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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Arachim Vacharamim - Chapter 8, Kilaayim - Chapter 1, Kilaayim - Chapter 2

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Arachim Vacharamim - Chapter 8

1

On the fifthteenth of Adar, the court1 diverts their attention [from other concerns] and examines and investigates matters involving the needs of the community and consecrated property. They check the matter and research the [cases involved], so that consecrated property and dedication offerings will be redeemed and arachim and pledges of worth are collected from all those who are liable for them so that the entire nation will be prepared to give the gift of shekalim to maintain the House of our God.2

א

בחמישה עשר באדר, בית דין נפנין לחפש ולבדוק על צורכי ציבור ועל ענייני הקדשות; ובודקין עליהן ודורשין וחוקרין, ופודין את ההקדשות ואת החרמים, וגובין את הערכים ואת הדמים מכל החייב בהן—כדי שיהיה הכול עתיד עם תרומת שקלים, לחזק את בית אלוהינו.

2

Consecrated articles are redeemed only on the basis of [evaluation by] three experts. Similarly, when movable property is being taken as security when one is liable for arachim,3 it should be evaluated by three people.4 And when an animal or the like is designated as an airech, it should be evaluated by three people.

When, however, land is designated as an airech or if arachin for humans must be collected from landed property, it is evaluated only by ten people5 and one of them must be a priest. For the passage [that speaks about redemption] mentions a priest.6 Similarly, if a person says: "I pledge my worth," "...the worth of so-and-so," "...the worth of my hand," or "...the worth of my foot," when an evaluation of his worth, that of his hand, or that of his foot is made, it is made by ten people and one of them is a priest.7

ב

אין פודין את ההקדשות, אלא בשלושה בקיאין; וכן כשגובין מיטלטלין שממשכנין מחייבי ערכים, שמין אותן בשלושה. וכשמעריכין בהמה וכיוצא בה משאר מיטלטלין, שמין אותה בשלושה. אבל כשמעריכין את הקרקעות, או אם הוזקקו לגבות ערכי אדם מן הקרקע שלו—אין מעריכין אותן אלא בעשרה, ואחד מהן כוהן: שהרי "כוהן" (ויקרא כז,ח; ועוד שש פעמים בהמשך הפרק) כתוב בפרשה. וכן האומר דמיי עליי, או דמי פלוני עליי, או דמי ידי, או דמי רגלי—כששמין אותו כמה הוא שווה, או כמה דמי ידו או רגלו—שמין בעשרה, ואחד מהן כוהן.

3

When consecrated property - whether landed property or movable property - is redeemed from the Temple treasury, an announcement is made before all those who might seek to redeem it.8 [The following rule applies if] one says: "I will [redeem] them for ten selaim," another says: "...for twenty," a third "...for thirty," a fourth "...for forty," and a fifth "...for fifty," and then the one who pledged fifty alone retracts. We expropriate ten [selaim] from the property [of the latter]9 and give the consecrated article to the one [who pledged to] give forty. Thus the Temple treasury receives fifty: Ten from one and forty from the other.

If the one who pledged forty also retracts, we expropriate ten [selaim] from his property and give the consecrated article to the one who pledged thirty. [If he and the others also retract,] we follow the same process until [the option is given to] the first. If the first who pledged ten also retracts, we announce the redemption of the consecrated article a second time and sell it. If it is redeemed for less than ten, we collect the difference from the person who [originally] pledged ten.

ג

כשפודין את ההקדשות מידי ההקדש, בין שהיו קרקעות או מיטלטלין—מכריזין עליהן בפני כל הבאין לפדות. אמר אחד הרי הן שלי בעשר סלעים, ואמר אחד בעשרים, ואמר אחד בשלושים, ואמר אחד בארבעים, ואמר אחד בחמישים, חזר בו של חמישים לבדו—ממשכנין מנכסיו עשר, ונותנין אותן ההקדשות לזה שנתן ארבעים; ונמצא ההקדש נוטל חמישים, עשר מזה וארבעים מזה. חזר בו אחרי כן של ארבעים—ממשכנין מנכסיו עשר, ונותנין את ההקדש לבעל השלושים; וכן עד הראשון. חזר בו הראשון שנתן עשר—מכריזין על ההקדש פעם שנייה, ומוכרין אותו: אם נפדה בפחות מעשר, נפרעין משל עשר את המותר.

4

When does the above apply? When they retracted one after the other. If, however, they all retracted at the same time, we divide the sum among them.

What is implied? The first one says: "I will [redeem] it for ten selaim," the second: "...for twenty," and a third "...for 24," and the second and third retract at the same time, we enable the first to redeem it for ten and we expropriate seven from the property of both the second and the third.10 Thus the Temple treasury collects 24. Similarly, if all three of them retract and the consecrated article is [ultimately] sold for three, we expropriate seven selaim from the property of all of them. These principles are followed in all instances.

ד

במה דברים אמורים, בשחזרו זה אחר זה; אבל אם חזרו כולן כאחת, משלשין ביניהם בשווה. כיצד: אמר הראשון הרי הוא שלי בעשר, ואמר השני בעשרים, ואמר השלישי בארבע ועשרים, וחזר בו השלישי והשני כאחד—נותנין אותו לראשון בעשר, וממשכנים מנכסי שני בשבע ומנכסי שלישי בשבע; ונמצא ההקדש גובה ארבע ועשרים. וכן אם חזרו שלושתן כאחת, ונמכר ההקדש בשלוש—ממשכנין מנכסי כל אחד משלושתן שבע סלעים. וכן על דרך זו לעולם.

5

The [original] owners [of the consecrated article] are [given the opportunity to redeem the consecrated article] before all others, because they [are required to] add a fifth.11 They are not, however, required to add a fifth to the sum that they bid above other [potential] redeemers, only to what they initially pledged.

What is implied? The owners said: "We will [redeem] it for 20 [selaim]," and another person says: "I will redeem it for 20," the owners are given the option, because they add a fifth and pay 25." If another person comes and says: "I will redeem it for 21," and the [original] owners remain silent and do not add anything, we sell it to them for 25.12

If the owners increased [the bid of] 21, adding even a p'rutah,13 they are required to pay 26 [selaim] and a p'rutah: the 21 and a p'rutah which they pledged on their own initiative and the five which are the fifth from their original bid.

Similarly, if the second person said: "I will redeem it for 22," a third said, "...for 23," a fourth said, "...for 24," a fifth said, "...for 25," and [the original owner] added even a p'rutah to the sum of 25, they are compelled to give 30 and a p'rutah: the 25 and a p'rutah which they pledged on their own initiative and the five which are the fifth that they are obligated. For the owner is not required to add a fifth to the additions of the others. Instead, they must add the fifth from their original pledge to the final sum that they pledged.

