Enter your email address to get our weekly email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life.

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Naarah Betulah - Chapter One, Naarah Betulah - Chapter Two, Naarah Betulah - Chapter Three

Video & Audio Classes
Show content in:

Naarah Betulah - Chapter One

Introduction to Hilchos Naarah Betulah

They include five mitzvot: three positive commandments and two negative commandments. They are:

1) That a seducer [of a virgin maiden] be fined;
2) That a man who rapes [a virgin maiden] should marry her;
3) That the rapist should not divorce the woman he marries;
4) That the wife of a man who issued a slanderous report about her should remain married to him forever;
5) That a man who issues a slanderous report about his wife should not divorce her.

These mitzvot are explained in the chapters that follow.

הלכות נערה בתולה - הקדמה יש בכללן חמש מצות. שלש מצות עשה. ושתי מצות לא תעשה. וזהו פרטן: א) לקנוס המפתה.
ב) שישא האונס אנוסתו.
ג) שלא יגרש האונס.
ד) שתשב אשת מוציא שם רע תחת בעלה לעולם.
ה) שלא יגרש מוציא שם רע את אשתו: וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

When a man seduces a virgin,1 he is fined 50 sela'im of pure silver.2 This is called a k'nas ("fine"). The same law applies if he rapes her.

Payment of this fine is one of the Torah's positive commandments,3, as [Deuteronomy 22:29] states: "The man who raped her must give the maiden's father 50 silver pieces."

א

מִי שֶׁפִּתָּה בְּתוּלָה קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁקַל חֲמִשִּׁים סְלָעִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף מְזֻקָּק וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא קְנָס. וְכֵן אִם אָנַס אוֹתָהּ. וּקְנָס זֶה מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשּׁוֹכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף":

2

What is meant by a seducer, and what is meant by a rapist? A seducer is one who enters into relations with a girl with her consent; a rapist is one who takes her by force.

Whenever a man entered into relations with a woman in a field, we operate under the presumption that he raped her, and apply those laws4 unless witnesses testify that she entered into relations with him willingly.5 Whenever a man enters into relations with a woman in a city, we operate under the presumption that she consented, because she did not cry out, unless witnesses testify that she was raped - e.g., he pulled out a sword and told her, "If you cry out, I will kill you."

ב

וְאֵי זֶה הוּא מְפַתֶּה וְאֵי זֶה הוּא אוֹנֵס. מְפַתֶּה לִרְצוֹנָהּ. אוֹנֵס שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּעַל כָּרְחָהּ. כָּל הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בַּשָּׂדֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת אֲנוּסָה וְדָנִין אוֹתָהּ בְּדִין אֲנוּסָה עַד שֶׁיָּעִידוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁבִּרְצוֹנָהּ נִבְעֲלָה. וְכָל הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בָּעִיר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת מְפֻתָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא זָעֲקָה עַד שֶׁיָּעִידוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁהִיא אֲנוּסָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁלַף לָהּ חֶרֶב וְאָמַר לָהּ אִם תִּזְעֲקִי אֶהֱרֹג אוֹתָךְ:

3

When a girl who was seduced does not want to marry the seducer, or her father does not want to give her in marriage to him,6 or if [the seducer] does not want to marry her, he may pay the fine and depart. We do not force him to marry her.7

If they do desire [to wed], and he marries her, he does not pay a fine.8 Instead, he writes her a ketubah, as is written for other maidens.9

When, however, a woman who is raped or her father do not desire that she marry the rapist, they have that prerogative. [In such an instance,] he must pay the fine and depart. If she and her father desire [that the marriage take place], but he does not desire, we force him to marry her, aside from paying the fine, as [Deuteronomy 22:29] states: "He must take [the maiden] as his wife"; this is a positive commandment.10

Even if the girl is lame, blind, or afflicted with leprosy,11 he is forced to marry her and he may never take the initiative in divorcing her,12 as [the above verse continues]: "He may not send her away as long as he lives." This is a negative commandment.13

ג

הַמְפֻתָּה שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה לְהִנָּשֵׂא לַמְפַתֶּה. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה אָבִיהָ לִתְּנָהּ לוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה הוּא לִכְנֹס. הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן קְנָס וְהוֹלֵךְ וְאֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִכְנֹס. וְאִם רָצוּ וּכְנָסָהּ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס אֶלָּא כּוֹתֵב לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה כִּשְׁאָר הַבְּתוּלוֹת. אֲבָל הָאֲנוּסָה שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה הִיא אוֹ אָבִיהָ לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְאוֹנֵס הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָם וְנוֹתֵן קְנָס וְהוֹלֵךְ. רָצְתָה הִיא וְאָבִיהָ וְלֹא רָצָה הוּא כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ וְכוֹנֵס וְנוֹתֵן קְנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. אֲפִלּוּ הִיא חִגֶּרֶת אוֹ סוּמָא אוֹ מְצֹרַעַת כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִכְנֹס וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לִרְצוֹנוֹ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ כָּל יָמָיו" הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה:

4

[This girl] is not granted a ketubah. For our Sages instituted the requirement of a ketubah so that [a husband] will not consider divorce a frivolous matter. [In this instance this is unnecessary, because] the man cannot divorce [his wife].

ד

וְאֵין לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים כְּתֻבָּה לְאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה קַלָּה בְּעֵינָיו לְהוֹצִיאָהּ וְזֶה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאָהּ:

5

If the girl he raped was forbidden to him,14 even if the prohibition stems from a positive commandment, or she was a sh'niyah [or forbidden by other Rabbinic prohibitions],15 he should not marry her. Similarly, if he discovers adulterous behavior16 on her part after he marries her, he should divorce her. [These concepts are implied by the phrase: "He must take [the girl] as his wife" [which our Sages interpreted to mean]: "She must be fit to be his wife."

ה

הָיְתָה אֲנוּסָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנִיָּה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׂאֶנָּה. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא בָּהּ דְּבַר זִמָּה אַחַר שֶׁכָּנַס הֲרֵי זֶה יְגָרְשֶׁנָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה". אִשָּׁה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ:

6

When a High Priest rapes or seduces a virgin maiden, he should not marry her, because he is commanded to marry a virgin,17and at the time he marries this girl she is not a virgin.18 If he marries [this girl], he must divorce her.

ו

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאָנַס בְּתוּלָה אוֹ שֶׁפִּתָּה אוֹתָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִכְנֹס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה לִקַּח אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּשָּׂא זוֹ אֵינָהּ בְּתוּלָה. וְאִם כָּנַס יוֹצִיא בְּגֵט:

7

Although it is said with regard to a rapist: "He may not send her away as long as he lives," since [this prohibition] is preceded by a positive commandment, as it is said, "He must take [the girl] as his wife," the Torah made the prohibition [rectifiable] by the observance of the positive commandment. Thus, this is a negative commandment [whose violation] can be rectified by [the observance of] a positive commandment. Lashes are not given [as punishment for the violation of such a commandment] unless one does not fulfill the positive commandment, as will be explained in Hilchot Sanhedrin.19

Therefore, when a rapist violates [this prohibition] and divorces [his wife], he is compelled to remarry her and is not punished by lashes. If, however, his divorcee dies or is consecrated by another man20 before he remarries her, or if he is a priest, who is forbidden to marry a divorcee, he should be punished by lashes. For he transgressed the negative commandment, and is unable to fulfill the positive commandment associated with it.21

ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאוֹנֵס (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ" כֵּיוָן שֶׁקְּדָמוֹ עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זֶה נִתְּקוֹ לַעֲשֵׂה וְנִמְצֵאת זוֹ מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנִּתְּקָהּ לַעֲשֵׂה שֶׁאֵין לוֹקִין עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא אִם לֹא קִיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת סַנְהֶדְרִין. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹנֵס שֶׁעָבַר וְגֵרֵשׁ כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהַחֲזִיר וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. מֵתָה גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּחְזִירֶנָּה אוֹ נִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָסוּר בִּגְרוּשָׁה הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי עָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ:

8

Neither a rapist nor a seducer is liable to pay the fine unless he engages in relations in the ordinary fashion,22 and the relations are observed by witnesses.23 A warning is not necessary.24

At what age is a girl fit to be paid a fine? From the age of three25 until she reaches the age of bagrut.26 If a man engages in relations with a girl less than three years old, the relations are not significant.27 If he engages in relations with her after she reaches the age of bagrut, he is not fined. For [Deuteronomy 22:28] states: "A virgin maiden," thus excluding a girl who has reached maturity.

