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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 1, Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 2, Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 3

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Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 1

Introduction to Hilchot Avodat Yom haKippurim

It contains one positive commandment. It is to perform the service of the Day of Atonement in regard to the sacrifices, confessions, sending away of the Scapegoat and the remainder of the service.

This mitzvah is explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות עבודת יום הכפורים - הקדמה מצוַת עשה אחת, והיא שיעשה מעשה יום הכפורים כולו על הסדר, כמו שכתוב בפרשת "אחרי מות": הקרבנות, והוידויין, ושילוח השעיר, ושאר העבודה. וביאור מצוָה זו בפרקים אלו:

1

On the fast day of Yom Kippur, we sacrifice a continuous offering in the morning and in the late afternoon according to the order followed every day. And the additional sacrifices of the day are offered: a bull, a ram, and seven sheep - all these are burnt-offerings - and a sin-offering of a goat whose service is performed outside and which is eaten in the evening.

Besides these additional offerings are sacrificed:

a) a young ox as a sin-offering; it is burnt;

b) a ram as a burnt-offering; both of these are brought by the High Priest;

c) the ram which is brought from communal funds that is mentioned in the passage Acharei Mot; it is the ram mentioned in the Book of Numbers as part of the additional offering; it is called the ram of the people.

In addition, two goats are brought from communal funds: one is offered as a sin-offering and it is burnt and the other is the goat sent to Azazel.

Thus there are a total of fifteen animals sacrificed on this day: two continuous offerings, a bull, two rams and seven sheep; these are all burnt-offerings, two goats as sin-offerings, one offered outside the Temple building which is eaten in the evening and one whose blood is offered in the Temple building and which is burnt, and the bull of the High Priest which is a sin-offering that is burnt.

א

בְיוֹם הַצּוֹם מַקְרִיבִין תָּמִיד בַּשַּׁחַר וְתָמִיד בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם כְּסֵדֶר כָּל יוֹם וְיוֹם. וּמַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם פַּר וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּם עוֹלוֹת. וְשָׂעִיר חַטָּאת נַעֲשֶׂה בַּחוּץ וְהוּא נֶאֱכָל לָעֶרֶב. וְעוֹד מַקְרִיבִין יֶתֶר עַל מוּסָף זֶה. פַּר בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהוּא נִשְׂרָף. וְאַיִל לְעוֹלָה. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מִשֶּׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. וְאַיִל הַבָּא מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר הָאָמוּר בְּפָרָשַׁת (ויקרא טז א) "אַחֲרֵי מוֹת". וְהוּא הָאַיִל הָאָמוּר בְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים בִּכְלַל הַמּוּסָף. וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא אֵיל הָעָם. וְעוֹד מְבִיאִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר שְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי עִזִּים. אֶחָד קָרֵב חַטָּאת וְהוּא נִשְׂרָף. וְהַשֵּׁנִי שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. נִמְצְאוּ כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת הַקְּרֵבִים בְּיוֹם זֶה חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה. שְׁנֵי תְּמִידִין. וּפַר. וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּם עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׁנֵי שְׂעִירִים חַטָּאת אֶחָד נַעֲשֶׂה בַּחוּץ וְנֶאֱכַל לָעֶרֶב וְהַשֵּׁנִי נַעֲשֶׂה בִּפְנִים וְנִשְׂרָף. וּפַר כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל לְחַטָּאת וְהוּא נִשְׂרָף:

2

The sacrificial service for all these fifteen animals that are offered on this day may be performed only by the High Priest. This applies both to a High Priest anointed with the oil of anointment or initiated into office by wearing the garments of the High Priest.

If Yom Kippur fell on the Sabbath, even the additional offering of the Sabbath should be sacrificed only by the High Priest. Similarly, all of the other services performed on this day, the offering of the daily incense offering, the kindling of the Menorah's lamps, are all performed by a married High Priest, as Leviticus 16:7 states: "And he shall atone for himself and his household." "His household" refers to his wife.

ב

עֲבוֹדַת כָּל חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה בְּהֵמוֹת אֵלּוּ הַקְּרֵבִין בְּיוֹם זֶה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בְּכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בִּלְבַד. אֶחָד כֹּהֵן הַמָּשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה אוֹ הַמְרֻבֶּה בִּבְגָדִים. וְאִם הָיְתָה שַׁבָּת אַף מוּסַף שַׁבָּת אֵין מַקְרִיב אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. וְכֵן שְׁאָר הָעֲבוֹדוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם זֶה כְּגוֹן הַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וַהֲטָבַת הַנֵּרוֹת הַכּל עָשׂוּי בְּכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל נָשׂוּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז ו) (ויקרא טז יא) (ויקרא טז יז) "וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ". בֵּיתוֹ זוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ:

3

For seven days prior to Yom Kippur, the High Priest departs from his home and stays in his chamber in the Temple. This is a tradition received from Moses our teacher. He is separated from his wife for these seven days, lest his wife become a niddah in the midst of relations and he become impure for seven days and thus unable to perform the Temple service.

A substitute High Priest is prepared so that if this one becomes disqualified, the other may serve instead of him. Whether the disqualifying factor takes place when offering the continuous offering of the morning or the disqualifying factor occurred after he offered his sacrifice, the replacement need not be installed in his office by offering a special sacrifice. Instead, the performance of the sacrificial service of the day installs him. He should begin from the service where the other ceased.

After Yom Kippur, the first High Priest resumes his position and the second ceases to serve in this capacity. All of the mitzvot incumbent on a High Priest are incumbent on him, but he does not carry out the service of the High Priest. If he does perform that service, his service is acceptable. When the first dies, he is appointed in his place.