ה

הבעלים קודמין לכל אדם, מפני שהן מוסיפין חומש; ואין מוסיפין חומש על עילויין של שאר הפודים, אלא על מה שנותנין הן תחילה. כיצד: אמרו הבעלים הרי זה שלנו בעשרים, ובא אחר ואמר הרי הוא שלי בעשרים—הבעלים קודמין, מפני שהן מוסיפין חומש ונותנין חמש ועשרים. בא אחר ואמר הרי הוא שלי באחד ועשרים—אם שתקו הבעלים ולא הוסיפו כלום, מוכרין אותו להם בחמש ועשרים. ואם הוסיפו הבעלים על העשרים ואחד, אפילו פרוטה אחת—הרי אלו נותנין שש ועשרים ופרוטה: אחד ועשרים שנתנו מעצמן, וחמש שהן חייבין בו משום חומש המתן שנתנו תחילה. וכן אם בא השני ואמר הרי הוא שלי בעשרים ושניים, ובא שלישי ואמר בעשרים ושלוש, ובא רביעי ואמר בעשרים וארבע, ובא חמישי ואמר בעשרים וחמש, והוסיפו הן על העשרים וחמש אפילו פרוטה אחת—כופין אותן ליתן שלושים ופרוטה: חמש ועשרים ופרוטה שנתנו מעצמן, וחמש של חומש שהן חייבין בו—לפי שאין הבעלים מוסיפין חומש על עילוייו של זה, אלא חומש מה שנתנו תחילה מוסיפין על מה שנתן האחרון אם רצו.

6

When does the above apply? When the consecrated property was not evaluated by three experts. If, however, three experts evaluated the consecrated property and said that it was worth what the last [bidder] pledged and the original owners then increased his bid by even a p'rutah, the additional fifth they must give [is calculated based on] the latter bid.14 They must, therefore, give 31 [selaim], a dinar,15 and a p'rutah.

ו

במה דברים אמורים, בשלא שמו ההקדש שלושה מומחין; אבל אם שמו אותו שלושה מומחין, ואמרו שהוא שווה מה שנתן האחרון, והוסיפו הבעלים על עילוייו, אפילו פרוטה אחת—הרי הן מוסיפין חומש על עילוייו של אחרון, ונותנין אחד ושלושים ודינר ופרוטה.

7

[The following rules apply when] the consecrated property was not evaluated, the owner pledged 20, someone else came and pledged 25, and the owner remained silent and did not add anything. The owner is still given priority, for he is also required to pay 25 because of the additional fifth. If another person came and pledged 26,16 he is given priority. If the owner desires to add even a p'rutah he must give 31 [selaim] and a p'rutah as we explained.17 This pattern is followed in all instances.

ז

הרי שלא נישום ההקדש, ונתנו הבעלים תחילה עשרים, ובא אחרון ונתן חמש ועשרים, ושתקו הבעלים ולא הוסיפו כלום—הבעלים קודמין: שאף הן חייבין ליתן חמש ועשרים, מפני החומש. בא אחרון ונתן שש ועשרים, הוא קודם; ואם רצו הבעלים והוסיפו אפילו פרוטה, נותנין אחת ושלושים ופרוטה כמו שביארנו. ועל דרך זו לעולם.

8

In the present era, we do not consecrate property, nor make evaluation offerings or dedication offerings,18 for there is no Temple to make improvements upon. [The following laws apply] if one did consecrate property or make an evaluation offering or a dedication offering:19 If it was an animal, he should lock it in [a closed room] until it dies naturally. If it was produce, a garment, or a utensil, it should be set aside until it rots. If it was coins or metal utensils, they should be taken to the Dead Sea or the Mediterranean Sea20 to be destroyed.

ח

אין מקדישין ולא מעריכין ולא מחרימין בזמן הזה—שאין שם מקדש בחטאינו, כדי לחזק את בדקו. ואם הקדיש או העריך או החרים—אם הייתה בהמה, נועל דלת בפניה עד שתמות מאליה; ואם היו פירות או כסות או כלים, מניחן עד שיירקבו; ואם היו מעות או כלי מתכות, ישליכן לים הגדול ים המלח כדי לאבדן.

9

If a person consecrated a servant who accepted the mitzvot21 [incumbent on servants] or designates him as a dedication offering, he should redeem him and bring the money to the Dead Sea as is the law with regard to other pledges of the worth of an article or arachim in the present age.22 If the servant was a gentile,23 he may not be cast into a pit, nor may he be raised up from one.24

ט

הקדיש או החרים עבד שנכנס למצוות, פודהו וילכו הדמים לים המלח כשאר דמים וערכים של זמן הזה; ואם היה עבד גוי, לא מעלין ולא מורידין.

10

It is permissible to redeem consecrated property for a p'rutah in the present age even as an initial and preferable option.25 Our Sages, however, ruled that it be redeemed for four zuzim or close to that sum to publicize the matter. In the era of the Temple, as an initial preference, it should be redeemed for its worth, as we explained.26

י

מותר לפדות ההקדשות בזמן הזה לכתחילה, ואפילו בפרוטה; ומשליך את הפרוטה לים המלח. וחכמים דנו שיפדה בארבעה זוזים או קרוב לזה, כדי לפרסם הדבר. אבל בזמן המקדש, לא יפדה לכתחילה אלא בשווייו כמו שביארנו.

11

In the present age, if a person made a dedication offering of movable property without specifying his intent, it should be given to the priests27 in that locale. If, however, he designated a field in Eretz Yisrael as a dedication offering without specifying his intent or designated it as a dedication offering to the priests, it is not a dedication offering.28 For [the laws of] a dedication offering of a field apply in the era that the Jubilee year is observed.29

If one designated landed property as a dedication offering for the priests in the Diaspora even in the present era, it is considered like movable property in Eretz Yisrael30 and should be given to the priests.

יא

מי שהחרים בזמן הזה מיטלטלין סתם, הרי אלו ניתנין לכוהנים הנמצאים באותו מקום. אבל אם החרים שדה בארץ ישראל סתם, או שהחרימה לכוהנים—אינה חרם: שאין שדה חרמים נוהגת, אלא בזמן שהיובל נוהג. החרים לכוהנים קרקע בחוצה לארץ, ואפילו בזמן הזה—הרי היא כמיטלטלין בארץ ישראל, ותינתן לכוהנים.

12

It is a mitzvah to consecrate property and designate dedication and evaluation offerings31 and it is appropriate for a person to observe these practices to subjugate his natural inclination32 so that he will not be parsimonious and to fulfill the charge of the prophets [Proverbs 3:9]: "Honor God with your wealth." Nevertheless, if a person never consecrated property nor designated a dedication or evaluation offering, it is of no consequence.33 For the Torah has given testimony, saying [Deuteronomy 23:23]: "If you will refrain from [uttering] a vow, you will not have sinned."

יב

אף על פי שההקדשות והערכים והחרמים מצוות, וראוי לו לאדם להנהיג עצמו בדברים אלו, כדי לכוף יצרו ולא יהיה כיליי, ויקיים מה שציוו נביאים "כבד את ה', מהונך" (משלי ג,ט)--אף על פי כן, אם לא הקדיש ולא העריך מעולם, אין בכך כלום: הרי התורה העידה ואמרה "וכי תחדל, לנדור—לא יהיה בך, חטא" (דברים כג,כג).

13

A person should never consecrate all of his property or designate it as a dedication offering. A person who does so violates the Torah's guidance, for [Leviticus 27:28] speaks [of a person designating a dedication offering] "from all that is his." [Implied is that he should not give] "all that is his," as our Sages explained.34This is not piety, but foolishness, for he will lose all his money and become dependent on others.35 We should not show mercy to such a person. In a similar vein, our Sages said:36 "A man of foolish piety is among those who destroy the world." Instead, a person who distributes his money for mitzvot should not distribute more than a fifth,37 and he should conduct himself as our Prophets advised [cf. Psalms 112:5]: "He arranges his affairs with judgment," both with regard to matters involving Torah and worldly concerns.38 Even with regard to the sacrifices for which a person is liable, the Torah showed compassion for [a person's] resources and dictated that the type of sacrifice be offered according to a person's financial capacity.39 How much more so should this approach be followed with regard to matters which a person is obligated only because of his vows. He should take such vows only in a manner appropriate for him, as [implied by Deuteronomy 16:17]: "Each man according to his generosity, according to the blessings of God, your Lord, which He has granted you."40

יג

לעולם לא יקדיש אדם ולא יעריך ולא יחרים, כל נכסיו; והעושה זה, עבר על דעת הכתוב—שהרי הוא אומר "מכל אשר לו" (ויקרא כז,כח), לא כל אשר לו, כמו שביארו חכמים. ואין זו חסידות, אלא שטות—שהרי זה מאבד כל ממונו, ויצטרך לברייות; ואין מרחמין עליו. ובזה וכיוצא בו אמרו חכמים, חסיד שוטה מכלל מכלי עולם. אלא כל המפזר ממונו במצוות, אל יפזר יותר מחומש; ויהיה כמו שציוו נביאים "מכלכל דבריו, במשפט" (ראה תהילים קיב,ה)--בין בדברי עולם בין בדברי תורה. אפילו בקרבנות שאדם חייב בהן—הרי חסה תורה על הממון ואמרה, שיביא כפי מיסת ידו; קל וחומר לדברים שלא נתחייב בהן, אלא מחמת נדרו—שלא ינדור אלא כראוי לו. שנאמר "איש, כמתנת ידו, כברכת ה' אלוהיך, אשר נתן לך" (דברים טז,יז).

Blessed be God who grants assistance.

This concludes the sixth book with the help of the Omnipotent.

There are 43 chapters in this book.

In Hilchot Sh'vuot, there are 12 chapters.

In Hilchot Nedarim, there are 13 chapters.

In Hilchot Nizirut, there are 10 chapters.

In Hilchot Arachim Vacharamim, there are 8 chapters.

בריך רחמנא דסייען. נגמר ספר שישי, בעזרת שדיי. ומניין פרקים של ספר זה, שלושה וארבעים: הלכות שבועות, שנים עשר פרקים; הלכות נדרים, שלושה עשר פרקים; הלכות נזירות, עשרה פרקים; הלכות ערכים וחרמים, שמונה פרקים.

Footnotes
1.

I.e., the Sanhedrin, Israel's highest court.

2.

There is a certain lack of clarity in the Rambam's words. For the donation of the half-shekel that was announced and collected in the month of Adar was for the sake of the communal offerings (Hilchot Shekalim 4:10).

3.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 14.

4.

A second opinion is always valuable lest one person err and a third is necessary, lest the two differ. None of the three is required to be a priest (Radbaz).

5.

Megilah 23b derives this from the fact that Leviticus, ch. 27, mentions the word "priest" ten times when speaking of all of these types of evaluations.

6.

It is not, however, necessary that all ten be priests (Megilah, loc. cit.).

7.

In such an instance, the person - or his limb's - worth is evaluated like a servant being sold in the marketplace. Based on Leviticus 25:46, an equation is established between landed property and servants. Hence, the same evaluation process is used (Megilah, loc. cit.).

8.

Note the contrast to Chapter 3, Halachot 19-20.

9.

I.e., although he merely pledged the fifty, we follow the principle (Kiddushin 28b, et al): "A pledge to the Temple treasury is like transferring the article to an ordinary person." Nevertheless, he is only required to pay ten, since the Temple treasury can collect the forty from the other person.

10.

I.e., since they retracted at the same time, the loss suffered by the Temple treasury is divided equally between them. The Ra'avad and Rashi (Arachin 27b) offer a different interpretation of how the sum is divided between the two. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, justify the Rambam's view.

11.

And thus if the original owner and another person pledge the same amount, the Temple treasury will receive more if the original owner is allowed to redeem it.

12.

They are given the opportunity to redeem it, because the Temple treasury will benefit more from their redemption than that of the other person.

13.

A copper coin of minimal value.

The Ra'avad and Rashi (Arachin 27b) maintain that even if the original owners do not raise the bid, they are liable for 26 selaim for they are liable for the sela added by the other bidder. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's approach.

14.

Since this is the article's worth, it is appropriate that the fifth be calculated accordingly.

15.

I.e., a fourth of 25 selaim is six selaim and a dinar. This is the additional fifth that the original owner is required to pay.

16.

More precisely, anything above 25, so that his increase benefits the Temple treasury.

17.

In Halachah 5.

18.

This refers to dedication offerings for the sake of the Temple. With regard to dedication offerings to the priests, see Halachah 11.

19.

Since the property was consecrated, it is forbidden to benefit from it. Hence, it must be disposed of in a manner in which no one will benefit. The Ra'avad emphasizes that the advice given by the Rambam applies in an instance when one does not desire to redeem the consecrated property. If one desires to redeem it, it is preferable to do so, following the guidelines set down in Halachah 10. The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam would not differ with this concept. See also the Rama (Yoreh De'ah 258:1) who suggests that if a person consecrates an article in the present age, he should ask a sage to repeal his vow.

20.

I.e., a place where the money will be lost to human hands forever.

21.

I.e., a gentile servant who is circumcised and immersed in the mikveh and then required to observe all the mitzvot incumbent upon women. See Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 13:11.

22.

In this way, the holiness associated with the servant will be transferred to the article and the article left in a place where no one will benefit from it.

23.

As the Rambam states in Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 14:9, after being purchased by a Jew, a gentile servant is given a year in which to decide whether he wishes to observe the mitzvot. The Rambam is speaking about the laws that apply in the midst of that year.

24.

The Rambam makes similar statements with regard to idol-worshiping gentiles in Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 10:1; Hilchot Rotzeach 4:11. The Radbaz interprets the Rambam's intent in citing these concepts here as implying that the owner should not redeem the servant. Since he remains consecrated, it is forbidden to benefit from his labor.

25.

In the present era, since nothing can be done with the money, our Sages allowed the consecrated property to be redeemed in this manner. Note the Rama (Yoreh De'ah 258:1) who rules that consecrated property cannot be redeemed in the present age. The Siftei Cohen 258:3, however, cites the Rambam's view.

26.

Chapter 7, Halachah 8.

27.

See Chapter 6, Halachah 1.

28.

The Ra'avad cites a view that maintains that even though the field is not given to the priests, it becomes consecrated and can no longer be used by the person for his individual concerns.

29.

See Hilchot Shemitah ViYovel 10:9.

30.

See the Tur (Choshen Mishpat 95) and commentaries which debate whether this principle applies in all matters or only in this limited context.

31.

As listed at the beginning of this set of halachot.

32.

See The Guide to the Perplexed, Vol. III, ch. 39, which states that the purpose for these mitzvot is to cultivate the trait of generosity. Also by consecrating his property, one uses his wealth for a holy purpose rather than his own indulgence.

33.

Compare to the conclusion of Hilchot Nedarim.

34.

Arachin 28a.

35.

The Rambam is very critical of those who can support themselves on their own, but instead, make wrong choices in the name of piety and thus, require others to support them. See for example, Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 10:18 which states:

Even a dignified sage who becomes poor should work in a profession, even a degrading profession, rather than seek public assistance. It is better to skin the hides of dead animals rather than tell people: "I am a sage, support me."

36.

Sotah 20a.

37.

Ketubot 50a derives this concept from Jacob's vow to tithe (Genesis 28:22). There the verb which conveys the promise to tithe is repeated, allowing for the concept of giving two tithes. See also Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 7:5.

Yayin Malchut notes that in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Pe'ah 1:1), the Rambam writes that as an act of piety, a person may give more than a fifth. Nevertheless, there is not necessarily a contradiction between the two. In his Commentary to the Mishnah, the Rambam is speaking about giving to a needy who asks for alms. In response to that acute need, one may give more that a fifth. Here the Rambam is speaking about giving to charity when there is no acute need. Hence the limit should be adhered to.

In Iggeret HaTeshuvah, Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi states that one may give more than a fifth of his resources to charity to atone for his sins, for just as one is not concerned with the amount one gives when it comes to healing a physical wound or blemish, so too, one should not be worried about cost when healing a spiritual blemish.

38.

See Hilchot De'ot 5:10.

39.

I.e., there are different obligations for certain sacrifices, e.g., the adjustable guilt offering (Leviticus 5:6-11), depending on one's means.

40.

This verse specifically applies to the festive sacrifices a person brings for the pilgrimage festivals (see Hilchot Chagigah 1:2), but in an expanded sense, it applies to all offerings to the Temple.

Kilaayim - Chapter 1

In the name of the Lord, the God of the world.
May Your hand be [ready] to help me, for I have chosen Your precepts.

The seventh book which is The Book of Seeds

It contains seven sets of Halachot and this is their order:

The Laws of Kilaayim
The Laws of Matnot Aniyim
The Laws of Terumot
The Laws of Maaser
The Laws of Maaser Sheini
The Laws of Bikkurim
The Laws of Shemita

Introduction to Hilchos Kilaayim

They contain five negative commandments. They are:

1. Not to sow different species of produce;
2. Not to sow grain or vegetables in a vineyard;
3. Not to crossbreed different species of animals;
4. Not to work with two different species of animals together;
5. Not to wear [a garment made from] a forbidden mixture of fabrics.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

בְּשֵׁם יי אֵל עוֹלָם (בראשית כא לג)
תְּהִי יָדְךָ לְעָזְרֵנִי, כִּי פִקּוּדֶיךָ בָחָרְתִּי (תהלים קיט קעג)

ספר שביעי והוא ספר זרעים

הלכותיו שבע, וזה הוא סידורן:

הלכות כלאים
הלכות מתנות עניים
הלכות תרומות
הלכות מעשרות
הלכות מעשר שני ונטע רבעי
הלכות ביכורים ושאר מתנות כהונה שבגבולין
הלכות שמיטה ויובל

הלכות כלאים - הקדמה

הלכות כלאים יש בכללן חמש מצות לא תעשה וזה הוא פרטן

(א) שלא לזרוע זרעים כלאים
(ב) שלא לזרוע תבואה או ירק בכרם
(ג) שלא להרביע בהמה כלאים
(ד) שלא לעשות מלאכה בכלאי בהמה כאחד
(ה) שלא ללבוש כלאים

וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

A person who sows two species of seeds together in Eretz Yisrael1 is liable for lashes,2 as [Leviticus 19:19] states: "You shall not sow your field with mixed species."3

א

הזורע שני מיני זרעים כאחד בארץ ישראל לוקה שנאמר שדך לא תזרע כלאים:

2

[This prohibition, referred to as kilayim, applies whether one] sows, weeds,4 or covers seeds with earth, e.g., there was a kernel of wheat and a kernel of barley or a fava bean and a lentil, lying on the earth and one covered them with earth, whether with his hand, his foot, or with a utensil, he is liable for lashes. [This applies] whether he sows them in the earth or in a pot with a hole.5 When, by contrast, one sows them in a pot without a hole, he is liable only for stripes for rebellious conduct.6

ב

ואחד הזורע או המנכש או המחפה כגון שהיתה חטה אחת ושעורה אחת או פול אחד ועדשה אחת מונחין על הארץ וחיפה אותן בעפר בין בידו בין ברגלו בין בכלי הרי זה לוקה ואחד הזורע בארץ או בעציץ נקוב אבל הזורע בעציץ שאינו נקוב מכין אותו מכת מרדות:

3

It is forbidden to sow kilayim7 for a gentile.8 It is, by contrast, permitted to tell a gentile to sow mixed species of seeds for his own sake.9

It is forbidden for a person to maintain mixed species of seeds in his field. Instead, he must uproot them. If he maintains them, he is not liable for lashes.10 It is permitted for a Jew to sow mixed species of seeds by hand in the Diaspora.11 It is even permitted to mix seeds at the outset and then sow them. These concepts [have been communicated] by the Oral Tradition.

ג

אסור לזרוע כלאים לנכרי ומותר לומר לנכרי לזרוע לו כלאי זרעים ואסור לאדם לקיים כלאי זרעים בשדהו אלא עוקרן ואם קיימן אינו לוקה ומותר לישראל לזרוע כלאי זרעים בידו בחוצה לארץ ואפילו לערב הזרעים לכתחלה ולזורען בחוצה לארץ מותר ודברים אלו דברי קבלה:

4

The prohibition against mixed species of seeds involves only plants that are fit for human consumption.12 Grasses that are bitter and similar roots that are fit only for medicinal purposes and the like are not included in the prohibition against mixtures of seeds.

