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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 3, Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 4, Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 5

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 3

1

It is a positive commandment to offer the incense1 offering2 on the Golden Altar3 in the Sanctuary twice each day, in the morning and in the afternoon, as [Exodus 30:7] states: "And Aaron shall burn on it the incense of fragrant spices."

If one did not offer it in the morning, he should offer it in the afternoon even if [the omission] was intentional.4 The Golden Altar may be dedicated only with the incense offering of the afternoon.5

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהַקְטִיר הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל פַּעֲמַיִם בְּכָל יוֹם בַּבֹּקֶר וּבֵין הָעַרְבַּיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ל ז) "וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים". לֹא הִקְטִירוּ בַּבֹּקֶר יַקְטִירוּ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מְזִידִין. וְאֵין מְחַנְּכִין מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב אֶלָּא בִּקְטֹרֶת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

2

How much [incense] was offered every day? [An amount that] weighed 100 dinarim,6 50 in the morning and 50 in the afternoon.

If the altar was removed from its place, the incense offering should, nevertheless, be offered there.7 When incense - even a grain of it - flies off the altar, it should not be returned.8

ב

כַּמָּה מַקְטִירִין מִמֶּנָּה בְּכָל יוֹם. מִשְׁקַל מֵאָה דִּינָרִין. חֲמִשִּׁים בַּבֹּקֶר וַחֲמִשִּׁים בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. מִזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר מַקְטִירִין הַקְּטֹרֶת בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וּקְטֹרֶת שֶׁפָּקְעָה מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲפִלּוּ קְרָטִין שֶׁבָּהּ אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתָן:

3

When the incense is offered in the Sanctuary every day,9 all of the people depart from the Sanctuary and from [the area] between the Entrance Hall and the altar. No one should be there until [the priest] who offers the incense offering departs. Similarly, at the time when [a priest] enters [to sprinkle] the blood of a sin-offering that is offered inside [the Temple],10 everyone departs from from [the area] between the Entrance Hall and the altar until he departs, as [Leviticus 16:17] states: "And no person should be in the Tent of Meeting when he enters to atone in the holy place." [This is] a general principle11 [applying] to all atonement [made] in the holy place: No [other] person should be there.

ג

בְּעֵת שֶׁמַּקְטִירִין הַקְּטֹרֶת בַּהֵיכָל בְּכָל יוֹם פּוֹרְשִׁין כָּל הָעָם מִן הַהֵיכָל וּמִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִהְיֶה שָׁם אָדָם עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא זֶה שֶׁהִקְטִיר הַקְּטֹרֶת. וְכֵן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בְּדַם חַטָּאוֹת הַנַּעֲשׂוֹת בִּפְנִים פּוֹרְשִׁים הַכּל מִבֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טז יז) "וְכָל אָדָם לֹא יִהְיֶה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּבֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ" וְגוֹ' בִּנְיַן אָב לְכָל כַּפָּרָה שֶׁבַּקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שָׁם אָדָם:

4

What is the order of the offering of the incense offering each day? [The priest] who merited12 to remove the ashes from the inner altar enters [the Sanctuary] [holding a] consecrated vessel called a teni.13 It was gold14 and would contain two and a half kabbin.15 He would place the teni on the ground in front of him and scoop up the ashes and the coals on the altar with his hands16 and deposit them in the teni. At the end, he would sweep off the remainder into it. He would leave [the teni] in the Sanctuary and depart.17

The one who merited to bring the incense offering18 would take a vessel filled to overflowing with incense. [The vessel] had a cover and was called a bezech.19 He would place the bezech in another vessel that was called a kaf. He would cover the kaf with a small cloth and hold the kaf in his hand. [Another priest]20 would enter [the Sanctuary] with him holding a fire-pan with fire.21

ד

כֵּיצַד סֵדֶר הַקְטָרַת הַקְּטֹרֶת בְּכָל יוֹם. מִי שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי נִכְנַס בִּכְלִי קֹדֶשׁ וְטֶנִי הָיָה שְׁמוֹ וְשֶׁל זָהָב הָיָה וּמַחֲזִיק קַבַּיִם וָחֵצִי. מַנִּיחַ הַטֶּנִי בָּאָרֶץ לְפָנָיו וְחוֹפֵן בְּיָדָיו הָאֵפֶר וְהַפֶּחָם שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַטֶּנִי. וּבָאַחֲרוֹנָה מְכַבֵּד אֶת הַשְּׁאָר לְתוֹכוֹ וּמַנִּיחוֹ שָׁם בַּהֵיכָל וְיוֹצֵא. וּמִי שֶׁזָּכָה בַּקְּטֹרֶת נוֹטֵל כְּלִי מָלֵא קְטֹרֶת גָּדוּשׁ. וְכִסּוּי הָיָה לוֹ וּבָזָךְ הָיָה שְׁמוֹ וְנוֹתֵן הַבָּזָךְ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי אַחֵר וְכַף הָיָה שְׁמוֹ. וּמְכַסֶּה אֶת הַכַּף בְּבֶגֶד קָטָן וְאוֹחֵז הַכַּף בְּיָדוֹ וְנִכְנַס עִמּוֹ אֶחָד בַּמַּחְתָּה שֶׁל אֵשׁ בְּיָדוֹ:

5

How does he collect the coals with the fire-pan? He takes a silver fire-pan22 and ascends to the top of the altar and moves the coals to the side,23 taking the coals that have been consumed by the fire in the second array24 and descends and places them into a golden fire-pan.25 If a kab or less of the coals have become scattered [on the ground],26 he should sweep them into the channel [for the outflow].27 On the Sabbath, he should cover them with the pisachter.28 If more than a kab become scattered, he should collect more with the fire-pan.

ה

וְכֵיצַד חוֹתֶה. זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בְּמַחְתָּה לוֹקֵחַ מַחְתָּה שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְעוֹלֶה לְרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמְפַנֶּה אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים אֵילָךְ וְאֵילָךְ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁנִּתְאַכְּלוּ בְּמַעֲרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה. וְיוֹרֵד וּמְעָרָן לְתוֹךְ מַחְתָּה שֶׁל זָהָב. אִם נִתְפַּזְּרוּ מִן הַגֶּחָלִים כְּמוֹ קַב אוֹ פָּחוֹת מְכַבְּדָן לָאַמָּה. וּבְשַׁבָּת כּוֹפֶה עֲלֵיהֶן הַפְּסַכְתֵּר. וְאִם נִתְפַּזֵּר יֶתֶר עַל קַב חוֹזֵר וְחוֹתֶה:

6

The pisachter would serve three functions: It was used to cover coals and a [dead] crawling animal on the Sabbath29 and it was used to remove the ashes from the altar.30

ו

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים הָיָה הַפְּסַכְתֵּר מְשַׁמֵּשׁ. כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַגֶּחָלִים. וְעַל הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּשַׁבָּת. וּמוֹרִידִין בּוֹ אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:

7

[The priest] who removed the ashes from the inner altar31 would proceed before them, he would take the teni that contained the ashes from the altar,32 prostrate himself33 and depart. [The priest] holding the fire pan would array the coals on the surface of the inner altar, spreading them out with the bottom of the fire-pan. [He would then] prostrate himself and depart.

The one holding the kaf would remove the bezech from the kaf and give it to a friend or relative.34 He checks if some of the incense spilled out [from the bezech] into the kaf. His friend or relative places the incense that spilled and that which is in the bezech in his hands. [He then] prostrates himself and depart.

ז

וּמַקְדִּים לִפְנֵיהֶם זֶה שֶׁדִּשֵּׁן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְנוֹטֵל הַטֶּנִי שֶׁבּוֹ דִּשׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא. וְזֶה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ הַמַּחְתָּה צוֹבֵר אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וּמְרַדְּדָן בְּשׁוּלֵי הַמַּחְתָּה וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא. וְזֶה שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ הַכַּף נוֹטֵל אֶת הַבָּזָךְ מִתּוֹךְ הַכַּף וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְאוֹהֲבוֹ אוֹ לִקְרוֹבוֹ וְרוֹאֶה אִם נִתְפַּזֵּר מִן הַקְּטֹרֶת מְעַט בְּכַף אוֹהֲבוֹ אוֹ קְרוֹבוֹ נוֹתֵן לוֹ לְתוֹךְ חָפְנָיו זֶה שֶׁנִּתְפַּזֵּר עִם הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁבַּבָּזָךְ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא:

8

The one who offers the incense is warned:35 "Be careful. Do not begin [releasing the incense] in front of you, lest you become burned."36 He begins to pour the incense on the fire gently, like one who sifts flour until it is spread over the entire fire.

ח

וְאוֹמְרִין לָזֶה הַמַּקְטִיר הִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תַּתְחִיל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּוֶה. וּמַתְחִיל וּמַשְׁלִיךְ הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל הָאֵשׁ בְּנַחַת כְּמִי שֶׁמְּרַקֵּד סלֶת עַד שֶׁתִּתְרַדֵּד עַל כָּל הָאֵשׁ:

9

The priest who offers the incense does not offer it until the overseer37 tells him: "Offer the incense." If the High Priest is the one offering the incense, the overseer says: "My sir, High Priest,38 offer the incense." After he says this, all of the people depart [from the area in front of the Temple Building].39 He then offers the incense, prostrates himself and departs.

ט

וְאֵין הַמַּקְטִיר מַקְטִיר עַד שֶׁהַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַקְטֵר. וְאִם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַמְמֻנֶּה אִישִׁי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הַקְטֵר. וְאַחַר שֶׁאוֹמֵר יִפְרְשׁוּ כָּל הָעָם וְיַקְטִיר הַמַּקְטִיר וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיֵצֵא:

10

The removal of the ashes from the lamps of the Menorah and their kindling40in the morning41 and the afternoon is a positive commandment,42 as [Exodus 27:21] states: "Aaron and his sons shall arrange it." The kindling of the lamps supersedes [the prohibitions of forbidden labor] on the Sabbath43 and [the restrictions of] ritual impurity,44 as do the [other] sacrifices that [are offered at] a fixed time,45 as [ibid.:20] states: "To raise up a continuously [burning] lamp."

י

דִּשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה וַהֲטָבַת הַנֵּרוֹת בַּבֹּקֶר וּבֵין הָעַרְבַּיִם מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כא) "יַעֲרֹךְ אֹתוֹ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו". וְהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה כְּקָרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁקָּבוּעַ לָהֶן זְמַן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כ) (ויקרא כד ב) "לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד":

11

How much oil should be put in each lamp? Half a log.46 [This is implied by the phrase (ibid.:21):] "From the morning until the evening," Implied is that one must use a measure of oil that will enable it to burn from the afternoon until the morning.47 The Menorah may be dedicated only with the kindling of the seven lamps in the afternoon.

יא

וְכַמָּה שֶׁמֶן הוּא נוֹתֵן לְכָל נֵר. חֲצִי לוֹג שֶׁמֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כא) (ויקרא כד ג) "מֵעֶרֶב עַד בֹּקֶר" תֵּן לוֹ כַּמִּדָּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה דּוֹלֵק מֵעֶרֶב עַד בֹּקֶר. וְאֵין מְחַנְּכִין אֶת הַמְּנוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּהַדְלָקַת שִׁבְעָה נֵרוֹתֶיהָ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

12

What is meant by the expression "the removal of the ashes of the Menorah"?48 Every lamp that has burnt out should have its wick and its [remaining] oil removed and it should be cleaned. The priest should place another wick and other oil in it, using the half log measure. [The wick and oil he removed] should be placed in the ash-heap near the [outer] altar together with the ashes removed from the inner alter and the outer altar.49 He should kindle [any] lamp that was extinguished. Kindling the lamps is what is meant by the term hatavah.50 When one discovers a lamp that has not been extinguished, he should restore it.51

יב

מַהוּ דִּשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה. כָּל נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מֵסִיר הַפְּתִילָה וְכָל הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁבַּנֵּר וּמְקַנְּחוֹ וְנוֹתֵן בּוֹ פְּתִילָה אַחֶרֶת וְשֶׁמֶן אַחֵר בְּמִדָּה וְהוּא חֲצִי לוֹג. וְזֶה שֶׁהֵסִיר מַשְׁלִיכוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הַדֶּשֶׁן אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עִם דִּשׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְהַחִיצוֹן וּמַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה. וְהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת הִיא הֲטָבָתָם. וְנֵר שֶׁמְּצָאוֹ שֶׁלֹּא כָּבָה מְתַקְּנוֹ:

13

When the western lamp52 becomes extinguished, after the ash is removed, it should be rekindled only [from fire] from the outer altar.53 When any of the other lamps are extinguished, by contrast, they may be rekindled from each other.54

יג

נֵר מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁכָּבָה אֵין מַדְלִיקִין אוֹתוֹ אַחַר דִּשּׁוּנוֹ אֶלָּא מִמִּזְבַּח הַחִיצוֹן. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַנֵּרוֹת כָּל נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מֵהֶן מַדְלִיקוֹ מִנֵּר חֲבֵרוֹ:

14

How are [the lamps of the Menorah] kindled? One should pull its wick out55 until he kindles it [from another one of the lamps].56 He must extend the wicks,] because the lamps are permanently affixed within the Menorah.57 And he may not use another lamp, because that would be disrespectful.58

יד

וְכֵיצַד מַדְלִיקוֹ. מוֹשֵׁךְ הַפְּתִילָה עַד שֶׁמַּדְלִיקָהּ וּמַחֲזִירָהּ. לְפִי שֶׁהַנֵּרוֹת קְבוּעִים בַּמְּנוֹרָה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַדְלִיק בְּנֵר אַחֵר מִשּׁוּם בִּזָּיוֹן:

15

All of the substances that are forbidden to be used as wicks on the Sabbath59 are forbidden to be used [as wicks] in the Temple for the Menorah.60 [This is derived from Exodus 27:20 which] states: "To raise up a continuously [burning] lamp." The flame must rise up on its own.61

טו

כָּל הַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַדְלִיק בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהַדְלִיק בָּהֶן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ בַּמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כז כ) (ויקרא כד ב) "לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד" שֶׁתְּהֵא שַׁלְהֶבֶת עוֹלָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ:

16

[The priest] would not kindle all the lamps at once. Instead, he would kindle five lamps and make an interruption. In the interim, another service was performed.62 Afterwards, he would reenter and kindle the other two in order to attract the attention of everyone in the Temple Courtyard.63

טז

לֹא הָיָה מֵטִיב כָּל הַנֵּרוֹת בְּפַעַם אַחַת אֶלָּא מֵטִיב חֲמִשָּׁה נֵרוֹת וּמַפְסִיק וְעוֹשִׂין עֲבוֹדָה אַחֶרֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָס וּמֵטִיב הַשְּׁנַיִם. כְּדֵי לְהַרְגִּישׁ אֶת כָּל הָעֲזָרָה:

17

Whenever one of the lamps of the Menorah was extinguished, we kindle it from another lamp as we explained.64

What is the order in which they were kindled? [The priest] who merited to remove the ashes of the Menorah enters the Sanctuary65 carrying a vessel referred to as a kuz. It was made of gold and resembled a large pitcher. He would place the wicks that were extinguished and the oil that remained in the lamp in it.66 He would then kindle five lamps and leave the kuz on the second step of the three steps positioned before [the Menorah]67 and depart. Afterwards,68 he would reenter and kindle two lamps, take the kuz in his hand, prostrate himself, and depart.

יז

כָּל נֵר שֶׁכָּבָה מַדְלִיקִין אוֹתוֹ מִנֵּר אַחֵר מֵהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכֵיצַד סֵדֶר הַהֲטָבָה. זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה נִכְנָס וּכְלִי בְּיָדוֹ וְכוּז שְׁמוֹ וְשֶׁל זָהָב הָיָה דּוֹמֶה לְקִיתוֹן גָּדוֹל. מְדַשֵּׁן בּוֹ אֶת הַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁכָּבוּ וְאֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן הַנִּשְׁאָר בַּנֵּר וְמֵטִיב חֲמִשָּׁה נֵרוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ הַכּוּז שָׁם לִפְנֵי הַמְּנוֹרָה עַל מַעֲלָה שְׁנִיָּה מִשָּׁלֹשׁ מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁלְּפָנֶיהָ וְיוֹצֵא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָס וּמֵטִיב שְׁנֵי הַנֵּרוֹת וְנוֹטֵל הַכּוּז בְּיָדוֹ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְיוֹצֵא:

18

It is a positive commandment to offer the chavitin69 offering of the High Priest each day,70 half in the morning together with the continuous offering of the morning and half in the afternoon together with the continuous offering of the afternoon. Kneading [these cakes] and baking them supersede [the prohibitions of forbidden labor] on the Sabbath and [the restrictions of] ritual impurity, as do the [other] sacrifices that [are offered at] a fixed time,71 as [implied by Leviticus 6:14 which] states [that these cakes must be] tufinei [which allows for the interpretation that they must be] naeh, "attractive," i.e., and thus not baked on the preceding day.72 Moreover, were they to have been baked on the preceding day, they would have been disqualified by the passage of the night,73 for the deep frying pan74 is one of the sacred utensils, as we explained.75

יח

חֲבִיתֵי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהַקְרִיבָן בְּכָל יוֹם מֶחֱצָה בַּבֹּקֶר עִם תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר וּמֶחֱצָה בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם עִם תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְלִישָׁתָן וַאֲפִיָּתָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה כְּכָל קָרְבָּן שֶׁקָּבוּעַ לוֹ זְמַן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו יד) "תֻּפִינֵי" שֶׁתְּהֵא נָאָה וְלֹא תֵּאָפֶה מִבָּעֶרֶב. וְעוֹד אִם תֵּאָפֶה מִבָּעֶרֶב תִּפָּסֵל בְּלִינָה שֶׁהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת מִכְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ הִיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

19

Grinding the flour for them and sifting it [which is performed] outside [the Temple Courtyard]76 does not supersede [the prohibitions of forbidden labor] on the Sabbath.77

יט

טְחִינַת סָלְתָּן וְהֶרְקֵדָן בַּחוּץ וְאֵינָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת:

20

When a [High] Priest offered half [of the cakes] in the morning and then died, or became impure,78 or contracted a disqualifying physical blemish79 and another [High] Priest was appointed in his stead,80 [the latter] should not bring half an isaron81 [of flat cakes] from home [in the afternoon]. Nor should he bring the half an isaron [remaining] from [the offering of] the first [High Priest]. Instead, he should bring a complete isaron.82 Half is offered and half is destroyed.83

כ

כֹּהֵן שֶׁהִקְרִיב מֶחֱצָה בְּשַׁחֲרִית וּמֵת אוֹ נִטְמָא אוֹ נוֹלַד לוֹ מוּם וּמִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו לֹא יָבִיא חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן מִבֵּיתוֹ וְלֹא חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן. אֶלָּא מֵבִיא עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם וְחוֹצֵהוּ וּמַקְרִיב מֶחֱצָה וּמֶחֱצָה אָבֵד:

21

Thus two half [esronim] will be offered and two will be destroyed. The two halves that will be destroyed should be left until their form is no longer recognizable84 and then be taken out to the place of burning. The same laws apply if the half [of a High Priest's offering that was set aside until] the afternoon was lost or became impure.85

Where should they be burnt? In the Temple Courtyard.86

כא

נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי חֲצָאִים קְרֵבִין וּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאִין אוֹבְדִין. וְאֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי הַחֲצָאִין הָאוֹבְדִים מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁתְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתָן וְיוֹצְאִין לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. וְכֵן אִם אָבַד אוֹ נִטְמָא הַחֵצִי שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְהֵיכָן שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתָן, בָּעֲזָרָה:

22

If the High Priest died in the morning after he offered the half of an isaron and another [High] Priest was not appointed, the heirs of the first should bring an entire isaron as atonement for the first. It was also offered complete.87

If the High Priest died in the morning before offering [the chavitin] and another [High] Priest was not appointed in his stead, [his heirs] should offer a complete isaron in the morning and a complete isaron in the afternoon.88 [The amount of] oil and the frankincense offered with it should not be doubled even though [the amount of] flour is doubled.89 Instead, three lugim of oil and a handful of frankincense is set aside for them, a log and half of oil and half a handful of frankincense for the isaron of the morning90 and a log and half of oil and half a handful of frankincense for the isaron of the afternoon.