ג

שִׁבְעַת יָמִים קֹדֶם לְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מַפְרִישִׁין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִבֵּיתוֹ לְלִשְׁכָּתוֹ שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וְדָבָר זֶה קַבָּלָה מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ. וּמַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתוֹ מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּל שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁמָּא תִּמָּצֵא אִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה וְנִמְצָא טָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲבֹד. וּמַתְקִינִין לוֹ כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אַחֵר שֶׁאִם יֶאֱרַע בְּזֶה פִּסּוּל יַעֲבֹד הָאַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו. בֵּין שֶׁאֵרַע בּוֹ פִּסּוּל קֹדֶם תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר בֵּין שֶׁאֵרַע בּוֹ פִּסּוּל אַחַר שֶׁהִקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ זֶה שֶׁנִּכְנַס תַּחְתָּיו אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ חִנּוּךְ אֶלָּא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ מְחַנַּכְתּוֹ וּמַתְחִיל מֵעֲבוֹדָה שֶׁפָּסַק בָּהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן. עָבַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הֲרֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן חוֹזֵר לַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ וְהַשֵּׁנִי עוֹבֵר וְכָל מִצְוֹת כְּהֻנָּה גְּדוֹלָה עָלָיו אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵד כְּכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל וְאִם עָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאִם מֵת הָרִאשׁוֹן זֶה הַשֵּׁנִי מִתְמַנֶּה תַּחְתָּיו:

4

During these seven days, he is sprinkled with the ashes of the Red Heifer on the third day after he was separated and on the seventh day which is the day before Yom Kippur, lest he have contracted impurity from a corpse unknowingly. If the third or the seventh day of the sprinkling falls on the Sabbath, the sprinkling is not performed.

ד

בְּשִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֵלּוּ מַזִּין עָלָיו מֵאֵפֶר הַפָּרָה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי לְהַפְרָשָׁתוֹ וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁמָּא נִטְמָא בְּמֵת וְלֹא יָדַע. וְאִם חָל יוֹם שַׁבָּת בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי אוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִי שֶׁלּוֹ דּוֹחִין אֶת הַהַזָּיָה:

5

For all of these seven days, he is trained to perform the Temple service. He casts the blood on the altar, offers the incense, kindles the lamps, and offers the limbs of the continuous offering on the altar's pyre so that he will be familiar with the Temple service.

He is given sages from the elders of the court who read the relevant passages for him and teach him the service necessary to be performed on the holy day and its order. They tell him: "My sir, the High Priest, read by yourself, for perhaps you have forgotten or you never learned this point." On the day before Yom Kippur in the morning, they would have him stand in the eastern gates of the Temple Courtyard and cause bulls, rams, and sheep to pass before him so he would be familiar and accustomed with the Temple service.

ה

כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מַרְגִּילִין אוֹתוֹ בַּעֲבוֹדוֹת. זוֹרֵק אֶת הַדָּם וּמַקְטִיר אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת וּמַקְטִיר אֵיבְרֵי תָּמִיד עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רָגִיל בַּעֲבוֹדָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וּמוֹסְרִין לוֹ זְקֵנִים מִזִּקְנֵי בֵּית דִּין וְקוֹרְאִים לְפָנָיו וּמְלַמְּדִין אוֹתוֹ עֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם וְסִדּוּרָהּ וְאוֹמְרִין לוֹ אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל קְרָא אַתָּה בְּפִיךָ שֶׁמָּא שָׁכַחְתָּ אוֹ שֶׁמָּא לֹא לָמַדְתָּ דָּבָר זֶה. וְעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּשַׁחֲרִית הָיוּ מַעֲמִידִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁעֲרֵי הַמִּזְרָח וּמַעֲבִירִין לְפָנָיו פָּרִים וְאֵילִים וּכְבָשִׂים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מַכִּיר וְרָגִיל בַּעֲבוֹדָה:

6

Throughout these seven days food and drink are not withheld from him. Nevertheless, on the day before Yom Kippur before nightfall, they would not let him eat amply, for indulgence in food leads to sleep. And they would not let him sleep, lest he would have a seminal emission. They would not feed him foods that increase semen, e.g., eggs, warm milk, and the like.

ו

כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים לֹא הָיוּ מוֹנְעִין מִמֶּנּוּ מַאֲכָל וּמַשְׁקֶה. עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים עִם חֲשֵׁכָה לֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ לֶאֱכל הַרְבֵּה שֶׁהַמַּאֲכָל מֵבִיא אֶת הַשֵּׁנָה. וְלֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ לִישֹׁן שֶׁמָּא יִרְאֶה קֶרִי. וְלֹא הָיוּ מַאֲכִילִין אוֹתוֹ דְּבָרִים הַמַּרְגִּילִין לְשִׁכְבַת זֶרַע כְּגוֹן בֵּיצִים וְחָלָב חַם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:

7

In the era of the Second Temple, heresy erupted in Israel, and the Sadducees emerged, may they speedily perish, who did not believe in the Oral Law and who maintained that the incense offering of Yom Kippur would be placed on fire in the Sanctuary outside the Parochet and when its smoke rose up, they would bring it into the Holy of Holies. Their rationale was that they interpreted the Torah's phrase Leviticus 16:2: "For in a cloud I will appear on the Kaporet,"as referring to the cloud of the incense offering. In contrast, according to the Oral Tradition, our Sages learned that the High Priest should not place the incense on the coals only in the Holy of Holies, before the Ark, as ibid.:13 states: "And he shall place the incense on the fire before God." Since in the Second Temple era, the Sages suspected that the High Priests would tend towards such heresy, they would have him take an oath on the day preceding Yom Kippur. They would tell him: "My sir, the High Priest, we are agents of the court and you are our agent and an agent of the court, we administer an oath to you in the name of He Who causes His name to dwell in this house that you not deviate at all from what we told you."

The High Priest would turn away and cry because they suspected him of heresy and they would turn away and cry, because they placed suspicion on a person's whose conduct was unknown. Maybe he had no such thoughts in his heart.