ח

אֵין הָאוֹנֵס אוֹ הַמְפַתֶּה חַיָּב בִּקְנָס עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ [כְּדַרְכָּהּ] וּבְעֵדִים וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַתְרָאָה. וּמֵאֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה לַבַּת קְנָס. מֵאַחַר שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים גְּמוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁתִּבְגֹּר. נִבְעֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אֵין בִּיאָתָהּ בִּיאָה. בָּא עָלֶיהָ מִשֶּׁבָּגְרָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כח) "נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה" לֹא הַבּוֹגֶרֶת:

9

Whether or not [a girl's] father is alive, a fine must be paid.28

A fine need not be paid [because of relations] with the following women: a bogeret, a girl who has dissolved a marriage through mi'un,29 an aylonit,30 a mentally incompetent girl, a deaf mute,31 a girl who was reputed to have conducted herself immodestly while young, concerning whom two witnesses testify that she sought sexual relations with them,32 a girl who was married and divorced, but is still a virgin maiden.33

When, by contrast, [a girl] is divorced after merely being consecrated,34 a fine must be paid - and she is entitled to it35 - if she is raped. If she is seduced, she is not entitled to a fine.36

ט

וְאַחַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ אָב וְאַחַת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ אָב יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס. הַבּוֹגֶרֶת וְהַמְמָאֶנֶת וְהָאַיְלוֹנִית וְהַשּׁוֹטָה וְהַחֵרֶשֶׁת. וּמִי שֶׁיָּצָא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע בְּיַלְדוּתָהּ וּבָאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְהֵעִידוּ שֶׁתָּבְעָה אוֹתָן לִזְנוֹת עִמָּהּ. וְהַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין וַעֲדַיִן הִיא נַעֲרָה בְּתוּלָה. אֲבָל הַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִן הָאֵרוּסִין אִם נֶאֶנְסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס וּקְנָסָהּ לְעַצְמָהּ. וְאִם נִתְפַּתְּתָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס:

10

[The following rules apply with regard to] a convert, a girl who was taken captive, and a [Canaanite] maidservant who was freed:37 If she was converted, redeemed or freed before she reached the age of three, she is entitled to a fine.38

If she was three years old [or older] when she was converted, redeemed or freed, she is not entitled to a fine. Since relations that she engages in at this time are significant, she is placed into the category of non-virgins.

י

הַגִּיֹּרֶת וְהַשְּׁבוּיָה וְהַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת אִם נִתְגַּיְּרָה וְנִפְדֵית וְנִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה וְהִיא בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס. וְאִם הָיְתָה בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד כְּשֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה אוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּפְדֵּית אוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס הוֹאִיל וּבִיאָתָן בִּיאָה הֲרֵי הֵן כִּבְעוּלוֹת:

11

[The following rules apply when] the virgin [who was raped or seduced] was forbidden to the rapist or the seducer. If the prohibition was punishable by karet - e.g., she was his sister, his aunt, in the niddah state or the like - or she was forbidden by virtue of a negative commandment [that does not involve either karet or execution], he is not liable for a fine if he was given a warning.39 [Instead,] he should be lashed. [The rationale is that] a person is never punished [for the same transgression] by both lashes and a monetary assessment.

If he was not warned, since he is not to be given lashes, he should pay the fine.

יא

הָיְתָה בְּתוּלָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עַל הָאוֹנֵס אוֹ הַמְפַתֶּה אִם הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵחַיָּבֵי כְּרֵתוֹת כְּגוֹן אֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ דּוֹדָתוֹ וְהַנִּדָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין אִם הִתְרוּ בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס שֶׁאֵין אָדָם לוֹקֶה וּמְשַׁלֵּם. וְאִם לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם הַתְרָאָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב מַלְקוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס:

12

[When the girl raped] was forbidden because of a positive commandment, or she was a sh'niyah or forbidden because of another Rabbinic commandment, [the rapist] is obligated to pay the fine whether he was warned against the transgression or not, because he is not punished by lashes.

יב

הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה אוֹ שְׁנִיָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. בֵּין הִתְרוּ בּוֹ בֵּין לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ חַיָּב בִּקְנָס שֶׁאֵין כָּאן מַלְקוֹת:

13

[When the girl raped] was forbidden because of a prohibition punishable by execution by the court - e.g., she was his daughter, daughter-in-law,40 or the like - he is not liable for the fine, regardless of whether or not he received a warning.

[This is derived from Exodus 21:22, which] states: "If there will not be a [fatal] accident, he should be punished."41 Implied is that if there is a [fatal] accident, no punishment should be levied.42 [This applies] although the woman was killed unintentionally, [i.e.,] the man did not intend to strike her,43 as it is written [Ibid.]: "If men strive and a woman receives a blow...." This teaches that with regard to a [fatal] accident, Scripture did not differentiate between an intentional and unintentional act to free him from monetary obligation.

And [Leviticus 24:18-21] says: "A person who [fatally] strikes an animal shall reimburse [its owner] for it, and one who [fatally] strikes a man must die." Just as Scripture did not distinguish between intentional and unintentional action for killing an animal to make him liable for payment, so too, it did not distinguish between intentional and unintentional action for killing a person to free him from financial obligation.

יג

הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין כְּגוֹן בִּתּוֹ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּנוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בֵּין הִתְרוּ בּוֹ בֵּין לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כב) "וְלֹא יִהְיֶה אָסוֹן עָנוֹשׁ יֵעָנֵשׁ" הָא אִם הָיָה שָׁם אָסוֹן אֵין שָׁם עֹנֶשׁ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֲרִיגַת הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְכַּוְּנוּ לָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כב) "כִּי יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָגְפוּ אִשָּׁה" הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁלֹּא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בְּאָסוֹן בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְפָטְרוֹ מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. וַהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא כד יח) "מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה" (ויקרא כד כא) "וּמַכֵּה אָדָם יוּמָת" מָה מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה לֹא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְחַיְּבוֹ בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין אַף מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם לֹא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְפָטְרוֹ מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין:

14

This law applies with regard to every transgression that is punishable by execution by the court. There is no financial obligation.44

יד

וְכֵן הַדִּין לְכָל עֲבֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִין:

15

If [a girl] dies after she [was seduced or raped], [the seducer or the rapist] is not liable for the fine, [as implied by Deuteronomy 22:29]: "the man who raped her must give the maiden's father...." [The verse states] "the father of the maiden," and not "the father of the dead maiden." [This applies] when she dies before the case came to court.45

טו

בָּא עָלֶיהָ וּמֵתָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה" לֹא לַאֲבִי הַמֵּתָה. וְהוּא שֶׁתָּמוּת קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד בַּדִּין:

Footnotes
1.

Between the ages of three and twelve and a half, as evident from Halachah 8. See Ramah (Even HaEzer 177:1).

2.

See Hilchot Eruvin 1:12 and Hilchot Shekalim 1:2, where the Rambam describes the weight of this coin. According to the figures he gives in his Commentary on the Mishnah (Bechorot 8:8), in contemporary measure a sela is 19.2 grams. According to the Piskei Siddur of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, it is 20.4 grams.

3.

See Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 220), which describes this mitzvah as "the commandment we have been given with regard to a man who seduces [a virgin]." (See also Sefer HaChinuch, Mitzvah 61.)

Both in the Mishneh Torah and in Sefer HaMitzvot, the payment of the fine by a seducer, a rapist and one who issues a slanderous report appears to be included in the same mitzvah (Nachalat Efrayim).

Hilchot Sanhedrin 5:8 states that the cases involving laws governing a seducer and a rapist are to be tried by judges with semichah, a qualification that is not possessed by Rabbinical judges in the post-Talmudic period. The Shulchan Aruch (Even HaEzer 177:2) states that in the present age, a seducer and a rapist should be compelled to satisfy the girl's father for the damage they have caused.

4.

As mentioned in the following halachah, a rapist must marry the woman he raped, while a seducer need not. And, as mentioned in Chapter 2, Halachah 1, a rapist must also reimburse the woman for the pain and embarrassment he caused her.

5.

The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, explaining that unless there are witnesses to the relations, the woman has no way of proving her claim against the man. The Migdal Oz explains that this refers to an instance where witnesses saw the man and the woman engage in relations from afar and were not able to determine whether she was seduced or raped.

The assumptions mentioned by the Rambam are based on the passage (stated with regard to a consecrated maiden, Deuteronomy 23:24-27): "This is the law when a virgin maiden was consecrated to one man and another man meets her in the city and has relations with her. Both of them should be executed, [i.e., we assume the girl consented]... because she did not cry out in the city.... If the man encountered the maiden who was consecrated in the field..., the girl has not committed a sin... for the man attacked her in the field..., where there was no one to come to her aid."

6.

Exodus 22:16 states: "If her father refuses to allow him to marry her...," and Ketubot 39b explains that the girl is also given the option of rejecting the man.

7.

The simple meaning of the passage from Exodus implies that the seducer should marry the girl, but Ketubot 40a explains that this is not a binding obligation.

8.

He does, however, pay damages, as stated in Chapter 2, Halachah 7.

9.