כב

מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּשַׁחֲרִית אַחַר שֶׁהִקְרִיב חֲצִי הָעִשָּׂרוֹן וְלֹא מִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר מְבִיאִין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם עֲבוּר כַּפָּרָתוֹ וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ חֲבִיתִין וּשְׁלֵמָה הָיְתָה קְרֵבָה. מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּקְרִיבוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר וְלֹא מִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתוֹ עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם בַּבֹּקֶר וְעִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאֵין כּוֹפְלִין שַׁמְנָהּ וּלְבוֹנָתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְפְּלָה הַסּלֶת. אֶלָּא מַפְרִישִׁין לָהֶם שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגֵי שֶׁמֶן וְקֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה. לוֹג וּמֶחֱצָה שֶׁמֶן וַחֲצִי קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה לְעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל בֹּקֶר וְלוֹג וּמֶחֱצָה שֶׁמֶן וַחֲצִי קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה לְעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

Footnotes
1.

See the description of the way in which the incense offering was prepared in Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash, ch. 2.

2.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 28) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 103) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot. Preparing the incense for the offering is not considered as a mitzvah (Sefer HaMitzvot, General Principle 10). Significantly, the Ramban (Hosafot to the negative commandments) maintains that the morning incense offering and the afternoon one should be considered as separate mitzvot.

3.

See the description of the Golden Altar in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:17.

4.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 4:4), the Rambam writes that it was rare that the priests willfully omitted offering the incense offering, because offering it brought blessings for prosperity.

5.

Note the contrast to the daily offering (Chapter 1, Halachah 12).

6.

A dinar is approximately 4 grams in modern measure.

7.

For the altar itself need not be there for the offering to be acceptable. Note the parallel in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbonot 19:15.

8.

From the exegesis of Leviticus 6:3, Yoma 45b derives that the limbs of a sacrifice that fly off the altar should be returned to it, but not the grains of incense. The grain should be entombed (Radbaz).

9.

The Kessef Mishnehstates that this phrase is making a distinction between the incense offering brought each day and that brought on Yom Kippur. Since the latter offering is brought into the Holy of Holies, it is necessary to depart only from the Temple Building. One may remain in the area between the Entrance Hall and the altar. See Hilchot Avodat Yom Kippurim 4:2.

10.

This refers to the bull brought by a High Priest as a sin-offering, the bull brought as atonement for a law forgotten by the High Court, and the goats that are brought to atone for idolatry (see Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 5:13).

11.

This translates the Talmudic term binyan av. Note the Radbaz who explains that although Yoma 44a appears to derive this concept through the exegetical method referred to as a gezeirah sheveh (a textual association), the intent is really a binyan av.

12.

I.e., who was chosen in the lottery, as described in Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

13.

The term is used in several contexts in the Talmudic literature to refer to a metal container. In his gloss to Tamid 3:6, Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura states that it has the same root as the word tene used by Deuteronomy 26:2 to refer to the container used to carry the first fruits.

14.

As a sign of wealth and prosperity. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 1:19.

15.

A kab is 1376 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 2400 cc according to Chazon Ish.

16.

They were already burnt out and there was no danger of him being burnt.

17.

Yoma 21a states this was done so because of the miracle that occurred. To explain: Our Sages relate the ashes from the Menorah and from the Golden Altar would be miraculously swallowed up in their place each day. In order not to require God to perform this miracle twice each day, the ashes from the Golden Altar would be put aside until those from the Menorah were collected. See Halachah 12.

18.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 7; Chapter 6, Halachah 4.

19.

In his translation of the Torah, Onkelos translates the word kaf, generally translated as "spoon," as bezech. Both the kaf and the bezech were utensils resembling ladles, i.e., they had a receptacle and a long arm leading to it.

20.

The one who merited to remove the ashes from the altar, as stated in Chapter 4, Halachah 5.

21.

I.e., with burning coals, as explained in the following halachah.

22.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:5), the Rambam writes that this fire-pan would hold four kabbim.

23.

The Rambam's statements are based on his text of the Mishnah (Tamid 5:5). Apparently, the Ra'avad had a slightly different version.

24.

See Chapter 2, Halachot 4 and 8.

25.

This fire-pan would hold three kabbim [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)]. Yoma 45a explains that gathering the coals would damage the fire-pan slightly and over time, it would have to be replaced. Hence rather than damage a golden one, the Sages took the financial needs of the Jewish people into consideration and did not require that a golden one be used each day.

26.

Since the golden fire-pan was smaller than the silver one, it was natural that this would occur (ibid.).

27.

As stated in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:11, there was a channel for outflow that ran through the Temple Courtyard. The priest would sweep the coals there [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.)]. The Radbaz questions why the priest would be allowed to intentionally extinguish the coals. Perhaps his question can be answered on the basis of Hilchot Tuma'at Ochalin 8:9 which states that these coals no longer have any holiness.

28.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam explains that in his Targum (Exodus 27:3), Onkelos uses the term pisachter for the Hebrew sir, meaning "pot."

29.

See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 3:20.

30.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 13.

31.

Tamid 6:1 states that he would be accompanied by the priest who would clean the Menorah. The Rambam does not mention this point, because it is not germane to the discussion at hand.

32.

Which he had left previously in the Temple Sanctuary, as stated in Halachah 4.

33.

As appropriate for one who completed his Temple service and depart.

34.

I.e., thus four priests would enter: a) one to clean the altar; b) one to place the coal on it; c) one to pour incense into the hands of the priest who would offer it; and d) one to offer the incense on the coals (Radbaz).

35.

As mentioned in Chapter 4, Halachah 7, the incense offering would be given to a priest who never offered it previously. Hence he would not be experienced and required these warnings (Radbaz).

36.

I.e., the person offering the incense stands to the east of the altar. He should begin pouring the incense on the western side of the altar. Otherwise, he will have to lean over the altar while the incense is burning and he could be burned in this manner.

37.

Rashi (Yoma 28a) maintains that this term refers to the segen, the High Priest's assistant. Tosafot maintains that it refers to the priest who apportions the Temple service by lottery. From Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:16, it is obvious that the Rambam accepts Rashi's view.

38.

I.e., as expression of deference.

39.

As stated in Halachah 3.

40.

See Halachah 12 which describes what this service entails.

41.

The Rambam's view that the Menorah was kindled both in the afternoon and the morning is not accepted by all authorities. Many maintain that it was kindled only in the afternoon. And there is an intermediate view that one (or two) lamps also burned during the day.

42.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 25) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 98) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

43.

Although kindling light is usually forbidden on the Sabbath, in this instance it is permitted.

44.

If the majority of priests or sacred utensils are impure, the Menorah may still be kindled.

45.

See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 4:10.

46.

172 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 300 cc according to Chazon Ish.

47.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Yoma 2:2) maintains that since the summer nights are longer than the winter nights, the priests would compensate for that by using thicker wicks in the winter and thinner ones in the summer. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 9:3), however, the Rambam writes that a medium sized wick was used at all times. The Radbaz explains that position, stating that if some oil was left over, it was not significant, for the Temple sacrifices should be offered in a spirit of wealth and prosperity.

48.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Me'ilah 3:4) where the Rambam writes that deshen means "ash" and the remainder of the wicks and the coals produced are considered as ash.

49.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

50.

Other authorities interpret hatavah as referring to the cleaning of the lamps. In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 3:9), the Rambam explains that this term means "the cleaning of the lamps, rekindling what was extinguished, and changing their wicks." See also Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 3:7 where it appears that the Rambam interprets this term as meaning cleaning and preparing the Menorah.

As the Kessef Mishneh mentions, many other commentaries follow the approach of Rashba (Responsa 79 and 309) who maintains that the term hatavah means only the cleaning and preparing of the Menachot. This difference of opinion regarding the definition of this term is dependent on a larger issue. Were all the lamps kindled in the morning or not? As mentioned in Halachah 10, the Rambam maintains that they were. The Rashba and those who follow his approach differ. Accordingly, they differ in their interpretation of Exodus 30:7 "when he performs hatavah for the lamps, he shall offer the incense." According to the Rambam, this refers to the kindling of the lamps, while according to the Rashba, this refers only to cleaning them.

Exodus 30:8 uses a different term for kindling the lamps at night (as the Rashba states in support of his approach). Perhaps hatavah can refer only to the rekindling of the lamps in the morning as indicated by the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah cited above. See the gloss of the Lechem Mishneh.

51.

I.e., add oil so that it will burn until nightfall.

52.

As mentioned in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:8, the Rambam maintains that the Menorah was positioned from north to south. Accordingly, this refers to the center lamp that was positioned opposite the Holy of Holies. Others differ, maintaining that the Menorah is positioned from east to west and the term "western lamp" refers to the second lamp from the east which is "western" in relation to the more eastern one.

53.

Yoma 45b derives this concept from Leviticus 6:6 which reads "A continuous fire shall burn on the altar." Using the rules of Biblical exegesis, our Sages explain that the verse can be interpreted. Whenever a continuous fire will burn - and the Menorah is also referred to as a continuous fire - it shall be kindled from the altar.

The Ra'avad differs with this ruling and maintains that when possible, even the western lamp should be kindled from the other lamps of the Menorah. Only when there is no alternative, it should be kindled from the altar. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, give support for the Rambam's view.

54.

Indeed, as stated in the following halachah, it is desirable to do so rather than use another candle.

55.

With tweezers. This was possible, because the wicks were long.

56.

The Radbaz suggests that each lamp would be kindled from the lamp next to it. Thus one would not have to stretch any of the wicks that far.

57.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:6-7.

58.

Even if one would light the ordinary lamp from the lamp of the Menorah, it would be unacceptable, because it is not respectful to light an ordinary lamp from the lamp of the Menorah (Kessef Mishneh, based on Maggid Mishneh, Hilchot Chanukah 3:9).

59.

See Hilchot Shabbat 5:5. The substances mentioned there are unacceptable, because they do not allow for a steadily burning flame. Instead, the flames they produce sputter.

60.

They may, however, be used for other purposes, e.g., as wicks for the lanterns used to illuminate the Temple Courtyard during the Simchat Beit HaShoevah celebrations (Shabbos 21b).

61.

This excludes substances which will prevent the fire from ascending smoothly on its own.

62.

The limbs of the sacrifices would be brought up to the altar and the incense offering was brought, as stated in Chapter 6, Halachot 3-4.

63.

By extending the duration of time in which this service is performed, it will be noticed by all those present [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 3:9)].

64.

Halachah 13.

65.

The lottery through which this priest is selected is described in Chapter 4, Halachah 6. As mentioned in Chapter 6, Halachah 1, this priest would enter the Sanctuary together with the priest who removed the ashes from the inner altar. The Rambam does not mention that fact here, because it is not a point of present concern.

66.

The wicks and oil were placed in the ash-pile near the outer altar as stated in Halachah 12. The commentaries have questioned the intent of the gloss of the Radbaz.

67.

As stated in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:11, there was a stone positioned before the Menorah into which three steps were carved. The priest would stand on it while cleaning and kindling the Menorah.

68.

I.e., after the limbs were brought up to the altar as stated above.

69.

This offering resembled flat cakes. The Rambam describes their preparation in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:2-4.

70.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 40) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 136) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

71.

See the notes to Halachah 10, for details concerning the above.

72.

For day-old cakes are not attractive.

The Radbaz asks: Since the chavitin offering is considered one of the communal offerings, why is it necessary to add this and the subsequent rationale. He explains that they are valuable for the lessons that they teach independent of the concept they are quoted to support.

73.

For an article kept in a sacred vessel overnight is disqualified.

74.

The Lechem Mishneh questions why the Rambam speaks of the deep frying pan when in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:3, he states that the High Priest's offering was prepared using the flat frying pan.

75.

Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:23. Both the flat and deep frying pans are mentioned there.

76.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, op. cit.

77.

But instead, must be performed on Friday.

78.

Although Halachah 18 stated that the offering of the chavitin supersedes the restrictions of ritual impurity, that refers to an instance when the majority of the Jewish community, the majority of the priests, or the majority of the Temple utensils are impure. In this instance, only the High Priest is impure and that difficulty can be remedied by temporarily appointing another in his place (Radbaz).

79.

These latter two instances are not mentioned in Menachot 50b, the source for the Rambam's ruling. Nevertheless, the concept follows logically, because in these states, the High Priest cannot serve (Radbaz).

80.

In the latter two instances, if and when the first High Priest regains ritual purity or is healed from his blemish, he is restored to his position (ibid.).

81.

I.e., half the measure required to make the flat-cakes for the entire day, the measure required for the afternoon offering.

82.

From his own property.

83.

As explained in the following halachah.

84.

This term is interpreted to mean that they should be left until they become disqualified because they remained overnight. They cannot, however, be destroyed immediately, because since the disqualifying factor is not integral to the sacrificial food itself, destroying them would be an act of disrespect.

85.

I.e., the High Priest must bring a complete isaron and half is offered and half is destroyed.

86.

To the east of the altar, as stated in the notes to Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 7:3.

87.

Menachot 51b derives this concept from Leviticus 6:15: "The priest... from his sons should offer it," i.e., his heirs should offer it, the entire offering, bringing it in his place.

88.

Menachot, op. cit., derives this concept from the fact that the prooftext states "It shall be offered on the pyre in its entirety."

89.

For there is a verse requiring the doubling of the flour and no such verse with regard to the oil and the frankincense (Menachot, op. cit.).

90.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:2,4.

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 4

1

All of these services that were performed [in the Temple] every day were performed on the basis of a lottery.1 How would they conduct themselves? All of the priests of the clan of that day2 enter the Chamber of Hewn Stone3 after dawn4 while garbed in the priestly garments. The [priest] appointed [to supervise] the lotteries [stands] with them and they stand in a semicircle. The supervisor takes a hat from one of the priests and returns it to him.5 This is the person from whom they will begin to count and thus determine the lottery, as will be explained.6

א

כָּל הָעֲבוֹדוֹת הָאֵלּוּ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּכָל יוֹם בְּפַיִס הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן. וְכֵיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. כָּל כֹּהֲנֵי בָּתֵּי אָבוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם נִכְנָסִין לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית אַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר וּמְלֻבָּשִׁין הֵן בְּבִגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה. וְהַמְמֻנֶּה שֶׁעַל הַפְּיָסוֹת עִמָּהֶן וְהֵן עוֹמְדִין בְּהַקָּפָה וְהַמְמֻנֶּה נוֹטֵל מִצְנֶפֶת מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶן וּמַחֲזִירָהּ וְהוּא הָאִישׁ שֶׁמַּתְחִילִין לִמְנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְפִיסִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

2

The men [selected to perform] the services proceed to them. The remainder of the priests are taken to the attendants who remove the sacred garments from them, leaving them only with the leggings7 until they put on their ordinary garments. They then remove the sacred leggings. The attendants then return the garments to the lockers.8

ב

וְיוֹצְאִין לַעֲבוֹדָה אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁעוֹבְדִין בּוֹ. וּשְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים מוֹסְרִין אוֹתָן לְחַזָּנִין וּמַפְשִׁיטִין אוֹתָן אֶת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶלָּא הַמִּכְנָסַיִם בִּלְבַד עַד שֶׁלּוֹבְשִׁין בִּגְדֵי חֹל וְחוֹזְרִין וּפוֹשְׁטִין אֶת הַמִּכְנָסַיִם שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ וּמַחְזִירִים הַחַזָּנִים אֶת הַכֵּלִים לַחַלּוֹנוֹת:

3

How would the lottery be carried out? [The priests] would stand in a semi-circle. They would decide on a number, e.g., 100, 1000, or any other number that they would choose. Afterwards, the supervisor says: "Stick out your fingers" and they stick out one or two fingers.9 If one would stick out three, the three are counted.10 A thumb should not be stuck out in the Temple because of the deceivers. For a thumb is small and it is easy to stick out and then bend over.11 If one sticks out a thumb, it is not counted.

The supervisor begins counting from [the priest] who was identified by the removal of his hat. The count on their fingers12 and then repeat13 until they reach the number they agreed upon. The person upon whose finger the counting was completed is the one who is chosen in the first lottery for the Temple service.

ג

כֵּיצַד מְפִיסִין. עוֹמְדִין בְּהֶקֵּף וּמַסְכִּימִין עַל מִנְיַן שְׁמוֹנִים מֵאָה אוֹ אֶלֶף אוֹ כָּל מִנְיַן שֶׁיַּסְכִּימוּ עָלָיו. וְהַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַצְבִּיעוּ וְהֵן מוֹצִיאִין אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶן אַחַת אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם. וְאִם הוֹצִיא שָׁלֹשׁ מוֹנִין לוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ. וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין גּוּדָל בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מִפְּנֵי הָרַמָּאִים שֶׁהַגּוּדָל קָצָר וְנוֹחַ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וְלִכְפּוֹתוֹ. וְהַמּוֹצִיא גּוּדָל אֵין מוֹנִין אוֹתוֹ לוֹ. וּמַתְחִיל הַמְמֻנֶּה לִמְנוֹת מִן הָאִישׁ הַיָּדוּעַ שֶׁהֵסִיר מִצְנַפְתּוֹ תְּחִלָּה. וּמוֹנֶה עַל אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶן וְחוֹזֵר חֲלִילָה עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן שֶׁהִסְכִּימוּ עָלָיו וְהָאִישׁ שֶׁשָּׁלֵם הַמִּנְיָן אֵצֶל אֶצְבָּעוֹ הוּא שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּפַיִס רִאשׁוֹן לַעֲבוֹדָה:

4

Why do they count the number they have agreed upon by the fingers they stuck out instead of counting the people themselves? Because it is forbidden to count Jews14 except via another entity, as [I Samuel 15:4] states: "And he counted them with lambs."15

ד

וְלָמָּה מוֹנֶה הַמִּנְיָן שֶׁהִסְכִּימוּ עָלָיו עַל הָאֶצְבָּעוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ וְלֹא הָיָה מוֹנֶה עַל הָאֲנָשִׁים עַצְמָן לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א טו ד) "וַיִּפְקְדֵם בַּטְּלָאִים":

5

Four lotteries were carried out each day in the morning.16 The first lottery was for who would remove the ashes from the altar.17 The lottery was conducted and the one who merited was chosen to remove the ashes. He also arranges the wood on the altar and he brings the two logs of wood to the altar and brings in a fire-pan full of flaming [coals]18 from the outer altar to the golden altar to offer the incense upon it.

ה

אַרְבָּעָה פְּיָסוֹת הָיוּ מְפִיסִין בְּכָל יוֹם בְּשַׁחֲרִית. הַפַּיִס הָרִאשׁוֹן מִי תּוֹרֵם אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. הֵפִיסוּ וְזָכָה מִי שֶׁזָּכָה לִתְרֹם. וְהוּא מְסַדֵּר אֶת הַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְהוּא מַעֲלֶה שְׁנֵי גִּזְרֵי עֵצִים לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְהוּא מַכְנִיס מַחְתָּה מְלֵאָה אֵשׁ מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן לְמִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב לְהַקְטִיר עָלֶיהָ קְטֹרֶת:

6

Thirteen [priests] are chosen in the second lottery19 according to the order in which they stand.

What is implied? The supervisor tells them to stick out their fingers and counts as explained.20 The one who is chosen first by lottery slaughters the continuous offering of the morning. The second priest standing next to him21 receives the blood of the continuous offering and he casts [on the altar]. The third, [who stands] next to the second, removes the ashes from the inner altar, the altar of the incense offering. The fourth on his side removes the ashes from the Menorah and kindles the lamps. The fifth brings up the head of the continuous offering and its [right] hindleg to the ramp.22 The sixth brings up the two forefeet. The seventh brings up the tail and the [left] hindleg. The eighth brings up the breast and the neck. The ninth brings up the two flanks. The tenth brings up the inner organs. The eleventh brings up the flour for the additional offerings. The twelfth brings up the chavitin23 and the thirteenth brings up the wine of the additional offerings.

ו

הַפַּיִס הַשֵּׁנִי זוֹכִין בּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר עַל סֵדֶר עֲמִידָתָן. כֵּיצַד. הַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַצְבִּיעוּ וּמוֹנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְזֶה שֶׁיָּצָא בְּפַיִס רִאשׁוֹן הוּא שׁוֹחֵט תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר. וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּצִדּוֹ הוּא מְקַבֵּל אֶת דַּם הַתָּמִיד וְהוּא זוֹרְקוֹ. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי הַסָּמוּךְ לַשֵּׁנִי מְדַשֵּׁן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁהוּא מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת. וְהָרְבִיעִי שֶׁבְּצִדּוֹ מְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַמְּנוֹרָה וּמֵיטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת. וְהַחֲמִישִׁי מַעֲלֶה רֹאשׁ הַתָּמִיד וְרַגְלוֹ לַכֶּבֶשׁ. וְהַשִּׁשִּׁי מַעֲלֶה שְׁתֵּי הַיָּדַיִם. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִי מַעֲלֶה הָעֹקֶץ וְהָרֶגֶל. וְהַשְּׁמִינִי מַעֲלֶה הֶחָזֶה וְהַגֵּרָה. וְהַתְּשִׁיעִי מַעֲלֶה שְׁתֵּי הַדְּפָנוֹת. וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מַעֲלֶה הַקְּרָבַיִם. וְהָאַחַד עָשָׂר מַעֲלֶה סלֶת הַנְּסָכִים. וְהַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר מַעֲלֶה הַחֲבִיתִין. וְהַשְּׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר מַעֲלֶה הַיַּיִן שֶׁל נְסָכִים:

7

For the third lottery, the supervisor announces to all the members of the clan of that day: "Whoever has never brought an incense offering24 should come and enter the lottery."25 The one chosen first in this lottery merited to offer the incense offering.

ז

הַפַּיִס הַשְּׁלִישִׁי אוֹמֵר לָהֶן הַמְמֻנֶּה לְכָל אַנְשֵׁי בֵּית אָב שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת מִיָּמָיו יָבוֹא וְיָפִיס. וְיִתְקַבְּצוּ אֵצֶל הַמְמֻנֶּה וְיָפִיסוּ וּמִי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּפַיִס זֶה רִאשׁוֹן הוּא שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה לְהַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת:

8

For the fourth lottery, all the priests gathered.26 The lottery is held to know who will bring the limbs up from the ramp to the altar. The lottery was held and the one who was chosen27 merited.

A different lottery was not held for the continuous offering of the afternoon. Instead, all of the priests who were chosen to perform any of the tasks in the morning should also perform them in the afternoon.28 An exception was the incense offering. Another lottery was made for [the right to offer] it in the afternoon. All those who never brought an incense offering from that clan could come and enter the lottery. If they had all offered incense previously, they are all able to enter the third lottery in the morning and the one who was selected in the morning offers the incense in the afternoon as well.

ח

הַפַּיִס הָרְבִיעִי מִתְקַבְּצִין כֻּלָּן וּמְפִיסִין לֵידַע מִי מַעֲלֶה אֵיבָרִים מִן הַכֶּבֶשׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. הֵפִיסוּ וְזָכָה מִי שֶׁזָּכָה. תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם אֵין מְפִיסִין לוֹ פַּיִס אַחֵר. אֶלָּא כָּל כֹּהֵן שֶׁזָּכָה בַּעֲבוֹדָה מִן הָעֲבוֹדוֹת שַׁחֲרִית יִזְכֶּה בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. חוּץ מִן הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁהֵן מְפִיסִין לָהּ פַּיִס אַחֵר בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם וְיָבוֹא כָּל מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת מֵעוֹלָם מֵאַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ בֵּית אָב וְיָפִיסוּ עָלֶיהָ. וְאִם כְּבָר הִקְטִירוּ כֻּלָּן מִימֵיהֶן מְפִיסִין לָהֶן כֻּלָּן בְּשַׁחֲרִית בְּפַיִס שְׁלִישִׁי וְזֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בָּהּ שַׁחֲרִית מַקְטִירָהּ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

9

On the Sabbath, when [besides] the continuous offerings, the additional offerings and the two bowls of frankincense were offered, how would they conduct themselves?

In the morning, the lottery was held among the men of clan of the watch that was leaving.29 They would offer the continuous offering of the morning and the two sheep brought as burnt-offerings for the additional offering.30 The ones selected to perform the tasks for the continuous offering of the morning would [perform those tasks] for the two sheep [brought as] additional offerings.31 The watch that enters32 on the Sabbath would conduct other lotteries for the continuous offering of the afternoon. Both watches would [participate in] the division of the showbread.33

ט

בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם תְּמִידִין וּמוּסָפִין וּשְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה כֵּיצַד הֵם עוֹבְדִין. מְפִיסִין בְּשַׁחַר אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ בֵּית אָב שֶׁל מִשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא וּמַקְרִיבִין תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר וּשְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי עוֹלָה שֶׁל מוּסָפִין. וְכָל שֶׁזָּכָה בַּעֲבוֹדָה מֵעֲבוֹדַת הַתָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר הוּא זוֹכֶה בָּהּ בִּשְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי מוּסָף. וְהַמִּשְׁמָר הָאַחֵר שֶׁנִּכְנַס בְּשַׁבָּת מְפִיסִין פְּיָסוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת לְתָמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. וְאֵלּוּ וְאֵלּוּ חוֹלְקִין בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים:

10

The [show]bread is not eaten until the two bowls of frankincense are offered on the pyre. The frankincense requires salt like the other sacrifices.34

י

וְאֵין אוֹכְלִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם עַד שֶׁיַּקְטִירוּ שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה עַל הָאֵשׁ. וְהַלְּבוֹנָה טְעוּנָה מֶלַח כִּשְׁאָר הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת:

11

These two bowls are offered after the additional offerings.35 Two priests offer these two bowls.36

יא

וְאַחַר קָרְבַּן הַמּוּסָפִין מַקְטִירִין שְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין. וּשְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים מַקְרִיבִין אֶת שְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין:

12

How is the showbread divided on the Sabbaths of the year in general? The watch that enters receives six loaves and the watch that leaves receives six loaves. Those that enter divide [the bread] among themselves in the north, for they are prepared to carry out the Temple service.37 Those who depart divide it in the south.38

When the holiday of one of the three pilgrimage festivals39 falls on the Sabbath or on Sabbath in the midst of the holiday,40 all of the watches share equally in the division41 of the showbread.42 Similarly, if the first holiday of a festival falls on Sunday, all of the watches share equally in the division of the showbread on the day preceding the festival which is the Sabbath because they came early to the Temple service.43

Similarly, if the final day of the festival falls on Friday, all of the watches share equally in the division of the showbread on the Sabbath which is the day following the festival. This practice is an ordinance of our Sages [who instituted it] so that the priests should delay [their departure from Jerusalem so that they share] in the division of the showbread.44 [In this way,] if one of the members of the watch [of the coming week] would be delayed and not come [on time], another priest will be found [to take his place].

יב

כֵּיצַד חוֹלְקִין לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בְּכָל שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. מִשְׁמָר הַנִּכְנָס נוֹטֵל שֵׁשׁ חַלּוֹת. וּמִשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא נוֹטֵל שֵׁשׁ. הַנִּכְנָסִין חוֹלְקִין בֵּינֵיהֶם בַּצָּפוֹן שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן מוּכָנִים לַעֲבוֹדָה. וְהַיּוֹצְאִין חוֹלְקִין בַּדָּרוֹם. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְכֵן בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הֶחָג חוֹלְקִין כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. וְכֵן אִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹלְקִין כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִקְדִּימוּ לַעֲבוֹדָה. וְכֵן אִם חָל יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת חוֹלְקִין כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת בְּשָׁוֶה בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת שֶׁהִיא מוֹצָאֵי הֶחָג. וְדָבָר זֶה תַּקָּנָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְאַחֲרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בִּשְׁבִיל חִלּוּק לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים וְאִם נִתְאַחֵר אֶחָד מִבַּעֲלֵי מִשְׁמָר וְלֹא בָּא יִמָּצֵא אַחֵר:

13

If there is one day intervening between the Sabbath and the festival, e.g., the first day of the festival fell on Monday or the last day fell on Thursday, or Shavuot fell on Monday or Thursday, the watch whose time was fixed that week receives ten loaves and the watch which enters receives two.45 The rationale is that only one day is left for them to serve alone,46 either Friday or Sunday, and they are indolent and only a few come [to the Temple].47

יג

חָל יוֹם אֶחָד לְהַפְסִיק בֵּין הַשַּׁבָּת וּבֵין יוֹם טוֹב כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בְּשֵׁנִי אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּחֲמִישִׁי אוֹ יוֹם שֶׁל עֲצֶרֶת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשֵׁנִי אוֹ בַּחֲמִישִׁי. מִשְׁמָר שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת נוֹטֵל עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת וְזֶה הַנִּכְנָס נוֹטֵל שְׁתַּיִם. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִשְׁאַר לָהֶם לַעֲבוֹדָה הֵם לְבַדָּם אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹ אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וּמִתְעַצְּלִין וְאֵין בָּאִין מֵהֶן אֶלָּא מְעַט:

14

The High Priest always receives from each watch half of the loaves that they receive, as [implied by Leviticus 24:9]: "And it shall be for Aaron and his sons," i.e., half for Aaron and half for his sons. A High Priest never receives a portion of a loaf, because that is not respectful.

יד

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל לְעוֹלָם נוֹטֵל מִכָּל מִשְׁמָר חֲצִי הַחַלּוֹת שֶׁזָּכָה בָּהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כד ט) "וְהָיְתָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו" מֶחֱצָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּמֶחֱצָה לְבָנָיו. וְאֵין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל נוֹטֵל פְּרָס שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּבוֹדוֹ:

Footnotes
1.

This refers to the offering of the communal offerings. The priests to offer individual sacrifices were not chosen on the basis of a lottery (Rashi, Yoma 26b). See also the gloss of the Mishneh LiMelech to Halachah 9 which discusses this issue.

Yoma 22a explains that the lotteries were initiated, because originally the priests would race to carry out the Temple functions. Once as the priests were running up the ramp, one pushed another and he fell and broke his leg. When the Sages realized that danger could result, they instituted these lotteries.

2.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash, ch. 4, which explains that the priests were divided into 24 watches. Each watch would serve in the Temple for one week at a time. Each of those watches were divided into seven clans which would carry out the services for that particular day.

3.

A large chamber on the northern side of the Temple Courtyard. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 5:17. This chamber was chosen because a portion of it is outside the Temple Courtyard and it was in that portion the priests would stand. The rationale is that, as will be explained, the hat of one of the priests would be removed and it is inappropriate to stand bareheaded in the Temple Courtyard even briefly.

4.

The first glowing of the sun's rays, well before sunrise. At this time, the dust was removed from the altar, as stated in Chapter 2, Halachah 11. See also Chapter 6, Halachah 1.

5.

Immediately, so that the priest would not be bareheaded.

6.

In Halachah 3.

7.

For reasons of modesty.

8.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 8:8-9.

9.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Yoma 2:1), the Rambam writes that a priest would stick out one finger if he was weak or several if he was healthy.

10.

The commentaries note that the Rambam's interpretation of Yoma, loc. cit., is different from that of most other authorities with regard to this point. See the gloss of the Radbaz who elaborates on this matter.

11.

And thus he could manipulate the counting to favor himself [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.). Here also, the Rambam's interpretation differs from that of other authorities.

12.

Proceeding to the right along the semi-circle.

13.

Counting each finger a second time.

14.

Even for a mitzvah (Yoma 22b).

15.

This refers to Saul's census of the army before entering into battle against Amalek. Conversely, we find that when David took a census and actually counted people, a severe plague resulted.

16.

With regard to the afternoon, see Halachah 8.

17.

As described in Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

18.

The Radbaz elaborates in questioning the Rambam's ruling, for it appears to run contrary to the statements of Yoma 25b-26a. Indeed, he maintains that there is a printing error in the text and that this phrase should be included in the following halachah. Others, however, explain that it appears that there is support for the Rambam's position based on the Mishnayot of Tamid 5:5, 6:2.

19.

As Yoma 26b relates, on Sabbaths and festivals even more priests are selected in this lottery. As indicated by Chapter 6, Halachah 1, according to the Rambam, the first two lotteries were conducted in direct proximity to each other.

20.

In Halachah 3.

21.

On his right.

22.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, ch. 6, for details concerning how the offering was divided into portions and brought to the altar.

23.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 18; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:4, 6:16.

24.

The laws that apply had they all brought an incense offering once are mentioned in the following halachah.

25.

Bringing the incense offering was a medium to drawn down Divine blessings for prosperity. Hence the opportunity is given to priests who had never brought that offering previously (Yoma 26a).

26.

I.e., in contrast to the previous lottery where those who had brought the incense offering previously did not participate (ibid.).

27.

I.e., one priest would bring up all the limbs (Tosafot, Yoma 26a).

28.

The Kessef Mishneh notes that although the wood for the altar was brought by two priests in the afternoon as opposed to the one in the morning, there was no need for a second lottery. Instead, the priest who was selected in the morning would bring one of his friends to assist him in the afternoon.

29.

I.e., completes their week of Temple service. For the watches changed after the offering of the sacrifices on the morning of the Sabbath (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3).

30.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 41) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 402) count the offering of the two sheep as the additional offering of the Sabbath as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot.

31.

This conclusion is reached from the fact that the Talmud does not speak of a separate lottery for the additional offerings.

32.

I.e., begins their week of Temple service.

33.

As described in Halachah 12.

34.

Hilchot Issurei HaMizbeiach 5:11-13; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 16:14.

35.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 11.

36.

They are the fourteenth and fifteenth priests in the second lottery (Kessef Mishneh in the name of the Ritbah). The Radbaz maintains that these priests came from the watch that entered the Temple service that week.

37.

This is the portion of the Temple Courtyard where the communal sacrifices are slaughtered. Dividing the bread there distinguishes them as the watch that will perform the service in the Temple that week [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 5:6)].

38.

This would show that they have completed their service (Sukkah 56b).

39.

I.e., the first and last days of Pesach and Sukkot and the holiday of Shavuot.

40.

I.e., during Chol HaMoed.

41.

This refers to the division of the bread itself, but not to the division of the tasks involved in offering it. Those are performed only by the priests of the watch who serve in the Temple that week (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:6).

42.

See ibid.:4-5 which explains the derivation of this concept.

43.

Indeed, they were given the right to share in the division of the showbread to motivate them to come early.

44.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's statements, explaining that since the festival ended on the day before the Sabbath, the priests had no choice but to stay. The Radbaz explains that it is possible that the priests will be staying in the surroundings of Jerusalem, but will not come to the Temple Mount. Giving them a share in the showbread would encourage them to come to the Temple Mount.

45.

This applies if the last day of the holiday fell on Thursday. Conversely, if the first day fell on Monday, few priests will come so the watch which departs receives ten loaves and the watch which comes two. See the Rambam' Commentary to the Mishnah (Sukkah 5:6).

46.

For the priests of all the watches will come to serve during the festival.

47.

The Ra'avad and Rashi have a different understanding of the passage from Sukkah. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh offer support for the Rambam's view.

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 5

1

It is a positive commandment to arrange the showbread on the [golden] table before God in the Sanctuary,1 as [Leviticus 24:5] states: "On the Sabbath day, on the Sabbath day, the priest shall arrange it."

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְסַדֵּר לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בְּכָל יוֹם שַׁבָּת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לִפְנֵי ה' בַּהֵיכָל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כד ח) "בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת יַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ" הַכֹּהֵן וְגוֹ':

2

It is clearly evident from the Torah that there were twelve loaves. Each loaf required two esronim [of flour]. [The loaves] were arranged in two sets, six loaves in each set, one loaf on the other. There were three rods2 of gold placed between the loaves so that the wind could blow through them.3 Each set was supported by two side-frames. At the side of each set,4 there is placed a vessel containing a handful of frankincense, as [ibid.:7] states: "And you shall place pure frankincense next to5 the arrangement." This vessel is called a bezech (dish).6 Thus there were two handfuls of frankincense in two dishes. These dishes had flat bases so that they could be placed on the table.

ב

וְדָבָר בָּרוּר בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה חַלּוֹת כָּל חַלָּה שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנִים. וְעוֹרְכִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁנֵי סְדָרִים. שֵׁשׁ חַלּוֹת בְּכָל סֵדֶר. חַלָּה עַל גַּבֵּי חַלָּה וּבֵין כָּל שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת שְׁלֹשָׁה קָנִים שֶׁל זָהָב כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בּוֹ. וְסוֹמֵךְ כָּל מַעֲרָכָה בִּשְׁתֵּי קְשָׂווֹת. וְנוֹתְנִין בְּצַד כָּל מַעֲרָכָה כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כד ז) "וְנָתַתָּה עַל הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת לְבֹנָה זַכָּה". וּכְלִי זֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא בָּזָךְ. נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי קֻמְצֵי לְבוֹנָה בִּשְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין. וְשׁוּלַיִם הָיוּ לַבְּזִיכִין כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּנִּיחוּם עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן:

3

The two sets of showbread are fundamental necessities for each other.7 [Similarly,] the two dishes [of frankincense] are fundamental necessities for each other and the sets and the dishes are necessities for each other.8 The [golden] table should not be dedicated except by placing the showbread on it on the Sabbath.9

From one Sabbath to another, the bread that was placed on the table on the previous Sabbath is removed and new bread is arranged there. The bread that is removed is the bread that is divided between the two watches - that which enters and that which departs10 - and the High Priest11 and they partake of it.12

ג

שְׁנֵי הַסְּדָרִים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וּשְׁנֵי הַבְּזִיכִין מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְהַסְּדָרִין וְהַבְּזִיכִין מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאֵין מְחַנְּכִין אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֶלָּא בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בְּשַׁבָּת. מִיּוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁהוּא שָׁם עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִשַּׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה וּמְסַדְּרִין לֶחֶם אַחֵר. וְזֶה שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין הוּא שֶׁחוֹלְקִין שְׁתֵּי הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת הַנִּכְנֶסֶת וְהַיּוֹצֵאת עִם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְאוֹכְלִין אוֹתוֹ:

4

How are the sets of the showbread arranged? Four priests enter [the Sanctuary], two are holding the two sets13 [of bread]14 and two, the two dishes [of frankincense]. Four priests enter before them to remove the two sets of bread and the two dishes [of frankincense] that were on the table. The priests that enter15 stand in the north,16 facing the south and those that depart17 stand in the south, facing the north. These remove [the showbread from the previous week] and these place down [the new breads]. One should be within a handbreadth of another,18 for [Exodus 25:30] states: "[You shall place showbread] before Me continually."19

ד

וְכֵיצַד מְסַדְּרִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם. אַרְבָּעָה כֹּהֲנִים נִכְנָסִים. שְׁנַיִם בְּיָדָן שְׁנֵי סְדָרִין. וּשְׁנַיִם בְּיָדָם שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכִין. וְאַרְבָּעָה מַקְדִּימִין לִפְנֵיהֶם שְׁנַיִם לִטֹּל שְׁנֵי סְדָרִים וּשְׁנַיִם לִטֹּל שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכִין שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן. הַנִּכְנָסִין עוֹמְדִין בַּצָּפוֹן וּפְנֵיהֶם לַדָּרוֹם. וְהַיּוֹצְאִין עוֹמְדִים בַּדָּרוֹם וּפְנֵיהֶם לַצָּפוֹן. אֵלּוּ מוֹשְׁכִין וְאֵלּוּ מַנִּיחִין וְטִפְחוֹ שֶׁל זֶה בְּתוֹךְ טִפְחוֹ שֶׁל זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה ל) "לְפָנַי תָּמִיד":

5

When they departed, they would place the bread on a second golden table that would be placed in the Entrance Hall.20 They would offer [the incense in] the dishes on the pyre21 and afterwards, the breads were divided. If Yom Kippur fell on the Sabbath, [the breads] are divided in the evening.22

ה

יָצְאוּ וְנָתְנוּ אֶת הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ עַל שֻׁלְחַן זָהָב אַחַר שֶׁהָיָה בָּאוּלָם וְהִקְטִירוּ הַבְּזִיכִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְחַלְּקִין הַחַלּוֹת. וְאִם חָל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הַחַלּוֹת מִתְחַלְּקוֹת לָעֶרֶב:

6

How is the showbread prepared? 24 se'ah23 of wheat that is fit [to be made into flour] for meal-offerings are brought.24 [The kernels] are struck25 and tread upon26 like the other kernels of wheat for the meal offerings.27 They are then ground and sifted with eleven sifters to produce 24 esronim of fine flour.28 Twelve loaves of unleavened bread are made from it.

If one did not sift [the flour] with eleven sifters or did not use 24 se'ah of grain to produce the flour, [the loaves] are acceptable, since fine flour was produced regardless. These measures were mentioned only as [the optimum manner] for the mitzvah.

ו

כֵּיצַד מַעֲשֵׂה לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. מֵבִיא אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים סְאִים חִטִּים הָרְאוּיִין לִמְנָחוֹת. וְשָׁפִין אוֹתָם וּבוֹעֲטִין בָּהֶן כִּשְׁאָר חִטֵּי מְנָחוֹת. וְטוֹחֲנִין אוֹתָן וּמְנַפִּין מֵהֶן בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים עִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת. וְעוֹשִׂין מֵהֶם שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה חַלּוֹת מַצּוֹת. לֹא נִפָּה אוֹתָם בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיאָן מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע סְאִים הוֹאִיל וְנַעֲשׂוּ סלֶת מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֵׁרוֹת. לֹא נֶאֶמְרוּ הַשִּׁעוּרִין הָאֵלּוּ אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה:

7

The kneading and the fashioning [of the loaves] was performed outside [the Temple Courtyard, but] they are baked in the Courtyard29 like the other meal-offerings.30 They should be kneaded one by one31 and baked two by two.

ז

לִישָׁתָן וַעֲרִיכָתָן בַּחוּץ וַאֲפִיָּתָן בִּפְנִים בָּעֲזָרָה כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וְלָשִׁין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת. וְאוֹפִין אוֹתָן שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם:

8

They had three molds of gold for them:32 one in which the loaf was placed while it was dough, the second in which it was baked,33 and the third in which it was placed when it was removed from the oven so that its [form] would not be impaired.34

ח

וּשְׁלֹשָׁה דְּפוּסִין שֶׁל זָהָב הָיוּ לָהֶם. אֶחָד שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בּוֹ הַחַלָּה וְהִיא בָּצֵק. וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁאוֹפִין אוֹתָהּ בּוֹ. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אוֹתָהּ בּוֹ כְּשֶׁרוֹדֶה אוֹתָהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְקַלְקֵל:

9

All of these loaves were rectangular, as [Exodus 35:13] states: Lechem Hapanim, [literally,] "the bread of faces," i.e., it had many surfaces.35 The length of each loaf was ten handbreadths,36 its width, five handbreadths, and its height, seven fingerbreadths.37 The length of the table was twelve handbreadths and its width, six handbreadths. [The priest] should place the length of the loaf across the width of the table. Thus the loaf would extend an extra two handbreadths at either side. He should fold up the portions that extend [beyond the table] on either side,38 leaving space in the middle [of the loaf] between the two ends.39 Similarly, he should place one loaf on another loaf until he arranged six loaves. Similarly, on the other side, he should make a second arrangement of six loaves.

ט

כָּל חַלָּה מֵהֶן מְרֻבָּעַת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה ל) "לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים" שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לוֹ פָּנִים רַבִּים. אֹרֶךְ כָּל חַלָּה מֵהֶן עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. וְרָחְבָּהּ חֲמִשָּׁה טְפָחִים. וְרוּמָהּ שֶׁבַע אֶצְבָּעוֹת. וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר טֶפַח וְרָחְבּוֹ שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. נוֹתֵן אֹרֶךְ הַחַלָּה עַל רֹחַב הַשֻּׁלְחָן נִמְצֵאת הַחַלָּה יוֹצֵאת שְׁנֵי טְפָחִים מִכָּאן וּשְׁנֵי טְפָחִים מִכָּאן. וְכוֹפֵל אֶת הַיּוֹצֵא מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן וְיִשָּׁאֵר בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַקְּצָווֹת רֶוַח בָּאֶמְצַע. וְכֵן מַנִּיחַ חַלָּה עַל גַּבֵּי חַלָּה עַד שֶׁעוֹרֵךְ שֵׁשׁ חַלּוֹת. וְכֵן עוֹשֶׂה בְּצַד הַמַּעֲרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה שֵׁשׁ חַלּוֹת:

10

The baking of the showbread does not supersede [the prohibitions of forbidden labor]40 on the Sabbath and festivals.41 Instead, on Friday, it was baked42 and it was arranged on the following day. If the two days of Rosh HaShanah fell on Thursday and Friday,43 it would be baked on Wednesday.

י

אֵין אֲפִיַּת לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת יוֹם טוֹב. אֶלָּא בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹפִין אוֹתָן וְעוֹרְכִין אוֹתָן לְמָחָר. וְאִם חָלוּ שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לִהְיוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי וּבְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מִיּוֹם רְבִיעִי:

11

Neither the arrangement of the rods [between the breads], nor their removal supersedes the Sabbath prohibitions.44 Instead, on Friday, [a priest] would enter, remove them, and place them along the table's length. And on Sunday, [another priest] would enter and insert them between the loaves.

יא

לֹא סִדּוּר הַקָּנִים וְלֹא נְטִילָתָן דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. אֶלָּא מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת נִכְנָס וְשׁוֹמְטָן וְנוֹתְנָן לְאֹרֶךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן. וּבְאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת נִכְנָס וּמַכְנִיס אֶת הַקָּנִים בֵּין הַחַלּוֹת:

12

If one arranged the bread as commanded, but did not place with it the bowls of frankincense until the next day45 and on the following Sabbath he offered [the contents of] the bowls [of frankincense] on the pyres,46 the bread is disqualified47 and is not sanctified.48 Similarly, if he arranged the bread and the bowls on Sunday and offered [the contents of] the bowls on the pyre after the following Sabbath, the bread is not sanctified and is disqualified.49 If he offered [the contents of] the bowls on the pyre on the Sabbath, the bread is not disqualified.50

יב

סִדֵּר הַלֶּחֶם בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמִצְוָתוֹ וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ עִמּוֹ בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה עַד לְמָחָר וּלְשַׁבָּת הַבָּאָה הִקְטִיר הַבְּזִיכִין נִפְסַל הַלֶּחֶם וְאֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ. וְכֵן אִם סִדֵּר הַלֶּחֶם וְהַבְּזִיכִין בְּאֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְהִקְטִיר הַבְּזִיכִין לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת הַבָּאָה הַלֶּחֶם אֵינוֹ קָדוֹשׁ וְנִפְסָל. אֲבָל אִם הִקְטִיר הַבְּזִיכִין בְּשַׁבָּת [לֹא] נִפְסַל הַלֶּחֶם:

13

What should be done with the bread and the bowls [of frankincense] that were arranged after the Sabbath? They should be left on the table until the Sabbath day passes while they are arranged.51 Afterwards, he should offer [the contents of] the bowls [of frankincense] on the Sabbath that followed the Sabbath that passed after they were arranged. [This does not present a difficulty,] because even if the showbread and the bowls [of frankincense] were on the table for several weeks, this does not present a problem.

יג

כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה בְּלֶחֶם וּבְזִיכִין שֶׁסִּדְּרָן לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. יַנִּיחֵם שָׁם עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר עֲלֵיהֶן יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְהֵן מְסֻדָּרִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַקְטִיר הַבְּזִיכִין לְשַׁבָּת הַבָּאָה אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה עֲלֵיהֶן וְהֵן מְסֻדָּרִין. שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁאַר הַלֶּחֶם עִם הַבְּזִיכִין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן כַּמָּה שַׁבָּתוֹת אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם:

14

If one arranged the bread and the bowls [of frankincense] on the Sabbath as required52 and offered [the contents of] the bowls [of frankincense] after the Sabbath53- whether after this Sabbath or the following Sabbath - the bread is disqualified.54 Its status is that of sacred articles that have been disqualified in which instance the prohibitions of notar, piggul and consuming the bread in a state of ritual impurity55 apply, as will be explained.56

יד

סִדֵּר אֶת הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶת הַבְּזִיכִין בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמִצְוָתָן וְהִקְטִיר אֶת הַבְּזִיכִין לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת בֵּין לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת זוֹ בֵּין לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת הַבָּאָה נִפְסַל הַלֶּחֶם. וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּקָדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּפְסְלוּ שֶׁחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל וְנוֹתַר וְטָמֵא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

15

[The following rules apply if] one of the loaves became broken. If it was broken before the bread was removed from the table, the bread is disqualified,57 and the [the contents of] the bowls [of frankincense] should not be offered on the pyre because of it.58 If it was broken after the bread was removed, the bread is disqualified,59 but the [the contents of] the bowls should be offered.60

טו

נִפְרְסָה חַלָּה אַחַת מִן הַלֶּחֶם. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵסִיר הַלֶּחֶם מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן נִפְרְסָה הַלֶּחֶם פָּסוּל וְאֵינוֹ מַקְטִיר עָלָיו אֶת הַבְּזִיכִין. וְאִם אַחַר שֶׁהֵסִיר הַלֶּחֶם נִפְרְסָה הַלֶּחֶם פָּסוּל וּמַקְטִיר עָלָיו אֶת הַבְּזִיכִין:

16

If the time to remove the bread61 arrived, it is as if the breads were removed. [Even] if a bread became broken, the [the contents of] the bowls should be offered although the arrangement [of the breads] has not been taken apart.

If one of the arrangements became impure - whether before [the frankincense] was offered or afterwards - or one of the bowls [of frankincense] became impure, the entities that are impure are impure and those that are pure are pure.62

טז

הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַלֶּחֶם לַהֲסִירוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁהֱסִירוֹ. וְאִם נִפְרַס הַלֶּחֶם מַקְטִיר הַבְּזִיכִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵק הַמַּעֲרָכָה. נִטְמָא אֶחָד מִן הַסְּדָרִין בֵּין לִפְנֵי הַקְטָרָה בֵּין לְאַחַר הַקְטָרָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּטְמָא אֶחָד מִן הַבְּזִיכִין. הַטָּמֵא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ וְהַטָּהוֹר בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ:

Footnotes
1.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 27) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 97) count this as one of the Torah's 613 mitzvot. Significantly, in his listing of the mitzvot at the beginning of the section, the Rambam defines the mitzvah as making the showbread. See also the notes of the Ra'avad to the Rambam's listing of the mitzvot at the beginning of the Mishneh Torah where he questions why placing the incense on the breads and partaking of the breads are not considered as separate mitzvot.

2.

See the description of the table and its utensils in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:13-15.

3.

I.e., in this way, the loaves were lifted up so that air could pass through them. The rods were hollow for this purpose (Menachot 97a).

The commentaries note that there was an ongoing miracle with regard to the showbread and it remained fresh from week to week (Yoma 21b). Nevertheless, the Torah advises us to take this precaution, because one should not rely on a miracle.

4.

I.e., a space of two handbreadths was left in the center of the table for this purpose.

5.

The Kessef Mishneh states that although, generally, the word al is translated as "on," it can also mean "next to," as in the term elev, "Next to it" (Numbers 2:20).

6.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 2:2), the Rambam notes that bezech is Onkelos' translation of the Hebrew kaposav.

7.

I.e., if one had only one set, it should not be offered.

8.

Thus if there is anything lacking in either the breads or the frankincense, nothing should be offered.

9.

One should wait until the Sabbath, because the prooftext cited above states: "On the Sabbath day, on the Sabbath day, the priest shall arrange it."

10.

See Chapter 4, Halachot 12-13.

11.

See ibid. 14.

12.

In the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 2:2), he writes that the showbread may be eaten only on the Sabbath on which it was removed from the table. Nevertheless, when Yom Kippur falls on the Sabbath, they are eaten on Saturday night.

13.

From the Rambam's wording here, it appears that the breads were already folded over (as stated in Halachah 9) and placed one on top of the other. See also Halachah 11.

14.

Each holding one.

15.

I.e., who bring in the new showbread.

16.

The table itself was on the north side of the Sanctuary, extending lengthwise from east to west.

17.

I.e., who remove the showbread from the previous week.

18.

I.e., immediately after removing one, the other should be placed down.

19.

I.e., there should be no time when there is not bread on the table.

20.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:16.

21.

On the outer altar. See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 2:11.

22.

For the obligation to partake of them does not supersede the mitzvah of fasting on Yom Kippur.

23.

The minimum size the contemporary authorities give for a se'ah is approximately 8.5 liter.

24.

See Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:4 with regard to the special stringencies taken with regard to the preparation of the grain for such offerings.

25.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 6:5) the Ramban interprets this as striking the wheat powerfully with one's hand so that the dust will be removed from them.

26.

Crushing them with his feet to crack the shells (ibid.).

27.

Which are struck 300 times and tread upon 500 times (Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach, loc. cit.).

28.

This was of course a far smaller measure than the 24 se'ah. The remainder of the flour had to be redeemed and then it could be used for ordinary purposes. See Hilchot Bikkurim 6:3.

29.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 11:2), the Rambam writes that it is permitted to knead the loaves outside the Temple Courtyard, but that it is not permitted to bake them outside. He states that the rationale for this distinction was not mentioned in the Talmud.

30.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:21-23. The intent is that the other meal-offerings are baked in the Temple Courtyard. They are, however, also kneaded in the Temple Courtyard. See Kessef Mishneh.

31.

Menachot 94a derives this from the exegesis of Leviticus 24:5: "Each loaf will be two esronim." Implied is that each loaf is treated individually.

32.

This refers to the ka'arot mentioned in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:14.

33.

Significantly, Rashi in his gloss to Exodus 25:29 states that the loaves were baked in iron molds.

34.

Since the loaves were thin, it is possible that their shape would be impaired.

35.

In his Commetary to the Mishnah (Menachot 11:4), the Rambam writes that each loaf had six surfaces: two on either side, one from the front and one from the bottom. This follows the opinion (Menachot 94b) that the showbread was like an open drawer. See the diagram accompanying Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:14.

36.

A handbreadth is 8 centimeters in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah.

37.

A fingerbreadth is 2 centimeters in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah.

38.

Rashi (Menachot 94a) states that the loaves were baked while folded over. When the breads folded over some of the dough would jut out. That dough was left there as support for the sides. Menachot 96a refers to these as karanot, "corners."

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 11:4), the Rambam writes that the height of the bread was four fingerbreadths. In order that there be no contradiction between those statements and the statements here, Minchat Yehudah suggests that the bread itself was four fingerbreadths high. Together with these karanot, the height was seven fingerbreadths. The Kessef Mishneh, however, suggests that the bread was much thinner.

39.

Hence producing the form "like an open drawer."

All of the above follows the popular conception of the form of the showbread as it is usually depicted and as is explained by the Ralbag quoted by the Kessef Mishneh. The Radbaz, however, maintains that this is not the Rambam's intent. Instead, the simple meaning of his words is that the breads were baked as elongated rectangles and folded over only when they were put on the table itself. The folds lay on top of the bread rather than standing perpendicular to it. This form could still be considered "as an open drawer," because of the space between the two folds.

40.

Baking is one of the labors forbidden on the Sabbath. Although the performance of the Temple service generally supersedes the Sabbath prohibitions, an exception is made in this instance, because the bread could be baked before the Sabbath and it would not spoil due to the passage of one day (Menachot 97a).

41.

Although it is permitted to bake on the festivals, that leniency is granted only with regard to bread to be eaten that day and the showbread would not be eaten until more than a week afterwards [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 11:9)].

42.

The commentaries question why the showbread was not disqualified even though it remained overnight on Friday, for any article that had been placed in a sacred utensil is disqualified if it remains overnight. Minchat Yehudah explains that just as the bread is not disqualified while it is left on the golden table on the altar, it is similarly not disqualified when it is left on the marble table in the Entrance Hall (see Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 3:16).

43.

We are speaking about the era when the Temple existed and then Rosh HaShanah was observed for only one day. Nevertheless, there was a possibility that there would be no witnesses who saw the new moon. In such a situation, the people would regard the 30th of Elul as holy regardless and not perform any work on it. If witnesses came, it was declared as Rosh HaShanah. If they would not come, the following day was declared as Rosh HaShanah, as explained in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:8. Taking that possibility into mind, the priests would bake the showbread on Wednesday.

44.

Rashi (Menachot 97a) explains that by placing the rods between the breads, one looks like he is building. Tosafot explains that the problem is that the rods are muktzeh, articles forbidden to be moved on the Sabbath.

45.

Instead of placing them on the table together with the bread, as stated in Halachah 4.

46.

The key to the understanding of this and the following halachah is that for the breads to be acceptable, they and the frankincense must have been placed on the table before the conclusion of the Sabbath, remain there for an entire week, and thus be on the table from the beginning of the next Sabbath.

47.

Because the bread is not acceptable until the frankincense was offered properly and in this instance, it was not, because it was never on the table at the conclusion of the Sabbath.

The Radbaz (see also Rashi, Menachot 100a) explains that in this instance, it is not acceptable to leave the bread and the frankincense on the altar for another week, for the bread was arranged in the proper manner and hence, becomes disqualified if left on the table beyond the following Sabbath. In this instance, it is not possible to leave the bread on the table, because it was not arranged together with the frankincense (Radbaz to Halachah 14).

48.

Therefore the prohibitions of notar, piggul and consuming the bread in a state of ritual impurity are not relevant to it [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 11:8)].

49.

For the frankincense should be offered on the Sabbath. Since it was offered improperly, the bread is not consecrated.

50.

Our translation is based on authentic manuscripts and early printings of the Mishneh Torah. The standard published text has a different - and somewhat difficult to understand - version. See the glosses of the Kessef Mishneh and Lechem Mishneh which discuss this point. According to our version, the intent is that since the frankincense should not have been offered on this Sabbath (but on the next, as stated in the following halachah), the bread is disqualified.

51.

I.e., if they were placed on the table on Sunday, new showbread should not be prepared that week. Instead, the bread and the frankincense should be left on the table over the next Sabbath and should not be removed until the next Sabbath.

The Radbaz questions: Seemingly, since they were not arranged in the proper manner, the arrangement should be not be acceptable. He explains that since they were placed down properly, when the time comes, retroactively, their having been arranged is considered effective.

52.

They became sanctified, because they were arranged in the proper manner (Radbaz).

53.

I.e., during the week; thus doing so in an improper manner.

54.

Because the frankincense which enables it to be permitted to be eaten was offered in an improper manner.

55.

See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 17:1; 18:9-10, 13, for an explanation of these prohibitions.

56.

The Chazon Ish states that the text should be amended to read "is not liable for" and cites as support Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 18:16 which states: "Whenever sacrificial food is permitted because [of the performance of] a particular act, one is not liable for the violation any of the prohibitions against partaking of piggul, notar, or impure sacrificial food unless the act which permits partaking of the food was performed according to law." This approach is not, however, accepted by all authorities.

57.

Menachot 12b derives this concept from the fact that, with regard to all twelve loaves, Leviticus 24:9 states: "It is of the most sacred order of holiness." By referring to all twelve loaves as a single collective, the Torah implies that they are granted this status only when they are all whole.

58.

Because that offering is made only when the breads are fit. The Radbaz explains that the situation is comparable to that of a meal offering whose substance was reduced before a handful of flour was offered on the altar. In such a situation, the entire offering is disqualified.

59.

And should not be eaten. See also Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 12:4.

60.

Being on the table for the required time is sufficient to warrant that the breads be offered.

If the bread breaks after the frankincense is offered, it may be eaten, for all the mitzvot associated with it have been fulfilled (ibid.).

61.

The beginning of the seventh hour on the Sabbath afternoon.

62.

I.e., the frankincense should be offered and the priests should partake of the loaves.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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