ז

בִּימֵי בַּיִת שֵׁנִי צָץ הַמִּינוּת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְיָצְאוּ הַצְּדוֹקִין מְהֵרָה יֹאבֵדוּ שֶׁאֵינָן מַאֲמִינִין בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה. וְהָיוּ אוֹמְרִין שֶׁקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָהּ עַל הָאֵשׁ בַּהֵיכָל חוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת וּכְשֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עֲשָׁנָהּ מַכְנִיס אוֹתָהּ לְפָנִים לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. הַטַּעַם. זֶה שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא טז ב) "כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת" אָמְרוּ כִּי הוּא עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת. וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאֵין נוֹתֵן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶלָּא בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים לִפְנֵי הָאָרוֹן. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יג) "וְנָתַן הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל הָאֵשׁ לִפְנֵי ה'". וּלְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין בְּבַיִת שֵׁנִי שֶׁמָּא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל זֶה נוֹטֶה לְצַד מִינוּת. הָיוּ מַשְׁבִּיעִין אוֹתוֹ עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אָנוּ שְׁלוּחֵי בֵּית דִּין וְאַתָּה שְׁלוּחֵנוּ וּשְׁלִיחַ בֵּית דִּין. מַשְׁבִּיעִין אָנוּ עָלֶיךָ בְּמִי שֶׁשִּׁכֵּן אֶת שְׁמוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה שֶׁלֹּא תְּשַׁנֶּה דָּבָר שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ לְךָ. וְהוּא פּוֹרֵשׁ וּבוֹכֶה עַל שֶׁחֲשָׁדוּהוּ בְּמִינוּת. וְהֵן פּוֹרְשִׁין וּבוֹכִין לְפִי שֶׁחָשְׁדוּ לְמִי שֶׁמַּעֲשָׂיו סְתוּמִין שֶׁמָּא אֵין בְּלִבּוֹ כְּלוּם:

8

Throughout the entire night of Yom Kippur, the High Priest would sit and expound Torah teachings if he was a sage. If he was a scholar, expositions were delivered in his presence. If he would frequently read the Bible, he would read aloud. If not, they would read for him so that he would not sleep.

What would they read for him? The Holy Scriptures. If he sought to doze off, the young Levites would snap their fingers before him and say: "My sir, the High Priest, stand up and cool your feet on the ground," so that he would not sleep. They would keep him busy until the time for the slaughter of the morning sacrifice arrived. They would not have the sacrificial animal slaughtered until they were certain that dawn had broken lest the animal be slaughtered at night.

ח

כָּל לֵילֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל יוֹשֵׁב וְדוֹרֵשׁ אִם הָיָה חָכָם. וְאִם הָיָה תַּלְמִיד דּוֹרְשִׁים לְפָנָיו. אִם הָיָה רָגִיל לִקְרֹא קוֹרֵא וְאִם לָאו קוֹרִין לְפָנָיו. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִישַׁן. וּבַמֶּה קוֹרִין לְפָנָיו. בְּכִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ. בִּקֵּשׁ לְהִתְנַמְנֵם פִּרְחֵי לְוִיָּה מַכִּין לְפָנָיו בְּאֶצְבַּע צְרֵדָה. וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עֲמֹד וְהִצְטַנֵּן מְעַט עַל הָרִצְפָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּישַׁן. וּמִתְעַסְּקִין עִמּוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַן שְׁחִיטָה. וְלֹא הָיוּ שׁוֹחֲטִין עַד שֶׁמַּכִּירִין שֶׁעָלָה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁחֲטוּ בַּלַּיְלָה:

Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 2

1

All of the procedures involving the offering of the continuous offerings and the additional offerings of this day are performed by the High Priest while he is wearing his golden garments. The unique services of this day, by contrast, are performed while he is wearing his white garments.

The unique services of the day are: the offering of the bull brought by the High Priest, the offering of the two goats including the one sent to Azazel, and the offering of the incense in the Holy of Holies. All of these services are performed while wearing white garments.

א

כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה הַתְּמִידִין וְהַמּוּסָפִין שֶׁל יוֹם זֶה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן וְהוּא לָבוּשׁ בְּבִגְדֵי זָהָב. וַעֲבוֹדוֹת הַמְיֻחָדוֹת לְיוֹם זֶה בְּבִגְדֵי לָבָן. וַעֲבוֹדָה הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לְיוֹם זֶה הִיא מַעֲשֵׂה הַפָּר שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. וּשְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִים שֶׁאֶחָד מֵהֶן שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. וְהַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. כָּל אֵלּוּ בְּבִגְדֵי לָבָן הֵם נַעֲשִׂים:

2

Whenever the High Priest must change his clothes, removing one set of garments and putting on the others, he must immerse himself in a mikveh, as Leviticus 16:23-24] states: "And he shall remove the linen garments... and wash his flesh with water in a holy place and put on his garments." The High Priest would immerse himself five times and sanctify his hands and feet ten times on that day.

What is implied? At the outset, he would remove the ordinary garments he was wearing and immerse himself. He would ascend, dry himself, put on his golden garments and, sanctify his hands and feet. He would slaughter the continuous offering, offer the daily morning incense, and kindle the lamps of the Menorah. He would then offer the limbs of the continuous offering on the pyre of the altar together with the chavitin offering and the wine libations. Then he would offer the bull and the seven sheep of the additional offering of the day.

Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his golden garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his white garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then perform the unique service of the day, reciting all the confessions, performing the lottery of the goats, sprinkling the blood in the Temple building and offering the incense offering in the Holy of Holies. He would entrust the goat to the one who would send it to Azazel, remove the fats and organs of the bull and the goat that will be burnt and entrust the remainder to the one who will burn them.

Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his white garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his golden garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then offer the sin-offering of a goat of the additional offerings of the day, his ram and the ram of the people. These are all burnt-offerings. He would offer the fats and organs of the bull and the goat that were burnt, and offer the continuous offering of the afternoon.

Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his golden garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his white garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then enter the Holy of Holies and remove the incense-ladle and the fire-pan. Afterwards, he would sanctify his hands and feet and remove his white garments. He would immerse himself, ascend, dry himself, put on his golden garments, and sanctify his hands and feet. He would then offer the daily, afternoon incense offering and kindle the lamps of the Menorah for the afternoon. He would then sanctify his hands and feet, remove his golden garments, put on his ordinary clothes and depart.

