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ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Me`ilah - Chapter 5, Me`ilah - Chapter 6, Me`ilah - Chapter 7

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Me`ilah - Chapter 5

1

The prohibition against me'ilah applies whether one consecrates an article that is fit to be used for the improvement of the Temple for that purpose, e.g., a stone or a beam, consecrates an article fit for the altar for the improvement of the Temple, e.g., sheep or doves, or consecrates an article that is fit to be used for the improvement of the Temple for the altar, e.g., a stone or a beam, or he consecrates for either of these purposes an article that is not fit for either of these purposes, e.g., he consecrated chickens, vinegar, brine, or land. This applies even if he consecrated a dungheap filled with fertilizer, dust, or ash. In all these instances, the prohibition against me'ilah applies from the time the entity was consecrated until it was redeemed if it is an article fit to be redeemed.

א

אֶחָד הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לְחַזֵּק הַבֶּדֶק כְּגוֹן אֶבֶן אוֹ קוֹרָה. אוֹ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּגוֹן כְּבָשִׂים וְתוֹרִים. אוֹ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ דָּבָר הָרָאוּי לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת כְּגוֹן אֶבֶן וְקוֹרָה. אוֹ הַמַּקְדִּישׁ לָזֶה וְלָזֶה דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לֹא לָזֶה וְלֹא לָזֶה כְּגוֹן הַמַּקְדִּישׁ תַּרְנְגוֹלִין וְחֹמֶץ וְצִיר אוֹ קַרְקַע אֲפִלּוּ הִקְדִּישׁ אַשְׁפָּה מְלֵאָה זֶבֶל אוֹ עָפָר אוֹ אֵפֶר. מוֹעֲלִין בְּכֻלָּן מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפָּדוּ דְּבָרִים הָרְאוּיִים לְהִפָּדוֹת:

2

Any of the article consecrated for the improvement of the Temple and those entities from entities consecrated to the altar for which the prohibition against me'ilah applies may be combined together to reach the minimum measure required for me'ilah. If one derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit from all of them, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ב

כָּל קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת עִם דְּבָרִים שֶׁמּוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן מִקָּדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לִמְעִילָה וְאִם נֶהֱנָה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מִכֻּלָּם מָעַל:

3

If one partook of consecrated food and fed a colleague or derived benefit from a consecrated object and caused a colleague to benefit. His eating and his colleague's benefit or his colleague's eating and his benefit are all combined to make one liable for me'ilah. If a sum of benefit worth a p'rutah is reached, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ג

אָכַל וְהֶאֱכִיל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ נֶהֱנָה וּמְהַנֶּה חֲבֵרוֹ אֲכִילָתוֹ וַהֲנָיַת חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ אֲכִילַת חֲבֵרוֹ וַהֲנָיָתוֹ כֻּלָּן מִצְטָרְפִין לַמְּעִילָה וְאִם נַעֲשָׂה מִן הַכּל הֲנָיָה בִּפְרוּטָה מָעַל:

4

A combination making one liable for the prohibition against me'ilah can be made over an extended period of time.

What is implied? If one derived benefit from a consecrated article on one day and then derived benefit again after the passage of several years in one continuous state of not knowing, the two events are combined for a p'rutah's worth and he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ד

הַמְּעִילָה מִצְטָרֶפֶת לִזְמַן מְרֻבֶּה. כֵּיצַד. נֶהֱנָה הַיּוֹם מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְנֶהֱנָה לְאַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁנִים בְּהֶעְלֵם אֶחָד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין לִפְרוּטָה וּמָעַל:

5

The prohibition against me'ilah applies only to articles that have been separated from the earth. If, however, one benefits from consecrated earth or from consecrated articles attached to the earth, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah even if blemishes that entity.

What is implied? If one plows a consecrated field or sows it, he is exempt. If he takes its earth, derives benefit from it, and damages the earth, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah. A person who threshes in a consecrated field violates the prohibition against me'ilah, because its dust benefits the field. Thus he has benefited from the dust and damaged the field. Similarly, if one plowed a consecrated field in order to raise dust for grass that was planted there and he took the grass, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

A person who dwells in a cave that is consecrated or in the shade of a tree or dovecote that is consecrated does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah, even though he benefited. Similarly, when one consecrates a house that was built, a person who dwells in it does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. When, however, a person consecrates wood and stones and builds a house, a person who dwells in it violates the prohibition against me'ilah, as will be explained.

ה

אֵין מְעִילָה אֶלָּא בְּתָלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע אֲבָל הַנֶּהֱנֶה בַּקַּרְקַע עַצְמָהּ אוֹ בַּמְחֻבָּר לָהּ לֹא מָעַל אֲפִלּוּ פָּגַם. כֵּיצַד. הַחוֹרֵשׁ שְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ הַזּוֹרֵעַ בָּהּ פָּטוּר. נָטַל מֵאֲבָקָהּ וְנֶהֱנָה בָּהּ וּפְגָמָהּ מָעַל. הַדָּשׁ בִּשְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ מָעַל שֶׁהֶאָבָק שֶׁלָּהּ מוֹעִיל לַשָּׂדֶה וַהֲרֵי נֶהֱנָה בָּאָבָק וּפָגַם הַשָּׂדֶה. וְכֵן אִם חָרַשׁ שְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּדֵי לְהַעֲלוֹת אָבָק לְעֵשֶׂב שֶׁנָּתַן בָּהּ וְנָטַל הָעֵשֶׂב מָעַל. הַדָּר בִּמְעָרַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ בְּצֵל אִילָן אוֹ שׁוֹבָךְ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה לֹא מָעַל. וְכֵן הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בַּיִת בָּנוּי הַדָּר בּוֹ לֹא מָעַל. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים וּבָנָה בָּהֶן בַּיִת הַדָּר שָׁם מָעַל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

6

The prohibition against me'ilah applies to produce that grows on consecrated property.

What is implied? If one consecrated a field and it produced grass or one consecrated a tree and it produced fruit, the prohibition against me'ilah applies. If, however, one consecrated an empty cistern and afterwards, it became filled with water, a dungheap and it became filled with wastes, or a dovecote and it became filled with doves, since these are not the products of the consecrated articles, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply with regard to them. Similarly, one may not benefit - but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to - wastes and dung in a courtyard that was consecrated. What should be done with them? They should be sold and the proceeds given to the Temple treasury.

When a spring emerges in a consecrated field, it is forbidden to benefit from the water that emerges in the field, but one who derives benefit does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If the water emerges outside the field, it is permitted to benefit from it. When a willow grows in a consecrated field, it is forbidden to benefit from it, but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply.

The following rules apply when an ordinary tree is growing next to a consecrated field and its roots emerge in that field. If there are up to sixteen cubits between it and the consecrated field, it is forbidden to benefit from the roots in the field, but one who benefits from them does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If the tree was more than sixteen cubits away from the field, one who benefits from the roots violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

The converse applies when a consecrated tree is growing next to an ordinary field and its roots emerge in that field. If the roots emerge within sixteen cubits, the prohibition against me'ilah applies with regard to them. If they emerge more than sixteen cubits away, one should not benefit from the roots in the ordinary field, but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply with regard to them.

ו

גִּדּוּלֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. כֵּיצַד. הִקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֶה וְהוֹצִיאָה עֲשָׂבִים אִילָן וְעָשָׂה פֵּרוֹת מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַבּוֹר רֵיקָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַלֵּא מַיִם. הִקְדִּישׁ אַשְׁפָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַלֵּאת זֶבֶל. שׁוֹבָךְ וְנִתְמַלֵּא יוֹנִים. הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן גִּדּוּלֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. וְכֵן הַזֶּבֶל וְהַפֶּרֶשׁ שֶׁבַּחֲצַר הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין. וּמַה יַּעֲשׂוּ בָּהֶן יִמָּכְרוּ וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לַלִּשְׁכָּה. מַעְיָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹךְ שְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בְּמַיִם שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה לֹא מָעַל. יָצְאוּ הַמַּיִם חוּץ לַשָּׂדֶה מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן. עֲרָבָה הַגְּדֵלָה בִּשְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין. אִילָן שֶׁל הֶדְיוֹט הַסָּמוּךְ לִשְׂדֵה הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְשָׁרָשָׁיו יוֹצְאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה. אִם בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַד שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה הֲרֵי אוֹתָן הַשָּׁרָשִׁין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה אֲסוּרִין וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה מֵהֶן לֹא מָעַל. הָיָה הָאִילָן רָחוֹק יֶתֶר עַל שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה הַנֶּהֱנֶה בָּהֶן מָעַל. אִילָן שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ הַסָּמוּךְ לִשְׂדֵה הֶדְיוֹט וְשָׁרָשָׁיו יוֹצְאִין בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה אִם הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. הָיָה רָחוֹק יֶתֶר עַל שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה אוֹתָן הַשָּׁרָשִׁין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׂדֵה הֶדְיוֹט לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין:

7

When there is a nest in the top of a consecrated tree that a fowl built from wood and grass and the like, one should not benefit from the nest and the eggs in it together with the chicks that require their mother. One who derives benefit does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah.

ז

קֵן שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָן שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁבָּנָה אוֹתָן הָעוֹף מֵעֵצִים וַעֲשָׂבִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. כָּל הַקֵּן עִם הַבֵּיצִים שֶׁבּוֹ עִם הָאֶפְרוֹחִים הַצְּרִיכִין לְאִמָּן אֵין נֶהֱנִין בָּהֶן וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה לֹא מָעַל:

8

When one consecrates a forest, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it in its entirety, the trees and the nests at the tops of the trees or between them.

ח

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַיַּעַר מוֹעֲלִין בְּכֻלּוֹ בֵּין בָּאִילָנוֹת בֵּין בְּכָל קֵן שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָנוֹת אוֹ שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן:

9

When the Temple treasurers plane consecrated trees and cut them down, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to those small pieces of wood that were cut off when the trees were cut to size. The prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to the slivers, the sawdust, or to the nivia of the wood, i.e., a hard, round knot in the midst of the wood which resemble a wart, because it will not be useful for work.

ט

גִּזְבָּרִים שֶׁשָּׁפוּ עֲצֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְקָצְצוּ אוֹתָן מוֹעֲלִין בְּאוֹתָן הָעֵצִים הַקְּטַנִּים שֶׁחָתְכוּ מֵעֵת שֶׁקָּצְצוּ. אֲבָל אֵין מוֹעֲלִין לֹא בַּשִּׁפּוּי וְלֹא בַּנְּסֹרֶת וְלֹא בַּנְּבִיָּה שֶׁל עֵצִים וְהוּא הַגּוּף הַקָּשֶׁה הֶעָגל שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ הַדּוֹמֶה לְיַבֶּלֶת שֶׁלֹּא יִצְלַח לִמְלָאכָה:

10

When a person consecrates his servant, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to him, nor to his hair, even though his hair is fit to be cut off. The rationale is that the hair is still attached to the servant and as long as it is attached to him, it grows and increases in value.

י

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עַבְדּוֹ אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׂעָרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד לְהִגָּזֵז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לוֹ וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר הוֹלֵךְ וּמַשְׁבִּיחַ:

11

When a person sows produce that was consecrated, he should redeem it when he sows it. Nevertheless, even if he does not redeem it, the produce that grows from it is not consecrated and the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to it. If one derived benefit from other consecrated property, he may not pay the principal and an additional fifth from such produce. One is obligated to separate challah from bread made from such grain.

יא

הַזּוֹרֵעַ פֵּרוֹת הֶקְדֵּשׁ פּוֹדֶה אוֹתָן בִּשְׁעַת זִרְעָן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּדָה הֲרֵי הַגִּדּוּלִין חֻלִּין וְאֵין מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן וְאֵין מְשַׁלְּמִין מֵהֶן קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ וְחַיָּבִין בְּחַלָּה:

12

When water was placed on consecrated grape dregs for the first, second, and third times, it is forbidden to benefit from it, but one who benefits does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah. The fourth time, the mixture is permitted.

When does the above apply? When the dregs had been consecrated for the Temple's improvement. If they were consecrated for the altar, even from the fourth time onward, they are always forbidden.

יב

שְׁמָרִים שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנָּתַן עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם. רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בּוֹ וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה לֹא מָעַל. רְבִיעִי מֻתָּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת. אֲבָל קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ אַף מֵרְבִיעִי וְאֵילָךְ לְעוֹלָם אָסוּר:

13

When a person consecrates a hen for the altar, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it and its eggs. When a person consecrates a donkey for the altar, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it and its milk. When a person consecrates a dove for the improvement of the Temple, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to it and its eggs, as we explained.

יג

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ תַּרְנְגלֶת לַמִּזְבֵּחַ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ וּבְבֵיצָתָהּ. הִקְדִּישׁ חֲמוֹר לַמִּזְבֵּחַ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ וּבַחֲלָבָהּ. הִקְדִּישׁ תּוֹרִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן וּבְבֵיצָתָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

14

When the tunics of the priestly garments have worn out, the prohibition against me'ilah applies to them, as it does to other consecrated objects. If they are new, since it is permitted to benefit from them, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to them.

יד

כָּתְנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁבָּלוּ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן כִּשְׁאָר קָדָשִׁים. וְהַחֲדָשִׁים הוֹאִיל וְנִתְּנוּ לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן:

15

The following rules apply to articles consecrated by gentiles. If he consecrated them for the improvement of the Temple, the prohibition against me'ilah applies. If they were consecrated for the altar, the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply according to Scriptural Law, for with regard to the sacrifices, Leviticus 1:2 states: "Speak to the children of Israel." It is, however, forbidden to benefit from them according to Rabbinic Law.

טו

קָדְשֵׁי עַכּוּ''ם אִם לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת הִקְדִּישׁוּ מוֹעֲלִין בָּהֶן. וְאִם קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ הֵן אֵין בָּהֶן מְעִילָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת (ויקרא א ב) "דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל". אֲבָל אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

16

With regard to sound, appearance, and fragrance from a consecrated object, it is forbidden to benefit from them, but the prohibition against me'ilah does not apply.

When does the above apply? When one smelt the fragrance of the incense offering after its cloud ascended. If, however, he smelt the fragrance of the incense offering as its cloud ascends, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

טז

קוֹל וּמַרְאֶה וְרֵיחַ שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא נֶהֱנִין וְלֹא מוֹעֲלִין. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהֵרִיחַ בַּקְּטֹרֶת אַחַר שֶׁעָלְתָה הַתִּמֹּרֶת. אֲבָל אִם הֵרִיחַ בַּקְּטֹרֶת כְּשֶׁתַּעֲלֶה תִּמְרָתָהּ מָעַל:

Me`ilah - Chapter 6

1

There are different situations in which the prohibition against me'ilah applies. There are some articles from which a person benefits that are not ordinarily damageable, e.g., one who uses a pure golden utensil. There are other articles that are damageable, e.g., garments, and utensils made from silver, copper, iron, and the like.

When a person derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit from a consecrated substance that is not attached to the ground, if he benefits from an article that is not ordinarily damageable, e.g., he used a consecrated golden utensil, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah. If he benefits from an article that is damageable, e.g., he wore consecrated garments or chopped with a consecrated axe, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah until he causes a p'rutah's worth of damage to consecrated property, i.e., the article from which he benefited itself, with the intent to benefit from it even though it causes damage at that time.

If he derived a half a p'rutah of benefit and damaged a half a p'rutah or he derived a p'rutah of benefit and damaged a p'rutah's worth of another article, but did not benefit from what he damaged or did not damage the article from which he benefited, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah unless he derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit and causes a p'rutah's worth of damage to that article while deriving benefit from it.

What is implied? A person removed a patch from a consecrated garment and sewed it unto his garment and wore it, deriving a p'rutah's worth of benefit and causing a p'rutah's worth of damage to the garment from which he removed it, without damaging the patch at all. He does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah, because he derived benefit from one article and damaged another. We already explained, that when a person derives benefit and causes a colleague to derive benefit, the two can be combined to reach the minimum measure of a p'rutah's worth even if there is a long interval between them.

א

יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהָאָדָם נֶהֱנֶה בָּהֶן וְלֹא יִפָּגְמוּ כְּגוֹן הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּכְלִי זָהָב טָהוֹר. וְיֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁיִּפָּגְמוּ כְּגוֹן בְּגָדִים וּכְלֵי כֶּסֶף וּנְחשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻבָּר בַּקַּרְקַע אִם נֶהֱנֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ פְּגָם כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּכְלִי זָהָב שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ מָעַל. נֶהֱנֶה בְּדָבָר שֶׁנִּפְגַּם כְּגוֹן שֶׁלָּבַשׁ בִּגְדֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ בָּקַע בְּקוֹרְדוֹם לֹא מָעַל עַד שֶׁיִּפְגֹּם בַּהֶקְדֵּשׁ בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה בְּאוֹתוֹ דָּבָר עַצְמוֹ שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה בּוֹ וְיִתְכַּוֵּן לֵהָנוֹת וְיִפְגֹּם וְיֵהָנֶה כְּאַחַת. נֶהֱנָה בְּכַחֲצִי פְּרוּטָה וּפָגַם בְּכַחֲצִי פְּרוּטָה אוֹ שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וּפָגַם בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה בְּדָבָר אַחֵר וְלֹא נֶהֱנָה בְּמַה שֶּׁפָּגַם וְלֹא פָּגַם בְּמַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנָה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא מָעַל עַד שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וְיִפְגֹּם בְּאוֹתָהּ הֲנָיָה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה בַּדָּבָר עַצְמוֹ. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִתִּיר מַטְלִית מִבֶּגֶד הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּתְפָרָהּ בְּבִגְדוֹ וּלְבָשָׁהּ וְנֶהֱנָה בָּהּ בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וְהִפְסִיד בַּבֶּגֶד שֶׁהִתִּירָהּ מִמֶּנָּה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה וְלֹא הִפְסִיד בַּמַּטְלִית כְּלוּם הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא מָעַל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה בְּדָבָר אֶחָד וּפָגַם בְּדָבָר אַחֵר. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַנֶּהֱנֶה וּמְהַנֶּה חֲבֵרוֹ מִצְטָרֵף וַאֲפִלּוּ לִזְמַן מְרֻבֶּה:

2

When a person removes wool from unblemished animals consecrated as sacrifices of the highest order of sanctity, since he derived a p'rutah's worth of benefit, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah even though he did not damage the animals. The animals are comparable to a cup of gold, for the removal of their wool does not prevent them from being offered. If, however, sacrificial animals incurred a physical blemish, since they are designated to be sold and being shorn causes their worth to decrease, the prohibition against me'ilah applies. Nevertheless, one does not violate that prohibition unless he derives a p'rutah's worth of benefit and causes that amount of damage.

If one removes wool from a sacrificial animal after it dies, since he derived benefit, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah, for there is no conception of reducing an animal's value once it has died. In this instance, this prohibition against me'ilah is of Rabbinic origin, as we explained.

ב

קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים הַתְּמִימִים שֶׁתָּלַשׁ מִצִּמְרָן. כֵּיוָן שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה בִּפְרוּטָה מָעַל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּגַם. שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן דּוֹמִים לְכוֹס שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִפְגָּם שֶׁאֵין תְּלִישַׁת הַצֶּמֶר פּוֹסֶלֶת אוֹתָן מִלִּקָּרֵב. אֲבָל אִם נָפַל בָּהֶן מוּם הוֹאִיל וְלִמְכִירָה עוֹמְדִים וְהַגִּזָּה פּוֹגֶמֶת דְּמֵיהֶן לֹא מָעַל עַד שֶׁיֵּהָנֶה וְיִפְגֹּם בִּפְרוּטָה. תָּלַשׁ מֵהֶן אַחַר שֶׁמֵּתוּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה מָעַל שֶׁאֵין פְּגָם לְמֵתָה. וּמְעִילָה זוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

When a person misappropriates articles consecrated for the improvement of the Temple unintentionally, since he did not act intentionally, the consecrated article loses its holiness. Anyone who benefits from it afterwards is not liable. If one intentionally misappropriates a consecrated article, since he is not obligated to bring a sacrifice to atone for me'ilah, the consecrated article does not lose its holiness. Instead, it remains in its consecrated state. Hence, if another person comes and benefits from it unintentionally, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

When does the above apply? When one misappropriated the article while it was consecrated, used it as if it was an ordinary article, and transferred ownership to another person. If, however, one derived benefit from it and damaged it, but did not transfer ownership to another person, there is the possibility of another person violating the prohibition against me'ilah with it, even though it has already been violated previously.

ג

הַמּוֹעֵל בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת כֵּיוָן שֶׁמָּעַל בִּשְׁגָגָה נִתְחַלֵּל הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְזֶה שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה אַחֲרָיו פָּטוּר. מָעַל בְּזָדוֹן הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּקָרְבַּן מְעִילָה לֹא נִתְחַלֵּל הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא בַּהֲוָיָתוֹ וְאִם בָּא אַחֵר וְנֶהֱנָה בּוֹ בִּשְׁגָגָה מָעַל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁמָּעַל בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּתוֹרַת חֻלִּין וְהִקְנָהוּ לְאַחֵר. אֲבָל אִם נֶהֱנָה בּוֹ וּפְגָמוֹ וְלֹא הִקְנָה לְאַחֵר יֵשׁ בּוֹ מוֹעֵל אַחַר מוֹעֵל:

4

The concept of a second person violating the prohibition against me'ilah with a consecrated article after someone has already done so applies only with regard to an animal and a utensil.

What is implied? One chopped with an axe that was consecrated, derived a p'rutah's worth of benefit, and damaged the axe. Then his colleague came, chopped with it, derived benefit, and damaged the axe; both violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If he gave it to his colleague as a present, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but his colleague does not.

If one drank from a golden goblet and derived a p'rutah's worth of benefit, his colleague came, drank, and derived benefit, and then another colleague came, drank, and derived benefit, they all violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If he took the goblet and gave it to his colleague as a present or sold it to him, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but his colleague does not.

If one rode on a donkey, derived a p'rutah's worth of benefit, and damaged the donkey, his colleague rode on it, derived benefit, and damaged it, and then another colleague came, rode on it, derived benefit, and damaged it, they all violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If he gave it to his colleague as a present, sold it to him, or rented it to him, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but his colleague does not.

Similarly, if he lends out a consecrated axe, he is considered to have misappropriated the amount of satisfaction he received from having lent out the axe. His colleague is permitted to chop with it even as an initial preference. Similar laws apply with regard to an animal.

ד

וְאֵין מוֹעֵל אַחַר מוֹעֵל בְּמֻקְדָּשִׁים. אֶלָּא בִּבְהֵמָה וּכְלֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁ בִּלְבַד. כֵּיצַד. בָּקַע בְּקוֹרְדוֹם שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְנֶהֱנָה בִּפְרוּטָה וּפָגַם וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וּבָקַע בּוֹ וְנֶהֱנָה וּפָגַם כֻּלָּם מָעֲלוּ. נָטַל הַקּוֹרְדוֹם וּנְתָנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ הוּא מָעַל אֲבָל חֲבֵרוֹ לֹא מָעַל. שָׁתָה בְּכוֹס שֶׁל זָהָב וְנֶהֱנָה בִּפְרוּטָה וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְשָׁתָה וְנֶהֱנָה וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְשָׁתָה וְנֶהֱנָה כֻּלָּם מָעֲלוּ. נָטַל הַכּוֹס וּנְתָנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ מַתָּנָה אוֹ מְכָרוֹ הוּא מָעַל וַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא מָעַל. רָכַב עַל גַּבֵּי הַחֲמוֹר וְנֶהֱנָה בִּפְרוּטָה וּפָגַם וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְרָכַב עָלָיו וְנֶהֱנָה וּפָגַם וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְרָכַב עָלָיו וְנֶהֱנָה וּפָגַם. כֻּלָּם מָעֲלוּ. נָתַן הַחֲמוֹר לַחֲבֵרוֹ מַתָּנָה אוֹ מְכָרוֹ אוֹ הִשְׂכִּירוֹ הוּא מָעַל וַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא מָעַל. וְכֵן הַמַּשְׁאִיל קַרְדֹּם שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ הוּא מָעַל לְפִי טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה שֶׁבּוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ מֻתָּר לִבְקֹעַ בּוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִבְהֵמָה:

5

These laws do not apply to an animal consecrated to the altar. Instead, there is the possibility for several individuals to violate the prohibition against me'ilah, one after the other.

What is implied? One removed wool from an animal that is a sin-offering, his colleague came and removed wool, and a third colleague came and removed wool, they all violate the prohibition against me'ilah. Similarly, if one gave it to a colleague and the colleague gave it to a third individual, they all violate the prohibition against me'ilah. It appears to me that the laws applying to meal-offerings, offerings of fowl, libations, and sacrificial utensils are the same as those applying to an animal to be offered as a sacrifice, for in all these instance, the very physical person of the entity is consecrated.

ה

בֶּהֱמַת קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ אֵינָהּ כֵּן אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בָּהּ מוֹעֵל אַחַר מוֹעֵל עַד כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים. כֵּיצַד. תָּלַשׁ מִן הַחַטָּאת וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְתָלַשׁ וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְתָלַשׁ כֻּלָּן מָעֲלוּ. וְכֵן אִם נְתָנָהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ כֻּלָּן מָעֲלוּ. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁדִּין הַמְּנָחוֹת וְהָעוֹפוֹת וְהַנְּסָכִים וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת כְּדִין הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁכֻּלָּן קְדֻשַּׁת הַגּוּף הֵן:

6

When an animal consecrated as a sacrifice of the most sacred order becomes blemished and it is fit to be redeemed, it is considered like an entity consecrated for the improvement of the Temple, whose worth is consecrated. If one gave it to a colleague and the colleague gave it to a third individual, only the first violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ו

בֶּהֱמַת קָדְשֵׁי הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ מוּם הוֹאִיל וְהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לְפִדְיוֹן הֲרֵי הוּא כְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת שֶׁהִיא קְדֻשַּׁת דָּמִים. וְאִם נְתָנָהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד מָעַל:

7

Our Sages declared that one who takes a consecrated stone or beam intentionally and gives it to a colleague, they both violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If he gives it to the treasurer in whose possession the article was, that person violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but the treasurer does not.

It appears to me that these concepts were stated only with regard to a person who willfully misappropriates a consecrated object, in which instance the holiness of the consecrated article does not depart.

When a person takes a consecrated p'rutah with the conception that it is his own, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah until he uses it for his own desires or gives it as a present. If he gives it to his colleague as a present, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but his colleague does not. For, with regard to other consecrated articles, one person violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but the one following him does not, as we explained. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ז

אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁהַנּוֹטֵל אֶבֶן אוֹ קוֹרָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּנְתָנָהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם מָעֲלוּ. וְאִם נְתָנָהּ לְזֶה הַגִּזְבָּר שֶׁהָיְתָה תַּחַת יָדוֹ הוּא מָעַל וְהַגִּזְבָּר לֹא מָעַל. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים אֶלָּא בְּמוֹעֵל בְּזָדוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְחַלֵּל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. הַנּוֹטֵל פְּרוּטָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל דַּעַת שֶׁהִיא שֶׁלּוֹ לֹא מָעַל עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אוֹתָהּ בַּחֲפָצָיו אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן אוֹתָהּ בְּמַתָּנָה. נְתָנָהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ הוּא מָעַל וַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא מָעַל. שֶׁאֵין מוֹעֵל אַחַר מוֹעֵל בִּשְׁאָר הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

8

If he takes a consecrated stone or beam, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah, because he has not benefited as of yet. If he builds it into his home, he violates that prohibition. If he places it on top of a window in the room without attaching it, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah until he dwells under it for a p'rutah's worth of benefit, because merely placing it there is not considered as discernible benefit.

ח

נָטַל אֶבֶן אוֹ קוֹרָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ לֹא מָעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נֶהֱנָה עֲדַיִן. בָּנָה אוֹתָהּ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ מָעַל. נְתָנָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי חַלּוֹן שֶׁבַּתִּקְרָה וְלֹא חִבְּרָהּ לֹא מָעַל עַד שֶׁיָּדוּר תַּחְתֶּיהָ בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה שֶׁאֵין זוֹ הֲנָיָה הַנִּכֶּרֶת:

9

If one took a consecrated p'rutah gave it to a bath attendant, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah even though he has not bathed yet, for he benefits in that he could bathe whenever he desires. Similarly, if he gives it to another type of craftsman as payment for his services, he violates the prohibition even though the craftsman has not performed any work.

ט

נָטַל פְּרוּטָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּנְתָנָהּ לְבַלָּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רָחַץ מָעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶהֱנָה בִּהְיוֹתוֹ רוֹחֵץ בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְכֵן אִם נְתָנָהּ לְאֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי אֻמָּנֻיּוֹת מָעַל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא עָשׂוּ מְלַאכְתּוֹ:

10

The following rules apply if one purchased an article with a consecrated p'rutah, but did not draw the article after him. If he purchased it from a gentile, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah; if, from a Jew, he does not violate that prohibition.

י

קָנָה בָּהּ חֵפֶץ וְלֹא מָשַׁךְ אִם מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם מָעַל. וְאִם מִן יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא מָעַל:

11

When a person spends consecrated money for his own needs with the understanding that they are ordinary funds, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah even though he did not spend the money for ordinary matters.

What is implied? A person who brings his sin-offering, guilt-offering, or Paschal sacrifice from consecrated funds or a person who is lacking atonement who brings his atonement offering from consecrated funds violates the prohibition against me'ilah. None of the above violate the prohibition until the blood is cast on the altar. Therefore one who brings meal-offerings, libations, or the bread for a thanksgiving offering does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah even though he violates a transgression. The rationale is that these offerings do not involve casting blood on the altar to atone for the person.

יא

הַמּוֹצִיא מְעוֹת הֶקְדֵּשׁ בִּצְרָכָיו עַל דַּעַת שֶׁהֵן חֻלִּין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיאָן בְּדִבְרֵי חֹל מָעַל. כֵּיצַד. הַמֵּבִיא חַטָּאתוֹ וַאֲשָׁמוֹ וּפִסְחוֹ מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְכֵן מְחֻסַּר כַּפָּרָה שֶׁהֵבִיא כַּפָּרָתוֹ מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מָעַל. וְכֻלָּם אֵין מוֹעֲלִין עַד שֶׁיִּזָּרֵק הַדָּם. לְפִיכָךְ הַמֵּבִיא מְנָחוֹת וּנְסָכִים וְלֶחֶם תּוֹדָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה לֹא מָעַל שֶׁאֵין כָּאן זְרִיקַת דָּם לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו:

12

If a person pays his half-shekel from consecrated funds, when money is taken from the collection of funds and even one animal is purchased and its blood is cast on the altar, the person who paid with the half-shekel violates the prohibition against me'ilah, because he has a portion in the animal whose blood was cast.

יב

נָתַן שִׁקְלוֹ מִמְּעוֹת הֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁיִּתְרְמוּ הַתְּרוּמָה וְיִקְנוּ מִמֶּנָּה אֲפִלּוּ בְּהֵמָה אַחַת וְיִזָּרֵק דָּמָהּ יִמְעל הַשּׁוֹקֵל. שֶׁהֲרֵי חָלְקוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּזְרַק דָּמָהּ:

13

When a person sets aside his half-shekel and then uses it for his personal needs both he and his colleague violate the prohibition against me'ilah.

The following laws apply when one gives a half-shekel to a colleague to donate on the principal's behalf and the agent donates it on his own behalf. If the money for the sacrifices was already set aside, the agent who made the donation violates the prohibition against me'ilah, for the priest who sets aside the money takes also on behalf of the money that will be collected in the future, as we explained in Hilchot Shekalim. Thus it is considered as if this shekel already reached the treasury. Therefore the agent violates the prohibition against me'ilah. If the money was not taken yet, he does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah.

The prohibition against me'ilah does not apply to money that remains in the chamber.

יג

הַמַּפְרִישׁ שִׁקְלוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּשְׁאָר צְרָכָיו. בֵּין הוּא בֵּין חֲבֵרוֹ מָעַל. נְתָנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ לְשָׁקְלוֹ עַל יָדוֹ הָלַךְ וּשְׁקָלוֹ עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ אִם כְּבָר נִתְרְמָה הַתְּרוּמָה מָעַל הַשּׁוֹקֵל שֶׁהַתּוֹרֵם תוֹרֵם עַל הֶעָתִיד לְהִגָּבוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּשְׁקָלִים וּכְאִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ שֶׁקֶל זֶה לַלִּשְׁכָּה וּלְפִיכָךְ מָעַל. וְאִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְרְמָה תְּרוּמָה לֹא מָעַל. וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בִּשְׁיָרֵי הַלִּשְׁכָּה:

Me`ilah - Chapter 7

1

The following rules apply when a person inadvertently took a consecrated article or consecrated money and gave it to an agent to use as ordinary property or money. If the agent carries out the mission with which he is charged, the principal is considered to have violated the prohibition against me'ilah. If the agent did not execute the agency, but instead acted on his own initiative, the agent is the one who violates the prohibition against me'ilah. What is implied? A person told his agent: "Give that meat to the guests," and instead, the agents gave them bread, or he told him to give them bread and he gave them meat.

If one told his agent, "Bring me from the window," and he brought him from the closet or he told him to bring from the closet and he brought from the window, the agent violates the prohibition against me'ilah. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

If the agent went and brought from the window as instructed, even though the principal told him: "In my heart, I wanted you to bring from the closet," the principal violates the prohibition against me'ilah, for the agent carried out the mission as he charged him. We follow the principle: "Matters in one's heart are not of consequence."

Even if the agent was a deafmute, a mentally or emotionally incompetent person, or a minor to whom the laws of agency do not apply, if they carry out the principal's instructions, the principal violates the prohibition against me'ilah. If they do not carry out his instructions, the principal is exempt.

If one tells his agent: "Give each one of the guests a piece of meat" and the agent told them: "Take two at a time," the principal violates the prohibition against me'ilah, because his instructions were carried out. The agent is exempt, because he is merely adding to the principal's agency. He is not eradicating it. If, however, the agent tells the guests: "Take two at a time on my responsibility," both he and the principal violate the prohibition against me'ilah. If the guests take three at a time, they also violate the prohibition against me'ilah, because each one of the individuals involved had performed the agency with which they were charged and added a further matter on his own initiative. Thus the other is also liable, because his instructions were carried out and the agency was not eradicated. And he is liable because of what he added on his own initiative.

א

מִי שֶׁשָּׁגַג וְלָקַח הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ מְעוֹת הֶקְדֵּשׁ וּנְתָנוֹ לְשָׁלִיחַ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּתוֹרַת חֻלִּין. אִם עָשָׂה הַשָּׁלִיחַ שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ הוּא שֶׁמָּעַל. וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ אֶלָּא עָשָׂה הַשָּׁלִיחַ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ הַשָּׁלִיחַ הוּא שֶׁמָּעַל. כֵּיצַד. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁאָמַר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ תֵּן (לִי) מֵאוֹתוֹ בָּשָׂר לָאוֹרְחִין הָלַךְ וְנָתַן לָהֶן כִּכָּר. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לָהֶן כִּכָּר וְנָתַן לָהֶן בָּשָׂר. אָמַר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ הָבֵא לִי מִן הַחַלּוֹן וְהֵבִיא לוֹ מִן הַמִּגְדָּל. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הָבֵא מִן הַמִּגְדָּל וְהֵבִיא לוֹ מִן הַחַלּוֹן. הַשָּׁלִיחַ מָעַל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. הָלַךְ הַשָּׁלִיחַ וְהֵבִיא מִן הַחַלּוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ לֹא הָיָה בְּלִבִּי שֶׁיָּבִיא אֶלָּא מִן הַמִּגְדָּל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מָעַל. שֶׁהֲרֵי עָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּת מַאֲמָרוֹ וּדְבָרִים שֶׁבַּלֵּב אֵינָן דְּבָרִים. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַשָּׁלִיחַ חֵרֵשׁ אוֹ שׁוֹטֶה אוֹ קָטָן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן שְׁלִיחוּת אִם עָשָׂה כְּמַאֲמָרוֹ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מָעַל וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ בַּעַל הַבַּיִת פָּטוּר. אָמַר לִשְׁלוּחוֹ תֵּן לָאוֹרְחִין חֲתִיכָה חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר הָלַךְ הַשָּׁלִיחַ וְאָמַר לָהֶן טלוּ שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מָעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה דְּבָרוֹ וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף עַל שְׁלִיחוּת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְלֹא עָקַר הַשְּׁלִיחוּת. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לָהֶם הַשָּׁלִיחַ טלוּ שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם מִדַּעְתִּי שְׁנֵיהֶן מָעֲלוּ. נָטְלוּ הָאוֹרְחִים שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁלֹשׁ אַף הָאוֹרְחִין מָעֲלוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן עָשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּת חֲבֵרוֹ וְהוֹסִיף מִדַּעְתּוֹ. נִמְצָא חֲבֵרוֹ חַיָּב לְפִי שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ דְּבָרָיו וְלֹא נֶעֶקְרָה הַשְּׁלִיחוּת וְהוּא חַיָּב עַל זֶה שֶׁהוֹסִיף מִדַּעְתּוֹ:

2

When does the above apply? When the pieces of meat were consecrated for the improvement of the Temple. If they were meat from a burnt-offering or the like, only the person who partakes of them violates the prohibition against me'ilah. For he is obligated in another prohibition aside from me'ilah and, with regard to the entire Torah, there is no concept of a prohibition violated through agency except in the case of me'ilah alone and there, provided there is no other prohibition involved with it.

ב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ הַחֲתִיכוֹת מִקָּדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ בְּשַׂר עוֹלָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ לֹא מָעַל אֶלָּא הָאוֹכֵל בִּלְבַד שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב בְּאִסּוּר אַחֵר יֶתֶר עַל הַמְּעִילָה. וּבְכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ אֵין שָׁלִיחַ לִדְבַר עֲבֵרָה אֶלָּא בִּמְעִילָה לְבַדָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעָרֵב עִמָּהּ אִסּוּר אַחֵר:

3

When a person gives a p'rutah of consecrated funds to an agent and tells him: "With half, purchase lamps for me and with half, wicks," and the agent used the entire amount for lamps or for wicks, they are both exempt. This law also applies when he told him to use the entire amount for lamps or for wicks and he used half to purchase lamps and half to purchase wicks.

The rationale is that the principal does not violate the prohibition against me'ilah, because his agency was not completed with regard to a p'rutah's worth of value. The agent does not violate that prohibition, because he did not eradicate his agency for a p'rutah's worth.

If, however, one told an agent: "For half a p'rutah, bring me lamps from this-and-this place and for the other half, bring me wicks from that-and-that place," and the agent brought the lamps from the place mentioned for the wicks and the wicks from the place mentioned for the lamps, the agent violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

ג

הַנּוֹתֵן פְּרוּטַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ לִשְׁלוּחוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ הָבֵא לִי בְּחֶצְיָהּ נֵרוֹת וּבְחֶצְיָהּ פְּתִילוֹת. הָלַךְ וְהֵבִיא לוֹ בְּכֻלָּהּ נֵרוֹת אוֹ בְּכֻלָּהּ פְּתִילוֹת. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הָבֵא לִי בְּכֻלָּהּ נֵרוֹת אוֹ בְּכֻלָּהּ פְּתִילוֹת הָלַךְ וְהֵבִיא בְּחֶצְיָהּ נֵרוֹת וּבְחֶצְיָהּ פְּתִילוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִים. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לֹא מָעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נַעֲשָׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ בִּפְרוּטָה. וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ לֹא מָעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָקַר שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ בִּפְרוּטָה. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ הָבֵא לִי בְּחֶצְיָהּ נֵרוֹת מִמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי וּבְחֶצְיָהּ פְּתִילוֹת מִמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי וְהָלַךְ וְהֵבִיא נֵרוֹת מִמְּקוֹם פְּתִילוֹת וּפְתִילוֹת מִמְּקוֹם נֵרוֹת הַשָּׁלִיחַ מָעַל:

4

If a principal gave his agent two consecrated p'rutot and told him: "Bring me an esrog" and the agent went and brought him an esrog for a p'rutah and a pomegranate for a p'rutah, the agent violates the prohibition against me'ilah, but the principal is exempt. The rationale is that the principal sent the agent to purchase an esrog worth two p'rutot for him. Therefore if the esrog which the agent brought the principal that cost one p'rutah is worth two p'rutot, they both violate the prohibition against me'ilah.

ד

נָתַן לוֹ שְׁתֵּי פְּרוּטוֹת וְאָמַר לוֹ הָבֵא לִי אֶתְרוֹג וְהָלַךְ וְהֵבִיא לוֹ בִּפְרוּטָה אֶתְרוֹג וּבִפְרוּטָה רִמּוֹן. הַשָּׁלִיחַ מָעַל וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת פָּטוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁלָחוֹ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ אֶתְרוֹג שֶׁשָּׁוֶה שְׁתֵּי פְּרוּטוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה הָאֶתְרוֹג שֶׁהֵבִיא לוֹ בִּפְרוּטָה אַחַת שָׁוֶה שְׁתֵּי פְּרוּטוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם מָעֲלוּ:

5

When a person sent a p'rutah via an agent to purchase a particular article and then, before it reached the domain of the storekeeper, the principal remembered that the p'rutah is consecrated, the agent violates the prohibition against me'ilah, because he is acting unknowingly, while the principal has already remembered. As we explained, a person who acts knowingly is not liable for a sacrifice to atone for me'ilah.

If the agent also remembered and was conscious that the money was consecrated before it reached the storekeeper, they are both exempt from a sacrifice to atone for me'ilah and the storekeeper is liable when he uses that p'rutah which became mixed with his money, for he is acting unknowingly.

If the storekeeper was informed that the p'rutah he was given was consecrated, they are all exempt and the purchase is completed, with the article becoming consecrated.

ה

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ פְּרוּטָה בְּיַד שְׁלוּחוֹ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ בָּהּ חֵפֶץ וְנִזְכַּר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהִיא הֶקְדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ לְיַד הַחֶנְוָנִי הַשָּׁלִיחַ מָעַל שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹגֵג וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת כְּבָר נִזְכַּר וְאֵין הַמֵּזִיד חַיָּב בְּקָרְבַּן מְעִילָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. נִזְכַּר אַף הַשָּׁלִיחַ וְיָדַע שֶׁהִיא הֶקְדֵּשׁ קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ לַחֶנְוָנִי שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִים מִקָּרְבַּן מְעִילָה וְהַחֶנְוָנִי חַיָּב כְּשֶׁיּוֹצִיא אוֹתָהּ פְּרוּטָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בִּמְעוֹתָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא שׁוֹגֵג. הוֹדִיעוּ לְחֶנְוָנִי שֶׁפְּרוּטָה שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ הֶקְדֵּשׁ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן פְּטוּרִין וְנִתְפַּס הַמִּקָּח לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ:

6

What should be done in order to preclude the storekeeper from sinning so he will be permitted to use all the money he received? One should take a non-consecrated p'rutah or any non-consecrated utensil and say: "Wherever the consecrated p'rutah is its holiness should be transferred to this." The p'rutah or the utensil become consecrated and the storekeeper is permitted to use all the money he received.

Similarly, if a consecrated p'rutah become intermingled with all the money in a purse or one said: "A p'rutah in this purse is consecrated," he should transfer its holiness and afterwards, he may use all the coins in the purse.If he used coins from the purse without transferring the holiness of the consecrated coin, he does not definitely violate the prohibition against me'ilah until he used all the coins in the purse.

ו

וְכֵיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֵי לְהַצִּיל הַחֶנְוָנִי מִן הַחֵטְא עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַמָּעוֹת. נוֹטֵל פְּרוּטָה שֶׁל חֻלִּין אוֹ כְּלִי כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְאוֹמֵר פְּרוּטָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהִיא מְחֻלֶּלֶת עַל זֶה. וְתֵעָשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ פְּרוּטָה אוֹ הַכְּלִי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְיֻתַּר הַחֶנְוָנִי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַמָּעוֹת. וְכֵן פְּרוּטָה שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּכָל הַכִּיס אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר פְּרוּטָה בְּכִיס זֶה הֶקְדֵּשׁ. מְחַלֵּל אוֹתָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּכִּיס. וְאִם הוֹצִיא וְלֹא חִלֵּל לֹא מָעַל עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אֶת כָּל הַכִּיס:

7

If a person said: "One of my purses is consecrated" or "One of my oxen is consecrated," the prohibition against me'ilah applies to all of them and to some of them. What should he do? He should bring the largest of the purses or the oxen and say: "If this is consecrated, it should remain consecrated. If not, wherever the consecrated one is, its holiness should be transferred to this one." He may then use the smaller ones.

ז

אָמַר כִּיס מִכִּיסַי הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְשׁוֹר מִשְּׁוָרַי הֶקְדֵּשׁ. מוֹעֲלִין בְּכֻלָּן וּמוֹעֲלִין בְּמִקְצָתָן. כֵּיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. מֵבִיא אֶת הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶם וְאוֹמֵר אִם הֶקְדֵּשׁ הוּא הֲרֵי הוּא הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאִם לָאו הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מְחֻלָּל עַל זֶה. וִיהַנֶּה בַּקָּטָן:

8

When a person misappropriates less than a p'rutah's worth of consecrated property, whether intentionally or unintentionally, he must make restitution for the principal, but he need not pay an additional fifth or bring a sacrifice. It appears to me that he is not liable for lashes for misappropriating less than a p'rutah's worth if he acted intentionally.

ח

הַמּוֹעֵל בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה בֵּין בְּזָדוֹן בֵּין בִּשְׁגָגָה מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב חֹמֶשׁ וְלֹא קָרְבָּן. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה אִם הָיָה מֵזִיד:

9

When a person entrusts consecrated money to a homeowner and the homeowner uses them and spends them, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah. The rationale is that he does not have permission to use these fundsand the owner did not grant him license to.

ט

הַמַּפְקִיד מָעוֹת אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְנִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן וְהוֹצִיא. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מָעַל. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן וּבַעַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן לֹא הִרְשָׁהוּ:

10

Different rules apply if he entrusted them to a money-changer or a storekeeper and they were not sealed or tied close with an unusual knot. In these situations, since he is permitted to use them according to law, if he spent them, they are both exempt. The owner of the entrusted article is exempt because he did not tell the storekeeper or the money-changer to use them. And the store-keeper is exempt, because it is as if he used them with permission since they were not tied closed with an unusual knot or sealed.

י

הִפְקִידָן אֵצֶל שֻׁלְחָנִי אוֹ חֶנְוָנִי וְלֹא הָיוּ חֲתוּמִין וְלֹא קְשׁוּרִין קֶשֶׁר מְשֻׁנֶּה הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ לוֹ רְשׁוּת מִן הַדִּין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן אִם הוֹצִיאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּטוּרִין. בַּעַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן פָּטוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אָמַר לוֹ הִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן. וְהַחֶנְוָנִי פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן קְשׁוּרִין קֶשֶׁר מְשֻׁנֶּה וְלֹא חֲתוּמִין וּכְאִלּוּ הִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּרְשׁוּת:

11

When a woman brought consecrated money to her husband's domainor her testator consecrated property and then died and the consecrated property fell to her as an inheritance, when her husband spends the money on his personal needs, he violates the prohibition against me'ilah.

יא

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה מָעוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ לְבַעְלָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ מוֹרִישָׁהּ וּמֵת וְנָפְלוּ לָהּ הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת בִּירֻשָּׁה. לִכְשֶׁיּוֹצִיא הַבַּעַל הַמָּעוֹת בַּחֲפָצָיו יִמְעל:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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