, the tithes separated are not significant. For at the time, they were separated, there was no obligation to tithe the produce.

97.

Generally, if there is a hole in the bottom of a flowerpot, it is considered as if the plant is connected to the earth beneath it. Nevertheless, in this instance, Gittin 22a teaches that we follow the foliage of the plant and not the position of the hole in the flower pot.

98.

Who brought about a consecration of Eretz Yisrael that is effective until the present day, as stated in Halachah 5.

99.

More precisely, the majority of the Jewish people, for the majority is considered equivalent to the entire whole.

100.

There is no such phrase in the Torah stated with regard to terumah or the tithes. The commentaries explain that Ketubot 25a makes such a statement with regard to the mitzvah of challah based on Numbers 15:18 and the laws regarding terumah are derived from it. See also a parallel ruling in Hilchot Shemitah VeYovel 10:8.

101.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that the obligation to separate terumah has the status of a Scriptural commandment in the present age. In his Kessef Mishneh, Rav Yosef Caro elaborates in support of the Rambam's position and in his Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 331:2), he rules accordingly.

102.

In the era of Mashiach. At that time, the observance of all the agricultural laws will return to Scriptural status, as stated in Hilchot Melachim 11:1.

103.

Indeed, we find several sources (Yoma 9b) where our Sages criticized the majority of the people for remaining in Babylonia.

104.

The commentaries point to Ezra 2:62-63 as indicating that in the era of the Second Temple, terumah was still observed with the status of a Scriptural mitzvah. For Ezra and Nechemiah restricted the priests whose lineage was not affirmed from partaking of it. Nevertheless, it can be explained that at that time, they were expecting the majority of the people to return and then, the status of the mitzvah would revert to that of Scriptural origin. Lest confusion arise concerning these priests were this to occur, they enforced these restrictions.

105.

See Hilchot Ma'aser 1:7 which points to several dimensions of the equivalence between terumah and the tithes.

106.

Although in Halachah 1, the Rambam writes that the Scriptural status of terumah and the tithes is not dependent on the Temple, there is no contradiction to this halachah. If the majority of the Jewish people are located in Eretz Yisrael, these mitzvos have the status of Scriptural Law, even if the Temple is not standing. Conversely, even if the Temple is standing, if the majority of the Jewish people are not located in Eretz Yisrael (as was the case in the Second Temple era), the status of these commandments is Rabbinic (Radbaz).

Terumot - Chapter 2

1

[We are] obligated [to separate] terumah from food1 [designated] for human [consumption],2 that is guarded,3 and that grows from the earth.4 It is a positive commandment5 to separate the first portion [of such crops] for a priest, as [Deuteronomy 18:4] states: "You shall give him the first portion of your grain, your wine, and your oil." Just as grain, wine, and oil are [agricultural produce that] is food that is designated for humans, grows from the earth, and has an owner - as indicated by the term "your grain,"6 - so, too, [we are] obligated to [separate] terumot and tithes from any analogous [agricultural produce].7

א

כל אוכל אדם הנשמר שגידוליו מן הארץ חייב בתרומה ומצות עשה להפריש ממנו ראשית לכהן שנאמר ראשית דגנך תירושך ויצהרך תתן לו מה דגן תירוש ויצהר מאכל בני אדם וגידוליו מן הארץ ויש לו בעלים שנאמר דגנך אף כל כיוצא בהן חייב בתרומות וכן במעשרות:

2

[We are] obligated [to separate] terumah and tithes from vetch,8 even though it is not [usually] food for humans, since it is eaten [by humans] in a year of famine. [We are] obligated [to separate] tithes from siyah, hyssop,9 and koranit10 that are sown for human consumption. Similar laws apply to analogous species.

If they were sown as animal fodder, even though the person changed his mind and thought to use them for human [consumption] while they were still connected to the ground, they are exempt. For the intent [of the owner] while [the produce] is growing is of no consequence.11

[The following rules apply if] these herbs grow in a courtyard on their own. If the produce growing in the courtyard is guarded,12 [we are] obligated to [separate the tithes], for most probably it is for human consumption. If the produce within is not guarded, it is exempt.

ב

הכרשינין אף על פי שאינם מאכל אדם הואיל ואוכלין אותן בשני רעבון חייבין בתרומה ומעשרות הסיאה והאזוב והקורנית שזרען מתחלה לאדם חייבין במעשר וכן כל כיוצא בהן זרען למאכל בהמה אע"פ שנמלך וחשב עליהן לאדם כשהן מחוברין פטורין שמחשבת חבור אינה כלום עלו מאליהן בחצר אם היא חצר המשמרת פירותיה הרי אלו חייבין שסתמן לאדם ואם אינה משמרת פירותיה פטורה:

3

Seeds of garden vegetables that are not eaten, e.g., turnip seed, raddish seed, onion seed, and the like are exempt from terumah and tithes, because they are not used for human consumption. [We are,] by contrast, obligated [to separate] terumah and tithes from caraway seed.13

ג

זרעוני גינה שאינן נאכלים כגון זרע לפת וזרע צנון וזרע בצלים וכיוצא בהן פטורים מן התרומה ומן המעשרות מפני שאינן אוכל אדם אבל הקצח חייב בתרומה ובמעשרות:

4

Blossoms of chilba,14 mustard seed, white beans, capers, and the caper bark15 are exempt, because they are not considered as produce.

When does the above apply? When they were sown for seed. When, however, they were sown for their produce, there is an obligation [to tithe].16 Similarly, there is an obligation [to tithe] caper berries, because they are produce.

ד

תמרות של תלתן ושל חרדל ושל פול הלבן ושל צלף והקפריסין של צלף פטורים מפני שאינן פרי בד"א בשזרען לזרע אבל זרען לירק הרי אלו חייבים וכן האביונות של צלף חייבים מפני שהן פרי:

5

When coriander was sown for seed, its vegetable is exempt from terumah and the tithes.17 If it was sown as a vegetable, we must separate terumot and tithes from both the vegetables and the seed.18 Similarly, when shevet19 is sown for seed, its vegetable is exempt from terumah and the tithes. If it was sown as a vegetable, we must separate terumot and tithes from both the vegetables and the seed. The seed capsules need not be tithed. If he sowed it for the sake of the seed capsules, he must separate terumot and tithes from the vegetables, the seed, and the seed capsules. Similarly, when cress and wild cress20 were sown as a vegetable, we must separate tithes from both the seed and the vegetables.

What is meant by [the statement] we must separate tithes from both the seed and the vegetables? That if he gathered the vegetables to eat them, he must separate terumah and the tithes and [only] then, eat. When [he allows the plant] to dry [and produce] seeds which he gathers, he must make these separations from the seed.

ה

כסבר שזרעה לזרע ירק פטור מן התרומה ומן המעשרו' זרעה לירק מפריש תרומות ומעשרות מן הירקות ומן הזרע וכן השבת שזרעה לזרע ירקה פטור זרעה לירק מתעשרת זרע וירק ואינה מתעשרת זרין זרעה לזרין מפריש תרומה ומעשרות מן הזרע ומן הירק ומן הזרין וכן השחלים והגרגר שזרען לזרע מתעשרין זרע וירק כיצד מתעשרין לזרע ולירק שאם לקט הירק לאוכלו מפריש תרומה ומעשרות ואח"כ יאכל וכשייבש ויאסוף הזרע שלו מפריש מן הזרע:

6

Even though vegetables are used for human consumption, the obligation to tithe them is only Rabbinic in origin.21 [The rationale is that] with regard to the tithes, [Deuteronomy 14:22] speaks of "the yield of your planting." Now the term tevuah [translated as "yield"] refers to grain and the like. Vegetables are not included as tevuah.

Similarly, it appears to me22 that this also applies with regard to terumah, for with regard to terumah, it is stated: "your grain, your wine, and your oil." Implied is that the obligation is applied to all species resembling those.23 Instead, terumah which is separated from vegetables is a Rabbinic decree like their tithes.

ו

הירקות אף על פי שהן מאכל אדם אינן חייבין במעשרות אלא מדבריהן לפי שנאמר במעשר תבואת זרעך תבואה וכיוצא בה אבל הירקות אינן בכלל התבואה וכן יראה לי שהוא הדין בתרומה שהרי נאמר בה דגנך תירושך ויצהרך כל הדומה לאלו אבל תרומת הירק מדבריהם כמעשר:

7

We do not separate terumah and tithes from vegetables in the Diaspora, even in the places where we said that tithes should be separated,24 Similarly, vegetables that come from the Diaspora to Eretz Yisrael, even though there is earth in their roots,25 they are exempt26 and nothing was decreed concerning them.27

When grain or legumes are sown for their vegetables, the person's intent is not considered of consequence because of the prevailing conception of most people. [Hence,] their vegetables are exempt and [we are] obligated [to separate] terumah and tithes from their kernels.

ז

אין מפרישין תרומות ומעשרות מן הירק בחוצה לארץ ואפילו במקומות שאמרנו שמפרישין בהן מעשרות וכן ירק הבא מח"ל לארץ אע"פ שיש עפר בעקריה ה"ז פטור ולא גזרו עליו התבואה והקטנית שזרען לירק בטלה דעתו אצל כל אדם והירק שלהן פטור והזרע חייב בתרומה ומעשרות:

8

Even though tiltan28 is not considered as fit for human consumption when it becomes hard,29 since most people eat it at the beginning [of its development],30 [we are] obligated [to separate] terumah and tithes from it.31

ח

התלתן אף על פי שאינו אוכל אדם כשיקשו הואיל ורוב האדם אוכלין אותן בתחלתן הרי הן חייבין בתרומה ומעשר:

9

The following are exempt from terumah and tithes: Leket, shichachah, pe'ah, individual grapes that separate from a cluster, and underdeveloped grape clusters.32 This applies even if [a poor person] collects them in a grainheap.33 If, however, he collects them in granary in the field, it is established that there is an obligation for tithes upon them and terumah and tithes must be separated from them.34 If, however, he collects them in a granary in a town, they are exempt, for the matter is spoken about and everyone knows that [the produce] is leket, shichachah, and pe'ah.

ט

ואלו פטורין מן התרומה ומן המעשרות:

הלקט והשכחה והפאה והפרט והעוללות אפילו העמיד מהן כרי ואם עשה מהן גורן בשדה הוקבעו למעשרות ומפריש מהן תרומה ומעשרות אבל אם עשה הגורן בעיר פטורין שהרי קול יש להן שהכל יודעין שהן לקט או שכחה או פאה:

10

One is obligated [to separate] terumah and tithes from leket, shichachah, and pe'ah [left] by a gentile35 unless he declared them ownerless. Similarly, if grain and olives did not reach a third of their growth, they are exempt from terumah and the tithes.36

How can one know [whether produce has reached a third of its growth]? When [the kernels] would grow if they were sown,37 it is known that it has reached a third of its growth. If a person transgressed and separated [terumah] from grain and olives before they reached a third of their growth, [the separated produce] is not terumah.38

י

הלקט והשכחה והפאה של עכו"ם חייבין בתרומה ומעשרות אא"כ הפקיר וכן התבואה והזיתים שלא הביאו שליש פטורין מן התרומה ומן המעשרות ומניין יודע כל שזורעה ומצמחת בידוע שהביאה שליש עבר והפריש מתבואה וזיתים שלא הביאו שליש אינה תרומה:

11

Similarly, produce that is declared ownerless is exempt from terumah and tithes. [This applies also to produce] declared ownerless by a gentile.39 Nevertheless, if one planted [crops] on a field that was declared ownerless, he is obligated [to separate] terumah and tithes [from the crops].40

יא

וכן ההפקר פטור מן התרומה ומן המעשרות ואפילו הפקירו העכו"ם לו אבל הזורע שדה הפקר חייב בתרומה ומעשרות:

12

When a person declares standing grain ownerless, takes possession of it, and then transgresses and separates terumah,41 the laws of terumah apply to the produce separated.42 If, however, he declared sheaves [of grain] ownerless, takes possession of them, and transgresses and separates terumah, the laws of terumah do not apply to the produce separated.43 Similarly, whenever a person separates [terumah] from produce from which terumah is not obligated to be separated, the laws of terumah do not apply to the produce separated.

Similarly, with regard to tithes, produce which the majority of people do not ordinarily sow in their gardens and fields, but instead, can be assumed to have grown ownerless are exempt from terumah and tithes. [This includes] garlic that makes one cry, onions of Rikpah,44 a pearled Cilcilian bean, Egyptian lentils,45 and the like.

יב

הפקיר קמה וזכה בה ועבר והפריש ממנה תרומה ה"ז תרומה אבל אם הפקיר שבלים וזכה בהן ועבר והפריש מהן תרומה אינה תרומה וכן כל המפריש מדבר שאינו חייב תרומה אינה תרומה וכן במעשרות דברים שאין דרך רוב בני אדם לזורען בגנות ובשדות אלא חזקתן מן ההפקר פטורין מן התרומה ומן המעשרות כגון השום בעל בכי ובצל של רכפה וגריס הקלקלי ועדשי' המצריות וכיוצ' בהן:

13

[The following laws apply if] produce from which we are obligated to separate terumah becomes mixed with produce which is exempt,46 e.g., olives gathered by the poor47 become mixed with olives reaped [by the owner], underdeveloped grape clusters48 become mixed with grapes that were harvested. If the person has other produce,49 he separates [terumah from it] for the produce upon which the obligation lies according to the appropriate reckoning.50 If this is all the produce the person has, he should separate terumah and terumat ma'aser for the entire mixture,51 as if there was an obligation to separate terumah from the entire amount.52 He should separate the first and second tithes for the produce upon which the obligation lies according to the appropriate reckoning.53

יג

נתערב דבר שחייב בתרומה בדבר שאינו חייב כגון זיתי ניקוף שנתערבו בזיתי מסיק וענבי עוללות בענבי בציר אם יש לו פירות אחרות מוציא על החייב לפי חשבון ואם אין לו אלא אלו מפריש תרומה ותרומת מעשר על הכל וכאילו הכל חייב בתרומה ומפריש מעשר ראשון ושני לפי חשבון דבר החייב:

14

Terumah [must be given] to a priest whether it is in a state of ritual purity or not. Even if all the grain or the wine became impure before [terumah] was separated, he is obligated to separate the terumah that is impure and give it to a priest, as [Numbers 18:8] states: "And behold I have given you the watch over My terumah,"54 i.e., whether it is pure or impure. The pure [terumah] may be eaten by the priests and they can benefit from the impure [terumah] by burning it.55 If it is oil, it can be kindled [as fuel for a lamp]. If it is grain or the like, it can be used as fuel for an oven.56

יד

התרומה לכהן בין טהורה בין טמאה אפילו נטמא הדגן או התירוש כולו קודם שיפריש ה"ז חייב להפריש ממנו תרומה בטומאה וליתנה לכהן שנאמר ואני נתתי לך את משמרת תרומותי אחת טהורה ואחת טמאה הטהורה נאכלת לכהנים והטמאה יהנו בשריפתה אם היה שמן מדליקין אותו ואם היה דגן וכיוצא בו מסיקין בו את התנור:

15

Similarly, if terumat ma'aser became impure - or if the tithes became impure, he must separate [terumat ma'aser] in impurity and give it to a priest to benefit from by using it as fuel.

טו

וכן תרומת מעשר אם נטמאת או נטמא המעשר מפרישין אותה בטומאה וניתנת לכהן ליהנות בשריפתה:

16

Anyone who separates the great terumah or terumat ma'aser should recite a blessing before separating it, just as one recites a blessing over the observance of all the mitzvot, as we explained in [Hilchot] Berachot.57

טז

כל המפריש תרומה גדולה או תרומת מעשר מברך קודם שיפריש כדרך שמברכין על כל המצות כמו שביארנו בברכות:

17

Terumah - even impure terumah - should not be taken from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora.58 We should not bring terumah from the Diaspora to Eretz Yisrael.59 If it was brought [from the Diaspora], it should not be eaten, because it is impure because [of contact with] the earth of the nations.60 It should not be burnt, lest people say: "We saw terumah that did not become impure being burnt." It should not be returned to the Diaspora, lest people say: "Terumah may be taken [from Eretz Yisrael] to the Diaspora." Instead, we leave it until it becomes impure because of a known source of impurity61 or until the day before Pesach if it was leaven,62 and then it will be burnt.

יז

אין מוציאין תרומה מהארץ לחוצה לארץ אפילו טמאה ואין מביאין תרומה מחוצה לארץ לארץ ואם הביא לא תאכל מפני שהיא טמאה בארץ הכותים ולא תשרף שלא יאמרו ראינו תרומה שלא נטמאת נשרפת ולא תחזור לחוצה לארץ שמא יאמרו מוציאין תרומה לחוצה לארץ אלא מניחין אותה עד שתטמא טומאה ידועה לכל או עד שיבא ערב הפסח אם היתה חמץ ותשרף:

Footnotes
1.

To exclude herbs grown as dyes and the like. This is derived from the fact that the prooftext cited states: "And you shall eat" [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 1:1)].

2.

In contrast to animal fodder (Shabbat 68a).

3.

By its owner, rather than left ownerless (the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, loc. cit.).

4.

This excludes mushrooms whose roots do not enter the earth.

5.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 126) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 507) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

6.

I.e., grain that someone calls his own.

7.

I.e., the Rambam considers grain, wine, and oil as examples, teaching that all similar produce must be tithes. Other commentaries (the Ra'avad, gloss to Hilchot Ma'aser 1:9; Rashi, Berachot 36a) maintain that, according to Scriptural Law, we are obligated to separate terumotand the tithes from only these three types of produce. They maintain that the obligation to separate the tithes from other types of produce is Rabbinic in origin. See also Halachah 6.

8.

Beans that are used as animal fodder.

9.

This is the common translation for the term aizov. In his notes to the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Sh'vi'it, ch. 8, note 6, Rav Kappach identifies the Arabic term used by the Rambam as "oregano."

10.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 3:3), the Rambam identifies these species as types of hyssop that grow wildly in gardens and courtyards.

11.

This is a principle applicable in other halachic contexts as well. See Hilchot Tuma'at Ochalin 3:3.

12.

E.g., it has a fence or the like around it.

13.

For it is used for human consumption. The Radbaz maintains that the obligation is Scriptural in origin.

14.

A pungent herb.

15.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 4:6).

16.

The Radbaz maintains that the obligation is Rabbinic in origin.

17.

Since it was sown as seed, the vegetables that grow are of no consequence.

18.

For even the seed can be used for human consumption.

19.

In his notes to the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah, ch. 3, note 4), Rav Kappach identifies this as dill.

20.

See Rav Kappach's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 4:5).

21.

The obligation to make these separations from other fruits, by contrast, is Scriptural in origin. See Halachah 1 and notes.

22.

The Rambam's use of this expression in this instance has raised questions. Generally, he employs this expression to refer to laws that he derives through his powers of deduction without a previous Rabbinic source. In this instance, however, this concept is explicitly stated in the Jerusalem Talmud (Challah 4:4) and in the Babylonian Talmud (Zevachim 76a).

23.

And vegetables are not comparable to these species.

24.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 1, which states that tithes should be separated in Babylon, Ammon and Moab. Nevertheless, since there is no Scriptural obligation to tithe vegetable, our Sages did not impose such an obligation in the Diaspora. Thus even when vegetables from Eretz Yisrael are exported to the Diaspora in contemporary times, there is no need to separate terumah and tithes.

25.

And thus they will continue growing in Eretz Yisrael.

26.

According to Scriptural Law. Even though there is an obligation on other produce as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 22, our Sages did not extend this obligation to vegetables.

27.

By the Sages.

28.

An herb identified as chilbah, a sharp and pungent herb used in Eretz Yisrael today.

29.

And thus there are certain laws (see Chapter 11, Halachah 9; Chapter 12, Halachah 7) that deal with chilbah as if it were not fit for human consumption.

30.

When it is still soft and edible.

31.

The Ra'avad takes issue with the Rambam, noting that in Halachah 4, he ruled that chilbah blossoms are exempt. The Kessef Mishneh explains that there is no contradiction, for there is a difference between chilbah and chilbah blossoms.

32.

As explained in Hilchot Matanot Aniyim, all of these are portions of one's crops that must be given to the poor. Since they are ownerless, they are exempt according to Scriptural Law, as indicated by Halachah 1.

The Rambam's statements are based on Challah 1:3. That mishnah does not, however, mention individual grapes that separate from a cluster and underdeveloped grape clusters. Nevertheless, since they are also presents given to the poor from our produce, the same laws apply to them.

33.

Although the Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 6:2) equates a granary with a grainheap, the Babylonian Talmud (Berachot 40b) mentions only a granary (Kessef Mishneh).

34.

As evident from the continuation of the Rambam's statements, the obligation is Rabbinic in origin, lest an observer think that the harvesting process will have been completed by the owner of the field without the agricultural obligations being met. See Berachot, loc. cit.

35.

A gentile is not required to leave these presents for the poor. Hence, if he does leave them, they are not given that status. Nevertheless, they are not considered as ownerless, but rather as a present given by the gentile to the poor (Radbaz). Hence, the produce is considered as produce from a gentile acquired by a Jew. If the Jew completes the work associated with the produce, terumah and the tithes must be separated from it [Chapter 1, Halachot 10-11; see also the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 4:9)].

36.

Because the produce is not considered significant until it reaches that size (Siftei Cohen 331:28).

37.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 1:3).

38.

If a separation was made from produce that was exempt for produce that was liable, a new separation must be made and none of the prohibitions applying to terumah are associated with the produce separated originally.

39.

Although declaring property ownerless is in certain matters equivalent to taking a vow (Hilchot Nedarim 2:14) and the laws of vows do not apply to a gentile, when a gentile declares property ownerless, his declaration is effective. This concept is not accepted by all authorities and some even suggest alternate versions of the Mishneh Torah. Nevertheless, it is borne out by the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah, loc. cit.).

40.

For the crops themselves are not ownerless (Radbaz).

41.

He is considered to have transgressed, because, according to law, there is no obligation to separate terumah from such produce. Even though the original owner himself took possession of the field, there is no difference between it and other ownerless crops. See Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 5:27.

42.

Since while the grain is standing, separating a portion as terumah would not be effective, if it was declared ownerless at that time, that declaration does not prevent the separation of terumah afterwards from being effective [Jerusalem Talmud (Ma'aserot 1:1)].

43.

Since terumah separated from sheaves is effective (even though all the work associated with preparing crops is not completed), if the sheaves are declared ownerless, that declaration prevents the separation of terumah from being effective (ibid.).

44.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aserot 5:7) where he explains that these species of garlic and onion are so pungent that they cause people to cry. He does, however, allow for the possibility that the Hebrew terms refer to names of places.

45.

These types of beans and lentils are of abnormal shape and grow wild (ibid.).

46.

And a separation between the two cannot be made.

47.

From which terumah need not be separated.

48.

These types of beans and lentils are of abnormal shape and grow wild (ibid.).

49.

From which he is obligated to separate terumah, but from which he did not separate it as of yet.

50.

I.e., if five pounds of grapes from which there was an obligation to separate terumah become mixed with other grapes, we separate an amount of terumah sufficient for five pounds of grapes from an additional source of grapes. With regard to the measure of terumah appropriate to give, see the following chapter.

51.

This is speaking about an instance where wine was made from the grapes and oil from the olives. Hence every drop contains a mixture of produce from which terumah is obligated to be separated and produce upon which there is no obligation.

52.

He cannot merely separate the appropriate amount from the mixture, because one may not separate terumah (or tithes) from produce upon which there is no obligation for produce upon which there is an obligation. Since in every drop that he separates, there is a portion upon which there is no obligation, that separation is not effective (Siftei Cohen 331:28). As the Rambam writes in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 3:9), one must be stringent and separate terumah and terumat ma'aser for the entire amount, because one is liable for death at the hand of heaven for partaking of produce from which these allocations were not made properly.

In that source, the Rambam adds that the owner must buy the olives or the grapes to be given to the poor from them before he takes possession of the entire mixture.

53.

The Siftei Cohen 331:29 and the Turei Zahav 331:7 explain that the intent is that one should separate the tithes for the entire amount, but give the Levite only the tithe for the amount upon which the obligation originally lay. In this manner, he will not have separated the tithes from produce upon which there is no obligation and yet will not have given the Levite more than would have had to.

54.

In the verse, the noun terumah uses a plural form alluding to two types of terumah: pure terumah and impure terumah. See also Hilchot Ma'aser 6:2.

55.

It is forbidden to partake of it.

56.

It may not, however, be given to animals as animal fodder. See Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 90) which states that it is a mitzvah to burn impure terumah. Impure terumah from fruits that will not be useful as fuel must be buried.

57.

As stated in Hilchot Berachot 11:2, 6, 12, a blessing should be recited before the observance of every positive commandment.

58.

If the terumah is pure, it should not be taken to the Diaspora, because the very earth of the Diaspora is considered as impure by Rabbinic decree (see Hilchot Tuma'at Meit, ch. 11) and the terumah will become impure. Even if the terumah was already impure, it should be burnt in Eretz Yisrael. See Sh'vi'it 6:5.

59.

Lest the priests seek to leave Eretz Yisrael to collect it [Jerusalem Talmud (Sh'vi'it 6:6)].

60.

I.e., by Rabbinic decree.

61.

i.e., it is forbidden in the Diaspora, because of the doubt that perhaps it came into contact with a corpse. Nevertheless, we do not burn it until we know certainly that it became impure.

62.

For all leaven must be burnt at this time.

Terumot - Chapter 3

1

There is no minimum requirement for the great terumah according to Scriptural Law, as [implied by Deuteronomy 18:4]: "The first of your grain," i.e., even the slightest amount. Even one kernel of grain fulfills the requirement for the entire grain heap. As an initial and prefatory measure, one should separate only according to the measures specified by our Sages. In the present age, when [the terumah] will be burnt because of impurity, a person may separate even the smallest amount as an initial and prefatory measure.1

א

תרומה גדולה אין לה שיעור מן התורה שנאמר ראשית דגנך כל שהוא אפילו חטה אחת פוטרת הכרי ולכתחלה לא יפריש אלא כשיעור שנתנו חכמים ובזמן שהיא עומדת לשריפה מפני הטומאה יש לו להפריש כל שהוא לכתחלה:

2

What is the measure that our Sages established? A generous measure is one fourtieth [of the crop]. The average [measure] is one fiftieth and a parsimonious measure is one sixtieth.

ב

וכמה הוא שיעורה שנתנו חכמים עין יפה אחד מארבעים והבינונית אחד מחמשים רעה אחד מששים ולא יפחות מאחד מששים:

3

As an initial and preferred measure, we may separate one sixtieth [of the crop] as terumah from species to which the priests do not pay attention, e.g., carobs2 and kilisin beans.

[Similarly,] we [may separate] one sixtieth [of the crop as terumah] in the following situations: terumah separated from produce grown from terumah,3 terumah that is mixed [with tevel],4 or impure terumah that became impure against one's will or inadvertently,5 terumah taken from consecrated crops,6 terumah [separated in] the Diaspora, terumah from ketzach, kilisin, carobs,7 poor quality wild figs, red barley kernels, and the like,8 and produce grown in a flower-pot that does not have a hole.9

Similarly, when guardians separate [terumah] from the produce of orphans, they should separate one sixtieth.10

ג

כל תרומה שאין הכהנים מקפידין עליה כגון תרומות החרובין והקליסין ניטלת לכתחלה אחד מששים ואלו ניטלין אחד מששים:

תרומת גידולי תרומה וערובי תרומה ותרומה טמאה שהיתה הטומאה באונס או בשגגה ותרומת הקדש ותרומת חוצה לארץ ותרומת הקצח והקליסין והחרובין והגמזיות והתורמוסין ושעורים אדומיות וכיוצא בהן ופירות עציץ שאינו נקוב וכן האפוטרופסין כשתורמין פירות יתומים תורמין אחד מששים:

4

One should not11 separate this terumah with a measure, a scale, or by number, because [the Torah] did not specify a measure for this [allocation]. Instead, one makes an estimation and separates one fiftieth12 according to his conception.13 One may, however, separate terumah from [produce that is] measured, weighed, or counted.14 He should not separate terumah using a basket or a container whose measure is known.15 He may, however, separate terumah by [filling] half or a third of their measure. One should not separate terumah [by using] half [a measure of] a se'ah, because its half is also a measure.

ד

אין תורמין תרומה זו לא במדה ולא במשקל ולא במנין לפי שלא נאמר בה שיעור אלא אומד ומפריש בדעתו כמו אחד מששים אבל תורם הוא את המדוד ואת השקול ואת המנוי ולא יתרום בסל ובקופה שמדתן ידועה אבל תורם הוא בהן חציין או שלישן ולא יתרום בסאה חציה שהחציה מדה:

5

When a person separates a large measure of terumah,16 as long as he leaves a certain portion as ordinary produce,17 [the separated portion] is terumah. If, however, he said: "All of this produce is terumah," his statements are of no consequence.18

If a person intended to separate one tenth [of his crop] as terumah, but it happened that he actually set aside one sixtieth, [the separated portion] is terumah.19 If, however, he intended to sixtieth as terumah, but it happened that he actually set aside one fiftieth, [the separated portion] is not terumah.20

ה

המרבה בתרומה הואיל ושייר מקצת חולין הרי זו תרומה אבל אם אמר כל הפירות האלו תרומה לא אמר כלום המתכוין לתרום אחד מי' ועלתה בידו אחד מששים תרומתו תרומה נתכוון לתרום אחד מששים ועלתה בידו אחד מחמשים אינו תרומה:

6

When a person sets aside terumah and it happened that he gave one twentieth [of his crop],21 [the separated portion] is terumah.22 If he set aside terumah and it happened that he gave one sixtieth [of his crop] and hence, he added more produce for the sake of terumah,23 the tithes must be separated from that additional amount.24 The priest must separate them and only then may he partake of it.25

If a person set aside terumah26 and it happened that he gave one sixty-first [of his crop], [the separated portion] is terumah, but he must set aside a second portion to complete the measure that he originally intended to give. This additional measure may be set aside with a measure, a scale, or by number.27 He should set aside [the terumah] only from the produce that is encompassed [in the same area] as is true with regard to the initial separation [of terumah].28

ו

המפריש תרומה ועלתה בידו אפי' אחד מעשרים תרומתו תרומה תרם ועלתה בידו אחד מששים וחזר והוסיף לשם תרומה אותה התוספת חייבת במעשרות ומפריש ממנה הכהן המעשרות ואח"כ יאכלנה תרם ועלתה בידו אחד מששים ואחד הרי זו תרומה ויחזור ויתרום פעם שנייה כדי להשלים השיעור שבדעתו והתוספת הזאת יש לו להפרישה במדה או במשקל או במנין אבל לא יפרישנה אלא מן המוקף כראשונה:

7

When a person separates a portion of the terumah [that he originally intended to separate], that portion does not have the status of terumah.29 Nevertheless, the terumah from that portion30 should be separated from it and not from other produce.

ז

המפריש מקצת התרומה אותו המקצת אינו תרומה והרי הוא כחלק הכרי ואעפ"כ צריך להפריש תרומת אותו מקצת ממנו ולא יפריש עליו מפירות אחרות:

8

When a person separates a portion of terumah from one grain heap and a portion of terumah from a second grain heap of the same species, he should not separate terumah from one grain heap for the other.31

[The following rules apply when a person] says: "The terumah for this grain heap is in its midst." If he specified a place - on the north side or the south - he has designated terumah and is obligated to separate terumah from that [portion of the grain heap]. If he did not specify a place, his statements are of no consequence.32

ח

המפריש מקצת תרומה מכרי זה ומקצת תרומה מכרי אחר ממינו ה"ז לא יתרום מזה על זה האומר תרומת הכרי זה לתוכו אם אמר בצפונו או בדרומו קרא שם וחייב להפריש ממנו תרומתו ואם לא ציין במקום לא אמר כלום:

9

If [a person separating terumah] said: "The terumah for this grain heap is this33 and the terumah for this grain heap is like that one,"34 at the place where the terumah for the first grain heap ended, the terumah for the second grain heap also ended.

ט

אמר תרומת הכרי זה והכרי הזה כזה מקום שנסתיימה תרומתו של ראשון שם נסתיימה תרומתו של שני:

10

Terumat Ma'aser35 may not be separated by estimation.36 [Instead,] one must be precise in its measure, even in the present age,37 because its measure is explicitly stated in the Torah.

י

תרומת מעשר אין מפרישין אותה באומד אלא מדקדק בשיעורה ואפילו בזמן הזה שהרי שיעורה מפורש בתורה:

11

[Produce] that is usually measured in volume, should be measured in volume. [Produce] that is weighed should be weighed and if it can [easily] be counted, it should be counted. If it could [easily] be counted, weighed, or measured in volume, it is praiseworthy to count it,38 more praiseworthy to measure its volume, and most praiseworthy to weigh it.39

יא

דבר שדרכו למדור מודד ודבר הנשקל שוקל דבר שאפשר למנותו מונה היה אפשר למנותו ולשוקלו ולמודדו המונה משובח והמודד משובח ממנו והשוקל משובח משניהן:

12

The mitzvah [to separate] terumat ma'aser is for a Levite to separate it from the tithe [given] him, as [Numbers 18:26] states: "When you take the tithe from the children of Israel...."40 An Israelite may separate terumat ma'aser and give it to a priest41 and then give the tithes to a Levite after separating the terumat [ma'aser] from it, i.e., a tenth of a tenth.

יב

מצות תרומת מעשר שיפריש אותן בן לוי ממעשרו שנאמר וכי תקחו מאת בני ישראל את המעשר ויש לישראל להפריש אותה וליתנה לכהן ויתן המעשר ללוי אחר שיפריש ממנו תרומתו שהיא מעשר מן המעשר:

13

When an Israelite separates the first tithe while the crop is still stalks [of grain] and gives it to the Levite before it was threshed and before he separated the great terumah, the Levite is not required to separate the great terumah from it after he threshes it, only terumat ma'aser.42

If, however, the Israelite threshed [the crop]43 and separated a tithe of the grain and gave it to the Levite before he separated the great terumah, the Levite is obligated to separate the great terumah and terumat ma'aser, since [the crop] has already been [separated into kernels of] grain, the obligation [to separate] terumah has fallen upon it, as [implied by the phrase]: "The first of your grain."44

יג

ישראל שהפריש מעשר ראשון כשהוא שבלים קודם שידוש ויפריש תרומה גדולה ונתנו ללוי אין הלוי חייב להפריש ממנו תרומה גדולה אחר שידושנו אלא תרומת מעשר בלבד אבל אם דש ישראל והפריש המעשר מן הדגן קודם שיפריש תרומה גדולה [ונתנו ללוי חייב הלוי להפריש ממנו תרומה גדולה] ותרומת מעשר מאחר שנעשה דגן נתחייב בתרומה שנאמר ראשית דגנך:

14

When a Levite took grain while it was in stalks, he should not give the terumah to the priest in stalks. Instead, we penalize him [and require him] to thresh [the crop], winnow it, and give the priest a tenth of a tenth of the kernels of the grain.45 He is not required to give him a tenth of the straw or the chaff.46 If he set aside terumat ma'aser while the crop was in stalks as it was given to him, he must crush it and give the priest the kernels and the straw.47

Why did they penalize him and make him crush it? Because he accepted the tithe while it was in the stalks and thus precluded the separation of the great terumah.

יד

בן לוי שלקח מעשר שבלים לא יתן תרומתו לכהן שבלים אלא קונסין אותו לדוש ולזרות וליתן לו מעשר מן המעשר מן הדגן ואינו חייב ליתן לו מעשר מן התבן או העצה ואם הפריש תרומת מעשר שבלים כמו שנתנו לו ה"ז כותש ונותן לכהן את הזרע ואת התבן ומפני מה קנסוהו לכתוש מפני שלקח המעשר שבלים והפקיע ממנו תרומה גדולה:

15

When an Israelite tells a Levite: "My father told me: 'I have ma'aser for you in my possession,' we are not concerned about [the possibility of] it containing terumat ma'aser. [We are confident] that his father separated the terumat ma'aser. Therefore he commanded him that the [entire] tithe should be given to the Levite.48

If [the Israelite] told [the Levite]: "My father told me: 'I have a kor49 of ma'aser for you in my possession,' we are concerned about [the possibility of] it containing terumat ma'aser.

טו

בן ישראל שאמר ללוי כך אמר לי אבא מעשר לך בידי אין חוששין לתרומת מעשר שבו שהרי אביו הפריש תרומתו ולפיכך צוהו שזה המעשר לפלוני הלוי ואם אמר לו כך אמר לי אבא כור מעשר יש לך בידי חוששין לתרומת מעשר שבו:

16

Terumat ma'aser that is an eighth of an eighth [of a log]50 should be brought to a priest. For less than that, [we do not trouble him] to bring it to a priest.51 Instead, he may throw it into the fire and burn it.52 With regard to wine and oil, by contrast, even the smallest amount [of terumat ma'aser] should be brought to a priest53 provided it is definitely terumat ma'aser and ritually pure.54 If it was ritually impure or if it was demai,55 if it does not contain [the above] measure, he is not required to trouble himself with it. Instead, he should burn it.

טז

תרומת מעשר שהיה בה אחד משמונה בשמינית מוליכה לכהן פחות מכן אינו מטפל להוליכה אלא משליכה באור ושורפה וביין ובשמן אפילו כל שהוא מוליכה לכהן ובלבד שתהא תר"מ ודאית וטהורה אבל אם היתה טמאה או שהיתה של דמאי אם אין בה כשיעור אינו מטפל בה אלא שורפה:

17

We should separate the great terumah only from [produce] in the same location.56 What is implied? A person had 50 se'ah in one room57 and 50 se'ah in another,58 he should not separate two se'ah from one room for the entire 100 se'ah, for he would be separating produce from one location for produce from another.

[After the fact,] if one separated terumah from one location for produce in another, the separation is effective,59 provided the produce separated [as terumah] is protected. If, however, a person possessed jugs of oil and/or wine and saw that they were breaking, should he say: "These are terumah for the produce in my home,"60his words are of no consequence.61

יז

אין תורמין תרומה גדולה אלא מן המוקף כיצד היו לו חמשים סאה בבית זה וחמשים סאה בבית אחר לא יפריש מאחד מהן שתי סאים על המאה שנמצא מפריש ממקום זה על מקום אחר ואם הפריש שלא מן המוקף תרומתו תרומה והוא שיהיה המופרש שמור אבל אם היה טעון כדי יין או שמן וראה שמשתברין ואמר הרי הן תרומה על פירות שבביתי לא אמר כלום:

18

When produce is scattered in a room or there are two granaries in the same room,62 one may separate terumah from one for the entire amount.63 When sacks of grain, spheres of dried figs, or jugs of figs are in the same place, one may separate from one for the entire amount. With regard to jugs of wine, until one has sealed their lids closed, he may separate terumah from one for the entire amount.64 After they have been sealed, he must separate terumah from each one individually.65

יח

פירות המפוזרין בתוך הבית או שתי מגורות שבבית אחד תורם מא' על הכל שקי תבואה ועיגולי דבילה וחביות של גרוגרות אם היו בהקיפה אחת תורם מאחת על הכל חביות של יין עד שלא סתם את פיהן תורם מאחד על הכל משסתם תורם מכל אחת ואחת:

19

When a person was gathering bunches of vegetables and leaving them in [his] garden, he may separate terumah from one for the entire amount.66 If he brings another type of produce between them, he must separate terumah from each one individually. If he brought several species together in a container, e.g., cabbage on top, cabbage on bottom, and another species in between, he should not separate terumah from the top head for the bottom head.67

If he collected five piles in one granary, he may separate terumah from one for the entire amount68 provided the fundamental collection is intact.69 If the fundamental collection is not intact, he must separate terumah from each one individually.

יט

היה מלקט גפי ירק ומניח בגינה תורם מאחד על הכל הביא מין אחד ביניהן תורם מכל אחד ואחד הביא מינין הרבה בקופה כרוב מלמעלה וכרוב מלמטה ומין אחר באמצע לא יתרום מן העליון על התחתון ואם הקיף חמשה ציבורים בגורן תורם מא' על הכל בזמן שעיקר הגורן קיים אין עיקר הגורן קיים תורם מכל אחד ואחד:

20

Terumat ma'aser may be separated even if [the produce] is not in the same location. [This is implied by Numbers 18:28]: Separate terumah "from all of your tithes."70 [Implied is that] even if there is one [collection of] tithes in one city and another [collection of] tithes in another city, one may separate terumat [ma'aser] once for all of them. Torah scholars separate even terumat ma'aser only from [produce] in one location.71

כ

תרומת מעשר מפרישין אותו שלא מן המוקף שנאמר מכל מעשרותיכם תרימו תרומה אפילו מעשר אחד במדינה זו ומעשר אחד במדינה אחרת מפריש תרומה מאחד על הכל ות"ח אין תורמין אלא מן המוקף ואפילו תרומת מעשר:

21

When a Levite possessed [produce from] the first tithe from which terumat ma'aser was not separated and he left it so that he could continuously separate terumat ma'aser [for other crops] from it while it is still tevel, his actions are viable. [This is derived from Numbers 18:24]: "For the tithes of the children of Israel [from] which they will separate terumah...." Implied is that [the tithes] can be transformed into terumat [ma'aser] in their entirety.

כא

בן לוי שהיה לו מע"ר שלא ניטלה ממנו תרומתו והניחו להיות מפריש עליו והולך הוא בטבלו מה שעשה עשוי שנאמר כי את מעשר בני ישראל אשר ירימו לה' תרומה מלמד שהוא עושה את כולו תרומה לאחר:

22

If one separated terumat ma'aser first and then left [the produce] so that one could continually separate terumat ma'aser for other produce from it until it becomes terumat ma'aser in its entirety, at which he would give it to a priest, his actions are of no consequence.72 [This is derived from ibid.:29]: "The sacred portion from it." Implied is that when its sacred portion is in it,73 it can be made terumat [ma'aser] for other [crops]. If its sacred portion is no longer in it, it cannot be made terumat [ma'aser] for other [crops]. Similarly, when a person sets aside crops to separate the great terumah from them, they must be tevel with regard to terumah.74 If a person sets aside crops to separate the tithes from them, they must be tevel with regard to the tithes.75

כב

הפריש ממנו תרומת מעשר תחלה ואחר כך הניחו להיות מפריש עליו והולך עד שיעשה כולו תרומת מעשר ויתנו לכהן לא עשה כלום שנאמר את מקדשו ממנו בזמן שקדשיו בתוכו עושה אותו תרומה לאחרים אין קדשיו בתוכו אינו עושה אותו תרומה לאחרים וכן המניח פירות להיות מפריש עליהם תרומה גדולה צריך שיהיו טבולין לתרומה ואם הניחן להיות מפריש עליהן מעשר צריך שיהיו טבולין למעשר:

23

When terumah and the tithes are separated, we separate them in proper sequence.

What is implied? Before everything, one separates bikkurim.76 Afterwards, [he separates] the great terumah, the first tithe, then the second tithe or the tithe for the poor.77 If a person separated the second [tithe] before the first, or the tithes before terumah, or terumah before bikkurim, his actions are effective despite the fact that he has transgressed a negative commandment.78

What is the source which teaches that a negative commandment is involved? [Exodus 22:28] states: "Do not delay your fullness offering or your priestly heave-offering."79 [Implied is a command] not to delay [the separation of produce] that should come first. Lashes are not given [as punishment for the violation] of this prohibition.80

כג

כשמפרישין תרומה ומעשר מפרישין אותן על הסדר כיצד מפריש בכורים תחילה לכל ואח"כ תרומה גדולה ואחר כך מעשר ראשון ואח"כ מעשר שני או מעשר עני והמקדים שני לראשון או מעשר לתרומה או תרומה לבכורים אע"פ שעבר על לא תעשה מה שעשה עשוי ומניין שהוא בלא תעשה שנאמר מלאתך ודמעך לא תאחר לא תאחר דבר שראוי להקדימו ואין לוקין על לאו זה:

24

When a person desires to separate the great terumah and terumat ma'aser at the same time, he should separate 1/33.33 of his crop.81 He should say: "One hundredth of [the produce] that is here - i.e., on the side of the produce which I set aside - is ordinary produce.82 The remainder of what I separated is terumah for the entire crop. The tithes which are necessary to be separated for these hundred portions83 of ordinary produce are at the side of [the produce] that I separated. The remainder of what I separated aside from the terumah is terumat ma'aser on the entire amount."84

כד

הרוצה להפריש תרומה גדולה ותרומת מעשר כאחד מפריש אחד מל"ג ושליש ואומר אחד ממאה שיש כאן הרי הוא בצד זה שהפרשתי והרי הוא חולין והנשאר מזה שהפרשתי הוא תרומה על הכל והמעשר שראוי להיות למאה חולין אלו הרי הוא בצד זה שהפרשתי וזה הנשאר יתר על התרומה ממה שהפרשתי הרי הוא תרומת מעשר על הכל:

Footnotes
1.

Since the produce will ultimately be burnt, there is no purpose in setting aside more than the very minimum. The Radbaz notes that the priests are also given the opportunity to benefit from impure terumah, because they use it as fuel. Why then shouldn't they be given a full measure of impure terumah? He explains that since this is not the primary use of terumah, our Sages did not feel that for the minimal benefit the priest receives from burning the terumah, it was necessary to require the people to separate a larger amount.

2.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 1:3, there are certain species of carobs which are generally not eaten by humans. There is no obligation to separate terumah from them according to Scriptural Law. Here we are speaking about carobs from which one is obligated to separate terumah according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, since they are not considered important by the priests, there is no need to separate more than the minimal amount.

3.

As explained in Chapter 11, Halachot 21 and 27, when produce that is terumah is sown, according to Scriptural Law, the produce which grows is ordinary produce and terumah and tithes must be separated from it. Nevertheless, our Sages were stringent and declared that the entire crop should be considered as terumah and sold to the priests (at a price substantially less than that of ordinary produce). Since the owners are required to consider the entire crop as terumah, our Sages did not require them to separate more than a sixtieth to be given as terumah (Tosefta, Terumot, ch. 5).

4.

Tevel is produce from which terumah and tithes were not separated. As indicated by Chapter 13, Halachah 1, if there are more than 100 times the amount of tevel as terumah, it is necessary to remove the amount of terumah that became mixed with the tevel and then separate the terumah. Since the person is already separating the amount of terumah from the mixture, our Sages did not require him to separate a large quantity of terumah from the tevel. As noted in Chapter 13, Halachah 2, more stringent laws apply when terumah becomes mixed with less than 100 times the amount of other produce.

5.

The Radbaz questions: Why is it not sufficient to separate the slightest amount as terumah as is the practice in the present age (Halachah 1)? He explains that in the present age, all terumah will become ritually impure. Hence, there is no need to give a significant amount at all. In the time of the Talmud, by contrast, significant amounts of terumah that is pure must be separated. If an inconsequential amount of impure terumah would be separated, people might refrain from giving an appropriate amount of pure terumah.

6.

I.e., crops that were consecrated after the work involving their harvest was completed (at which time the obligation to separate terumah became incumbent upon them), but from which terumah was not actually separated. There is no need to separate terumah from crops that grew in a field belonging to the Temple treasury.

7.

Note, however, Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 1:3.

8.

I.e., all of these species are types of produce that are not usually considered valuable.

9.

This leniency is granted for the obligation to separate terumah from such produce is merely Rabbinic in origin. Hence it is sufficient to separate one-sixtieth as an initial measure.

10.

Because special consideration is given to the orphans' property.

11.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 1:7), Rambam states that separating terumah in this manner is "forbidden." The commentaries question whether his use of different wording in this halachah indicates a change of position or not.

12.

This is the average measure. Our translation follows authoritative manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah. The standard printed text reads "one sixtieth."

13.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Terumah 1:7) derives this from Numbers 18:27: "And your terumah will be considered for you...." Venechshav translated as "considered" shares the root chashav meaning "thought" or "estimate." Implied is that terumah should be given by estimation. Although this verse is speaking about terumat ma'aser which must be separated by exact measure (see Halachah 10), we follow the principle (see Rashi, Pesachim 24a): If a concept explicitly stated with regard to terumat ma'aser cannot be applied to it, we assume that it is referring to the great terumah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)].

14.

I.e., one measures the produce and then separates terumah by estimation (ibid.).

15.

For that is obviously equivalent to separating with a measure.

16.

I.e., a measure above that stated by the Sages.

17.

I.e., he did not designate the entire crop as terumah.

18.

For Numbers 15:21 speaks of giving "from the first of your kneading." Implied is that one must give "from the first," but not all the first [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 4:5, based on the Jerusalem Talmud)].

19.

For he had intended to give this amount of produce - and more - as terumah (Kessef Mishneh). And when giving terumah, one's deed must be aligned - at least partially - with his intent. Since the terumah is acceptable, there is no need for the person to supplement the amount separated and give the amount he originally intended (Radbaz).

20.

For he had not intended to give this amount as terumah (ibid.).

21.

I.e., without either desiring to give this amount or having a desire to give a lesser amount. Note the gloss of the Radbaz who suggests that there is a printing error in the text.

22.

The fact that he gave a larger measure than usual as terumah does not disqualify his gift.

23.

So that he would not be giving a parsimonious measure.

24.

Although normally, there is no obligation to separate tithes from terumah, since the portion he separated originally fulfilled his obligation, it immediately became necessary to separate tithes from the remainder of the produce.

25.

He must observe all the obligations required when partaking of terumah.

26.

With the intent of giving the measure required by our Sages.

27.

Although initially, one should not give a measured amount of terumah as stated in Halachah 4, in this instance, he is required to give a measured amount so that he will give the amount that he originally intended.

28.

As is required by Halachah 17, as an initial and preferable measure.

29.

In contrast to the situation described in the previous halachah, in this instance, the person originally intended to separate more. Hence, what he separated is not considered as terumah.

30.

Since the separation was not effective, that portion is considered as tevel and terumah must be separated from it. Since it was set aside as a separate portion, the terumah should be separated from it and not from other produce. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 4:1).

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam's interpretation of that mishnah and maintains that the separated produce is in fact terumah. The Kessef Mishneh justifies the Rambam's interpretation.

31.

For as mentioned above and in Halachah 17, preferably, one should separate terumah from the grain for which it is being separated and not from other grain.

32.

And he may separate terumah from other produce. The rationale is that terumah is called "the first." Implied is that it must be set aside from produce that is not "first" and in this instance, that has not been done (Siftei Cohen 331:45).

33.

I.e., he designated a certain portion of the first grain heap as terumah.

34.

I.e., the terumah for the second grain heap should be separated in a way entirely parallel to the separation from the first. It should be taken from an equivalent place and have the measure. Our translation is based on the version of the Mishneh Torah possessed by the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh and their interpretations of that text. There are other slightly different versions of the text.

35.

As stated in Halachah 12, after a tenth of the produce is given to the Levites, they must separate a tenth of that tenth and give it to the priests as terumat ma'aser.

36.

I.e., in contrast to "the great terumah," as mentioned in Halachah 4.

As stated in the notes to that halachah, a verse ostensibly referring to terumat ma'aser (Numbers 18:27) states: "And your terumah will be considered for you...." Venechshav translated as "considered" shares the root chashav meaning "thought" or "estimate." Implied is that terumah should be given by estimation. Nevertheless, according to the Jerusalem Talmud (Terumah 1:7), that verse refers to the great terumah and not to terumat ma'aser (Radbaz).

37.

When it will be destroyed because of impurity.

38.

I.e., separating the terumat ma'aser after counting it is praiseworthy [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Terumot 4:6)].

39.

For in this way, the measurement is most precise.

40.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 129) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 396) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

41.

I.e., the Torah's requirement is for the Israelite to give the tithes to the Levite and for the Levite to separate one tenth of the tithes as terumat ma'aser. Nevertheless, if the Israelite desires to fulfill this mitzvah, he has the option. It is not considered as if he is usurping the Levite's right.

The Radbaz notes that the source for this concept (Gittin 30b) also implies that terumat ma'aser can be separated by estimation and finds it somewhat problematic to derive one concept from that source, but not the second. Nevertheless, he concludes that this is in fact the Talmud's conclusion.

42.

Berachot 47a derives this concept from the exegesis of Numbers 18:26 which speaks of taking "a tenth from the tithe." Implied is that only a tenth is separated from the tithe and nothing more.

43.

And completed all the other tasks to make it obligated for tithing.

44.

I.e., once produce has been reduced to kernels of grain, the obligation to separate terumah takes effect. Hence, the Levite must separate terumah from the tithe as well as terumat ma'aser.

45.

I.e., he is penalized by being required to perform the work necessary to process the stalks of grain until they are reduced to kernels.

46.

For the obligation to tithe is incumbent only on the food and not on the other parts of the plant.

47.

He is required to perform the tasks necessary to process the grain for the reasons mentioned above. Nevertheless, he must give the priest the chaff because he designated it as terumah while it was in its stalks. That sacred designation does not depart from the chaff when the kernels are separated from it.

48.

I.e., his statements indicate that his father desired that the entire tithe be given to the Levite. Hence, we assume that he already separated the terumat ma'aser.

49.

The mention of a measure indicates that he expects the Levite to separate the terumat ma'aser required for this measure.

The Ra'avad challenges the Rambam's ruling, noting that it is the opposite of the standard text of the Talmud (Gittin 30b). The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh state that the version of the Talmud possessed by the Rambam differed from the standard version and indeed, possesses an advantage over it.

50.

This measure, a kortov, is slightly less than 5 cc. according to Shiurei Torah and approximately 9.5 cc. according to Chazon Ish.

51.

Because such a small amount is of little value.

On the basis of the Jerusalem Talmud (Terumot 11:4), the Ra'avad questions the Rambam's ruling, maintaining that even the slightest amount of pure grain should also be brought to a priest if there was a definite obligation to tithe. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh acknowledge the validity of Ra'avad's questions, but offer possible resolutions for the Rambam's approach.

52.

He must, however, separate it. Otherwise, it is forbidden to benefit from the tithes.

53.

For even a small amount of these substances is of value for a priest (Radbaz).

54.

If it was not ritually pure, it would be of little benefit to the priest, for he could use it only as fuel. Hence we do not require that it be brought to him.

55.

Produce from which we are uncertain whether the tithes had been separated and hence, require that the tithes be separated again. Since the tithes are being separated merely as a safeguard and thus it is possible that there is no Scriptural obligation from this crop, we do not trouble him to bring a priest a very small amount.

56.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:9). Note the contrast to terumat ma'aser as stated in Halachah 20.

57.

We have chosen this translation for bayit based on the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh to Halachah 18 where he explains that when one grain heap is in a room and another in the loft of the same building, they are considered as being in the same place. This interpretation enables us to understand an otherwise difficult passage in the Tosefta, Terumot 3:9.

58.

Everything that is in the same room is considered as being in the same location even if the two piles of produce are not touching each other (Radbaz; see the following halachah).

59.

The Siftei Cohen 331:49 explains the rationale for the above restriction and why it is not binding after the fact. As mentioned above, according to Rabbinic Law, one must separate between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the crop as terumah and that separation must be made by estimation. Hence, in order to make an appropriate estimation, one must be in the same place as the produce. Nevertheless, since according to Scriptural Law, one fulfills his obligation with even one grain, after the fact, such a separation is not disqualified.

60.

And thus try to receive something of value for the wine and/or oil that will be spilled.

61.

Since the jugs are breaking, we considered them as having been broken already and the produce as having been spilled. When quoting this law, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 331:25) states that in the present age, when terumah is destroyed regardless because of its impurity, even when the jugs are breaking, the separation is effective.

62.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Challah 1:9). Note the contrast to terumat ma'aser as stated in Halachah 20.

63.

Since they are in the same room, they are considered as being in the same place.

64.

It is considered as if they were all mixed together [see the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 3:12)].

65.

Each closed jug is considered as a separate entity, even though they are all in the same room.

66.

For the entire garden is considered as a single entity.

67.

Since there are other species between them, they are not considered as of the same group.

68.

The fact that they are in the same granary causes them to be considered as a single entity.

69.

I.e., provided he has not begun removing produce from the granary.

70.

The Rambam is not quoting the verse as it appears in the Torah.

71.

The Siftei Cohen 331:48 describes this as the most choice way of observing the mitzvah. The Radbaz emphasizes that this is a stringency that Torah scholars have accepted upon themselves and, according to the Rambam, is not even a Rabbinic obligation. The Ra'avad explains that an Israelite need not separate terumat ma'aser from produce that is in one place, but a Levite must. The Kessef Mishneh does not accept that position and quotes sources in support of the Rambam's view.

72.

And it is as if terumat ma'aser has never been separated for the produce for which he intended that it serve that purpose.

73.

I.e., terumat ma'aser has not yet been separated.

74.

I.e., terumah has never been separated from them. See Chapter 5, Halachah 12.

75.

I.e., the tithes have never been separated from them. See Hilchot Ma'aser 1:7.

76.

The first fruits.

77.

I.e., either one or the other. For in the year the second tithe is separated, the tithe for the poor is not separated.

78.

Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 154) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 72) include this commandment among the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

79.

"Your fullness offering" refers to bikkurim for they are separated when the produce becomes full. "Your priestly heave-offering" refers to terumah. Thus the bikkurim precede terumah. See also Terumot 3:6-7.

80.

Temurah 4b explains that this prohibition is considered as correctable by the fulfillment of a positive commandment, for one may make separations in the proper order. See the gloss of Radbaz.

81.

I.e., three hundredths of his crop. An average donation of terumah is one fifitieth, two hundredths. And terumat ma'aser is one tenth of the first tithe, another hundredth. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Demai 5:2).

82.

This refers to the portion that will be separated as terumat ma'aser. Initially, it is to remain as ordinary produce, so that the prohibition against making the separations in improper sequence is not violated. See Ra'avad.

83.

I.e., including that which was separated as terumah.

84.

In this way, he will have separated terumah, the tithes, and terumat ma'aser in proper sequence.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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