ב

כָּל עֵת שֶׁיְּשַׁנֶּה הַבְּגָדִים וְיִפְשֹׁט בְּגָדִים וְלוֹבֵשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים טָעוּן טְבִילָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כג) "וּפָשַׁט אֶת בִּגְדֵי הַבָּד" (ויקרא טז כד) "וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַמַּיִם בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ וְלָבַשׁ אֶת בְּגָדָיו". וְחָמֵשׁ טְבִילוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה קִדּוּשִׁין טוֹבֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם. כֵּיצַד. בַּתְּחִלָּה פּוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי חֹל שֶׁעָלָיו וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וְשׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַתָּמִיד וּמַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל שַׁחַר שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת וּמַקְטִיר אֵיבְרֵי הַתָּמִיד עִם הַחֲבִיתִין וְהַנְּסָכִים וּמַקְרִיב הַפָּר וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי הַזָּהָב וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי לָבָן. וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדַת הַיּוֹם כָּל הַוִּדּוּיִּים עִם הַהַגְרָלָה וּזְרִיקַת הַדָּמִים בִּפְנִים וְהַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. וּמוֹסֵר הַשָּׂעִיר לַמְשַׁלְּחוֹ לַעֲזָאזֵל. וּמוֹצִיא אֵימוּרֵי הַפָּר וְהַשָּׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִים וּמוֹסֵר שְׁאֵרָן לִשְׂרֵפָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי לָבָן וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג. וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּמַקְרִיב שְׂעִיר חַטָּאת שֶׁל מוּסָף הַיּוֹם וְאֵילוֹ וְאֵיל הָעָם. וְהֵם עוֹלוֹת. וּמַקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵי פַּר וְשָׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. וּמַקְרִיב תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב. וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי לָבָן. וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וְנִכְנָס לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים. וּמוֹצִיא מִשָּׁם אֶת הַכַּף וְאֶת הַמַּחְתָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי לָבָן. וְטוֹבֵל וְעוֹלֶה וּמִסְתַּפֵּג. וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּמַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וּמְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. וּפוֹשֵׁט בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וְלוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי חֹל וְיוֹצֵא:

3

All of these immersions and the sanctification of his hands and feet were performed in the Temple Courtyard, as the verse states: "And he shall wash his flesh with water in a holy place," with the exception of the first immersion which he is permitted to perform outside the Temple, for it is only to heighten his awareness so that he will remember any old situation that caused him to become impure and separate himself from this impurity by immersing himself with that intent.

If a High Priest did not immerse himself between a change of clothes or did not sanctify his hands and feet between a change of clothes and between one type of service and another and still performed the service, his service is acceptable.

ג

כָּל הַטְּבִילוֹת הָאֵלּוּ וְהַקִּדּוּשִׁין כֻּלָּן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז כד) "וְרָחַץ אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בַמַּיִם בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ". חוּץ מִטְּבִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהוּא רַשַּׁאי לִטְבּל אוֹתָהּ בְּחֹל שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא לְהוֹסִיף כַּוָּנָתוֹ. שֶׁאִם יִזְכֹּר טֻמְאָה יְשָׁנָה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ יִפְרשׁ מִמֶּנָּה בִּטְבִילָה זוֹ לִשְׁמָהּ. וְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁלֹּא טָבַל בֵּין בְּגָדִים לִבְגָדִים אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא קִדֵּשׁ בֵּין בֶּגֶד לְבֶגֶד וּבֵין עֲבוֹדָה לַעֲבוֹדָה וְעָבַד. עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

4

If the High Priest was elderly or sick, iron slabs should be made white-hot in fire from the previous day, and on the next day they would be cast into the water to remove their chill. This is permitted because prohibitions defined as shvut need not be observed in the Temple. Alternatively, hot water is mixed with the mikveh water to remove its chill.

ד

הָיָה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה מְלַבְּנִין עֲשָׁשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל בְּאֵשׁ מִבָּעֶרֶב וּלְמָחָר מְטִילִין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם כְּדֵי לְהָפִיג צִנָּתָן שֶׁאֵין שְׁבוּת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. אוֹ מְעָרְבִין מַיִם חַמִּין בְּמֵי הַמִּקְוֶה עַד שֶׁתָּפִיג צִנָּתָן:

5

Every other day, the High Priest sanctifies his hands and feet from the basin like the other priests. On this day, he sanctifies them from a golden pitcher as expression of honor for him.

Every day, the priests ascend on the eastern side of the ramp and descend on the western side. On this day, they ascend in the center and descend in the center before the High Priest to glorify him.

Every day, the priest who merited to bring the incense offering would gather coals in a silver fire-pan and then shift the fire into a golden fire-pan. On this day, the High Priest gathers the coals with a golden fire pan and enters the Temple Building with it so as not to weary him with additional service. Similarly, the fire-pan used every day holds four kabbin of coals and the one used on this day, three. The one used every day was heavy and the one used this day, light. The one used every day had a short handle and the one used this day, a long one. All of these were measures to make it easier for the High Priest so that he would not weary.

Every day, there were three arrangements of fire on the altar. On this day, there were four. Another arrangement was added in order to glorify the altar and adorn it.

ה

בְּכָל יוֹם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מְקַדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו מִן הַכִּיּוֹר כִּשְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַיּוֹם מְקַדֵּשׁ מִקִּיתוֹן שֶׁל זָהָב מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ. בְּכָל יוֹם הַכֹּהֲנִים עוֹלִים בְּמִזְרָחוֹ שֶׁל כֶּבֶשׁ וְיוֹרְדִין בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ וְהַיּוֹם עוֹלִים בָּאֶמְצַע וְיוֹרְדִין בָּאֶמְצַע לִפְנֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל כְּדֵי לְהַדְּרוֹ. בְּכָל יוֹם מִי שֶׁזָּכָה בַּמַּחְתָּה חוֹתֶה בְּמַחְתָּה שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וּמְעָרֶה הָאֵשׁ לְמַחְתָּה שֶׁל זָהָב וְהַיּוֹם חוֹתֶה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּמַחְתָּה שֶׁל זָהָב וּבָהּ נִכְנָס לַהֵיכָל. שֶׁלֹּא לְיַגְּעוֹ בְּתוֹסֶפֶת עֲבוֹדָה. וְכֵן מַחְתָּה שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם מַחְזֶקֶת אַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין וְשֶׁל הַיּוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה קַבִּין וּבְכָל יוֹם הָיְתָה כְּבֵדָה וְהַיּוֹם קַלָּה. וּבְכָל יוֹם יָדָהּ קְצָרָה וְהַיּוֹם אֲרֻכָּה כְּדֵי לְהָקֵל עַל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא יִיגַע. בְּכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם הָיוּ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שָׁלֹשׁ מַעֲרָכוֹת שֶׁל אֵשׁ וְהַיּוֹם הָיוּ שָׁם אַרְבַּע. מוֹסִיפִין מַעֲרָכָה כְּדֵי לְהַדֵּר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְעַטְּרוֹ:

6

The Torah's statements Leviticus 16:17: "And he shall atone for himself, for his household, and for the entire congregation of Israel" is interpreted by the Oral Tradition as referring to the recitation of the confessional. Thus he recites three confessions on this day:

one for himself first;

one for himself together with the other priests; both of these are recited over the bull which he brings as a sin-offering;

and the third is recited for the entire Jewish people on the goat sent to Azazel. In each of these confessions, he recites God's explicit name three times.

What is implied? He says: "I beseech you, HaShem, I have sinned, transgressed, and committed iniquity before You. I beseech you, HaShem, please atone for the sins, transgressions, and iniquities that I committed..., as ibid.:30 states: "For on that day, he shall atone for you to purify yourselves for all your sins, before God you shall be purified." Thus he mentions God's name three times in his confession. And he does this in each of these confessions.

When he places the lot on the goat of the sin-offering, he proclaims: "A sin-offering for HaShem." Thus he mentions God's explicit name ten times on this day. On all occasions, he recites the name as it is written, pronouncing His explicit name.

Originally, the High Priest would raise his voice when pronouncing God's name. When the number of wanton people increased, he would recite it in a low voice, swallowing it in a sweet chant until even his priestly brethren could not recognize it.

ו

זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא טז יז) "וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה וִדּוּי דְּבָרִים. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁהוּא מִתְוַדֶּה בְּיוֹם זֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה וִדּוּיִים. אֶחָד עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ תְּחִלָּה. וִדּוּי שֵׁנִי עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ עִם שְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם עַל פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ. וְהַוִּדּוּי שְׁלִישִׁי עַל יְדֵי כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. וּמַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם בְּכָל וִדּוּי מֵהֶן שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים. כֵּיצַד הוּא אוֹמֵר. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם חָטָאתִי עָוִיתִי וּפָשַׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם כַּפֵּר נָא לַחֲטָאִים וְלָעֲווֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים שֶׁחָטָאתִי וְשֶׁעָוִיתִי וְשֶׁפָּשַׁעְתִּי וְכוּ' שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז ל) "כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי ה' תִּטְהָרוּ". הֲרֵי שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים הִזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם. וְכֵן בְּכָל וִדּוּי מֵהֶן. וּכְשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן אֶת הַגּוֹרָל עַל שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אוֹמֵר לַהַשֵּׁם חַטָּאת. נִמְצָא מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם בַּיּוֹם זֶה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים. וּבְכֻלָּם הוּא מַזְכִּיר כִּכְתָבוֹ שֶׁהוּא הַשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת קוֹלוֹ בַּשֵּׁם. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרַבּוּ פְּרוּצִין חָזְרוּ לְאָמְרוֹ בְּקוֹל נָמוּךְ וּמַבְלִיעוֹ בִּנְעִימוּת עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַכִּירוּ בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ חֲבֵרָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:

7

When all the priests and the people standing in the Temple Courtyard would hear God's explicit name recited by the High Priest in holiness and purity, they would bow, prostrate themselves, and fall on their faces, saying: "Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever." The rationale is that Deuteronomy 32:3 states: "When I call out the name of God, ascribe greatness to our Lord."

During the three confessions, he would intend to complete the recitation of God's name while the people were blessing, and then he would say: "You shall be purified." It is acceptable to recite the confessional of Yom Kippur and the confessional over the bulls that are burnt throughout the entire day.

ז

כָּל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה כְּשֶׁהֵם שׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה. הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם וְאוֹמְרִים בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כָּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֵד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב ג) "כִּי שֵׁם ה' אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גֹּדֶל לֵאלֹהֵינוּ". וּבִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַוִּדּוּיִּים הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כְּנֶגֶד הַמְבָרְכִין וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן תִּטְהָרוּ. וְכָל הַיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר לְוִדּוּי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וּלְוִדּוּי הַפָּרִים הַנִּשְׂרָפִים:

Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 3

1

There were two lots: upon one was written: "for God," and upon the other "for Azazel." It was acceptable to make them from any substance, whether from wood, from stone, or from metal. There should not, however, be one that is large and the other small, one that is silver and the other, gold. Instead, they should both be the same. Originally, they were made of wood and in the Second Temple era, they made them of gold.

The two lots would be placed in a container that could fit no more than the High Priest's two hands, so that he would insert both of his hands at the same time and remove the lots without having the intent to chose one. This container was not sacred. It was made out of wood and was called a kalpi.

א

שְׁנֵּי הַגּוֹרָלוֹת אֶחָד כָּתוּב עָלָיו לַהַשֵּׁם וְאֶחָד כָּתוּב עָלָיו לַעֲזָאזֵל. וְהֵם כְּשֵׁרִים מִכָּל דָּבָר בֵּין מִן הָעֵץ בֵּין מִן הָאֶבֶן בֵּין מִן הַמַּתֶּכֶת. אֲבָל לֹא יִהְיֶה אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן. אֶחָד כֶּסֶף וְאֶחָד זָהָב. אֶלָּא שְׁנֵיהֶם שָׁוִין. וְשֶׁל עֵץ הָיוּ. וּבְבַיִת שֵׁנִי עָשׂוּ אוֹתָם שֶׁל זָהָב. וּמַנִּיחִין שְׁנֵי הַגּוֹרָלוֹת בִּכְלִי אֶחָד הַמַּחֲזִיק שְׁתֵּי הַיָּדָיִם כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּכְנִיס שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו וְלֹא יִתְכַּוֵּן. וּכְלִי זֶה חֹל הוּא. וְשֶׁל עֵץ הָיָה וְקַלְפִּי שְׁמוֹ:

2

Where was the lottery conducted? In the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard, to the north of the altar. They would place the kalpi there and position the two goats facing the west with their rears to the east. The High Priest approaches that place with the segen on his right and the head of the clan to his left. The two goats were in front of him, one to his left and one to his right.