I.e., she is given a ketubah of 200 zuzim, as is given to other virgin maidens (Hilchot Ishut 11:4), despite the fact that she was not a virgin at the time of the marriage (Ma'aseh Rokeach). Mishneh LaMelech explains that this concept is derived from Exodus 22:16, which states: "he must pay the usual dowry money for virgins."

Tosafot (Yevamot 60a) and the Nimukei Yosef differ and maintain that the girl is given a ketubah of only 100 zuzim as is given to non-virgins.

10.

See Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 218). See also Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 557).

11.

In this halachah, the Rambam uses the Biblical term tzara'at, although generally he uses the Rabbinic term mukeh sh'chin. See Chapter 3, Halachah 4, and the conclusion of Hilchot Ishut.

12.

If, however, the woman wants to be divorced, the rapist may divorce her [Shulchan Aruch (Even HaEzer 177:3)].

13.

See Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandment 358). See also Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 558).

14.

The Torah does not require him to marry a woman with whom there is any prohibition whatsoever.

15.

For all Rabbinic prohibitions have the source in the Torah's commandment to observe the rulings of our Sages.

16.

For a husband is forbidden to engage in marital relations with an adulterous wife, as stated in Hilchot Ishut 24:17. See the Beit Shmuel 177:4, who emphasizes that the intent is that witnesses observed the actual commission of adultery, not merely immodest behavior that suggests adultery.

See also Chapter 3, Halachah 5.

17.

See Leviticus 21:13; Hilchot Ishut 1:8.

18.

Although her lack of virginity is a result of his deed, she is still forbidden to him. See Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 17:16.

19.

Chapter 18, Halachah 2.

20.

At which point her husband is forbidden to remarry her, as stated in Hilchot Gerushin 11:12.

21.

Although he did not personally prevent the positive commandment from being observed, since he is no longer able to observe it, he must bear the consequences of his violation of the prohibition.

22.

I.e., vaginal and not anal intercourse. The Rambam's ruling is not accepted by the Ra'avad and Rabbenu Asher, who cite Kiddushin 9b-10a in support of their conception.

The Kiryat Sefer supports the Rambam's ruling, based on Sanhedrin 73b, which states that the man is not liable until he inserts the entire penis into the vagina, explaining that it is only then that the woman will lose her virginity. Since she will never lose her virginity through anal intercourse, the man is not held liable.

23.

For a person who admits his culpability in matters punishable by a fine is not liable. See Chapter 2, Halachah 12 and notes.

24.

For a warning is necessary only before infliction of the punishments of execution or lashing.

25.

Although there are times when the Hebrew term na'arah, translated as "maiden," has a more specific meaning (see Hilchot Ishut 2:1), Ketubot 40b explains that in this instance the intent is also a girl below the age of twelve.

Although most Rishonim agree with the Rambam, there are, however, significant authorities who rule that a fine need not be paid until the girl reaches the age of na'arut.

26.

Generally, this refers to a girl of the age of twelve and a half who has manifested signs of physical maturity. If a girl does not manifest signs of physical maturity, she is not considered a bogeret until the age of 20 or 35. See Hilchot Ishut 2:1-4.

27.

For her hymen will grow back, as implied by Hilchot Ishut 3:11.

28.

Since the Torah states that the fine should be paid to the father, it is necessary to clarify that the fine must be paid even if the father is not alive.

29.

As mentioned in Hilchot Gerushin 11;1, when a girl below the age of majority marries without being consecrated by her father, she can nullify the marriage without a formal divorce. This is called mi'un. When she takes this option, even if we know that she is still a virgin, she is not entitled to receive the fine because she has been married previously.

30.

A woman who does not manifest female sexual characteristics, as explained in Hilchot Ishut 2:5. Since an aylonit never becomes a na'arah, she is not entitled to a fine (Kessef Mishneh). The Ra'avad maintains that an aylonit should receive a fine until she reaches the age of twenty.

31.

Since they are not mentally competent, we fear that they were raped previously without their knowing about it. Compare to Hilchot Ishut 11:4,8. Note the Ra'avad, who states that a person who rapes or seduces a deaf mute is liable for a fine.

32.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 17.

33.

Even if we are certain that she and her husband never engaged in sexual relations, she is not paid a fine. Compare to Hilchot Ishut 11:1.

34.

We do not assume that she entered into relations with her husband before the stage of nisu'in.

35.

Although Deuteronomy 22:28 speaks of the fine being paid to the girl's father, from the fact that the verse mentions "a maiden who was not consecrated," Ketubot 38a derives that when a maiden has been consecrated, the fine should be paid to the woman who was raped.

36.

Since she consented to relations, she waives the payment of the fine. See Chapter 2, Halachot 10-11.

Note Rav David Arameah, who states that this applies only when she is a na'arah. If she is still a minor, her father receives the fine, and she does not have the potential to waive it through her consent.

37.

As the Rambam states in Hilchot Ishut 11:2, we operate under the presumption that these women have engaged in relations previously: a convert and a Canaanite maidservant because non-Jews' morals are considered to be weak, and a woman held captive because she is at the mercy of her captors.

38.

Even if she engaged in relations before the age of three, her hymen will grow back, as stated in the notes on Halachah 8.

39.

As stated in Hilchot Sanhedrin 12:2 and 16:4, a person receives corporal punishment for the commission of a transgression only when he has been warned previously.

40.

This refers to a girl who was divorced after consecration. If she was divorced after nisu'in, the second stage of the marriage, she is not entitled to a fine as stated in Halachah 9.

41.

The verse speaks of the woman's miscarrying. If she herself does not die, the man who caused her to miscarry must pay her damages.

42.

I.e., if the woman dies, her heirs need not be reimbursed. Since the man is liable for a sin of a more severe nature, he is not held liable for damages (Hilchot Sanhedrin 16:5).

43.

Although the general principle stated in this halachah is accepted without dispute, the particular case of the pregnant woman is a matter of question. The Rambam himself states (Hilchot Chovel UMazik 4:5-6) that if the man did not intend to strike the woman, he is liable to pay damages to her heirs.

In that source, he explains that the leniency granted by the verse applies when the man intended to strike the woman, but did not intend to kill her.

44.

In contrast, with regard to a transgression punishable by lashes: if it is performed unintentionally, one is still held liable for the financial repercussions.

45.

Once, however, the case is heard before the court, the rapist is held liable if proven guilty, even if the maiden dies. The fine is given to the girl's heirs (Kessef Mishneh).

Naarah Betulah - Chapter Two

1

The fine of 50 silver pieces represents merely the payment for the pleasure of sexual relations. In addition, a seducer is obligated to pay for embarrassment and damages1 in addition to the fixed amount mentioned by the Torah.

A rapist, moreover, also pays for the pain [he caused the girl]. [A seducer is not required to make this payment,] because a girl who willingly engages in relations does not [suffer] pain. A girl who is raped does, as reflected by [Deuteronomy 22:29]: "because he violated her."2

א

חֲמִשִׁים כֶּסֶף שֶׁל קְנָס הֵם דְּמֵי הֲנָאַת שְׁכִיבָה בִּלְבַד. וְחַיָּב הַמְפַתֶּה לִתֵּן בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם יוֹתֵר עַל הַקְּנָס הַקָּצוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. יֶתֶר עָלָיו הָאוֹנֵס שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן אֶת הַצַּעַר. שֶׁהַנִּבְעֶלֶת בִּרְצוֹנָהּ אֵין לָהּ צַעַר וַאֲנוּסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ צַעַר. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בַּאֲנוּסָה (דברים כב כט) "תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנָּהּ":

2

Thus, a seducer makes three payments: the fine, and compensation for embarrassment and damages. A rapist makes four payments: the fine, and compensation for embarrassment, pain and damages.

ב

נִמְצָא הַמְפַתֶּה מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים קְנָס וּבֹשֶׁת וּפְגָם. וְהָאוֹנֵס אַרְבָּעָה קְנָס וּבֹשֶׁת וְצַעַר וּפְגָם:

3

The fine is the same in all instances. Whether one has relations with the daughter of the High Priest, or the daughter of a convert or a bastard,3 the fine is 50 silver pieces. The amount paid for embarrassment, damages and pain is not uniform, however. Instead, the amount must be evaluated [by the court].

ג

קְנָס שָׁוֶה בַּכּל. אֶחָד הַבָּא עַל בַּת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד הַבָּא עַל בַּת גֵּר אוֹ מַמְזֵר קְנָסָהּ חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף. אֲבָל הַבּשֶׁת וְהַפְּגָם וְהַצַּעַר אֵינָן שָׁוִין לַכּל וּצְרִיכִין שׁוּמָא:

4

How is this evaluation made? With regard to embarrassment, everything is dependent on the identity of the person who is embarrassed, and the identity of the person who embarrasses her. The embarrassment suffered by a girl of high repute from a family of known lineage cannot be compared to the embarrassment suffered by a poor, ignoble maiden.4 And the embarrassment suffered at the hands of an important person of great stature cannot be compared to that suffered at the hands of a base and empty fellow.5

ד

כֵּיצַד שָׁמִין הַבּשֶׁת. הַכּל לְפִי הַמְבַיֵּשׁ וְהַמִּתְבַּיֵּשׁ. שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מְבַיֵּשׁ נַעֲרָה חֲשׁוּבָה וּמִמִּשְׁפָּחָה מְיֻחָסָה לִמְבַיֵּשׁ קְטַנָּה עֲנִיָּה בְּזוּיָה. וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָדָם חָשׁוּב וְגָדוֹל לְמִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאֶחָד מֵהַנְּבָלִים וְקַל מִן הַקַּלִּים:

5

On this basis, the judges consider the stature of [the rapist or the seducer] and his victim. They evaluate how much a father and the girl's family would give to prevent [these relations] from taking place with this individual. This is the amount [the man] is obligated to pay.

ה

וּלְפִי זֶה רוֹאִין הַדַּיָּנִין מַעֲלָתוֹ וּמַעֲלָתָהּ וְשָׁמִין כַּמָּה מָמוֹן רָאוּי לְאָבִיהָ וּלְמִשְׁפַּחְתָּהּ לִתֵּן וְלֹא יֶאֱרַע לָהֶן דָּבָר זֶה מֵאָדָם זֶה וְכָמוֹהוּ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם:

6

Damages [are evaluated] according to [the girl's] beauty. We look at her as if she were a maid-servant being sold in the marketplace: what price would she fetch as a virgin, and what price would she fetch as a non-virgin. For a man would like to buy a virgin maid-servant to give him to his servant, whose welfare and satisfaction he desires. [The rapist or the seducer] should pay the difference in the price.

The compensation for pain is evaluated based on her youth and the size of her body, and his age and the size of his body.6 We evaluate how much a father would be willing to pay so that such [a daughter] would not suffer pain from such [a man], and [the rapist is obligated to] pay [this amount].

ו

פְּגָם לְפִי יָפְיָהּ. רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא שִׁפְחָה נִמְכֶּרֶת בַּשּׁוּק כַּמָּה הִיא שָׁוָה בְּעוּלָה וְכַמָּה הָיְתָה שָׁוָה בְּתוּלָה. שֶׁאָדָם רוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹת שִׁפְחָה בְּתוּלָה לִתְּנָהּ לְעַבְדּוֹ שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה בַּהֲנָיָתוֹ וְטוֹבָתוֹ. וְרוֹאִין כַּמָּה פָּחֲתָה וִישַׁלֵּם צַעַר לְפִי קַטְנוּתָהּ וּבִנְיַן גּוּפָהּ. וּלְפִי שָׁנָיו וְגוּפוֹ אוֹמְדִין כַּמָּה הָאָב רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן וְלֹא תִּצְטַעֵר זוֹ מִזֶּה וְיִתֵּן:

7

A seducer must compensate [the girl's father] for the embarrassment and damages immediately. He is not, however, required to pay the fine unless he does not marry [the girl], as [Exodus 22:16] states: "If her father refuses to allow him to marry her, then he must pay...."

A rapist, by contrast, must make all four payments and marry her immediately. Therefore, whenever the woman desires to divorce7 or when she becomes widowed, she does not receive anything.8

ז

הַמְפַתֶּה נוֹתֵן בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם מִיָּד וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן הַקְּנָס אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן לֹא נְשָׂאָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב טז) "וְאִם מָאֵן יְמָאֵן אָבִיהָ לְתִתָּהּ לוֹ כֶּסֶף יִשְׁקל". אֲבָל הָאוֹנֵס נוֹתֵן אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים מִיָּד וְכוֹנֵס. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁתִּרְצֶה לְהִתְגָּרֵשׁ אוֹ תִּתְאַלְמֵן אֵין לָהּ כְּלוּם:

8

[The following laws apply when] two men entered into relations with her, one through vaginal intercourse and one through anal intercourse. If the man who had anal intercourse with her was first, he is liable for embarrassment and for damages.9 If he was second, he is liable only for embarrassment, because she has already suffered damages.

The one who engaged in vaginal intercourse, whether first or last, is liable for the fine and all other payments. Nevertheless, the embarrassment and damages to a girl who had never engaged in relations at all cannot be compared to the embarrassment and damages to a girl who has engaged in anal intercourse.

ח

בָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם אֶחָד כְּדַרְכָּהּ וְאֶחָד שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ זֶה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ אִם הוּא רִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב בְּבשֶׁת וּפְגָם וְאִם הוּא אַחֲרוֹן חַיָּב בְּבשֶׁת בִּלְבַד שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְגְּמָה. וְזֶה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ כְּדַרְכָּהּ בֵּין רִאשׁוֹן בֵּין אַחֲרוֹן חַיָּב בִּקְנָס וּבִשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים. אֲבָל אֵין בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם שֶׁל בַּת שֶׁלֹּא נִבְעֲלָה כְּלָל כְּבשֶׁת וּפְגָם זוֹ שֶׁנִּבְעֲלָה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ:

9

We have already mentioned10 the girls for whom a fine need not be paid: They are ten: A bogeret, a girl who dissolved her marriage via mi'un, one who was divorced, an aylonit, a mentally incompetent girl, a deaf mute, a convert, a girl who had been taken captive, a freed slave, and one who has a tarnished reputation. A fine must be paid for all other girls.

ט

כְּבָר הוֹדַעְנוּ הַבָּנוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס וְעֶשֶׂר הֵן. הַבּוֹגֶרֶת. וְהַמְמָאֶנֶת. וְהַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת. וְהָאַיְלוֹנִית. וְהַשּׁוֹטָה. וְהַחֵרֶשֶׁת. וְהַגִּיֹּרֶת. וְהַשְּׁבוּיָה. וְהַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת. וְהַיּוֹצֵא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע. וּשְׁאָר הַבָּנוֹת יֵשׁ לָהֶן קְנָס:

10

Whenever a fine is required to be paid for a girl, compensation is also required for embarrassment and damages, and if she was raped she must also be compensated for the pain.

Conversely, whenever a fine is not required to be paid for her, she is not entitled to compensation for embarrassment and damages11 if she is seduced or raped. Exceptions to this are a bogeret, a girl who had dissolved her marriage via mi'un, a mentally incompetent girl and a deaf mute. [If they are seduced, no payment is required at all.]

י

כָּל בַּת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ קְנָס יֵשׁ לָהּ בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם. וְאִם הָיְתָה אֲנוּסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ צַעַר. וְכָל בַּת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ קְנָס כָּךְ אֵין לָהּ לֹא בּשֶׁת וְלֹא פְּגָם אִם נִתְפַּתְּתָה וְכֵן אִם נֶאֶנְסָה חוּץ מִבּוֹגֶרֶת וּמְמָאֶנֶת וְשׁוֹטָה וְחֵרֶשֶׁת:

11

What is implied? If a man rapes a bogeret or a girl who had dissolved her marriage via mi'un, although a fine is not required to be paid, compensation is also required for embarrassment damages and pain.12 And a man who rapes a a mentally incompetent girl or a deaf mute is required to make compensation for pain.13 One who seduces any of these girls is not liable at all.14

יא

כֵּיצַד. הָאוֹנֵס אֶת הַבּוֹגֶרֶת וְאֶת הַמְמָאֶנֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס יֵשׁ לָהֶן בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם וְצַעַר. וְהָאוֹנֵס שׁוֹטָה אוֹ חֵרֶשֶׁת מְשַׁלֵּם צַעַר בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל הַמְפַתֶּה אֶת כֻּלָּן פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם:

12

A person is not ever liable to pay a fine because of his own admission. Instead, he is made liable by the testimony of witnesses.15 Therefore, [if a man] says: "I raped or seduced the daughter of so and so," he is not liable to pay a fine. He must, however, make restitution for the embarrassment and the damages [he caused].16

Similarly, when a maiden files a legal claim against a man, saying "You raped me," or "You seduced me," and he denies the matter entirely, he is required to take a Rabbinic oath17 to support his claim, for if he admits his culpability, he would be liable for the embarrassment, the damages and the pain.18

יב

אֵין אָדָם מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס בְּכָל מָקוֹם בְּהוֹדָאַת פִּיו אֶלָּא עַל פִּי עֵדִים. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹמֵר אָנַסְתִּי אוֹ פִּתִּיתִי בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס אֲבָל מְשַׁלֵּם בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם בְּהוֹדָאַת פִּיו. וְכֵן בַּת שֶׁתָּבְעָה אִישׁ בַּדִּין וְאָמְרָה לוֹ אָנַסְתָּ אוֹ פִּתִּיתָ אוֹתִי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא הָיוּ דְּבָרִים מֵעוֹלָם הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁאִלּוּ הוֹדָה הָיָה מְשַׁלֵּם לָהּ בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם וְצַעַר עַל פִּי עַצְמוֹ:

13

If a girl claims, "You raped me," and the man claims, "No, I seduced you," he is required to take an oath mandated by Scriptural law with regard to [the compensation for] the pain, and he must pay the damages and the embarrassment. [The oath is required] because he admitted a portion of the claim [made against him], as will be explained in [the section dealing with that subject].19

יג

אָמְרָה לוֹ אָנַסְתָּ אוֹתִי וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא כִּי אֶלָּא פִּתִּיתִי הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע שְׁבוּעַת הַתּוֹרָה עַל דְּמֵי הַצַּעַר וּמְשַׁלֵּם בּשֶׁת וּפְגָם שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹדָה בְּמִקְצָת הַטַּעֲנָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

14

The three payments made because of seduction, and the four payments made because of rape are made to the girl's father, for all the monetary benefit that accrues during a girl's youth belongs to her father.20

If her father is no longer alive [at the time of the rape or the seduction], [these payments are made] to her.21

יד

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים שֶׁל מְפַתֶּה וְאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁל אוֹנֵס הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אָב שֶׁכָּל שֶׁבַח נְעוּרִים לוֹ. וְאִם אֵין לָהּ אָב הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל עַצְמָהּ:

15

When a girl who was raped or seduced does not file a claim until [either] she reaches bagrut, she marries, or her father dies,22 she herself is entitled to the three or four payments [mentioned above].23

If she appeared in court and filed a claim for payment, and then she reached bagrut or she married, the father is entitled to the payments. If the father dies after she files a claim for payment in court, the payments belong to her brothers, for they are her father's heirs. [The rationale is that] once she files a claim for payment in court, her father is considered to have acquired the payments.

טו

מְפֻתָּה אוֹ אֲנוּסָה שֶׁלֹּא תָּבְעָה עַד שֶׁבָּגְרָה אוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת אוֹ עַד שֶׁמֵּת הָאָב הָאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים אוֹ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה שֶׁלָּהּ. עָמְדָה בַּדִּין וְתָבְעָה אוֹתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּגְרָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אָב. וְאִם מֵת הָאָב אַחַר עֲמִידָתָהּ בַּדִּין הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל אַחִין שֶׁהֵן יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאָב. שֶׁמֵּעֵת שֶׁעָמְדָה בְּדִין זָכָה בָּהֶן הָאָב:

16

When a girl was consecrated and then divorced, she is entitled to the fine, but only that.24 If she was raped or seduced, and afterwards, she becomes consecrated to another [man], her father is entitled to the fine and the damages, for consecration does not take a girl out of her father's domain [and nullify his rights over her].

טז

הַבַּת שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה וְנִתְגָּרְשָׁה קְנָסָהּ לְבַדּוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ. נֶאֶנְסָה אוֹ נִתְפַּתְּתָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר קְנָסָהּ וּשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים לְאָבִיהָ. שֶׁאֵין הָאֵרוּסִין מוֹצִיאִין מֵרְשׁוּת אָב:

17

I maintain that [the intent of] the Torah's statement [Leviticus 19:29], "Do not defile your daughter to have her play the harlot," is that a father should not say: "Since the obligation of the Torah for a seducer or a rapist was solely that he should give the father money, I will hire my virgin daughter to someone to have relations with her for whatever price I desire, or I will allow him to have relations for her without charge. For a man has the right to forgo monetary rights to him to any person he desires." To counter such thoughts, it is written: "Do not defile your daughter."

The Torah obligates a rapist and a seducer to pay money rather than be punished by lashes when the matter happened by chance, without the knowledge of [the girl's] father, and she did not ready herself for [the relations]. For this is an extraordinary and uncommon matter.

If, however, a person leaves his virgin daughter accessible for anyone to engage in relations with her, this will cause the entire earth to be filled with sexual immorality.25 For [ultimately], a father will marry his daughter and a brother his sister, [for in a sexually permissive society] a [girl] may become pregnant and give birth without knowing who the child's father is.

When a person has his daughter act in this manner, she is considered to be a harlot, and both the man and the girl who engage in relations should be punished by lashes, as [Deuteronomy 23:18] states: "There shall not be a harlot."26

[In such an instance,] the man is not required to pay a fine, for the Torah prescribed a fine only in the instance of seduction or rape. When a girl prepares herself [for relations] either on her initiative or on that of her father, she is a harlot. And the prohibition against harlotry applies both with regard to a virgin and a non-virgin.

For this reason our Sages stated that a girl who was reputed to have conducted herself immodestly while young is not entitled to a fine, as we have explained,27 for we can assume that she willingly opened herself to this experience.

יז

אֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא יט כט) "אַל תְּחַלֵּל אֶת בִּתְּךָ לְהַזְנוֹתָהּ". שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר הָאָב הוֹאִיל וְלֹא חִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה מְפַתֶּה וְאוֹנֵס אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּתֵּן מָמוֹן לָאָב הֲרֵינִי שׂוֹכֵר בִּתִּי הַבְּתוּלָה לָזֶה לָבוֹא עָלֶיהָ בְּכָל מָמוֹן שֶׁאֶרְצֶה אוֹ אָנִיחַ זֶה לָבוֹא עָלֶיהָ בְּחִנָּם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לָאָדָם לִמְחל מָמוֹנוֹ לְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר אַל תְּחַלֵּל אֶת בִּתְּךָ. שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁחִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה לָאוֹנֵס וְלַמְפַתֶּה מָמוֹן וְלֹא מַלְקוֹת בְּשֶׁאֵרַע הַדָּבָר מִקְרֶה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת אָבִיהָ וְלֹא הֵכִינָה עַצְמָהּ לְכָךְ שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה אֵינוֹ הוֹוֶה תָּמִיד וְאֵינוֹ מָצוּי. אֲבָל אִם הֵנִיחַ בִּתּוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה מוּכֶנֶת לְכָל מִי שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ גּוֹרֵם שֶׁתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ זִמָּה וְנִמְצָא הָאָב נוֹשֵׂא בִּתּוֹ וְהָאָח נוֹשֵׂא אֲחוֹתוֹ שֶׁאִם תִּתְעַבֵּר וְתֵלֵד לֹא יִוָּדַע בֶּן מִי הוּא. וְהַמֵּכִין בִּתּוֹ לְכָךְ הֲרֵי הִיא קְדֵשָׁה וְלוֹקֶה הַבּוֹעֵל וְהַנִּבְעֶלֶת מִשּׁוּם (דברים כג יח) "לֹא תִהְיֶה קְדֵשָׁה". וְאֵין קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה קְנָס אֶלָּא לְאוֹנֵס וּמְפַתֶּה אֲבָל זוֹ שֶׁהֵכִינָה עַצְמָהּ לְכָךְ בֵּין מִדַּעְתָּהּ בֵּין מִדַּעַת אָבִיהָ הֲרֵי זוֹ קְדֵשָׁה. וְאִסּוּר קְדֵשָׁה אֶחָד הוּא בֵּין בִּבְתוּלָה בֵּין בִּבְעוּלָה לְפִיכָךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע בְּיַלְדוּתָהּ אֵין לָהּ קְנָס כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהִפְקִירָה עַצְמָהּ לְדָבָר זֶה בִּרְצוֹנָהּ:

Footnotes
1.

As explained in the following halachot.

2.

Inah, the word translated as "violated," more specifically means "oppressed." Significantly, Exodus 22:15, which describes the fine of the seducer, does not use this term.

3.

The Rambam is employing the instance of the daughter of a bastard primarily as a figure of speech. The commentaries have noted that if in fact one has relations with the daughter of a bastard, in most instances the transgression of a negative commandment is involved, and the violator should be lashed rather than fined, unless a warning was not given.

4.

Obviously, the penalty to be paid to the former exceeds that to be paid to the latter.

5.

Rav David Arameah explains that the intent is that the embarrassment suffered at the hands of a person of stature is more significant. The commentaries note, however, that in Hilchot Chovel UMazik 3:1, the Rambam states that the embarrassment suffered at the hands of a base person is more severe.

6.

The younger and smaller a girl, the more painful is the experience. Similarly, the older and larger the rapist, the more painful the experience is.

7.

The Rambam mentions the divorce as being dependent on the woman, because the rapist cannot initiate divorce, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 3.

8.

In contrast to other women, who would receive payment for their marriage contracts.

9.

The girl's value is reduced even through anal intercourse, albeit less than through vaginal intercourse. As mentioned in Chapter 1, Halachah 8, a fine is not required for anal intercourse.

10.

Chapter 1, Halachot 9 and 10.

11.

The Tur (Even HaEzer 177) differs with the Rambam and maintains that these women are entitled to damages. The fact that they are not granted a fine has no bearing on this manner.

12.

A fine is not required for a bogeret, because the verse mentions a na'arah, a younger maiden. Nevertheless, if one seduces a bogeret, no fine is required, because she willingly accepted any damages and embarrassment.

With regard to a minor who has dissolved her marriage through mi'un, we are obviously speaking of a girl who did not engage in sexual relations as a minor and was still a virgin. Although she is not entitled to a fine, since she was a virgin, she does receive damages. The commentaries have questioned the distinction between such a woman and a woman who is divorced after nisu'in, but is still a virgin.

13.

He is not liable to make compensation for the embarrassment and damages because these women are not entitled to damages, because they have no financial worth; they would not be purchased if sold as slaves. (See Ketubot 32a, Bava Metzia 80a.) And with regard to embarrassment, since they are mentally incompetent, they suffer no embarrassment.

(Compare, however, to Hilchot Chovel UMazik 3:4, which states that a mentally incompetent person is not reimbursed for embarrassment, but a deaf mute is.)

14.

For, as mentioned previously, a girl who is seduced does not suffer pain, and she either forgoes or need not be reimbursed for damages and embarrassment.

15.

This is a principle that applies not only with regard to the fine in question, but with regard to all k'nasot levied by the Torah. To explain: There are two types of monetary penalties levied by the Torah: a) nezek, damages - i.e., compensation for personal injury and/or loss of property - and k'nas, a fine, payment required by the Torah over and above what a person would be held liable for damages.

Although a person is liable for nezek when he makes an admission of guilt, he is not held liable for a k'nas unless his guilt is established by witnesses. (See Hilchot Nizkei Mammon 2:8 and Hilchot Geneivah 3:7.) Moreover, even if he admits his guilt and then witnesses come, he is not liable for payment of the k'nas.

16.

As mentioned in the Kessef Mishneh, the Rambam's statements here are in direct contradiction to his statements in Hilchot Chovel UMazik 5:6, where he states that when a person admits injuring a colleague, but there are no witnesses who testify to the matter, he is not liable for the damages and the pain, but is liable for the injured's unemployment, embarrassment and medical treatment. (As reflected by the commentaries on Hilchot Chovel UMazik, this ruling is contested by many authorities.)

The Rambam's descendant, Rav Yehoshua, attempts to reconcile the Rambam's rulings, explaining that the laws governing the injuries suffered by a raped or seduced maiden differ from those governing other types of injury.

17.

More precisely, the term used is sh'vuat hesset, a Rabbinic oath of lesser severity. See Hilchot Sh'vuot 11:13 and Hilchot To'en V'Nit'an 1:3.

18.

The Rambam is emphasizing that if the only issue were the k'nas, the man would not be held liable for an oath, because this oath was instituted to encourage the defendant to admit his guilt. With regard to the k'nas, this admission would be of no significance, because his liability is dependent only on the testimony of witnesses. Nevertheless, since there is also a claim for damages, and on that matter his admission would make him liable, he is required to take an oath.

19.

As explained in Hilchot To'en V'Nit'an 1:1, whenever a person admits a portion of the claim against him, he is required by Scriptural law to take an oath stating his lack of liability to the remaining portion of the claim.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam, because, as mentioned in the following halachah, the payment for these damages goes to the girl's father and not to her herself. Hence, the situation resembles the case (Sh'vuot 38b) where a person claims "You owe my father 100 zuzim," and the defendant states, "I owe him only 50," in which instance the defendant is not required to take an oath, because the person making the claim is not the one to whom the money is paid.

It is possible, the Ra'avad continues, for the father to make a definite claim that his daughter was raped. But it must be established that this indeed was the case.

The Kessef Mishneh justifies the Rambam's ruling, explaining that this instance is unique. Although the money goes to the girl's father, she and not her father is considered to be the plaintiff.

20.

When the girl manifests physical signs of maturity at the ordinary times, the period of "youth" mentioned here continues until she is twelve and a half. During that time, as mentioned in Hilchot Ishut 3:11, the father is entitled to consecrate his daughter and receive the money given for consecration, and to receive any benefits from her labor.

21.

And not to any other heirs of her father's estate. With regard to the k'nas, the money is not considered to be owed the father until the defendant denies the debt in court (for if he agreed to the claim, he would not be obligated to pay the fine). Therefore, the money owed because of the fine is not considered part of the father's estate. See Or Sameach.

22.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam on this point, stating that this money is considered part of the father's estate, and belongs to his heirs. The Kessef Mishneh and others, however, question the reason for the difference, noting that the Rambam's opinion is based on an explicit mishnah.

23.

In all the instances mentioned, she leaves her father's domain and assumes independent responsibility for her own financial concerns. Although the event for which the person becomes liable took place before the girl has assumed financial independence, since a claim was not issued at that time, she and not her father (or his heirs) is entitled to the money.

Kin'at Eliyahu states that this supports the thesis of the Kessef Mishneh mentioned in the notes on Halachah 13, that the girl herself is the plaintiff.

24.

But not to the payment for damages; that is awarded to her father. As mentioned in the notes on Chapter 1, Halachah 9, our Sages derived from the exegesis of Deuteronomy 22:29 that when a girl has been consecrated, she is entitled to the fine. But that applies only to the fine and not to the damages (Kessef Mishneh). Rabbenu Asher differs and maintains that she is also entitled to the damages, for she is no longer within her father's domain.

25.

The Rambam is referring to the wording of the verse in Leviticus cited previously.

26.

The Ra'avad differs and maintains that a woman is not considered to be a harlot unless she is a professional prostitute. See the discussion of this issue in Hilchot Ishut 1:4.

27.

Chapter 1, Halachah 9.

Naarah Betulah - Chapter Three

1

When a person issues a slanderous report concerning a Jewish maiden, and the matter is discovered to be false, he should be punished by lashing, as [Deuteronomy 22:18] states: "And he shall be flogged." The warning [for this negative commandment] is derived from [Leviticus 19:16]: "Do not go about as a slanderer among your people."1

He must also give her father 100 sela'im of pure silver.2If the girl is an orphan, the money is given to her.3

א

הַמּוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע עַל בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִמְצָא הַדָּבָר שֶׁקֶר לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יח) "וְיִסְּרוּ אֹתוֹ". וְאַזְהָרָה שֶׁלּוֹ מִ(ויקרא יט טז) "לֹּא תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ". וְנוֹתֵן לְאָבִיהָ מִשְׁקַל מֵאָה סְלָעִים כֶּסֶף מְזֻקָּק. וְאִם הָיְתָה יְתוֹמָה הֲרֵי הֵם שֶׁל עַצְמָהּ:

2

When a person issues a slanderous report on a girl below majority, or on a bogeret, he is not liable for the fine or for lashes. He is not liable unless he issues a slanderous report regarding a na'arah.4 [This is derived from Deuteronomy 22:15]: "[They will] present signs of the maiden's virginity." The word נערה, "maiden" is written in a full form.5

ב

וְהַמּוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע עַל הַקְּטַנָּה אוֹ עַל הַבּוֹגֶרֶת פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס וּמִן הַמַּלְקוֹת. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא עַל הַנַּעֲרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב טו) "וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת בְּתוּלֵי הַנַּעֲרָה" נַעֲרָה מָלֵא דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב:

3

Cases pertaining to this law may be brought only in the time of the Temple, and in the presence of a court of 23 [judges], because there is the possibility that capital punishment will be involved.6 For if the accusation [brought by the husband] is discovered to be true, the girl must be executed.7

Cases involving rape or seduction, by contrast, are judged at all times in the presence of three [judges], as will be explained in Hilchot Sanhedrin.8

ג

אֵין דָּנִין דִּין זֶה אֶלָּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּדִין מוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. שֶׁאִם נִמְצָא הַדָּבָר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶהֱרֶגֶת. אֲבָל הָאוֹנֵס וְהַמְפַתֶּה דָּנִין בָּהֶן בְּכָל זְמַן בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת סַנְהֶדְרִין:

4

It is one of the Torah's positive commandments for the wife of a man who issued a slanderous report about her to remain married to him forever, as [Deuteronomy 21:19] states: "She must remain his wife."9 This applies even if she is blind or a leper.

If he divorces her, he transgresses a negative commandment, as the verse continues: "He may never send her away as long as he lives."10

[If he divorces her,] we compel him to remarry her, and he is not lashed, as explained with regard to a rapist.11 If, however, another man takes the initiative and consecrates her first,12 she dies, or he is a priest, who is forbidden to marry a divorcee, he should be punished by lashes for divorcing her.

ד

וּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁתֵּשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת מוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע תַּחְתָּיו לְעוֹלָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" אֲפִלּוּ עִוֶּרֶת אוֹ מֻכַּת שְׁחִין. וְאִם גֵּרְשָׁהּ עָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ כָּל יָמָיו". וְכוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ וּמַחֲזִיר וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּאוֹנֵס. וְאִם קִדֵּם אֶחָד וְקִדְּשָׁהּ אוֹ שֶׁמֵּתָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָסוּר בִּגְרוּשָׁה הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה עַל גֵּרוּשֶׁיהָ:

5

If immodest behavior [on the woman's part is discovered], or it is discovered that she is forbidden to him as a result of a negative commandment, a positive commandment, or even [a Rabbinic commandment, such as the prohibition against] a sh'niyah, he should divorce her with a get.13

Why should the positive commandment [of remaining married to the woman] not supersede the negative commandment [of engaging in relations with an adulterous wife, or any other negative commandment] with regard to this man who issues a slanderous report or a rapist, and thus he should marry [or remain married to] this woman who is forbidden to him? For it is possible that she will not desire to remain married to him, and thus, both the positive and negative commandments will be observed.14

ה

נִמְצָא בָּהּ דְּבַר זִמָּה. אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין אוֹ מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנִיָּה הֲרֵי זֶה יְגָרְשֶׁנָּה בְּגֵט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" אִשָּׁה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ. וְלָמָּה לֹא יָבֹא עֲשֵׂה וְיִדְחֶה אֶת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין בְּמוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע בֵּין בְּאוֹנֵס וְיִשָּׂא זוֹ הָאֲסוּרָה לוֹ. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא תִּרְצֶה הִיא לֵישֵׁב וְנִמְצָא עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה קַיָּמִין:

6

What is implied by the term "issuing a slanderous report"? That a person should come to court and say: "I engaged in marital relations with this maiden,15 and I discovered that she was not a virgin. I investigated the matter and determined that she committed adultery after I had consecrated her.16 These are the witnesses in whose presence she committed adultery."17

The court then listens to the words of the witnesses and examines their testimony. If the truth of the claim is substantiated, the girl is executed by stoning.18

If the [girl's] father brings witnesses who nullify [the testimony] of the witnesses,19 and it is determined that they testified falsely, [the witnesses] should be executed by stoning,20 [the husband] should be flogged, and he should pay 100 sela'im.21

This is what is meant by [Deuteronomy 22:17]: "This is [evidence of] my daughter's virginity" - i.e., these are the witnesses who nullify [the testimony] of the husband's witnesses.

If the husband brings other witnesses who nullify [the testimony]22 of the father's witnesses, the maiden and the father's witness should be executed by stoning.23 This is what is meant by [Deuteronomy 22:20]: "If the [accusation] is true." According to the Oral Tradition, the passage speaks of witnesses who nullify the testimony of other witnesses, and a third pair who nullify the testimony of the second pair.

ו

כֵּיצַד הוֹצָאַת שֵׁם רַע. הוּא שֶׁיָּבוֹא לְבֵית דִּין וְיֹאמַר נַעֲרָה זוֹ בָּעַלְתִּי וְלֹא מָצָאתִי לָהּ בְּתוּלִים וּכְשֶׁבִּקַּשְׁתִּי עַל הַדָּבָר נוֹדַע לִי שֶׁזִּנְּתָה תַּחְתַּי אַחַר שֶׁאֵרַסְתִּיהָ וְאֵלּוּ הֵם עֵדַי שֶׁזִּנְּתָה בִּפְנֵיהֶם. וּבֵית דִּין שׁוֹמְעִין דִּבְרֵי הָעֵדִים וְחוֹקְרִין עֵדוּתָן. אִם נִמְצָא הַדָּבָר אֱמֶת נִסְקֶלֶת. וְאִם הֵבִיא הָאָב עֵדִים וְהוּזְמוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁהֵבִיא הַבַּעַל וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהֵעִידוּ שֶׁקֶר יִסָּקְלוּ וְיִלְקֶה הוּא וְנוֹתֵן מֵאָה סְלָעִים. וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (דברים כב יז) "וְאֵלֶּה בְּתוּלֵי בִתִּי", אֵלּוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁיָּזִימוּ עֵדֵי הַבַּעַל. חָזַר הַבַּעַל וְהֵבִיא עֵדִים אֲחֵרִים וְהֵזִימוּ עֵדֵי הָאָב הֲרֵי הַנַּעֲרָה וְעֵדֵי אָבִיהָ נִסְקָלִין. עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (דברים כב כ) "וְאִם אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁפָּרָשָׁה זוֹ יֵשׁ בָּהּ עֵדִים וְזוֹמְמִין וְזוֹמְמֵי זוֹמְמִין:

7

When a man issues a slanderous report about his wife after she becomes a bogeret, he is free of liability for the lashes and for the fine, even though his witnesses testify that she committed adultery when she was a na'arah.24

If the accusations are proven true, [the girl] should be executed by stoning, even though she is a bogeret.25 [The rationale is] that she was a na'arah when she committed adultery.

ז

הוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע וְהִיא בּוֹגֶרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁזִּנְּתָה תַּחְתָּיו כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה נַעֲרָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּלְקוֹת וּמִן הַקְּנָס. וְאִם נִמְצָא הַדָּבָר אֱמֶת הֲרֵי זוֹ תִּסָּקֵל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בּוֹגֶרֶת הוֹאִיל וּבְעֵת שֶׁזִּנְּתָה נַעֲרָה הָיְתָה:

8

Whenever a na'arah is not entitled to a fine if she was raped or seduced,26 [her husband] is not punished by flogging or by a fine if he issues a slanderous report about her.

In addition, when a non-Jewish girl was converted below the age of three or a maidservant was freed below the age of three,27 [her husband] is not punished by flogging or by a fine if he issues a slanderous report about her. This applies even if a girl was conceived before her mother was converted and born after she was converted. [The rationale is based on Deuteronomy 22:19]: "Because [the husband] defamed the virtue of an Israelite maiden." [Implied is that] she must be conceived and born as an Israelite.

ח

כָּל נַעֲרָה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ קְנָס אִם נֶאֶנְסָה אוֹ נִתְפַּתְּתָה כָּךְ הַמּוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּלְקוֹת וּמִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. וְכֵן הַכּוּתִית שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה וְהַשִּׁפְחָה שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרָה פְּחוּתָה מִבַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הוֹרָתָהּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וְלֵדָתָהּ בִּקְדֻשָּׁה הַמּוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס וּמִן הַמַּלְקוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "כִּי הוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע עַל בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל" עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הוֹרָתָהּ וְלֵדָתָהּ בִּקְדֻשָּׁה:

9

A man is not held liable when [his] witnesses are discovered to have lied [in the following situation]. He consecrates a maiden and divorces her, consecrates her again and then issues a slanderous report about her, bringing witnesses who say that she committed adultery during the first time she had been consecrated.28

Similarly, a man is not held liable to be flogged or for a fine when [his] witnesses are discovered to have lied [in the following situation]. He issues a slanderous report about his yevamah, bringing witnesses who say that she committed adultery during the time she had been consecrated to his brother.29

Whenever a man is not liable [to be flogged and fined], he may divorce his wife if he desires to.30

ט

קִדֵּשׁ נַעֲרָה וְגֵרְשָׁהּ וְחָזַר וְקִדְּשָׁהּ וְהוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע וְהֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁזִּנְּתָה תַּחְתָּיו בַּקִּדּוּשִׁין הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְנִמְצְאוּ זוֹמְמִים הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ שֶׁכָּנְסָהּ וְהוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע וְהֵבִיא עֵדִים שֶׁזִּנְּתָה תַּחַת קִדּוּשֵׁי אָחִיו וְנִמְצְאוּ זוֹמְמִים הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּלְקוֹת וּמִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. וְכָל הַפְּטוּר אִם רָצָה לְגָרֵשׁ יְגָרֵשׁ:

10

A man is not liable [for these penalties] unless he engages in relations with his wife in the ordinary manner and issues a slanderous report about her, saying that she engaged in relations [previously] in the ordinary manner.31

If he engaged in anal intercourse with his wife, and said that he discovered that she was not a virgin,32 he is not liable [for these penalties]. He is, however, given stripes for rebellious conduct.33

י

אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּבְעל אוֹתָהּ כְּדַרְכָּהּ וְיוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע (עַל הַבְּעִילָה) כְּדַרְכָּהּ. בְּעָלָהּ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ וְאָמַר לֹא מְצָאתִיהָ בְּתוּלָה פָּטוּר וּמַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

11

Similarly, if he says, "I discovered that she was not a virgin," but does not say that she committed adultery after he had consecrated her,34 or if he claims that she committed adultery but did not bring witnesses, but rather the witnesses came on their own initiative, he is not liable [for these penalties]. Nevertheless, the witnesses are executed if their testimony is nullified.35

יא

וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לֹא מְצָאתִיהָ בְּתוּלָה וְלֹא אָמַר שֶׁזִּנְּתָה תַּחְתַּי אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר זִנְּתָה תַּחְתַּי וְלֹא הֵבִיא עֵדִים אֶלָּא בָּאוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעֵדִים נֶהֱרָגִים אִם הוּזַמּוּ:

12

The Torah's statement [Deuteronomy 22:17]: "They will then spread the garment" is a euphemism. The intent is that they debate the private aspects of this matter.36

Similarly, [other expressions in the passage are to be understood non-literally. [For example,] "This is [evidence of] my daughter's virginity" means "these are the witnesses who nullify the testimony of the husband's witnesses."

The death penalty issued "if the [accusation] is true" is issued only when she has committed adultery after being consecrated [and is observed by] witnesses,37 as implied by [Deuteronomy 22:21]: "acting immorally [in] her father's house."38 Before she is consecrated,39 the Torah does not hold her liable at all, and a person who engages in relations with her is liable only for a financial penalty, whether he seduced her or raped her.

יב

זֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (דברים כב יז) "וּפָרְשׂוּ הַשִּׂמְלָה" לְשׁוֹן כָּבוֹד שֶׁנּוֹשְׂאִין וְנוֹתְנִין בְּסִתְרֵי הַדָּבָר. וְכֵן זֶה שֶׁיֹּאמַר הָאָב (דברים כב יז) "אֵלֶּה בְּתוּלֵי בִתִּי" הֵן זוֹמְמֵי עֵדֵי הַבַּעַל. וְזֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כ) "וְאִם אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר" תֵּהָרֵג כְּשֶׁזִּנְּתָה אַחַר הָאֵרוּסִין בְּעֵדִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כא) "לִזְנוֹת בֵּית אָבִיהָ". אֲבָל קדֶם הָאֵרוּסִין כְּבָר אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה בָּהּ שֶׁהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִכְּלוּם וּבוֹעֲלָהּ חַיָּב בְּתַשְׁלוּמֵי מָמוֹן בִּלְבַד בֵּין פִּתָּה בֵּין אָנַס:

Footnotes
1.

As is the case with regard to several other mitzvot, the passage in Deuteronomy obviously indicates that the transgression of a negative commandment is involved in making such slanderous remarks about one's wife. Otherwise, there would be no reason for the punishment of lashes to be given. There is, however, no explicit statement in that passage saying, "Do not make such statements." Therefore, it is necessary to find another verse that has a specific statement forbidding slander.

2.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 1. This is the only instance in the Torah when a person who violates a prohibition is given corporal punishment and is also required to make financial restitution.

3.

And not to her father's heirs.

4.

As mentioned previously, the term na'arah implies a specific time frame: the six months after a girl's manifestation of physical signs of maturity once she has reached the age of twelve.

As mentioned in the notes on Chapter 1, Halachah 8, the word na'arah, "maiden" is sometimes used by the Torah to refer to girls between the ages of three and twelve and a half. In this instance, however, the meaning of the term is specific.

5.

Generally, the word נערה, maiden, is written in the Torah without the final heh. The inclusion of the heh is obviously purposeful and intended to teach a concept.

The Rambam's statements have aroused the attention of the commentaries, for in our Torah scrolls the word נערה in the verse cited by the Rambam lacks a heh. The Kessef Mishneh (based on Ketubot 40b and Rashi, 44b) notes that the Talmud derives this concept from Deuteronomy 22:19: "And he shall give it to the father of the maiden." In that verse, the word נערה is written with a heh in our Torah scrolls.

6.

Cases involving capital punishment are judged by a court of 23 judges. These cases can by judged only when the Sanhedrin holds sessions in the Courtyard of Hewn Stone next to the Temple, as stated in Hilchot Sanhedrin 14:11-14. (Once the Sanhedrin ceased holding sessions in that place, even a court of judges with semichah cannot try capital cases.)

7.

As stated in Deuteronomy 22:20.

8.

Chapter 5, Halachah 5:3. Based on Hilchot Sanhedrin 5:17 and the Shulchan Aruch (Even HaEzer 177:2), it would appear that in the present age, the court should hold a person who makes such statements responsible and compel him to reach a settlement with the father of the girl whose reputation he maligned.

9.

Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 219) and Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 553) regard this as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. Sefer HaMitzvot states that this commandment also includes flogging him.

10.

Sefer HaMitzvot (Negative Commandment 359) and Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzvah 554) regard this as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

11.

Chapter 1, Halachah 7.

12.

In which instance, her first husband is forbidden to remarry her.

13.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 5, and notes.

14.

Ketubot 40a explains that in such an instance the woman is taught to say that she does not desire to remain married to the man, so that there is no obstacle presented to the divorce.

15.

There is a difference of opinion among our Sages whether or not all the following laws apply if the husband did not engage in marital relations with his wife. The Rambam follows the opinion that it is necessary for the couple to have engaged in marital relations. See the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh on Halachah 12.

16.

I.e., the husband's claim is twofold: a) that contrary to his supposition, his bride was not a virgin; b) that she had committed adultery between the time he consecrated her, and the time he consummated the marriage. The latter dimension of the claim is more significant, because if substantiated, it involves the death penalty. The issue of a groom's claim that a bride presumed to be a virgin was not - without any knowledge of an adulterous relationship - is discussed in Hilchot Ishut 11:8-17. See Halachah 11.

17.

For no punishment will be administered by the court unless two witnesses testify to the wrongdoing.

18.

The punishment given for adultery committed by a consecrated maiden (Deuteronomy 22:23).

19.

The term used for nullify here, hazamah, has a very specific meaning. It refers to witnesses who testify that it was impossible for the husband's witnesses to testify with regard to the alleged adultery, because the two witnesses were together in a different place at the time the first witnesses testified that the adultery took place. If the second pair of witnesses state that they were in the same place as the first pair and did not witness the commission of adultery, the testimony of the first pair is nullified, but the first pair of witnesses is not punished. This is referred to as hakashah. See Hilchot Edut, Chapter 18.

20.

As stated in Deuteronomy 19:19, when the testimony of witnesses is nullified in the above fashion, the lying witnesses are giving the punishment they desired to have imposed upon the defendant.

21.

Note the Minchat Chinuch (Mitzvah 553), who quotes opinions that maintain that if the girl's father brings witnesses who nullify the husband's witnesses through hakashah, the husband's witnesses are not punished, but the husband himself is required to pay the fine.

22.

Here again the intent is hazamah.

23.

Moreover, the witnesses must pay a fine of 100 sela'im to the husband.

24.

The husband incurs these penalties at the time he makes his statements in court. At that time, the woman has already become a bogeret.

25.

Generally, when a bogeret commits adultery she is executed by strangulation, a less severe means of execution. In this case, the woman is still given the penalty designated for a na'arah, as the Rambam explains.

26.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 9.

The rationale for this ruling can be explained as follows: Most of the women mentioned in that halachah are not granted a fine, because we assume that they are non-virgins. For this reason, the husband should not have presumed that she was a virgin.

With regard to an aylonit, she is never considered to be a na'arah. Until the age of twenty, she is considered to be a k'tanah, and after twenty, she is considered to be a bogeret.

27.

In which case, she is entitled to a fine in the event of seduction or rape.

28.

Ketubot 46a leaves this issue unresolved. As such, we follow the more lenient ruling and free the man of punishment.

29.

Ketubot, loc. cit., explains that relations with a yevamah are excluded from these laws, because the relevant passage quotes the girl's father as saying (Deuteronomy 22:16): "I gave my daughter to this man as a wife." This does not apply to the relationship between a yavam and a yevamah, for they are destined for each other by Divine decree.

30.

The Mishneh LaMelech states that this statement applies with regard to the relationship between a yavam and a yevamah and similar instances, but does not apply with regard to the first law stated in this halachah. In that instance, the husband is not held liable because we are in doubt with regard to the law. For that same reason, he should be enjoined against divorcing his wife.

31.

I.e., if he issues a slanderous report that she had engaged in anal intercourse previously, he is not held liable (Ketubot 46a,b).

32.

I.e., he claims that witnesses supplied him with this information.

33.

Although the Scriptural penalty is not imposed, our Sages required that he receive punishment for slandering his wife.

34.

See Hilchot Ishut 11:8-17.

35.

For they desired to have someone stoned, and thus should receive the appropriate penalty.

36.

The Kessef Mishneh notes that this is a matter of debate in Ketubot 46a. Although the Sages advance the opinion quoted by the Rambam, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov states that the intent is that the girl's parents produce the sheet on which the couple engaged in relations. Since the Rambam follows Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov's opinion as reflected in Halachah 8, it is difficult to understand why he uses the Sages' explanation in this halachah. The commentaries explain that the two opinions in the Talmud are not mutually exclusive, and Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov would also accept the Sages' view.

Note also the gloss of Rav David Arameah, who states that when a husband brings witnesses who testify that the girl committed adultery, it is not sufficient for the parents to bring a blood-stained garment, for we fear that perhaps the blood came from another source. The testimony of witnesses, he explains, can be nullified only by other witnesses.

37.

More particulars about the execution are mentioned in Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 3:8.

38.

It is when she is consecrated, but not married, that there is the possibility that she will "act immorally in her father's house," for that is where she lives.

39.

Even if engaged.

Published and copyright by Moznaim Publications, all rights reserved.
To purchase this book or the entire series, please click here.
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Vowelized Hebrew text courtesy Torat Emet under CC 2.5 license.
The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah