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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 4, Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 5, Me`ilah - Perek 1

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Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 4

1

The order of all the practices carried out on this day is the following: At midnight, the lottery is held for the removal of the ashes of the altar. The wood for the altar is arranged and the ashes are removed from the altar as is done each day according to the order we explained until they reach the slaughter of the continuous offering.

When they reach the slaughter of the continuous offering, a linen sheet is spread out between the High Priest and the people. Why is linen used? So that all will realize that the special service of the day is performed in linen garments. The High Priest removes his ordinary garments, immerses himself in the mikveh, puts on his golden garments, and sanctifies his hands and feet. He slits the majority of the two signs for kosher slaughter on the animal sacrificed as the continuous offering, but allows another person to complete the slaughter. He receives the blood and casts it on the altar as is commanded.

Afterwards, he enters the Temple Sanctuary and offers the morning incense offering and lights the lamps of the Menorah. He offers the limbs of the continuous offering and the chavitin offering on the altar's pyre and pours the libations according to the order in which the continuous offering is brought every day as we explained. After the continuous offering, he offers the bull and the seven sheep of the additional offering of the day.

Afterwards, he sanctifies his hands and feet and removes his golden garments. He immerses himself, puts on his white garments, and sanctifies his hands and feet. He approaches his bull. The bull was standing between the Entrance Hall and the altar with its head to the south, but facing the west. The High Priest would stand to the east and face the west. He would place his two hands on the head of the bull and recite the confessional. He would say: "I beseech You, O God. I have sinned, transgressed, and committed iniquity, both I and my household. I beseech You, O God, atone for the sins, transgressions, and iniquities that I and my household have committed, as it is written in the Torah of Moses Your servant Leviticus 16:30: 'For on that day, he shall atone for you to purify yourselves for all their sins, before God you shall be purified.'

Afterwards, he performs the lottery for the two goats. He ties a crimson cord on the head of the goat to be sent to Azazel and positions it in the direction where it will be sent and ties such a cord on the goat to be slaughtered, hanging it over the place where it will be slaughtered. He approaches his bull a second time and places both his hands on its head and recites a second confessional. He would say: "I beseech You, O God. I have sinned, transgressed, and committed iniquity, I, my household, and the descendants of Aaron, Your holy nation. I beseech You, O God, atone for the sins, transgressions, and iniquities that I, my household, and the descendants of Aaron, Your holy nation, have committed, as it is written in the Torah of Moses Your servant Leviticus 16:30: 'For on that day.... '

Afterwards, he slaughters the bull and receives its blood. He gives it to another priest to stir so that it will not coagulate. He places it on the fourth projection outside the Temple Building. He takes the fire pan and uses it to remove burning coals from the altar from those close to the western side, for ibid.:12 speaks of taking coals "from the altar before God." He places it on the projection in the Temple Courtyard. The kaf is taken out for him and a container filled with incense that is extremely fine. He would take a full handful of incense. The handfuls of incense should not be pressed closely to his hand, nor piled up upon it, but rather overlapping it slightly. A High Priest with large hands should take large handfuls; one with small hands, smaller handfuls. He should place the incense in the kaf.

We already explained, that carrying a sacrificial substance in one's left hand disqualifies it with regard to the blood of the sacrificial animals and other services. Hence, it would be appropriate that he should carry the firepan in his left hand and the kaf with the incense in his right hand. Nevertheless, because of the weight of the firepan - and because it is hot - he would not be able to carry it with his left hand until he reached the Holy Ark. Therefore he should carry the firepan in his right hand and the kaf with the incense in his left.

He proceeds through the Sanctuary until he reaches the Holy of Holies. He finds the Parochet folded over. He proceeds into the Holy of Holies until he reaches the Holy Ark. When he reaches the ark, he places the firepan down between the two staves. In the Second Temple, when there was no ark, he would place it on the Foundation Stone. He would hold the edge of the kaf with his fingertips or with his teeth and push the incense with his thumb into his hand until he has a full handful as before. This was one of the difficult tasks in the Temple.

He would pile the incense over the coals with his hands on the inner portion of the firepan so that the incense would be close to the Ark and far from his face so that he would not be burnt. He waits there until the entire chamber fills up with smoke and then departs.

He walks backwards little by little with his face to the Holy of Holies and his back to the Sanctuary until he departs from within the parochet. He recites a short prayer in the Sanctuary so as not to scare the people, lest they say: "He died in the Sanctuary." He would pray in this manner: "May it be Your will, God, our Lord, that if this year was to be arid, it should be rainy. May the sovereignty not depart from the House of Judah. May Your nation Israel not be in need of sustenance. And may You not accept the prayers of wayfarers."

א

סֵדֶר כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים שֶׁבְּיוֹם זֶה כָּךְ הוּא. כַּחֲצוֹת הַלַּיְלָה מְפִיסִין לִתְרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן. וּמְסַדְּרִין אֶת הַמַּעֲרָכָה וּמְדַשְּׁנִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּכָל יוֹם עַל הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ לִשְׁחִיטַת הַתָּמִיד. כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ לִשְׁחֹט אֶת הַתָּמִיד פּוֹרְסִין סָדִין שֶׁל בּוּץ בֵּין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּבֵין הָעָם. וְלָמָּה שֶׁל בּוּץ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּכִּיר שֶׁעֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם בְּבִגְדֵי בּוּץ. וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי חֹל וְטוֹבֵל וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וְשׁוֹחֵט בְּתָמִיד רֹב שְׁנַיִם וּמַנִּיחַ אַחֵר לִגְמֹר הַשְּׁחִיטָה. וּמְקַבֵּל הַדָּם וְזוֹרְקוֹ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּמִצְוָתוֹ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָס לַהֵיכָל וּמַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל שַׁחַר וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת. וּמַקְטִיר אֵיבְרֵי הַתָּמִיד וְהַחֲבִיתִין וְהַנְּסָכִים כְּכָל סֵדֶר הַתָּמִיד שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאַחַר הַתָּמִיד מַקְרִיב הַפָּר וְשִׁבְעַת הַכְּבָשִׂים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב. וְטוֹבֵל וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי לָבָן וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּבָא לוֹ אֵצֶל פָּרוֹ. וּפָרוֹ הָיָה עוֹמֵד בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ רֹאשׁוֹ לַדָּרוֹם וּפָנָיו לַמַּעֲרָב וְהַכֹּהֵן עוֹמֵד בַּמִּזְרָח וּפָנָיו לַמַּעֲרָב. וְסוֹמֵךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וּמִתְוַדֶּה. וְכָךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם חָטָאתִי עָוִיתִי פָּשַׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם כַּפֵּר נָא לַחֲטָאִים וְלַעֲוֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים שֶׁחָטָאתִי וְשֶׁעָוִיתִי וְשֶׁפָּשַׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ לֵאמֹר (ויקרא טז ל) "כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי ה' תִּטְהָרוּ". וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַגְרִיל עַל שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִים. וְקוֹשֵׁר לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית בְּרֹאשׁ הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וּמַעֲמִידוֹ כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית שִׁלּוּחוֹ וְלַנִּשְׁחָט כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית שְׁחִיטָתוֹ. וּבָא לוֹ אֵצֶל פָּרוֹ שְׁנִיָּה וְסוֹמֵךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּמִתְוַדֶּה וִדּוּי שֵׁנִי. וְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם חָטָאתִי עָוִיתִי פָּשַׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶׁיךָ. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם כַּפֵּר נָא לַחֲטָאִים וְלַעֲוֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים שֶׁחָטָאתִי וְשֶׁעָוִיתִי וְשֶׁפָּשַׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶׁיךָ כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וְגוֹ'. וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַפָּר וּמְקַבֵּל אֶת דָּמוֹ וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְמִי שֶׁהוּא מְנַדְנְדוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרֵשׁ (וּמַנִּיחָהּ) עַל הָרֹבֶד הָרְבִיעִי שֶׁל הֵיכָל מִבַּחוּץ. וְנוֹטֵל אֶת הַמַּחְתָּה וְחוֹתֶה בָּהּ אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִן הַסָּמוּךְ לַמַּעֲרָב. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יב) "מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלִּפְנֵי ה'". וְיוֹרֵד וּמַנִּיחָהּ עַל הָרֹבֶד שֶׁבָּעֲזָרָה. וּמוֹצִיאִין לוֹ אֶת הַכַּף וּכְלִי מָלֵא קְטֹרֶת דַּקָּה מִן הַדַּקָּה. וְחוֹפֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלֹא חָפְנָיו לֹא מְחוּקוֹת וְלֹא גְּדוּשׁוֹת אֶלָּא טְפוּפוֹת הַגָּדוֹל לְפִי גָּדְלוֹ וְהַקָּטָן לְפִי קָטְנוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַכַּף. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהוֹלָכָה בִּשְׂמֹאל פּוֹסֶלֶת בְּדַם הַקָּדָשִׁים וּשְׁאָר הָעֲבוֹדוֹת. וּלְפִיכָךְ הָיָה מִן הַדִּין שֶׁיּוֹלִיךְ הַמַּחְתָּה בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ וְכַף הַקְּטֹרֶת בִּימִינוֹ. אֲבָל מִפְּנֵי כֹּבֶד הַמַּחְתָּה וְעוֹד שֶׁהִיא חַמָּה. אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסָבְלָהּ בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ עַד הָאָרוֹן. לְפִיכָךְ נוֹטֵל הַמַּחְתָּה בִּימִינוֹ וְכַף הַקְּטֹרֶת בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ. וּמְהַלֵּךְ בַּהֵיכָל עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. מָצָא הַפָּרֹכֶת פְּרוּפָה נִכְנַס לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לָאָרוֹן. הִגִּיעַ לָאָרוֹן נוֹתֵן הַמַּחְתָּה בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַבַּדִּים וּבְבַיִת שֵׁנִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אָרוֹן הָיָה מַנִּיחָהּ עַל אֶבֶן הַשְּׁתִיָּה. וְאוֹחֵז שְׂפַת הַכַּף בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו אוֹ בְּשִׁנָּיו. וּמְעָרֶה הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּגוּדָלוֹ לְתוֹךְ חָפְנָיו עַד שֶׁמַּחְזִירָהּ לִמְלֹא חָפְנָיו כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. וְזוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָה קָשָׁה שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְצוֹבֵר אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים בְּיָדוֹ לְפָנִים בַּמַּחְתָּה. כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַקְּטֹרֶת קְרוֹבָה לָאָרוֹן וּרְחוֹקָה מִפָּנָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּוֶה. וּמַמְתִּין שָׁם עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא הַבַּיִת עָשָׁן וְיֵצֵא. וְהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ אֲחוֹרַנִּית מְעַט מְעַט פָּנָיו לַקֹּדֶשׁ וַאֲחוֹרָיו לַהֵיכָל עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִן הַפָּרֹכֶת. וּמִתְפַּלֵּל שָׁם בַּהֵיכָל אַחַר שֶׁיֵּצֵא תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה שֶׁלֹּא לְהַבְעִית אֶת הָעָם שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ מֵת בַּהֵיכָל. וְכָךְ הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל. יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁאִם תִּהְיֶה שָׁנָה זוֹ שְׁחוּנָה תִּהְיֶה גְּשׁוּמָה. וְלֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִבֵּית יְהוּדָה. וְלֹא יִהְיוּ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִין לְפַרְנָסָה [א.] וְאַל תִּכָּנֵס לְפָנֶיךָ תְּפִלַּת עוֹבְרֵי דְּרָכִים:

2

When the incense offering was brought in the Holy of Holies, all of the people would withdraw from the Sanctuary alone. They would not withdraw from the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar, for it is not necessary to depart from between the Entrance Hall and the altar except when bringing the daily incense offering and when blood is being presented in the Sanctuary, as we explained in Hilchot Temidim.

Afterwards, he takes the blood of the bull from the priest who was stirring it and takes it into the Holy of Holies. He sprinkles it eight times between the staves of the Ark. He departs and places it down in the Sanctuary on a golden base located there. He then departs from the Sanctuary and slaughters the goat, receives its blood, and brings it into the Holy of Holies. He sprinkles it eight times between the staves of the Ark. He then departs and places it down on a second gold base in the Sanctuary. Afterwards, he lifts up the blood of the bull from the base and sprinkles it on the parochet opposite the ark eight times. He puts down the blood of the bull and picks up the blood of the goat and sprinkles it on the parochet opposite the ark eight times.

Afterwards, he pours the blood of the bull into the blood of the goat and pours the entire mixture into the container where the blood of the bull had been held so that they will be mixed thoroughly and stands before the golden altar, between the Menorah and the golden altar. He begins to apply the mixture of blood on the corners of the golden altar. He proceeds to circle it, sprinkling the blood on its corners from the outside as he proceeds.

He begins from the northeast corner, proceeds to the northwest, the southwest, and then to the southeast. In all instances, he applies the blood from below upward with the exception of the last application in which instance, the corner is directly before of him. Hence he applies the blood from above downward so that his garments will not become soiled. He then moves the coals and the ashes of the Golden Altar back and forth until its golden surface is revealed. He applies the blood of the mixture on the pure golden surface of the altar seven times on its southern side, the place where he completed applying the blood to the corners. He then departs from the Sanctuary and pours the remainder of the blood on the west base of the outer altar.

Afterwards, he approaches the goat to be sent to Azazel. He places his two hands on its head and recites the confessional, saying: "I beseech You, O God. Your nation, the House of Israel, have sinned, transgressed, and committed iniquity. I beseech You, O God, atone for the sins, transgressions, and iniquities that Your nation, the House of Israel, have committed, as it is written in the Torah of Moses Your servant Leviticus 16:30: 'For on that day, he will atone for you.... ' Afterwards, he sends the goat to the desert.

He removes the fats and the organs from the bull and the goat that were slaughtered and whose blood was brought within the Temple Building and places them in a vessel. He sends the remainder to the ash pile to be burnt. He then goes out to the Women's Courtyard and reads the Torah there after the goat reaches the desert.

He then sanctifies his hands and feet, removes his white garments, immerses himself, puts on his golden garments, and sanctifies his hands and feet. He sacrifices the goat that is offered outside that is one of the additional offerings of the day and sacrifices his ram and the ram of the people, as ibid.:24 states: "And he goes out and offers his burnt-offering and the burnt-offering of the people." He offers the fats and organs of the bull and the goat which are burnt and offers the afternoon continuous offering.

Afterwards, he sanctifies his hands and feet, removes his golden garments, immerses himself, puts on his white garments, and sanctifies his hands and feet. He enters the Holy of Holies and removes the kaf and the firepan.

Afterwards, he sanctifies his hands and feet, removes his white garments, immerses himself, puts on his golden garments, and sanctifies his hands and feet. He offers the afternoon incense offering and kindles the lamps of the Menorah for the evening as on other days. He then sanctifies his hands and feet, removes his golden garments, puts on his own clothes and goes home. All of the people accompany him to his home. He would make a festive celebration because he departed from the holy place in peace.

ב

בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. כָּל הָעָם פּוֹרְשִׁים מִן הַהֵיכָל בִּלְבַד וְאֵינָן פּוֹרְשִׁים מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ. שֶׁאֵין פּוֹרְשִׁים מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַקְטָרָה בַּהֵיכָל בְּכָל יוֹם וּבִשְׁעַת מַתַּן דָּמִים בַּהֵיכָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת תְּמִידִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטֵל דַּם הַפָּר מִזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְנַדְנְדוֹ. וְנִכְנָס בּוֹ לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים וּמַזֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁם שְׁמוֹנֶה הַזָּיוֹת בֵּין בַּדֵּי הָאָרוֹן. וְיוֹצֵא וּמַנִּיחוֹ בַּהֵיכָל עַל כַּן הַזָּהָב שֶׁהָיָה שָׁם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יוֹצֵא מִן הַהֵיכָל וְשׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר וּמְקַבֵּל אֶת דָּמוֹ וְנִכְנָס בּוֹ לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. וּמַזֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁם שְׁמוֹנֶה הַזָּיוֹת בֵּין בַּדֵּי הָאָרוֹן. וְיוֹצֵא וּמַנִּיחוֹ עַל כַּן הַזָּהָב שֵׁנִי שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטֵל דַּם הַפָּר מֵעַל הַכַּן וּמַזֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ עַל הַפָּרֹכֶת כְּנֶגֶד הָאָרוֹן שְׁמוֹנֶה הַזָּיוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ דַּם הַפָּר וְנוֹטֵל דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר וּמַזֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ עַל הַפָּרֹכֶת כְּנֶגֶד הָאָרוֹן שְׁמוֹנֶה הַזָּיוֹת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְעָרֶה דַּם הַפָּר לְתוֹךְ דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר וּמַחֲזִיר הַכּל לַמִּזְרָק שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ דַּם הַפָּר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעָרְבוּ יָפֶה יָפֶה. וְעוֹמֵד לְפָנִים מִמִּזְבַּח הַזָּהָב בֵּין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַמְּנוֹרָה. וּמַתְחִיל לְהַזּוֹת מִדַּם הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עַל קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב. וְהוּא מְסַבֵּב וְהוֹלֵךְ וּמַזֶּה עַל הַקְּרָנוֹת מִבַּחוּץ. וּמַתְחִיל מִקֶּרֶן מִזְרָחִית צְפוֹנִית. לִצְפוֹנִית מַעֲרָבִית. לְמַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית. לִדְרוֹמִית מִזְרָחִית. וְעַל כֻּלָּן הוּא נוֹתֵן מִלְּמַטָּן לְמַעְלָן. חוּץ מִן הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁהָיְתָה לְפָנָיו שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן מִלְּמַעְלָן לְמַטָּן. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלְכוּ כֵּלָיו. וְחוֹתֶה הַגֶּחָלִים וְהָאֵפֶר שֶׁבְּמִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב הֵילָךְ וְהֵילָךְ עַד שֶׁמְּגַלֶּה זְהָבוֹ. וּמַזֶּה מִדַּם הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עַל טָהֳרוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים בְּצַד הַדָּרוֹם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁשָּׁלְמוּ מַתְּנוֹת קַרְנוֹתָיו. וְיוֹצֵא וְשׁוֹפֵךְ שְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם עַל יְסוֹד מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא אֵצֶל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְסוֹמֵךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּמִתְוַדֶּה. וְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם חָטְאוּ עָווּ וּפָשְׁעוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם כַּפֵּר נָא לַחֲטָאִים וְלַעֲוֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים שֶׁחָטְאוּ וְשֶׁעָווּ וְשֶׁפָּשְׁעוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ (ויקרא טז ל) "כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם" וְגוֹ'. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. וּמוֹצִיא אֵימוּרֵי פַּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁהִכְנִיס דָּמָן לְפָנִים וְנוֹתְנָן בִּכְלִי. וּמְשַׁלֵּחַ הַשְּׁאָר לְבֵית הַדֶּשֶׁן לִשְׂרֵפָה. וְיוֹצֵא לְעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים וְקוֹרֵא שָׁם אַחַר שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַשָּׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי לָבָן וְטוֹבֵל וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וְעוֹשֶׂה הַשָּׂעִיר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בַּחוּץ שֶׁהוּא מִכְּלַל קָרְבְּנוֹת מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וּמַקְרִיב אֵילוֹ וְאֵיל הָעָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כד) "וְיָצָא וְעָשָׂה אֶת עלָתוֹ וְאֶת עלַת הָעָם". וּמַקְטִיר הָאֵימוּרִין שֶׁל פַּר וְשָׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. וּמַקְרִיב תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וְטוֹבֵל וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי לָבָן וּמְקַדֵּשׁ וְנִכְנָס לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הַכַּף וְאֶת הַמַּחְתָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי לָבָן וְטוֹבֵל וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ וּמַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם כִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי עַצְמוֹ וְיוֹצֵא לְבֵיתוֹ וְכָל הָעָם מְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ עַד בֵּיתוֹ. וְיוֹם טוֹב הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה עַל שֶׁיָּצָא בְּשָׁלוֹם מִן הַקֹּדֶשׁ:

Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 5

1

All of the services which the High Priest performs while wearing the white garments inside the Temple Building must be performed in the order in which we mentioned. If he performed one of them before another, his acts are of no consequence.

א

כָּל עֲבוֹדוֹת שֶׁעוֹבֵד בְּבִגְדֵי לָבָן בִּפְנִים בַּהֵיכָל צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתָן עַל הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאִם הִקְדִּים בָּהֶן מַעֲשֶׂה לַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם:

2

If the High Priest took a handful of incense before he slaughtered the bull, his act is of no consequence. Although taking the handful of incense is performed in the Courtyard, it is necessary for service performed inside the Temple Building. Similarly, if the goat was slaughtered before the blood of the bull was presented inside the Holy of Holies, the act is of no consequence. Although the slaughter is performed in the Temple Courtyard, its blood is brought within the Temple Building.

ב

קְטֹרֶת שֶׁחֲפָנָהּ קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטַת הַפָּר לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֲפִינָה בָּעֲזָרָה צֹרֶךְ פְּנִים בַּעֲבוֹדַת פְּנִים הִיא. וְכֵן שָׂעִיר שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ קֹדֶם מַתַּן דָּמוֹ שֶׁל פַּר לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשְּׁחִיטָה בָּעֲזָרָה הֲרֵי דָּמוֹ נִכְנָס לְפָנִים:

3

If the ram and the goat from the additional sacrifices of the day were offered before the service of the day in the Holy of Holies was performed, they are of no consequence.

ג

אֵיל וּשְׂעִיר הַמּוּסָפִין שֶׁעָשָׂה אוֹתָן קֹדֶם עֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם אֵינָן כְּלוּם:

4

If the blood of the goat was presented in the Holy of Holies before the blood of the bull, i.e., before the High Priest completes its service, he should sprinkle the blood of the bull as commanded. Afterwards, he should bring another goat, slaughter it, and sprinkle its blood as commanded. The first goat is disqualified.

If, when sprinkling the blood on the parochet in the Sanctuary, he sprinkled the blood of the goat before the blood of the bull, he should sprinkle the blood of the goat a second time after the blood of the bull.

ד

הִקְדִּים דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר לְדַם הַפָּר בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְמֹר עֲבוֹדָתוֹ. יַזֶּה מִדַּם הַפָּר כְּמִצְוָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָבִיא שָׂעִיר אַחֵר וְיִשְׁחֹט אוֹתוֹ וְיַזֶּה מִדָּמוֹ בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים כְּמִצְוָתוֹ וְיִפָּסֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן. הִקְדִּים דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר לְדַם הַפָּר בְּמַתָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל עַל הַפָּרֹכֶת יַחְזֹר וְיַזֶּה מִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה לְאַחַר דַּם הַפָּר:

5

If the blood of the goat spilled before he completed presenting it in the Holy of Holies, he should bring other blood and begin sprinkling it anew in the Holy of Holies.

ה

נִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם עַד שֶׁלֹּא גָּמַר מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁבְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. יָבִיא דָּם אַחֵר וְיַחְזֹר וְיַזֶּה בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים:

6

If he completed the presentation of the blood in the Holy of Holies and began presenting it in the Sanctuary and the blood was spilled before he completed them, he should bring other blood and begin from the first sprinklings in the Sanctuary.

ו

גָּמַר מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁבְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים וְהִתְחִיל בְּמַתָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם עַד שֶׁלֹּא גָּמַר יָבִיא דָּם אַחֵר וְיַתְחִיל מִתְּחִלַּת הַזָּיוֹת שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל:

7

If he completed the first part of the presentation of the blood in the Sanctuary and began to apply the blood to the Golden Altar and the blood spilled before the applications were completed, he should bring other bloodand begin from the first applications to the altar. For each set of presentations of blood represents a separate phase of atonement.

ז

גָּמַר מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל וְהִתְחִיל לִתֵּן עַל מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם עַד שֶׁלֹּא גָּמַר. יָבִיא דָּם אַחֵר וּמַתְחִיל מִתְּחִלַּת מַתְּנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁכֻּלָּן כַּפָּרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן הֵן:

8

If he completed the application of the blood to the altar and then the blood spilled, he does not have to bring other blood, for pouring the remainder of the blood on the outer altar is not a binding requirement. If the blood of the bull was spilled before he completed all of the presentations, he should bring another bull and take a handful of incense before slaughtering the bull. He should offer the incense, then bring the blood of the second bull and sprinkle its blood.

ח

גָּמַר מַתְּנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא דָּם אַחֵר. שֶׁשְּׁפִיכַת הַשְּׁיָרִים עַל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן אֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת. וְאִם דָּם הַפָּר הוּא שֶׁנִּשְׁפַּךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְמֹר כָּל הַמַּתָּנוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא פַּר אַחֵר. וְיַחֲפֹן קְטֹרֶת פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטַת הַפָּר. וְיַקְטִיר הַקְּטֹרֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָבִיא דָּמוֹ וְיַזֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ:

9

The only one which causes the priests and their clothes to become impure and which is burnt in the ashpile is the last bull with which the atonement was completed.

ט

וְאֵין מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים וְאֵין נִשְׂרָף בְּבֵית הַדֶּשֶׁן אֶלָּא הַפָּר הַזֶּה הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁבּוֹ נִגְמְרָה הַכַּפָּרָה:

10

If the blood of the bull became mixed with the blood of the goat before the High Priest completed the sprinklings, he should sprinkle from the mixture once upward and seven times downward for the sake of the bull and then sprinkle from the mixture once upward and seven times downward for the sake of the goat. If they became mixed together before the last sprinkling, he should sprinkle once downward for the sake of the bull and then sprinkle once upward and seven times downward for the sake of the goat.

י

נִתְעָרֵב לוֹ דַּם הַפָּר בְּדַם הַשָּׂעִיר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְמֹר הַהַזָּיוֹת. נוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם פַּר. וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם שָׂעִיר. נִתְעָרְבוּ בְּמַתָּנָה אַחֲרוֹנָה. נוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם פַּר וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה לְשֵׁם שָׂעִיר:

11

If the cups containing the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat become mixed together and the High Priest does not know which is the cup containing the blood of the bull and which is the cup containing the blood of the goat, he should sprinkle from one of them once upward and seven times downward and then sprinkle from the second one, once upward and seven times downward. And then he sprinkles again from the blood in the first cup, once upward and seven times downward. Thus regardless he will have sprinkled from the blood of the bull and afterwards, from the blood of the goat.

יא

נִתְחַלְּפוּ הַכּוֹסוֹת וְלֹא יָדַע אֵי זֶה הוּא כּוֹס דַּם הַפָּר וְאֵי זֶה הוּא כּוֹס דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר נוֹתֵן מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה. וְנוֹתֵן מִן הַשֵּׁנִי אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה. (וְחוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה). נִמְצָא מִכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּתַן מִדַּם הַפָּר וְאַחֲרָיו מִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר:

12

The following rules apply when the High Priest received the blood of the bull in two cups and the blood of the goat in two cups and some of the cups became mixed together and it was not known which of the cups contained the blood of the bull and which, the blood of the goat. He should perform all the sprinklings as required by law from the cups that were not mixed together. He should then pour the remainder of the blood from the cups from which he sprinkled on the base of the altar, as required. The cups that were mixed together should be poured into the drainage channel.

יב

קִבֵּל דַּם הַפָּר בִּשְׁתֵּי כּוֹסוֹת. וְקִבֵּל דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר בִּשְׁתֵּי כּוֹסוֹת. וְנִתְעָרְבוּ מִקְצָת הַכּוֹסוֹת. וְלֹא נוֹדַע כּוֹס דַּם הַפָּר מִכּוֹס דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר. הֲרֵי זֶה מַזֶּה כָּל הַהַזָּיוֹת כְּמִצְוָתָן מִן הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרְבוּ. וְשׁוֹפַךְ שְׁיָרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁהִזָּה מֵהֶן עַל הַיְסוֹד כַּמִּצְוָה. וְאוֹתָן הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ יִשָּׁפְכוּ לָאַמָּה:

13

Even though the High Priest would purchase the bull sacrificed on Yom Kippur from his own resources, as implied by Leviticus 16:6: "The bull for the sin-offering that is his," the Omnipresent nullified his ownership of it in favor of all of his priestly brethren. For if they did not have a share of it, they could not derive atonement through its sacrifice.

Accordingly, if the High Priest died before the bull was slaughtered, the priest who assumes his position does not bring a different bull. Instead, he slaughters the first one, It is not considered a sin-offering whose owners have died which is itself consigned to death, for a sin-offering owned by many is never consigned to death,

If the High Priest slaughtered the bull, but died before sprinkling its blood to gain atonement, the second priest enters the Temple with this blood and performs the sprinkling that brings atonement.

יג

פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל קוֹנֶה מִשֶּׁלּוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז ו) (ויקרא טז יא) "פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ". הַמָּקוֹם הִפְקִיר מָמוֹנוֹ בּוֹ לְכָל אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים. שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה לָהֶן בּוֹ שֻׁתָּפוּת לֹא הָיוּ מִתְכַּפְּרִין בּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשָּׁחֵט הַפָּר. הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁעוֹמֵד תַּחְתָּיו אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא פַּר אַחֵר אֶלָּא שׁוֹחֵט אֶת שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן. וְאֵינוֹ חַטָּאת שֶׁמֵּתוּ בְּעָלֶיהָ שֶׁתָּמוּת שֶׁאֵין חַטַּאת הָרַבִּים מֵתָה. שָׁחַט אֶת הַפָּר וּמֵת קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּכַפֵּר בְּדָמוֹ. הַכֹּהֵן הָאַחֵר נִכְנָס בְּדָם זֶה וּמְכַפֵּר בּוֹ:

14

The desired manner of performing the mitzvah is that the two goats of Yom Kippur should be alike with regard to their appearance, their size, and their worth. They should be purchased at the same time. Nevertheless, even if they were not alike, they were acceptable. Similarly, if one was purchased on one day and the other on the following day, it is acceptable.

יד

שְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מִצְוָתָן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שָׁוִין בְּמַרְאֶה וּבְקוֹמָה וּבְדָמִים. וּלְקִיחָתָן כְּאַחַת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן שָׁוִין כְּשֵׁרִין. לָקַח אֶחָד מֵהֶן הַיּוֹם וְאֶחָד לְמָחָר כְּשֵׁרִים:

15

The following rules apply if one of these goats die. If it dies before the lottery was held, he should take another one as a pair for the remaining one. If it died after the lottery, he should bring two new goats and conduct the lottery again as he did originally.

He sees which one died. If it was the one to be sacrificed to G‑d, he says: "This one for which the lot for God was chosen should replace it." If the dead goat was the one to be sent to Azazel, he says: "This one for which the lot for Azazel was chosen should replace it." The other one of the pair from which the second lottery was made should be left to pasture until it receives a disqualifying blemish. Then it should be sold and the proceeds used for freewill offerings. This course of action is taken, because a communal sin-offering is never consigned to death.

טו

מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגְרִיל מֵת יִקַּח זוּג לְשֵׁנִי. וְאִם מִשֶּׁהִגְרִיל מֵת יָבִיא שְׁנַיִם וְיַגְרִיל עֲלֵיהֶן בַּתְּחִלָּה וְרוֹאֶה אֵי זֶהוּ שֶׁמֵּת. אִם הָיָה שֶׁל שֵׁם אוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁעָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַשֵּׁם יִתְקַיֵּם תַּחְתָּיו. וְאִם הָיָה הַמֵּת שֶׁל עֲזָאזֵל יֹאמַר זֶה שֶׁעָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַעֲזָאזֵל יִתְקַיֵּם תַּחְתָּיו. וְהַשֵּׁנִי מִן הַשְּׁנַיִם שֶׁהִגְרִיל עֲלֵיהֶן בַּסּוֹף יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בּוֹ מוּם וְיִמָּכֵר וְיִפְּלוּ דָּמָיו לִנְדָבָה. שֶׁאֵין חַטַּאת הַצִּבּוּר מֵתָה:

16

When the bull and/or the goat to be offered on Yom Kippur became lost, others were separated in their stead and offered and then the first ones were found, those first ones should pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Afterwards, they should be redeemed and the proceeds used for freewill offerings. Similarly, if the first ones were found before the second were offered, the first ones should be sacrificed. The second ones should be allowed to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Afterwards, they should be redeemed and the proceeds used for freewill offerings. The rationale for these rulings is that a communal sin-offering is never consigned to death.

טז

פַּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁאָבְדוּ וְהִפְרִישׁ אֲחֵרִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶן וְקָרְבוּ וְנִמְצְאוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֲבוּ וְיִמָּכְרוּ וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לִנְדָבָה. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצְאוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּקָּרְבוּ אֵלּוּ יִקָּרְבוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְיִרְעוּ הַשְּׁנִיִּים עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיִפְּלוּ דְּמֵיהֶן לִנְדָבָה. שֶׁאֵין חַטַּאת הַצִּבּוּר מֵתָה:

17

A disqualifying blemish - even a temporary blemish - renders the goat sent to Azazel unfit. Similarly, if it becomes unfit to be sacrificed because of a time factor, it is disqualified. For example, its mother was slaughtered to feed a sick person on Yom Kippur. Although the pertinent prohibition involves "slaughtering" an animal and its offspring on the same day, pushing the goat to Azazel is equivalent to slaughtering it.

יז

הַמּוּם פּוֹסֵל בְּשָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ אֲפִלּוּ מוּם עוֹבֵר. וְכֵן אִם נַעֲשָׂה מְחֻסַּר זְמַן נִפְסָל. כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטָה אִמּוֹ לְחוֹלֶה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. שֶׁדְּחִיָּתוֹ לַעֲזָאזֵל הִיא שְׁחִיטָתוֹ:

18

If the goat was treifah, it is unacceptable, for Leviticus 16:10 states: "It shall stand alive."

יח

הָיָה טְרֵפָה פָּסוּל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז י) "יָעֳמַד חַי":

19

If the goat becomes sick and is unable to walk, the one taking it to Azazel should carry it on his shoulders, even on the Sabbath.

יט

חָלָה הַשָּׂעִיר וְאֵין יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ מַרְכִּיבוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת:

20

If the one designated to take it becomes sick, it should be sent with another person.

כ

חָלָה הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר:

21

If the one designated to take it becomes impure, he should enter the Temple take it and depart, as Leviticus 16:21 states: "to the desert in the hands of a designated person." Implied is that it should be sent in the hands of the one designated even if he became ritually impure.

כא

נִטְמָא הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ הֲרֵי זֶה נִכְנָס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְנוֹטְלוֹ וְיוֹצֵא. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כא) "בְּיַד אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה". בְּיַד זֶה שֶׁהוּכַן אֲפִלּוּ נִטְמָא:

22

If that person pushed the goat off the cliff and it did not die, he should descend after it and kill it with any article that will serve that purpose. It is permitted to benefit from the limbs of this goat.

כב

דְּחָפוֹ וְנָפַל הַשָּׂעִיר וְלֹא מֵת. יֵרֵד אַחֲרָיו וִימִיתֶנּוּ בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁמְּמִיתוֹ. וְאֵיבְרֵי שָׂעִיר זֶה מֻתָּרִין בַּהֲנָיָה:

23

If the roof of the Temple Building was opened, the High Priest should not sprinkle the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat, because ibid.:17 states: "in the Tent of Meeting."

כג

נִפְחֲתָה תִּקְרָה שֶׁל הֵיכָל לֹא הָיָה מַזֶּה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יז) "בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד":

24

When the inner altar had not been dedicated by the offering of incense previously, the High Priest should not sprinkle the blood upon it, as ibid. 4:7 states: "the altar of the incense offering."

כד

מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַנֵּךְ בַּקְּטֹרֶת לֹא יַזֶּה עָלָיו. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד ז) "מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים":

25

If the incense offering was lacking one of its spices or the smoke-raising herb, the High Priest is liable for death, as Leviticus 16:2 states: "He shall not die, because in a cloud I will appear on the kaporet." Similarly, he is liable for death for entering the Holy of Holies while he is not performing a mitzvah. Therefore, if he transgressed inadvertently by entering, but purposely offered an unacceptable incense offering or offered a complete incense offering together with the one that was lacking, he is liable for death.

כה

חָסֵר מִן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶחָד מִסַּמָּנֶיהָ אוֹ מַעֲלֶה עָשָׁן חַיָּב מִיתָה עָלֶיהָ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז ב) "וְלֹא יָמוּת כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת". וְכֵן חַיָּב מִיתָה עַל בִּיאָתוֹ בְּלֹא מִצְוָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם שָׁגַג בְּבִיאָה וְהֵזִיד בִּקְטֹרֶת. אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנַס בִּקְטֹרֶת שְׁלֵמָה עִם הַחֲסֵרָה חַיָּב מִיתָה:

26

If he offered an olive-sized portion of the incense offering to be offered in the Holy of Holies in the Sanctuary, he is liable for death.

כו

הִקְטִיר מִן הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים כְּזַיִת בַּהֵיכָל חַיָּב מִיתָה:

27

Taking a handful of incense is considered as an element of the Temple service and improper thoughts can disqualify it. Similarly, the scooping of the coals for the incense offering can be disqualified by improper thoughts, for performance of the preparatory acts necessary to bring a sacrifice is considered as bringing the sacrifice itself.

כז

חֲפִינַת הַקְּטֹרֶת עֲבוֹדָה. וְהַמַּחְשָׁבָה פּוֹסֶלֶת בָּהּ. וְכֵן חֲתִיַּת הַגֶּחָלִים לַקְּטֹרֶת נִפְסֶלֶת בְּמַחְשָׁבָה. שֶׁמַּכְשִׁירֵי קָרְבָּן כְּקָרְבָּן:

28

There is doubt regarding the proper ruling in all of the following incidents:

a) he collected the incense with his fingertips, with the sides of his hands, or scooped from below upward;

b) he gathered the incense with both hands and then brought them together;

c) the incense was scattered on the earth from his hand and he collected it;

d) a colleague gathered the incense and put it in his hands; or

e) a High Priest collected the incense and died and his replacement entered the Holy of Holies with the incense collected by the first.

In all these instances, as an initial preference, he should not offer such incense. If he did, it is acceptable.

כח

חָפַן בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו אוֹ מִן הַצְּדָדִין אוֹ מִמַּטָּה לְמַעְלָה אוֹ שֶׁחָפַן בְּיָדוֹ זוֹ וּבְיָדוֹ זוֹ וְקָרַב זוֹ לָזוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְפַּזְּרָה קְטֹרֶת מִיָּדוֹ עַל הָאָרֶץ וַאֲסָפָהּ. אוֹ שֶׁחָפַן חֲבֵרוֹ וְנָתַן לְחָפְנָיו. אוֹ שֶׁחָפַן וּמֵת וְנִכְנַס שֵׁנִי בְּמַה שֶּׁחָפַן רִאשׁוֹן. כָּל אֵלּוּ סָפֵק וְלֹא יַקְטִיר וְאִם הִקְטִיר הֻרְצָה:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות עבודת יוה"כ בס"ד:

Me`ilah - Perek 1

Introduction to Hilchot Me`ilah

They contain three mitzvot: one positive commandment and two negative commandments. They are:

1) That the one guilty of trespass shall pay for his trespass the value of what he has taken, and add a fifth, and bring an offering. This is the law of one who unlawfully takes holy things;
2) Not to work with cattle set apart for sacrifices;
3) Not to shear the fleece of such cattle.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות מעילה - הקדמה יש בכללן שלוש מצוות: אחת מצוַת עשה, ושתים מצוות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן: (א) לשלם המועל אשר חטא בתוספת חומש וקרבן, וזהו דין המועל.
(ב) שלא לעבוד בקדשים.
(ג) שלא לגזוז קדשים. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

It is forbidden for an ordinary person to benefit from articles sanctified unto God, whether they are entities that are offered on the altar or articles consecrated for the improvement of the Temple. Anyone who derives a perutah' worth of benefit from an article sanctified unto God, is considered as having misappropriated a consecrated article.

א

אָסוּר לְהֶדְיוֹט לֵהָנוֹת מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם. בֵּין מִדְּבָרִים הַקְּרֵבִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. בֵּין מִקָּדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת. וְכָל הַנֶּהֱנֶה בִּשְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם מָעַל:

2

The concept of me'ilah, misappropriating consecrated articles, does not apply to sacrificial entities from the sacrifices that are permitted to be eaten, e.g., the meat of sin-offerings and guilt-offerings after their blood was cast on the altar, the two breads after the blood of the two sheep was cast on the altar. This applies even if these or the like are eaten by a non-priest. Since it is permitted for some people to benefit from them, anyone who benefits from them is not considered to have misappropriated consecrated articles. Even if they were disqualified and prohibited to be eaten, since there is a time when they are permitted to be eaten, one is not liable me'ilah.

ב

דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֻתְּרוּ בַּאֲכִילָה מִן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם אַחַר זְרִיקַת דָּמָן אוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אַחַר זְרִיקַת דַּם שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים אֵין בָּהֶן מְעִילָה. אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל הַזָּר מֵאֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. הוֹאִיל וְהֵן מֻתָּרִין לְמִקְצָת בְּנֵי אָדָם לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן כָּל הַנֶּהֱנֶה מֵהֶן לֹא מָעַל. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִפְסְלוּ וְנֶאֶסְרוּ בַּאֲכִילָה הוֹאִיל וְהָיְתָה לָהֶן שְׁעַת הֶתֵּר אֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן מְעִילָה:

3

Anyone who purposely misappropriates consecrated articles is liable for lashes and must pay the value he decreased the value of the sacred articles. The warning against me'ilah is derived from Deuteronomy 12:17: "You may not partake of the tithes of your grain... your pledges... in your outlying cities." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that this is a warning against one who partakes of the meat of a burnt-offering for it must be offered entirely to God. The same applies to all other consecrated articles that are dedicated to God alone, whether something consecrated for the altar or for the improvement of the Temple. If one derives a perutah's worth of benefit, he is liable for lashes. If he misappropriated a consecrated article unknowingly, he must make restitution for the benefit he received and add a fifth. Also, he must bring a ram worth two selaim and have it sacrificed as a guilt offering. This brings atonement for him and it is called: "the guilt offering for misappropriation,] as Leviticus 5:15-16 states "And he sinned inadvertently, misappropriating what was consecrated unto God and he shall bring his guilt-offering... and he should make restitution for what he misappropriated from the consecrated articles, adding a fifth." Paying the principal with the additional fifth and bringing the sacrifice is a positive commandment.

ג

כָּל הַמּוֹעֵל בְּזָדוֹן לוֹקֶה וּמְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁפָּגַם מִן הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. וְאַזְהָרָה שֶׁל מְעִילָה מִזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב יז) "לֹא תוּכַל לֶאֱכל בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב יז) "וּנְדָרֶיךָ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ אַזְהָרָה לָאוֹכֵל מִבְּשַׂר עוֹלָה הוֹאִיל וְכֻלּוֹ לַשֵּׁם. וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר כָּל קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא לַהַשֵּׁם לְבַדּוֹ בֵּין מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בֵּין מִקָּדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת אִם נֶהֱנֶה בָּהֶן שְׁוֵה פְּרוּטָה לוֹקֶה. מָעַל בִּשְׁגָגָה מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנָה וְתוֹסֶפֶת חֹמֶשׁ. וּמֵבִיא אַיִל בִּשְׁנֵי סְלָעִים וּמַקְרִיבוֹ אָשָׁם וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא אֲשַׁם מְעִילוֹת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ה טו) "וְחָטְאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי ה' וְהֵבִיא אֶת אֲשָׁמוֹ" וְגוֹ' (ויקרא ה טז) "וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת חֲמִישִׁתוֹ" וְגוֹ'. וְשִׁלּוּם הַקֶּרֶן בְּתוֹסֶפֶת חֹמֶשׁ עִם הֲבָאַת הַקָּרְבָּן מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה:

4

Payment of the principal and bringing the guilt-offering are essential for the atonement; payment of the additional fifth is not essential. This is derived from the prooftext that speaks of: "the ram of the asham." Our Sages interpreted the term asham as referring to the principal and stated: The ramand the payment of the principal are fundamental requirements. The additional fifth is not a fundamental requirement.

ד

תַּשְׁלוּם הַקֶּרֶן וַהֲבָאַת הָאָשָׁם מְעַכְּבִין הַכַּפָּרָה. וְאֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ה טז) "בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם". אַיִל וְאָשָׁם מְעַכְּבִין וְאֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב:

5

If the person brought the guilt-offering before he made restitution for the principal, he did not fulfill his obligation. If one is in doubt whether he derived benefit from a consecrated article or not, he is exempt from making restitution and bringing a sacrifice.

The additional fifth is considered as a consecrated article itself. If one benefits from it, he should add a fifth to the fifth. We have already explained several times that the fifth is one fourth of the principal so that the principal and the fifth will be five units.

ה

הֵבִיא מְעִילָתוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא אֲשָׁמוֹ לֹא יָצָא. נִסְתַּפֵּק לוֹ אִם מָעַל אוֹ לֹא מָעַל פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין וּמִן הַקָּרְבָּן. וְהַחֹמֶשׁ הֲרֵי הוּא כִּתְחִלַּת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאִם נֶהֱנָה בּוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ עַל הַחֹמֶשׁ. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים שֶׁהַחֹמֶשׁ אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעָה מִן הַקֶּרֶן עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הוּא וְחֻמְשׁוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה:

6

There are articles for which one is not liable for me'ilah according to Scriptural Law, but from which it is forbidden to benefit according to Rabbinic decree.A person who derives benefit from them must only make restitution for the principal. He need not add a fifth, nor must he bring a guilt-offering.

ו

יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן מְעִילָה מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה אֲבָל אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה מֵהֶן מְשַׁלֵּם קֶרֶן בִּלְבַד וְאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא אָשָׁם:

7

All of the sacrifices offered on the altar - whether sacrifices of the highest degree of sanctity or sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity - are forbidden to be shorn and it is forbidden to perform work with them, as Deuteronomy 15:19 states: "Do not perform work with the firstborn of your oxen and do not shear the firstborn of your sheep." The same applies to all other sacrificial animals. One who shears an ox or works with a sheep is liable for lashes according to Scriptural Law.

One who pulls out hair is not considered as if he shears it. It appears to me that one is not liable unless he shears double the width of a sit. This prohibition should not be more severe than the prohibition against shearing on the Sabbath.

ז

כָּל קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים בֵּין קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים אֲסוּרִין בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טו יט) "לֹא תַעֲבֹד בִּבְכֹר שׁוֹרֶךָ וְלֹא תָגֹז בְּכוֹר צֹאנֶךָ". וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר קָדָשִׁים. וְהַגּוֹזֵז אֶת הַשּׁוֹר אוֹ הָעוֹבֵד בַּצֹּאן לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְתוֹלֵשׁ אֵינוֹ כְּגוֹזֵז. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה עַד שֶׁיִּגְזֹז כְּדֵי רֹחַב הַסִּיט כָּפוּל. לֹא יִהְיֶה זֶה חָמוּר מִשַּׁבָּת:

8

When there is a doubt whether an animal is consecrated, e.g., an animal concerning which there is a question whether it is a firstborn or the like, it is forbidden to shear it or work with it, but one who shears it or works with it, is not liable for lashes.

ח

סְפֵק קָדָשִׁים כְּגוֹן בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִיא סְפֵק בְּכוֹר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה וְהַגּוֹזֵז אוֹ הָעוֹבֵד בָּהֶן אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

9

When a sacrificial animal contracted a physical blemish and it was redeemed as we explained, it is not permitted to shear it or to work with it. The prohibitions are still in effect until it is slaughtered. If it was slaughtered after it was redeemed, it is permitted to partake of it.

When does the above apply? When the animal was consecrated before it contracted a permanent blemish or it contracted a temporary blemish before it was consecrated. If, however, one consecrated an animal with a permanent physical blemish as a sacrifice for the altar, it is only forbidden to be shorn and for work to be performed with it according to Rabbinic Law. If it is redeemed, it is like an ordinary animal in all regards and like an ordinary animal, it may be shorn and work may be performed with it. The only exceptions to this principle are a firstborn animal and one separated as the tithes. In these instances, the holiness falls on their physical bodies even if at the outset they have permanent physical blemishes. They are never considered as ordinary animals entirely and it is always forbidden to shear them or perform work with them.

It is forbidden to mate an animal that is a firstborn or a sacrificial animal that was disqualified.

ט

בֶּהֱמַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ מוּם וְנִפְדַּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ אֵינָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא בְּאִסּוּרָהּ עַד שֶׁתִּשָּׁחֵט. נִשְׁחֲטָה אַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָהּ הֻתְּרָה בַּאֲכִילָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁקָּדַם הֶקְדֵּשָׁן אֶת מוּמָן אוֹ קָדַם מוּם עוֹבֵר לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בַּעֲלַת מוּם קָבוּעַ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. נִפְדַּת הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּחֻלִּין לְכָל דָּבָר וְתֵצֵא לְחֻלִּין לְהִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד. חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהַקְּדֻשָּׁה חָלָה עַל גּוּפָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִין מִתְּחִלָּתָן. וְאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין לְהִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד לְעוֹלָם. וְאָסוּר לְהַרְבִּיעַ בִּבְכוֹר אוֹ בִּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין:

10

It is permitted, even as an initial preference, to pull off hair from a sacrificial animal in order to show a physical blemish to an expert. It is forbidden to benefit from the hair that was pulled off or which fell from a consecrated animal, a firstborn animal, or one designated as the tithes, even after it was redeemed and slaughtered because of its blemish. This is a decree lest the sacrifice of such an animal be delayed, because it does not come to bring about atonement.

It is, by contrast, permitted to benefit from wool which fell from an animal designated as a sin-offering or a guilt-offering after it has been redeemed and slaughtered because of a physical blemish. The rationale is that since these offerings come to bring about atonement, the owners will not delay their sacrifice. There is an unresolved doubt if it is permitted to benefit from wool that was pulled off from a burnt-offering.

It is permitted to benefit from any wool that becomes pulled off from sacrificial animals after they have contracted a blemish, for it was not pulled off intentionally.The only exception is the wool of a firstborn animal and one designated as a tithe. In those instances, it is forbidden to benefit from wool even if it was pulled off from such an animal after it contracted a blemish.

י

מֻתָּר לִתְלֹשׁ אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר לְכַתְּחִלָּה מִן הַקָּדָשִׁים כְּדֵי לְהַרְאוֹת הַמּוּם לְמֻמְחֶה. וְאוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׂעָר שֶׁתָּלַשׁ אוֹ שֶׁנָּשַׁר מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּשָּׁחֲטוּ מִפְּנֵי מוּמָן. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָן הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן בָּאִין לְכַפָּרָה. אֲבָל צֶמֶר הַנּוֹשֵׁר מִן הַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה לְאַחַר שְׁחִיטָתָן מִפְּנֵי מוּמָן. הוֹאִיל וּלְכַפָּרָה הֵן בָּאִין אֵינוֹ מַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָן. וְאִם נִתְלַשׁ מִן הָעוֹלָה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק. וְכָל שֶׁיִּתָּלֵשׁ מִכָּל הַקָּדָשִׁים אַחַר שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהֶן מוּם הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא תָּלַשׁ בְּיָדוֹ. חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁאַף הַנִּתְלָשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַר שֶׁנָּפַל בּוֹ מוּם אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה:

11

When a person slaughters a firstborn or another consecrated animal, he may pull off the wool from either side to make a place for the knife, provided he does not remove the wool from its place.

יא

הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּכוֹר אוֹ שְׁאָר מֻקְדָּשִׁין. תּוֹלֵשׁ אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן לַעֲשׂוֹת מָקוֹם לַסַּכִּין. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְזִיזֶנּוּ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ:

12

It is forbidden to shear and perform work with animals consecrated for the improvement of the Temple according to Rabbinic decree. According to Scriptural Law, they are not forbidden. Therefore one who shears such animals or performs work with them is not liable for lashes. He does, however, receive stripes for rebellious conduct.

יב

קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת אֲסוּרִין בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֲבָל מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָן אֲסוּרִין. לְפִיכָךְ הַגּוֹזֵז אוֹתָן אוֹ הָעוֹבֵד בָּהֶן אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֲבָל מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

13

When one consecrates a fetus for the altar, it is forbidden to perform work with its mother according to Rabbinic decree. The rationale for this decree is that work weakens the fetus. It is, however, permitted to shear the mother, because this does not harm the fetus.

When one consecrates one limb of an animal - whether for the improvement of the Temple or for the altar - there is an unresolved doubt whether or not the entire animal is forbidden to be sheared or for work to be performed with it. Therefore, if one performs such an activity, he is not liable for lashes.

יג

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עֻבָּר לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אִמּוֹ אֲסוּרָה בַּעֲבוֹדָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲבוֹדָתָהּ מַכְחֶשֶׁת אֶת הָעֵבָּר גָּזְרוּ בָּהּ. וַהֲרֵי הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת בְּגִזָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּזֶה הֶפְסֵד לַוָּלָד. הִקְדִּישׁ אֵיבָר אֶחָד מִן הַבְּהֵמָה בֵּין לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת בֵּין לַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר סָפֵק אִם אֲסוּרָה כֻּלָּהּ בְּגִזָּה וַעֲבוֹדָה אוֹ אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹקִין עָלֶיהָ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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