ב

הֵיכָן מַגְרִיל. בְּמִזְרַח הָעֲזָרָה בִּצְפוֹן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. מַנִּיחִין שָׁם הַקַּלְפִּי. וּמַעֲמִידִין שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִים פְּנֵיהֶן לַמַּעֲרָב וַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם לַמִּזְרָח. וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בָּא לְשָׁם וְהַסְּגָן מִימִינוֹ וְרֹאשׁ בֵּית אָב מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ וּשְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִים לְפָנָיו אֶחָד לִימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ:

3

He would quickly grab the lots from the kalpi and lift up the two lots in his two hands for the two goats. He would open his hands. If the lot "for God" was lifted up in his right hand, the segen would say: "My sir, the High Priest, raise your right hand." If it was lifted up in his left, the head of the clan would say: "My sir, the High Priest, raise your left hand."

He would then place the two lots on the two goats, the lot in his right hand on the goat to his right and the lot in his left on the goat to his left. If he did not place the lots on the goats, the service was not disqualified, but the mitzvah was lacking. For placing the lots on the goats is a mitzvah that is not an absolute requirement. The selection of the lots, by contrast, is an absolute requirement, even though it is not an act of service. Therefore it is acceptable if a non-priest places the lots on the goats, but it is invalid if a non-priest lifts the lots from the kalpi.

ג

טָרַף בַּקַּלְפִּי וְהֶעֱלָה שְׁנֵי הַגּוֹרָלוֹת בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו לְשֵׁם שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִים וּפוֹתֵחַ יָדָיו. אִם שֶׁל שֵׁם עָלָה בִּימִינוֹ הַסְּגָן אוֹמֵר אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הַגְבֵּהַּ יְמִינְךָ. וְאִם בִּשְׂמֹאל עָלָה רֹאשׁ בֵּית אָב אוֹמֵר לוֹ אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הַגְבֵּהַּ שְׂמֹאלְךָ. וְנוֹתֵן שְׁנֵי הַגּוֹרָלוֹת עַל שְׁנֵיהֶם. שֶׁל יָמִין עַל יָמִין וְשֶׁל שְׂמֹאל עַל שֶׁל שְׂמֹאל. וְאִם לֹא נָתַן לֹא עִכֵּב אֶלָּא שֶׁחִסֵּר מִצְוָה. שֶׁהַהַנָּחָה מִצְוָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת וְהַהַגְרָלָה מְעַכֶּבֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲבוֹדָה. לְפִיכָךְ הַהַנָּחָה כְּשֵׁרָה בְּזָר וְהַעֲלָיַת הַגּוֹרָלוֹת מִן הַקַּלְפִּי פְּסוּלָה בְּזָר:

4

He ties a crimson cord weighing two selaim on the head of the goat to be sent to Azazel and positions it in the direction where it will be sent and ties such a cord on the goat to be slaughtered, hanging it over the place where it will be slaughtered. He then slaughters both his sin-offering of a bull and the goat for which the lot "for God" was lifted up.

ד

וְקוֹשֵׁר לְשׁוֹן זְהוֹרִית מִשְׁקַל שְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים בְּרֹאשׁ שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וּמַעֲמִידוֹ כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית שִׁלּוּחוֹ וְלַנִּשְׁחָט כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית שְׁחִיטָתוֹ. וְשׁוֹחֵט אֶת פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וְאֶת הַשָּׂעִיר שֶׁעָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַשֵּׁם:

5

He brings their blood into the Temple Building, where he sprinkles each 43 times. The sprinklings are as follows: First he sprinkles the blood of the bull eight times in the Holy of Holies between the staves of the ark within a handbreadth of the kaporet, as Leviticus 16:14 states: "He shall sprinkle before the kaporet." He should sprinkle once upward and seven times downward. According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that when above verse mentions the seven sprinklings, the intent is seven in addition to the first sprinkling.

He would count: one, one plus one, one plus two, one plus three, one plus four, one plus five, one plus six, and one plus seven. Why would he count in this manner? So that he would not forget and include the first sprinkling among the seven.

Afterwards, he would sprinkle the blood of the goat between the staves of the ark seven times, once upward and seven downward. He counts the sprinklings as he did for the blood of the bull.

He then goes and sprinkles the blood of the bull eight times in the Sanctuary on the parochet: once upward and seven downward. For with regard to the blood of the bull, the above prooftext states: "on the kaporet and before the kaporet." He counts as he counted within the Holy of Holies. He then sprinkles the blood of the goat eight times on the parochet, once upward and seven downward. For ibid.:15 states with regard to the blood of the goat: "And you shall do with its blood what you did with the blood of the bull." He also counts the sprinklings as he counted them inside the Holy of Holies. While performing all of these sprinklings, he would not intend to sprinkle above or below, but instead would be like one who is lashing.

After the sprinklings, he mixes both bloods - the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat - together and performs four sprinklings - one on each of the corners of the golden altar in the Sanctuary - and seven sprinklings on the center of this altar.

ה

וּמַכְנִיס דָּמָן לַהֵיכָל וּמַזֶּה מִדַּם שְׁנֵיהֶן בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה אַרְבָּעִים וְשָׁלֹשׁ הַזָּיוֹת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. מַזֶּה תְּחִלָּה מִדַּם הַפָּר שְׁמוֹנֶה הַזָּיוֹת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקָּדָשִׁים בֵּין בַּדֵּי הָאָרוֹן קָרוֹב לַכַּפֹּרֶת בְּטֶפַח שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יד) "וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה" וְגוֹ'. וּמַזֶּה שָׁם אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יד) "שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים" יַזֶּה יֶתֶר עַל הַזָּיָה רִאשׁוֹנָה. וְכָךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה. אַחַת. אַחַת וְאַחַת אַחַת וּשְׁתַּיִם אַחַת וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַחַת וְאַרְבַּע אַחַת וְחָמֵשׁ אַחַת וְשֵׁשׁ אַחַת וְשֶׁבַע. וְלָמָּה מוֹנֶה כָּכָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִמְנֶה הַזָּיָה רִאשׁוֹנָה מִכְּלַל הַשֶּׁבַע. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַזֶּה מִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר בֵּין בַּדֵּי הָאָרוֹן שְׁמוֹנֶה אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה וּמוֹנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמּוֹנֶה בְּדַם הַפָּר. וְחוֹזֵר וּמַזֶּה בַּהֵיכָל עַל הַפָּרֹכֶת מִדַּם הַפָּר שְׁמוֹנֶה. אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה שֶׁכָּךְ נֶאֱמַר בְּדַם הַפָּר (ויקרא טז טו) "עַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת". וּמוֹנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמּוֹנֶה בִּפְנִים. וְחוֹזֵר וּמַזֶּה מִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר כֵּן עַל הַפָּרֹכֶת שְׁמוֹנֶה הַזָּיוֹת אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּדַם הַשָּׂעִיר (ויקרא טז טו) "וְעָשָׂה אֶת דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר". וּמוֹנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמּוֹנֶה בִּפְנִים. וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַהַזָּיוֹת אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן בָּהֶן לְהַזּוֹת לֹא לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא לְמַטָּה אֶלָּא כְּמַצְלִיף. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְעָרֵב שְׁנֵי הַדָּמִים דַּם הַפָּר וְדַם הַשָּׂעִיר וּמַזֶּה מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אַרְבַּע הַזָּיוֹת עַל אַרְבַּע קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל וְשֶׁבַע הַזָּיוֹת עַל אֶמְצָעוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ זֶה:

6

For all these 43 sprinklings, he dips his finger in the blood of the sacrificial animal, dipping once for each sprinkling. He should not sprinkle twice from one dipping. He would pour out the remainder of the blood on the western portion of the altar's base.

ו

וְכָל אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעִים וְשָׁלֹשׁ הַזָּיוֹת טוֹבֵל אֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּדַם טְבִילָה עַל כָּל הַזָּיָה לֹא שֶׁיַּזֶּה שְׁתֵּי הַזָּיוֹת מִטְּבִילָה אַחַת. וּשְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם שׁוֹפֵךְ עַל יְסוֹד מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן:

7

Afterwards, he would send the living goat to be taken to the desert with a person prepared for this task. Anyone is acceptable to take the goat, but the High Priests ordained a fixed practice and they would not let an Israelite take it. Booths were built on the way from Jerusalem to the desert. One person or many people would spend the day in each booth so that they would accompany him from booth to booth. In each booth, they would say: "Here is food and here is water." If he became weak and it was necessary for him to eat, he would eat, but no one ever required this. The people in the last booth would stand at the end of the Sabbath limits and watch his actions from a distance.

What would he do? He would divide the crimson cord tied to the goat's horns.He would tie half to a rock and half between its two horns. He would then push it backward and it would roll over and descend. It would not reach half of the mountain before it was broken into separate limbs, He would then sit in the last booth until nightfall. Sentries would be positioned along the way who wave flags so that the people in the Temple would know that the goat reached the desert.

After sending the goat with the person who would take it to the desert, the High Priest would return to his bull and the goat whose blood he sprinkled inside the Temple Building. He rips open their bellies and removes their fats and organs, places them in a container to offer them on the altar's pyre. He cuts up the remainder of their meat into large pieces that are still connected like a net. He does not separate them and he sends them with other persons to take them out to the place where they are burnt. There they are cut up together with their hide, as we explained.

ז

וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי בְּיַד אִישׁ הַמּוּכָן לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לַמִּדְבָּר. וְהַכּל כְּשֵׁרִים לְהוֹלִיכוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁעָשׂוּ כֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים קֶבַע וְלֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהוֹלִיכוֹ. וְסֻכּוֹת הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין מִירוּשָׁלַיִם עַד תְּחִלַּת הַמִּדְבָּר. וְשׁוֹבֵת אִישׁ אֶחָד אוֹ אֲנָשִׁים הַרְבֵּה בְּכָל סֻכָּה וְסֻכָּה מֵהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ מִסֻּכָּה לְסֻכָּה. עַל כָּל סֻכָּה וְסֻכָּה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הֲרֵי מָזוֹן וַהֲרֵי מַיִם. אִם כָּשַׁל כֹּחוֹ וְצָרִיךְ לֶאֱכל אוֹכֵל. וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא הֻצְרַךְ אָדָם לְכָךְ. וְאַנְשֵׁי הַסֻּכָּה הָאַחֲרוֹנָה עוֹמְדִין בְּסוֹף הַתְּחוּם וְרוֹאִין אֶת מַעֲשָׂיו מֵרָחוֹק. כֵּיצַד הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה. חוֹלֵק לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית שֶׁבְּקַרְנָיו. חֶצְיוֹ קוֹשֵׁר בַּסֶּלַע וְחֶצְיוֹ קוֹשֵׁר בֵּין שְׁתֵּי קַרְנָיו. וְדוֹחֲפוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו וְהוּא מִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְיוֹרֵד. לֹא הָיָה מַגִּיעַ לַחֲצִי הָהָר עַד שֶׁהוּא נַעֲשֶׂה אֵיבָרִים אֵיבָרִים. וּבָא וְיוֹשֵׁב לוֹ תַּחַת סֻכָּה הָאַחֲרוֹנָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ. וְדַרְכִיּוֹת הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין וּמְנִיפִין בְּסוּדָרִין כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. וְאַחַר שֶׁמְּשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר בְּיַד מוֹלִיכוֹ חוֹזֵר אֵצֶל הַפָּר וְהַשָּׂעִיר שֶׁהִזָּה דָּמָן לְפָנִים וְקוֹרְעָן וּמוֹצִיא אֶת אֵימוּרֵיהֶן וְנוֹתְנָם בִּכְלִי וּמַקְטִירָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וּמְחַתֵּךְ שְׁאָר בְּשָׂרָן חֲתִיכוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת מְעֹרוֹת זוֹ בְּזוֹ כְּמִין קְלִיעָה וְאֵינוֹ מְפָרֵק אוֹתָן וּמְשַׁלְּחָן בְּיַד אֲחֵרִים לְהוֹצִיאָן לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. וּמְנַתְּחִין אוֹתָן שָׁם בְּעוֹרָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

After the goat reached the desert, the High Priest would go out to the Women's Courtyard to read from the Torah. While he would read, the bull and the goat were burnt in the ash-pile. Thus one who sees the High Priest reading does not see the bull and the goat being burnt. They may be burnt by a non-priest, as we explained.