ד

אין אסור משום כלאי זרעים אלא הזרעים הראויין למאכל אדם אבל עשבים המרים וכיוצא בהן מן העיקרין שאינן ראויין אלא לרפואה וכיוצא בהן אין בהן משום כלאי זרעים:

5

[Grafting] a mixture of trees is including in the prohibition: "You shall not sow your field with mixed species." What is implied? When a person grafts a tree [of one species] unto a tree [of another species], e.g., he grafted a branch of an apple tree to an esrog tree or one from an esrog tree to an apple tree, he is liable for lashes according to Scriptural Law in any place, whether in Eretz Yisrael or in the Diaspora.13 Similarly, if a person grafts a vegetable to a tree or a tree to a vegetable, he is liable for lashes in every place.14

ה

כלאי האילנות הרי הם בכלל מה שנאמר שדך לא תזרע כלאים כיצד המרכיב אילן באילן כגון שהרכיב ייחור של תפוח באתרוג או אתרוג בתפוח הרי זה לוקה מן התורה בכ"מ בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ וכן המרכיב ירק באילן או אילן בירק לוקה בכל מקום:

6

It is forbidden for a Jew to allow a gentile to graft different species of trees together for [the Jew].15

It is permitted to sow the seeds of produce and the seeds of a tree together.16 Similarly, it is permitted to mix seeds from different species of trees and sow them together. [The rationale is that] the only prohibition against mixed species that applies to trees is the prohibition against grafting [different species together].

ו

ואסור לישראל להניח לנכרי שירכיב לו אילנות כלאים ומותר לזרוע זרעים וזרע אילן כאחד וכן מותר לערב זרעי אילנות ולזורען כאחד שאין לך כלאים באילנות אלא הרכבה בלבד:

7

Although he is liable for lashes, when a person sows forbidden species together or grafts forbidden species of trees together, the produce that grows is permitted to be eaten, even by the person who transgressed and sowed it.17 For it is only sowing that is forbidden.18

It is permitted to plant a branch from the grafted tree or plant the seeds from a vegetable that was planted together with mixed species.19

ז

הזורע זרעים כלאים וכן המרכיב אילנות כלאים אף על פי שהוא לוקה הרי אלו מותרין באכילה ואפילו לזה שעבר וזרען שלא נאסר אלא זריעתן בלבד ומותר ליטע ייחור מן האילן שהורכב כלאים ולזרוע מזרע הירק שנזרע כלאים:

8

Edible plants are divided into three categories:20

a) the first is called grain; it includes wheat, wild wheat, barley, oats, and spelt;

b) the second is called kitniot; it includes all the types of seeds eaten by men other than grain, e.g., beans, peas, lentils, millet, and rice, sesame seeds, poppy seed, white peas, and the like. c) the third is called garden seeds, i.e., seeds which are not fit for human consumption, but whose fruit is fit for human consumption, e.g., onion seeds, garlic [seeds], leek seeds, ketzach [seeds], cabbage seeds, and the like. Flax seed is considered in this category. When these seeds are sown and grow, before the seeds are recognizable, the entire plant is called herbage and it is called vegetables.

ח

הזרעונין נחלקין לשלשה חלקים האחד מהם הוא הנקרא תבואה והיא חמשה מינין החטים והכוסמין והשעורין ושבולת שועל והשיפון והשני מהן הוא הנקרא קטנית והן כל זרעים הנאכל לאדם חוץ מן התבואה כגון הפול והאפונים והעדשים והדוחן והאורז והשומשמין והפרגין והספיר וכיוצא בהן והשלישי מהן הוא הנקרא זרעוני גינה והן שאר זרעונין שאינן ראויין למאכל אדם והפרי של אותו הזרע מאכל אדם כגון זרע הבצלים והשומין וזרע החציר והקצח וזרע לפת וכיוצא בהן וזרע פשתן הרי הוא בכלל זרעוני גינה כשיזרעו כל מיני זרעונים אלו ויצמחו נקרא הצמח כולו כל זמן שלא ניכר הזרע דשא ונקרא ירק:

9

There are some garden plants that that are sown in [large] fields, e.g., flax and mustard seed21 and they are called "types of seeds." And there are other garden plants which people customarily sow only in small rows,22 e.g., turnips, radishes, spinach, onions, coriander, parsley, horse radish, and the like. These are called vegetables.

ט

ויש מזרעוני גינה זרעונים שדרכן לזרוע מהן שדות כגון הפשתן והחרדל ואלו הן הנקראים מיני זרעים ויש מזרעוני גינה זרעונים שאין דרך בני אדם לזרוע מהם אלא ערוגות ערוגות קטנות כגון הלפת והצנון והתרדים והבצלים והכסבר והכרפס והמרור וכיוצא בהן ואלו הן הנקראים מיני ירקות:

Footnotes
1.

But not in the Diaspora. See Halachah 3.

2.

I.e., he transgresses a negative commandment, included as one of the 365 negative commandments by Sefer HaMitzvot (negative commandment 215) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 245).

3.

The Radbaz states that the Rambam begins Sefer Zeraim with the laws of mixed substances - although the Mishnaic order of Zeraim begins with Pe'ah because he concludes Sefer Hafla'ah (Hilchot Arachin 8:1) with the teaching that the High Court would concern itself with consecrated articles from the first of Adar onward. At that same time, they would also concern themselves with fields containing mixed substances (Shekalim 1:1). Hence, the Rambam mentions these subjects in sequence.

The Radbaz notes that this prooftext is also used to derive the prohibition against grafting two species of trees together and that this prohibition applies in the Diaspora as well as in Eretz Yisrael (see Halachah 5). He explains that although the prohibition against grafting trees is derived from this verse, since an equation is established between the prohibition against grafting and the prohibition against crossbreeding animals, there are certain dimensions of that prohibition that do not apply with regard to the prohibition against planting two species of produce together.

4.

For by weeding a field, one stimulates the growth of crops. Although the Rambam considers weeding a derivative of plowing and not of sowing with regard to the forbidden Sabbath labors (Hilchot Shabbat 8:1), the Kessef Mishneh (to Hilchot Shabbat) explains that, in fact, it is a derivative of both forbidden labors, because one can weed for two intents:

a) to improve the appearance of the field, in which instance, it is a derivative of plowing, and

b) to cause the crops to grow better, in which instance, it is a derivative of sowing.

5.

I.e., since the pot has a hole, the earth within it is considered to derive nurture from the earth and thus sowing within it is considered equivalent to sowing within the earth (Kilayim 7:8). This principle applies, not only in this context, but in many other situations involving agricultural laws. The hole must be large enough to allow a small root to pass through (Kessef Mishneh).

6.

The punishment given for transgressing Rabbinic prohibitions. Since the pot did not have a hole, the person is not liable for the violation of a Scriptural commandment. Nevertheless, our Sages prohibited sowing seeds in this manner (see Menachot 70a) and hence, doing so incurs this liability.

7.

This applies to mixed species of seeds. With regard to mixed species in a vineyard, see Chapter 5, Halachah 5.

8.

I.e., even in a field belonging to a gentile. For a gentile's acquisition of property in Eretz Yisrael does not nullify the holiness of the land (see Hilchot Terumah 1:10). Hence, all of the mitzvot and prohibitions that apply previously continue to apply. See Turei Zahav 297:1.

9.

We find several instances where a prohibition exists in telling a gentile to perform a forbidden act (Hilchot Shabbat 6:1; Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 16:13; Hilchot Sechirut 13:3; see also Halachah 6). Thus the Ra'avad differs concerning this issue and maintains that making such statements to a gentile is forbidden. Both the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh explain that, we are speaking about an instance where the gentile is planting the mixed species in his own field. Hence, in this instance, since the gentile is acting for his own sake, there is no prohibition involved in the Jew telling the gentile to plant the mixed species. The Tur (Yoreh De'ah 296), however, interprets the Rambam as granting permission to tell a gentile to sow mixed species in the Jew's field, but differs with that ruling himself.

10.

If, however, he performs a deed that maintains the forbidden produce, he is liable for lashes (Jerusalem Talmud, Kilayim 8:1). This is the manner in which the Kessef Mishneh resolves the Ra'avad's objections to the Rambam's ruling.

11.

There is not even a Rabbinic prohibition against doing so.

12.

The Kessef Mishneh cites sources (including Chapter 5, Halachah 18) which indicate the intent is not that the produce is not fit for human consumption, but rather that it is not fit for human use. Even if it is ordinarily used as animal fodder, it is still fit to be considered as a mixed substance. This interpretation is cited by the Turei Zahav 297:2.

13.

For, as mentioned above, this restriction is derived from an association with the prohibition against cross-breeding different species of animals.

14.

The Radbaz maintains that it is, however, permitted to graft a vegetable to a vegetable in the Diaspora, but not in Eretz Yisrael. The Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 295:3), however, also forbid grafting two species of vegetables together. Similarly, they forbid grafting a fruit-bearing tree onto a non-fruit-bearing tree.

15.

Two explanations are given for this prohibition:

a) a gentile is forbidden to graft different species of trees together (Hilchot Melachim 10:6). Hence, having him perform the act is "placing a stumbling block in the path of the blind."

b) Since it is forbidden to do anything to maintain a forbidden graft, it is also forbidden to give instructions for such a graft to be made.

16.

The Beit Yosef (Yoreh De'ah 295) emphasizes that, according to the Rambam, this leniency applies even in Eretz Yisrael. This runs contrary to the view of the Tur who maintains that this is forbidden in Eretz Yisrael. The Tur's view is supported by the Ra'avad who differs with the Rambam and forbids such a practice. The Kessef Mishneh and the Radbaz support the Rambam's view.

17.

With regard to the prohibitions against forbidden labor on the Sabbath, by contrast, greater stringencies apply to a person who performed a forbidden labor benefiting from his actions than to others (Hilchot Shabbat 6:23).

18.

The Radbaz states that here, the Rambam is speaking about the status of the produce according to law. As stated in the conclusion of the following chapter, as a punishment for violating the law, our Sages decreed that the entire field should be designated as ownerless.

19.

Therefore it is permitted to plant nectarines and other mixed species.

20.

From here to the conclusion of the chapter, the Rambam is outlining general principles that will be relevant in the coming chapters (Kessef Mishneh).

21.

The commentaries note that the Rambam's statements here appear to contradict his statement in Chapter 3, Halachah 18, and Hilchot Matnot Aniyim 3:11, where the Rambam states that it is customary to sow mustard seed in individual rows.

22.

I.e., it is not customary to grow an entire field of them.

Kilaayim - Chapter 2

1

[The following rules apply when] seeds [of one species] are mixed together1 with seed of another [species]. If the smaller quantity was one twenty-fourth [or more of the entire mixture], e.g., a se'ah of wheat became mixed with 23 se'ah of barley,2 it is forbidden to sow the mixture unless one reduces the amount of wheat3or add to the amount of barley.4 If he sowed [the mixture as is], he is liable for lashes.5

א

זרע שנתערב בו זרע אחר אם היו אחד מעשרים וארבעה כגון סאה של חטים שנתערבה בעשרים ושלש סאה של שעורים הרי זה אסור לזרוע את המעורב עד שימעט את החטין או יוסיף על השעורים ואם זרע לוקה:

2

Any [species of seed] that is considered a forbidden substance with the seeds [that are mixed in] is included in the sum of one twenty-fourth. What is implied? 23 se'ah of wheat were mixed together with two kabbin of barley, two kabbin of lentils, and two kabbin of beans.6 He should not sow the entire mixture until he reduces the se'ah of mixed substances by removing part of it or adding to the wheat, for barley, lentils, and beans are all considered as kilayim with wheat.

ב

וכל שהוא כלאים עם הזרע מצטרף לאחד מעשרים וארבע כיצד עשרים ושלש סאה של חטים שנתערב בה שני קבין שעורים ושני קבין עדשים ושני קבין פולים הרי זה לא יזרע הכל עד שימעט סאה של תערובת ויבור מקצתה או יוסיף על החטים שהשעורים והעדשים והפול כולם כלאים עם החטים:

3

When does the above apply? When the different types of grain are mixed together, the different legumes are mixed together or grain is mixed with legumes or legumes mixed with grain. If, however, species of garden seeds are mixed with grain or beans, the measure [which is considered significant] is one twenty-fourth of what would be sown of that species7 in the area necessary to sow a se'ah [of grain].8 If [this amount] is mixed with a se'ah9of grain or legumes, one should not sow the mixture unless he reduces [the garden seeds] or adds to the grain.

ג

במה דברים אמורים בשנתערבו מיני תבואה זה בזה או מיני קטניות זה בזה או שנתערבה תבואה בקטניות או קטניות בתבואה אבל זרעוני גינה שנתערב אחד מהן בתבואה או בקטניות שיעורן אחד מעשרים וארבעה ממה שזורעין בבית סאה מאותו המין אם נתערב בסאה של תבואה או קטנית לא יזרע עד שימעט או יוסיף על התבואה:

4

What is implied? [For example,] mustard seed was mixed with grain. Now a kav10 of mustard seed is sown in the area fit for a se'ah of grain. If one twenty-fourth of a kav of mustard seed is mixed with a se'ah11 of grain or legumes, one must reduce [the mustard seed]. Similarly, if it was customary to sow two se'ah of a species of garden seeds in an area where a se'ah of grain would ordinarily be sown,12 should a half a kav13 be mixed in a se'ah of grain or legumes, it must be reduced.

ד

כיצד חרדל שנתערב בתבואה והרי החרדל זורעין ממנו קב בכל בית סאה אם נתערב ממנו אחד מעשרים וארבעה מן הקב בסאה של תבואה או של קטנית חייב למעט וכן אם היה מין זה מזרעוני גינה זורעין ממנו סאתים בכל בית סאה אם נתערב ממנו חצי קב בכל סאה של תבואה או של קטנית ימעט:

5

Therefore, [the following laws apply if] grain becomes mixed with flax seed. If there were three quarters [of a kav] in every se'ah [of grain], it is necessary to reduce the amount [of flax]. If there is less than that [amount], it is not necessary to make such a reduction. [The rationale is that] in an area fit to sow a se'ah [of grain], it is customary to sow three se'ah of flax seeds. This pattern is followed with regard to all other types of seeds.

ה

לפיכך תבואה שנתערב בה זרע פשתן אם היה שלשת רביעים בכל סאה הרי זה ימעט ואם לאו אינו צריך למעט לפי שבית סאה זורעין בו שלש סאים זרע פשתן ועל דרך זה משערים בכל הזרעים האחרים:

6

When does the above apply? When one did not intend to mix the two species and one did not intend to sow a mixture of the two species. If, however, one intended to mix one species of seed with another species or to sow two species,14it is forbidden to sow even one kernel of wheat with an entire grainheap of barley. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ו

בד"א בשלא נתכוון לערב ובשלא נתכוון לזרוע השני מינין שנתערבו אבל אם נתכוון לערב זרע בזרע אחר או לזרוע השני מינין אפילו היתה חטה אחת בתוך כרי של שעורים אסורה לזורעה וכן כל כיוצא בזה:

7

[The following rules apply when] a person sowed a particular species in his field,15 but when the crops grow, he saw that there are intermingled species there.16 If the [intermingled] species covered one twenty-fourth of the area in the field, he should gather it until he reduces the amount because of the impression that might be created.17 [An onlooker might think that] perhaps he sowed mixed substances intentionally. [This applies] whether the [intermingled] species that grew was grain and legumes amid grain and legumes or garden seeds amid grain, legumes, and garden seed. If the amount that grew was less than this, he does not need to reduce it.

ז

הזורע שדהו מין מן המינין וכשיצמח ראה בו כלאים אם היה המין האחד אחד מעשרים וארבעה בשדה הרי זה ילקט עד שימעטנו מפני מראית העין שמא יאמרו כלאים זרע בכוונה בין שהיה המין האחד שצמח תבואה וקטנית בתבואה וקטנית או זרעוני גינה בתבואה וקטנית ובזרעוני גינה ואם היה הצומח פחות מיכן אינו צריך למעטו:

8

When does the above apply? When there is a reason to suspect [that he did so intentionally]. When, however, it is apparent from the situation that this was not the owner's intent, but the [intermingled species] grew on their own accord, we do not require him to reduce their amount.

ח

במה דברים אמורים בזמן שיש מקום לחשד אבל בזמן שהדברים מראין שאין זה מדעתו של בעל השדה אלא מאליהן עלו אין מחייבין אותו למעט:

9

What is implied? Indigo grew in [a field of] wheat. Grass grew in [a field of] chilbah18 planted for human consumption.19 [It is obviously undesirable, because the intermingled species] damage the primary species. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ט

כיצד כגון תבואה שעלו בה ספיחי אסטיס ותלתן שזרעה למאכל אדם שעלו בה מיני עשבים שזה מפסיד הוא וכן כל כיוצא בזה:

10

How is it possible to know whether the chilbah is planted for human consumption? When it is sown in a series of rows and there is a border around it.20

Similarly, if different species grew in the place of the grainheap, we do not require him to uproot them, for it is known that he does not desire plants to grow in the place of the grainheap.21 If he removed some of the growths - which indicates that he desires to maintain [the plants] that remain - we tell him to uproot everything except one species.22

י

ובמה יודע שהתלתן זרועה למאכל אדם כשהיתה זרועה ערוגות ערוגות ולה גבול סביב וכן מקום הגרנות שעלו בה מינין הרבה אין מחייבין אותו לעקור שהרי הדבר ידוע שאינו רוצה שיצמח צמח במקום הגרנות ואם הסיר מקצתן אומרין לו עקור הכל חוץ ממין אחד שהרי גילה דעתו שרוצה בקיום השאר:

11

We may not plant vegetables in a stump of a wild fig tree or the like.23

[The following laws apply when a person] buries a bundle24 of turnips, radishes, or the like under a tree, or even under a vine.25 If some of the leaves were revealed, he need not be concerned [about the prohibition against kilayim],26 since he does not desire that [the buried vegetables] take root. If they were not [tied in] a bundle or their leaves were not revealed,27 he must show concern for that prohibition.

יא

אין נוטעין ירקות בתוך סדן של שקמה וכיוצא בה הטומן אגודת לפת וצנון וכיוצא בה תחת האילן אפילו תחת הגפן אם היו מקצת העלין מגולין אינו חושש שהרי אינו רוצה בהשרשתן ואם אינן אגודה או שלא היו העלין מגולין חושש משום כלאים:

12

When a field had been sown and the produce [that grew] was harvested, but the roots were left in the earth, one should not sow another type of produce in that field until the roots are removed. [This applies] even if [these roots] will not produce a plant for several years.28

יב

שדה שהיתה זרועה וקצר הזרע ונשארו העיקרין בארץ אף ע"פ שאין מוציאין צמח אלא אחר כמה שנים לא יהיה זורע באותה שדה מן אחר עד שיעקר העיקרין:

13

When a person had sown wheat in his field and then changed his mind and decided to sow barley before the wheat grew, he must wait until the wheat seeds rot and decompose in the earth - i.e., three days if the field is well irrigated. Afterwards, he should turn the land upside down with a plow29 and sow the other species. He does not have to turn the entire field upside down until there is not one kernel of wheat that has not been uprooted. Instead, he should plow the field like he would plow it before rainfall so that it would be watered thoroughly.

יג

היתה שדהו זרועה חטים ונמלך לזורעה שעורים קודם שיצמחו החטים ימתין לה עד שיפסדו החטים ויתליעו בארץ כמו שלשה ימים אם היתה שדהו רוה ואח"כ יהפכה במחרישה ויזרע המין האחר ואינו צריך להפך את כולה עד שלא תשאר חטה שלא נעקרה אלא חורש את השדה כדרך שחורשין אותה קודם המטר כדי שתרוה:

14

If the wheat grew and then he changed his mind and decided to sow barley, he should turn over the field30 and then sow it. If he let his animal into the field and it ate the growths, it is permitted to sow the other species.

יד

צמחו החטים ואחר כך נמלך לזורעה שעורים יהפך ואח"כ יזרע ואם הוריד בהמתו לתוכה וקרסמה את הצמח הרי זה מותר לזרוע שם מין אחר:

15

On the first of Adar, a pronouncement is made regarding [the need for concern for] kilayim.31 Every person should go out to his garden and his field and clean it from mixed species. On the fifteenth of [Adar], the agents of the courts go out and spread out [throughout the land] to check.

טו

באחד באדר משמיעין על הכלאים וכל אדם יוצא לגינתו ולשדהו ומנקין אותו מן הכלאים ובחמשה עשר בו יוצאים שלוחי בית דין ומסבבים לבדוק:

16

Originally, [the agents of the court] would uproot [the mixed species] and cast them out and the owners of the fields would be happy that [the court's agents] would be cleaning their fields.32 [As a safeguard against indolence, the court ordained] that they would declare ownerless33 any field where mixed species were found, provided the [additional] species was one twenty-fourth [of the entire crop]. If it is less than that, they should not touch it.

טז

בראשונה היו עוקרין ומשליכין והיו בעלי בתים שמחים שמנקין להן שדותיהן התקינו שיהיו מפקירין את כל השדה שימצאו בו כלאים והוא שימצאו בה מין אחר אחד מארבעה ועשרים אבל פחות מיכן לא יגעו בה:

17

The agents of the court return during the intermediate days of Pesach to look at the crop that were late in ripening. If mixed species have budded, we do not wait. Instead, [the agents] go out immediately and declare the entire field ownerless if one twenty-fourth of it is from a second species.

יז

וחוזרין שלוחי בית דין בחולו של מועד הפסח לראות האפיל שיצא וכלאים שהנצו אין ממתינים להן אלא יוצאין עליהן מיד ומפקירין את כל השדה אם יש בה אחד מעשרים וארבעה:

Footnotes
1.

As stated in Halachah 6, this and the following halachot apply when the mixture came about unintentionally. If the mixture was made intentionally, even the slightest amount is forbidden.

2.

When quoting this law, the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 297:5) speaks of 24 se'ah of barley.

3.

By removing the kernels.

4.

So that the amount of wheat will no longer be considered significant.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 2:1) refers to the general principle (Beitzah 4b) that we do not nullify the existence of a prohibited substance. Why then are we allowed to add more barley and thus nullify the presence of the wheat?

It explains that the mixture is forbidden only because of the appearance created, i.e., as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 5, mixed substances are forbidden only if the mixture is noticeable to the eye. Hence, if the barley is added before the mixture is sown, when the crops grow, the mixture will not be noticeable. Hence, there is no prohibition involved (Rambam LeAm).

5.

There are those who interpret the Jerusalem Talmud as implying that in this instance, the prohibition is merely Rabbinic in origin. Hence, they question this ruling. According to the explanation in the previous note, however, there is no difficulty.

6.

There are six kab in a se'ah. Thus there is not enough of any one different species for it to be considered as a forbidden mixture on its own. Nevertheless, since when combined, there is a significant amount of seeds of other species, the mixture is forbidden.

7.

The seeds of garden vegetables are far smaller than those of grains and legumes. Thus a far lesser amount is necessary to produce a crop. We must take this factor into consideration in these calculations [Rav Ovadiah of Bartenura (Kilayim 2:2)].

8.

I.e., a square 50 cubits by 50 cubits, or any area of 2500 sq. cubits.

9.

According to the Rambam's statement in Halachah 1, the intent is not a se'ah, but one-twenty-fourth less.

10.

One sixth of a se'ah.

11.

I.e., a square 50 cubits by 50 cubits, or any area of 2500 sq. cubits.

12.

I.e., we are speaking about sowing seeds that are bulkier than the seeds of grain and a larger amount is necessary to be sown in the area in which a se'ah of grain seeds would be sown.

13.

I.e., one twenty-fourth of two se'ah, double the ordinary amount.

14.

I.e., after the two species were mixed together accidentally, the person sowed the mixture with the intent of benefiting from both species (Kessef Mishneh).

15.

I.e., with the intent that each one grow in a separate place.

16.

And he does not desire to benefit from the intermingled species (Turei Zahav 297:3).

17.

In the initial halachot of this chapter, a Scriptural prohibition was involved, as evident from the fact that the person was punished by lashes. For those halachot were speaking about instances where the person desired to benefit from the forbidden mixture. In this instance, we are speaking about an instance where he did not desire to benefit. Hence there is only a Rabbinic prohibition involved (Turei Zahav 297:4). Alternatively, the explanation given in note 3 can be employed here as well.

18.

A pungent herb also known as fenugreek.

19.

Instead of for animal fodder, as is also done on occasion.

20.

And not in a haphazard manner [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 2:5) based on Bava Kama 81a].

21.

That place has to be flat and smooth so that the grain can be threshed (ibid.).

22.

For anything more than one species would be considered kilayim.

23.

I.e., grafting vegetables onto any other tree is also forbidden, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 5.

The Radbaz states by using the term "wild fig tree," instead of fig tree, the Rambam - and his source, Kilayim 1:9 - are emphasizing that even though one might think that a wild fig tree resembles a non-fruitbearing tree, that is not so. From this statement, we learn that the Radbaz maintains that there is no prohibition against grafting a vegetable onto a non-fruitbearing tree. This point is a matter of discussion among the commentaries.

24.

If, however, they are not tied as a bundle, more stringent laws apply as indicated in the conclusion of the halachah. The rationale is that the fact that the vegetables are tied in a bundle indicates that they were placed in the earth for storage - in that era, there was no refrigeration - and not so that they would grow.

25.

The Rambam mentions a vine, because that is the wording used in his source (ibid.), but it applies to other trees as well.

From the connection to the initial clause of the halachah and from the fact that other trees aside from a vine are mentioned, we can conclude that this clause also focuses on grafting. For there is no prohibition against planting vegetables in an orchard of trees other than a vineyard. What grafting is involved? It is possible to explain that the intermingling of the roots of the vegetable and the roots of the tree or vine could be considered as grafting (Rambam LeAm).

26.

Nor those involving the Sabbatical year, the tithes, or the Sabbath labors (ibid.).

27.

For this is not the ordinary way to plant these vegetable. The Ra'avad rules that the prohibition against kilayim does not apply even when the leaves are not revealed. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, justify the Rambam's view. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 297:11) quotes the Rambam's ruling.

28.

The Rambam's ruling is based on his interpretation of Kilayim 2:5. The Ra'avad objects, offering a different understanding of that mishnah. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 297:12) follows the Rambam's understanding.

29.

For after these steps, the seeds that were planted initially will no longer grow [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 2:3)]. The Ra'avad differs and maintains that even one of these steps is sufficient. There is no need to both wait and plow. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's view. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 297:13) follows the Rambam's understanding.

30.

For the plowing will destroy the plants that have grown. In contrast to the previous halachah, in this instance, he does not have to wait three days, because we do not think that the seeds will produce another plant.

31.

This is the time when plants first begin to grow and it is able to see whether one's fields and orchards have mixed species growing in them or not.

32.

And hence, they would be lax in doing so themselves.

33.

See the Sefer Meirat Einayim 273:27 which states that according to the Shulchan Aruch (and the Rambam) the court's agents must declare the field ownerless. According to the Tur, by contrast, if a person sees mixed species are growing in a field, he may take possession of it, for it is considered ownerless even though the court has not made a declaration to that effect as of yet.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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