ח

כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר יָצָא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל לְעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים לִקְרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה. וּבִזְמַן קְרִיאָתוֹ שׂוֹרְפִין הַפָּר וְהַשָּׂעִיר בְּבֵית הַדֶּשֶׁן. לְפִיכָךְ הָרוֹאֶה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל כְּשֶׁהוּא קוֹרֵא אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה פַּר וְשָׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. וּשְׂרֵפָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה בְּזָר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

9

This reading is not part of the Temple service. Therefore if the High Priest desires to read in his own ordinary white garments he may. If he desires to read while wearing his priestly white garments, he may. For the priestly garments were made with the intent that benefit could be derived from them at a time when one is not involved in sacrificial service, as we explained.

ט

קְרִיאָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ עֲבוֹדָה לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָצָה לִקְרוֹת בְּבִגְדֵי חֹל לְבָנִים מִשֶּׁלּוֹ קוֹרֵא. וְאִם רָצָה לִקְרוֹת בְּבִגְדֵי לָבָן קוֹרֵא שֶׁבִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה נִתְּנוּ לֵהָנוֹת בָּהֶן שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת עֲבוֹדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

10

How would he read? He would sit in the Women's Courtyard while all the people stand in front of him. The attendant of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue. The head of the synagogue gives it to the segen and the segen gives it to the High Priest.

The High Priest stands and accepts it and stands and reads the passage Acharei Mot and ach bieasor which is in the passage of the festive offerings until the conclusion of the matter. He then roles close the Torah scroll and places it in his bosom and declares: "More than I have read for you is written here." He then reads the passage ubieasor in the Book of Numbers until its conclusion by heart.

Why does he read it by heart? Because we do not roll a Torah scroll from passage to passage in front of a congregation. Why does he not read it from another scroll? Because one person should not read from two Torah scrolls, because this will cast aspersions on the validity of the first.

י

כֵּיצַד הוּא קוֹרֵא. יוֹשֵׁב בְּעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים וְכָל הָעָם עוֹמְדִין לְפָנָיו. וְחַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹטֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְרֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת וְרֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹתְנוֹ לַסְּגָן וְהַסְּגָן נוֹתְנוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל. וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹמֵד וּמְקַבֵּל עוֹמֵד וְקוֹרֵא (ויקרא טז א) "אַחֲרֵי מוֹת" וְ(ויקרא כג כז) "אַךְ בֶּעָשׂוֹר" שֶׁבְּפָרָשַׁת מוֹעֲדוֹת עַד סוֹף הָעִנְיָן וְגוֹלֵל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וּמַנִּיחָהּ בְּחֵיקוֹ וְאוֹמֵר יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁקָּרָאתִי לִפְנֵיכֶם כָּתוּב כָּאן. וּבֶעָשׂוֹר שֶׁבְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים עַד סוֹף הָעִנְיָן קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ עַל פֶּה. וְלָמָּה קוֹרֵא עַל פֶּה שֶׁאֵין גּוֹלְלִין סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה בְּצִבּוּר. וְלָמָּה לֹא יִקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר אַחֵר. לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אֶחָד קוֹרֵא בִּשְׁנֵי סְפָרִים מִשּׁוּם פְּגַם רִאשׁוֹן:

11

When he reads, he recites a blessing before the reading and afterwards as one recites the blessing for the Torah reading in a synagogue. Afterwards, he adds seven blessings, which are retzei, modim, selach lanu avinu ki chatanu, he concludes the latter blessing: "Blessed are You, God, Who forgives the sins of His people Israel with mercy." Thus three blessings are recited as ordained.

He then recites a separate blessing for the Temple. Its theme is that the Temple should continue standing with the Divine Presence in it. He concludes it: "Blessed are You, God, Who dwells in Zion."

He then recites a separate blessing for the Jewish people. Its theme is that God should deliver the Jewish people and sovereignty should not depart from them. He concludes it: "Blessed are You, God, Who chooses Israel."

He then recites a separate blessing for the priests. Its theme is that the Omnipresent should find favor in their deeds and service and bless them. He concludes it: "Blessed are You, God, Who sanctifies the priests."

He then recites prayers, supplication, praises, and requests according to his proficiency and concludes "God, deliver Your nation Israel, for Your nation Israel is in need of salvation. Blessed are You, God, Who heeds prayer."

יא

בְּעֵת שֶׁקּוֹרֵא מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. וּמוֹסִיף לְאַחֲרֶיהָ שֶׁבַע בְּרָכוֹת וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. רְצֵה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְכוּ' מוֹדִים אֲנַחְנוּ לָךְ וְכוּ' סְלַח לָנוּ אָבִינוּ כִּי חָטָאנוּ וְכוּ' וְחוֹתֵם בָּהּ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' מוֹחֵל עֲוֹנוֹת עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרַחֲמִים. הֲרֵי שָׁלֹשׁ בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִקְנָן. וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ יִהְיֶה עִנְיָנָהּ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁכִינָה בְּתוֹכוֹ וְחוֹתֵם בָּהּ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' שׁוֹכֵן בְּצִיּוֹן. וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ עִנְיָנָהּ שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיעַ ה' אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יָסוּר מֵהֶן מֶלֶךְ וְחוֹתֵם בָּהּ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הַבּוֹחֵר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּרָכָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ עִנְיָנָהּ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַמָּקוֹם מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וַעֲבוֹדָתָם וִיבָרְכֵם וְחוֹתֵם בָּהּ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' מְקַדֵּשׁ הַכֹּהֲנִים. וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר תְּפִלָּה וּתְחִנָּה וְרִנָּה וּבַקָּשָׁה כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁהוּא רָגִיל וְחוֹתֵם הוֹשַׁע ה' עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִין לְהִוָּשַׁע בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah