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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Malveh veLoveh - Chapter 10, Malveh veLoveh - Chapter 11, Malveh veLoveh - Chapter 12

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Malveh veLoveh - Chapter 10

1

Just as it is permitted for a seller to take an order based on the market price; so, too, it is permitted to give a loan of produce without any conditions, to be returned without any conditions, without establishing a time when it must be returned once the market price has been established.

What is implied? If there was a fixed market price for wheat that was known by both the borrower and the lender, when the borrower borrows ten se'ah of wheat from a colleague, he is obligated to return ten se'ah, even though the price of wheat increased. The rationale is that when he borrowed the wheat from him, the market price was known. If he had wanted to, he could have purchased wheat and returned it, since a minimum term of the loan was not established.

א

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַמּוֹכֵר לִפְסֹק עַל שַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק כָּךְ מֻתָּר לִלְווֹת הַפֵּרוֹת סְתָם וּפוֹרְעִין סְתָם בְּלֹא קְבִיעַת זְמַן עַל הַשַּׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה הַשַּׁעַר קָבוּעַ וְיָדוּעַ לִשְׁנֵיהֶם וְלָוָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עֶשֶׂר סְאִין חַיָּב לְהַחְזִיר לוֹ עֶשֶׂר סְאִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּקְרוּ הַחִטִּים שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁלָּוָה מִמֶּנּוּ הָיָה הַשַּׁעַר יָדוּעַ וְאִלּוּ רָצָה הָיָה קוֹנֶה וּמַחֲזִיר לוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא קָבַע לוֹ זְמַן:

2

If the borrower possesses some of the type of produce that he seeks to borrow, it is permissible for him to borrow this produce without any conditions, to be returned without any conditions, without establishing a time when it is due. Even if he possesses only a se'ah, he may borrow many se'ah because of it. Even if he possesses only a drop of oil or wine, he may borrow several jugs of wine and oil because of it.

If he did not possess any of that type of produce and the market price was not established yet, or the borrower and the lender did not know the market price, it is forbidden to lend a se'ah of produce for a se'ah to be returned at a later date. Similarly, with regard to other types of produce, a person should not lend them out until he establishes a financial equivalent. The following rules apply when a person makes a loan of produce without establishing a financial equivalent, and it decreases in value. The borrower must return the measure or the weight of the fruit he borrowed. If they increased in value, the lender may take only the amount they were worth at the time of the loan.

Even if a person possesses that type of produce, or the market price had already been established, it is forbidden to make a loan of produce that must be repaid on a specific date. Instead, the loan must be made without any stipulation, and it can be repaid whenever the borrower desires to repay it.

ב

הָיָה לוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶׁלָּוָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לִלְווֹת סְתָם בְּלֹא קְבִיעַת זְמַן וּפוֹרֵעַ סְתָם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא יָצָא הַשַּׁעַר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה לוֹ סְאָה בִּלְבַד לוֶֹה עָלֶיהָ כַּמָּה סְאִין. הָיְתָה לוֹ טִפָּה אַחַת שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן אוֹ שֶׁל יַיִן לוֶֹה עָלֶיהָ כַּמָּה גַרְבֵּי יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן. לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין כְּלוּם וְלֹא נִקְבַּע שַׁעַר הַשּׁוּק עֲדַיִן אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יָדְעוּ שַׁעַר הַשּׁוּק הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לִלְווֹת סְאָה בִּסְאָה. וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר הַפֵּרוֹת לֹא יַלְוֶה אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָן דָּמִים. וְאִם לָוָה וְלֹא עָשָׂה אוֹתָן [דָּמִים] וְהוּזְלוּ מַחְזִיר לוֹ פֵּרוֹת כַּמִּדָּה שֶׁלָּוָה אוֹ כַּמִּשְׁקָל. וְאִם הוּקַר נוֹטֵל דָּמִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁוִין בִּשְׁעַת הַלְוָאָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַשַּׁעַר קָבוּעַ בַּשּׁוּק הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לִלְווֹת פֵּרוֹת בְּפֵרוֹת עַד זְמַן קָבוּעַ אֶלָּא לוֶֹה סְתָם וּפוֹרֵעַ בְּאֵיזֶה זְמַן שֶׁיִּפְרַע:

3

A person should not tell a colleague: "Lend me a kor of wheat and I will return a kor to you at the time when wheat is brought to the granaries." He may, however, tell him: "Lend me wheat until my son comes, or until I find the key to my storehouse."

ג

לֹא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ הַלְוֵינִי כּוֹר חִטִּים וַאֲנִי אַחְזִיר לְךָ כּוֹר לַגֹּרֶן אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ הַלְוֵינִי עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא בְּנִי אוֹ עַד שֶׁאֶמְצָא הַמַּפְתֵּחַ:

4

The following rules apply if a person lent out produce until a fixed date: If the produce diminished in value, the borrower should return the produce at the time set. If the produce increased in value, the borrower should pay him the money that it was worth at the time of the loan.

ד

לָוָה פֵּרוֹת עַד זְמַן קָבוּעַ אִם הוּזְלוּ מַחְזִיר לוֹ פֵּרוֹת בַּזְּמַן שֶׁקָּבַע וְאִם הוּקְרוּ נוֹתֵן לוֹ דָּמִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁוִין בִּשְׁעַת הַהַלְוָאָה:

5

A person may lend wheat to his sharecroppers to be used as seed, in return for wheat to be paid back after the harvest. This applies both before the sharecropper enters the field and after he entered the field.

When does this apply? In a place where it is customary that the sharecropper supplies the seed for the crops. For the owner of the field has the right to remove the sharecropper from the field whenever he does not supply it.

Different laws apply in places where it is customary for the owner of the field to provide the seed. If the sharecropper did not enter the field yet, it is permitted for the owner to lend wheat for wheat to be returned in the future, for he still has the prerogative of removing the sharecropper from the field. Thus, when the sharecropper entered the field, he entered with the intent of returning the wheat the owner lent him.

If, however, the loan was made after the sharecropper entered the field, since the owner can no longer have him removed, he is like any other person. It is forbidden to lend him wheat for seed in return for wheat to be paid back at a later date. He may, however, lend him wheat according to its market value if he does not make any stipulations.

ה

מַלְוֶה אָדָם אֶת אֲרִיסָיו חִטִּים בְּחִטִּים לְזֶרַע בֵּין קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּרַד הָאָרִיס לַשָּׂדֶה בֵּין אַחַר שֶׁיָּרַד. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁיִּתֵּן הָאָרִיס אֶת הַזֶּרַע שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּיַד בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע לְסַלְּקוֹ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בַּעַל הַקַּרְקַע לִתֵּן אֶת הַזֶּרַע אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא יָרַד הָאָרִיס הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְהַלְווֹת חִטִּים בְּחִטִּים שֶׁעֲדַיִן יֵשׁ לוֹ לְסַלְּקוֹ נִמְצָא בְּעֵת שֶׁיָּרַד לַשָּׂדֶה יָרַד עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיַּחְזִיר לוֹ חִטִּים שֶׁהִלְוָהוּ. אֲבָל אַחַר שֶׁיָּרַד לַשָּׂדֶה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא כְּכָל אָדָם וְאָסוּר לְהַלְווֹתוֹ חִטִּים בַּחִטִּים לְזֶרַע אֲבָל מַלְוֵהוּ סְתָם עַל שַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק:

6

A loan may not be repaid with a loan of produce. To explain: A person owed a colleague money. The lender told the borrower: "Give me my money, because I want to purchase wheat with it."

The borrower responded: "Go out and establish the money I owe you as a debt of wheat according to the present market price."

If the borrower possesses an equivalent quantity of wheat, this is permitted. If, however, he does not have that type of produce, this is forbidden. For our Sages said that it is permitted to place an order based on a commodity's market price, even though the seller does not possess any of that commodity, only when the purchaser is paying money for the acquisition. It is, however, forbidden to transfer a debt of money into a debt of produce unless the borrower possesses the produce.

The concept can be extended when, in the above situation, the borrower did possess wheat and the debt was transferred into a debt of wheat. Similar rules apply if afterwards the lender comes and tells him: "Give me the wheat, because I want to sell it and use the money to purchase wine," and in response, the borrower tells him: "Go out and consider the debt as a debt of wine, according to the present market price of wine." If he possesses wine, it is permitted and it is considered as if he owes him wine. If he does not possess wine, it is forbidden.

If the borrower did not possess the commodity desired, but nevertheless, transgressed and transferred the debt into a debt of that commodity, he is not required to pay the debt in the commodity. Even though he did purchase the commodity afterwards, he should pay the lender the money he lent him.

ו

מִי שֶׁהָיָה נוֹשֶׁה בַּחֲבֵרוֹ מָעוֹת וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי מְעוֹתַי שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה לִקַּח בָּהֶן חִטִּים. אָמַר לוֹ צֵא וַעֲשֵׂה אוֹתָן עָלַי כְּשַׁעַר שֶׁל עַכְשָׁו וְיִהְיֶה לְךָ אֶצְלִי חִטִּים בְּהַלְוָאָה. אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ חִטִּים כְּשִׁעוּר מְעוֹתָיו מֻתָּר וְאִם אֵין [לוֹ] אוֹתוֹ הַמִּין הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִפְסֹק עַל שַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כְּלוּם מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין אֶלָּא בְּנוֹתֵן מְעוֹתָיו לִקְנוֹת בָּהֶן פֵּרוֹת. אֲבָל הָרוֹצֶה לְהַעֲמִיד הַלְוָאָתוֹ עַל גַּב הַפֵּרוֹת אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת. הָיָה לַלּוֶֹה חִטִּים וְעָשָׂה הַלְוָאָתוֹ עָלָיו חִטִּים וּבָא אַחַר זְמַן וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי חִטִּים שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה לְמָכְרָן וְלִקַּח בִּדְמֵיהֶן יַיִן. אָמַר לוֹ צֵא וַעֲשֵׂה אוֹתָן עָלַי יַיִן כַּשַּׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק עַתָּה. אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ יַיִן הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר וְנַעֲשֵׂית הַלְוָאָתוֹ אֶצְלוֹ יַיִן וְאִם אֵין לוֹ יַיִן אָסוּר. הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה לוֹ וְעָבַר וְהֶחְזִיר הַהַלְוָאָה פֵּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנָה פֵּרוֹת אַחַר כָּךְ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָעוֹת שֶׁהִלְוָהוּ:

Malveh veLoveh - Chapter 11

1

When a person lends money to a colleague in the presence of witnesses, or a borrower tells witnesses: "Serve as witnesses for me that I owe this person a maneh" or "You are my witnesses that I owe this person a maneh," the obligation established is referred to as a milveh b'al peh, "a loan supported by an oral commitment." Such a debt need not be repaid in the presence of witnesses.' Therefore, if the debtor claims: "I repaid the debt," he is required to take a sh'vuat hesset and is discharged.

When, by contrast, a person lends money to a colleague and has the debt supported by a promissory note, the debtor must repay him in the presence of witnesses. Therefore, if the debtor claims: "I paid this promissory note," his words are not accepted. Instead, we tell him: "Bring witnesses who testify that you paid or "Arise and pay the debt you owe him."

Therefore, when a person tells witnesses: "Serve as witnesses for me that I owe this person a maneh" they may not write down a record of their testimony and give it to the lender, unless the borrower tells them: "Write a promissory note, sign it and give it to the lender. The rationale is that their testimony, which is only oral, should not be given the legal power of a promissory note. Even when the borrower gives such instructions, they should consult with him after they have signed the promissory note. Only afterwards, may they give the promissory note to the lender in his hand.

If they performed a kinyan with the borrower affirming that he owes the lender a maneh, the witnesses may write a promissory note and give it to the lender, even though the borrower did not instruct them to do so. The rationale is that when a kinyan is performed without any further instructions, it is ready to be recorded in a legal document. There is no need to consult the borrower.

א

הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בִּפני עֵדִים אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לְעֵדִים הֱיוּ עָלַי עֵדִים שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לָזֶה מָנֶה אוֹ אַתֶּם עֵדַי שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לָזֶה מָנֶה. זוֹ נִקְרֵאת מִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְפָרְעוֹ בְּעֵדִים. לְפִיכָךְ אִם טָעַן וְאָמַר אַחַר כָּךְ פָּרַעְתִּי נִשְׁבָּע הֶסֵּת וְנִפְטָר. אֲבָל הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁטָר צָרִיךְ לְפָרְעוֹ בְּעֵדִים לְפִיכָךְ אִם טָעַן וְאָמַר פָּרַעְתִּי שְׁטָר זֶה אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אוֹ הָבֵא עֵדִים אוֹ עֲמֹד וְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ חוֹבוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹמֵר לְעֵדִים הֱיוּ עָלַי עֵדִים שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לָזֶה מָנֶה אֵין כּוֹתְבִין עֵדוּתָן וְנוֹתְנִין לַמַּלְוֶה. שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזִירוֹ לַמַּלְוֶה עַל פִּי עֵדוּת בִּשְׁטָר עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהֶן הַלּוֶֹה כִּתְבוּ שְׁטָר וְחִתְמוּ וּתְנוּ לוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶן כָּךְ צְרִיכִין לְהִמָּלֵךְ בּוֹ אַחַר שֶׁחָתְמוּ בַּשְּׁטָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתְנִין הַשְּׁטָר בְּיַד הַמַּלְוֶה. קָנוּ מִיָּדוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ מָנֶה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כּוֹתְבִין וְנוֹתְנִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לָהֶן כְּתֹבוּ שֶׁסְּתָם קִנְיָן לִכְתִיבָה עוֹמֵד וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְהִמָּלֵךְ בּוֹ:

2

When a borrower writes a document by himself and witnesses write testimony upon it and give it to the lender, it is an acceptable promissory note.

Similarly, should the borrower compose a promissory note - even when there are no witnesses who sign it - and give it to the lender in the presence of witnesses, the loan is considered to be backed by a promissory note, provided that it is written with a script that cannot be forged and that the witnesses in whose presence it was transferred read it.

There are Geonim who ruled that the borrower should tell the witnesses in whose presence the promissory note was transferred: "Sign the note or testify that it was transferred in your presence."

ב

לוֶֹה שֶׁכָּתַב שְׁטָר בִּכְתַב יָדוֹ וְהֵעִיד בּוֹ עֵדִים וּנְתָנוֹ לַמַּלְוֶה הֲרֵי זֶה שְׁטָר כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן אִם כָּתַב שְׁטָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ עֵדִים וּנְתָנוֹ לַמַּלְוֶה בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים הֲרֵי זוֹ מִלְוֶה בִּשְׁטָר. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּתָב שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִזְדַּיֵּף וְיִקְרְאוּ אוֹתוֹ הָעֵדִים שֶׁנִּמְסַר בִּפְנֵיהֶם. וְיֵשׁ מִן הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁהוֹרָה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לוֹמַר לָעֵדִים שֶׁמָּסְרוּ בִּפְנֵיהֶם חִתְמוּ וְהָעִידוּ שֶׁנִּמְסַר בִּפְנֵיכֶם:

3

If the lender produces a note written by the borrower , which states that he owes the lender money, but there are no witnesses who have signed it, it is considered as merely a loan supported by an oral commitment with regard to all matters. This applies even if the authenticity of his writing was verified.

Hence, if the borrower claims to have paid the debt, and the lender denies receiving payment, the borrower need only take a sh'vuat hesset before being dismissed. Nor may the lender use this note to expropriate property from the heirs, nor from the purchasers.

ג

הוֹצִיא עָלָיו כְּתַב יָדוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ וְאֵין שָׁם עֵדִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻחְזַק כְּתַב יָדוֹ בְּבֵית דִּין הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה לְכָל דָּבָר. וְאִם טָעַן שֶׁפָּרַע נִשְׁבָּע הֶסֵּת וְנִפְטָר וְאֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה בִּכְתָב זֶה לֹא מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין וְלֹא מִן הַלָּקוֹחוֹת:

4

Whenever a loan is supported by a promissory note, the lender may use this note to expropriate property from the heirs and from the purchasers, as will be explained. When, by contrast, a loan is merely supported by an oral commitment, the lender may expropriate payment from the heirs, but not from the purchasers. The rationale for this restriction is that such a loan does not become public knowledge. Therefore, the lender may not expropriate property because of such an obligation.

A loan supported by a promissory note, by contrast, does become public knowledge. Therefore, it may be used to expropriate property that was sold. The purchaser of such property caused himself a loss, because he did not inquire to the extent that he discovered that the property of the person he purchased it from was on lien because of the loan that person had taken. For according to Scriptural Law, all property belonging to a borrower is on lien to the loan.

ד

כָּל מִלְוֶה בִּשְׁטָר גּוֹבֶה אוֹתָהּ מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין וּמִן הַלָּקוֹחוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וּמִלְוֶה עַל פֶּה גּוֹבֶה אוֹתָהּ מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין וְאֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה אוֹתָהּ מִן הַלָּקוֹחוֹת לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ קוֹל לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִטְרֹף בָּהּ. אֲבָל מִלְוֶה שֶׁבִּשְׁטָר קוֹל יֵשׁ לָהּ וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ הִפְסִיד עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁאַל עַד שֶׁיָּדַע שֶׁנְּכָסָיו שֶׁל זֶה מְשֻׁעְבָּדִין בַּמִּלְוֶה שֶׁעָלָיו. שֶׁכָּל נִכְסֵי הַלּוֶֹה תַּחַת שִׁעְבּוּד הַמַּלְוֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה:

5

When a person sells his field in the presence of witnesses, and a creditor of the seller expropriates the field from the purchaser, the purchaser may expropriate the money due him from property that was on lien to the sale that had been sold to others, as will be explained. The rationale is that whenever a person makes a sale, it is done in public and becomes common knowledge.

ה

הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ בְּעֵדִים וְיָצָאת מִתַּחַת יְדֵי הַלּוֹקֵחַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם שְׁטָר בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וְטוֹרֵף מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. שֶׁכָּל הַמּוֹכֵר בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא מוֹכֵר וְקוֹל יֵשׁ לוֹ:

6

A loan that is supported by an oral commitment alone may be collected from heirs only in one of the following three instances:

a) the person who is liable admits his debt, and while mortally ill stated that he still owes so-and-so a debt;

b) the loan was given for a specific time, and the time for payment had not come; we operate under the presumption that a person will not pay a debt until it is due;

c) because of his failure to pay, the debtor was placed under a ban of ostracism until he would make restitution, and he died while under that ban.

In all these instances, the creditor may collect the debt from the heirs without having to take an oath. If, however, witnesses come and testify that the deceased owed a colleague a maneh, or that he borrowed money in their presence, the creditor may not collect anything from the heirs, because it is possible that the deceased repaid the loan. For a person who borrowed money from a colleague in the presence of witnesses does not have to repay him in the presence of witnesses. Similarly, if a person shows heirs a note from their father stating that he owes the claimant money, he may not collect anything because of it, as we have explained.

ו

אֵין הַהַלְוָאָה שֶׁעַל פֶּה נִגְבֵּית מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין אֶלָּא בְּאֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ. כְּשֶׁחַיָּב מוֹדֶה בָּהּ וְצִוָּה בְּחָלְיוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִפְלוֹנִי עָלָיו חוֹב עֲדַיִן. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הַהַלְוָאָה לִזְמַן וְלֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן לְפָרְעָהּ וַחֲזָקָה הִיא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם פּוֹרֵעַ בְּתוֹךְ זְמַנּוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁנִּדּוּהוּ עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן וּמֵת בְּנִדּוּיוֹ. כָּל אֵלּוּ גּוֹבִין מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין בְּלֹא שְׁבוּעָה. אֲבָל אִם בָּאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁהָיָה חַיָּב לָזֶה מָנֶה אוֹ בְּפָנֵינוּ הִלְוָהוּ אֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה מִן הַיּוֹרֵשׁ כְּלוּם שֶׁמָּא פְּרָעוֹ שֶׁהַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּעֵדִים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְפָרְעוֹ בְּעֵדִים. וְכֵן אִם מוֹצִיא כְּתַב יַד אֲבִיהֶן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ אֵינוֹ גּוֹבֶה בּוֹ כְּלוּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

7

The following rules apply when a borrower does not own movable property, but does own landed property. If the court is aware that he has deposited his money in the hands of other people, we compel him to sell the landed property and pay his creditor.

If this is not known to them, they issue a ban of ostracism against anyone who knows that the debtor possesses movable property and does not bring it to court. Afterwards, they take possession of property he owns that is of intermediate worth and expropriate it for the creditor, as will be explained.

When does the above apply? When payment is collected from the debtor himself. When, however, a person comes to collect payment from heirs -whether they are above or below majority - he does not have the right to collect from the movable property belonging to the estate even if it was entrusted or loaned to another person. For movable property inherited by heirs is not under lien according to Scriptural Law. '

ז

לוֶֹה שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין וְיֵשׁ לוֹ קַרְקַע אִם נוֹדַע לְבֵית דִּין שֶׁתּוֹלֶה מְעוֹתָיו בְּיַד אֲחֵרִים כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְכֹּר וְלִתֵּן לְבַעַל חוֹבוֹ. וְאִם לֹא נוֹדַע לָהֶם דָּבָר זֶה מַחְרִימִין עַל מִי שֶׁיֵּדַע לוֹ מִטַּלְטְלִין וְלֹא יְבִיאֵם. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יוֹרְדִין לְבֵינוֹנִית שֶׁבִּנְכָסָיו וּמַגְבִּין לְבַעַל חוֹבוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁנִּפְרָעִין מִן הַלּוֶֹה עַצְמוֹ. אֲבָל הַבָּא לִפָּרַע מִן הַיּוֹרֵשׁ בֵּין קָטָן בֵּין גָּדוֹל לֹא יִפָּרַע מִן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ מֻפְקָדִין אוֹ מִלְוֶה אֵצֶל אֲחֵרִים. שֶׁהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין אֵינָן תַּחַת שִׁעְבּוּד בַּעַל חוֹב מִן הַתּוֹרָה:

8

It is a mitzvah for the heirs to pay a debt left by their father from the movable property that he left. If an heir does not desire to make restitution, however, he is not compelled to do so. If the creditor seized property belonging to the debtor in the debtor's lifetime, he may collect his due from it.

If a creditor claims that he seized property during the debtor's lifetime, and the debtor's heir claims that the creditor seized the property after the debtor's death, the heir has the responsibility of proving his claim. Alternatively, the lender must take an oath that he was owed so-and-so much - he can claim up to the value of the property in his possession - and include in his oath that he seized the property in the debtor's lifetime.

If the property that he seized included promissory notes, and the lender claims that he is holding them as security for a debt and that he seized them during the debtor's lifetime, the lender must prove that he seized them during the debtor's lifetime. If he cannot bring proof, he should return them to the heirs. The difference is that with regard to promissory notes, he is not claiming the acquisition of the obligation itself, but rather proof that such an obligation exists.

ח

מִצְוָה עַל הַיְתוֹמִין לִפְרֹעַ חוֹב אֲבִיהֶן מִן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁהִנִּיחַ. וְאִם לֹא רָצָה הַיּוֹרֵשׁ לִתֵּן אֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ. וְאִם תָּפַס בַּעַל חוֹב מֵחַיִּים גּוֹבֶה מֵהֶן. טָעַן שֶׁמֵּחַיִּים תְּפָסָן וְהַיּוֹרֵשׁ טָעַן שֶׁאַחַר מִיתָה תָּפַס עַל הַיּוֹרֵשׁ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה אוֹ יִשָּׁבַע הַמַּלְוֶה שֶׁכָּךְ וְכָךְ הוּא חַיָּב לוֹ וְיָכוֹל לִטְעֹן עַד כְּדֵי דְּמֵיהֶן וְכוֹלֵל בִּשְׁבוּעָתוֹ שֶׁמֵּחַיִּים תָּפַס. הָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁתָּפַס שְׁטָרוֹת וְטָעַן שֶׁהֵן מַשְׁכּוֹן בְּיָדוֹ עַל חוֹבוֹ וְשֶׁמֵּחַיִּים תָּפַס. עַל הַמַּלְוֶה לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁמֵּחַיִּים תָּפַס. וְאִם לֹא הֵבִיא רְאָיָה יַחְזִיר לַיּוֹרְשִׁים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ טוֹעֵן לִקְנוֹת גּוּפָם אֶלָּא לָרְאָיָה שֶׁבָּהֶן:

9

When heirs expropriated landed property because of a debt that others owed their father, a creditor of their father's can expropriate it from them. The rationale is that this land was in effect their father's.

ט

יְתוֹמִים שֶׁגָּבוּ קַרְקַע בְּחוֹב שֶׁהָיָה לַאֲבִיהֶן אֵצֶל אֲחֵרִים יֵשׁ לְבַעַל חוֹב שֶׁל אֲבִיהֶם לַחְזֹר וְלִגְבּוֹת אוֹתָהּ מֵהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי קַרְקַע זוֹ שֶׁל אֲבִיהֶם הִיא:

10

The above principles can be extended and applied in the following situation. Reuven sold a field to Shimon, accepting financial responsibility for the sale. Shimon did not pay immediately, but instead had Reuven consider the price of the field as a loan. Reuven died afterwards. Reuven's creditor then came to expropriate the field from Shimon. Instead of giving the creditor the field, Shimon appeased him with money, and he departed.

According to the law, Reuven's heirs may come and demand that Shimon pay the debt that he owed Reuven, for that loan is not on lien to Reuven's creditor.

Therefore, if Shimon is clever, he should give Reuven's heirs the land he purchased from them as payment for the debt that he accepted upon himself. He can then expropriate the property from them, because of the money that he gave to Reuven's creditor so that he would not expropriate it from him. This option is available because Reuven took financial responsibility for the field Shimon purchased.

י

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁמָּכַר שָׂדֶה לְשִׁמְעוֹן בְּאַחֲרָיוּת וְזָקַף שִׁמְעוֹן דְּמֵי הַשָּׂדֶה עָלָיו מִלְוֶה לִרְאוּבֵן וּמֵת רְאוּבֵן וּבָא בַּעַל חוֹב שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן לִטְרֹף מִשִּׁמְעוֹן הַשָּׂדֶה וּפִיְּסוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן בְּמָעוֹת וְהָלַךְ לוֹ. הַדִּין נוֹתֵן שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ יוֹרְשֵׁי רְאוּבֵן וְיִתְבְּעוּ שִׁמְעוֹן בַּמִּלְוֶה שֶׁזָּקַף עָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ מְשֻׁעְבֶּדֶת לְבַעַל חוֹב שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה שִׁמְעוֹן פִּקֵּחַ נוֹתֵן לָהֶן הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁלָּקַח מֵרְאוּבֵן בַּמִּלְוֶה שֶׁזָּקַף עַל עַצְמוֹ וְחוֹזֵר וְטוֹרֵף אוֹתָהּ מֵהֶן מִפְּנֵי הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁנָּתַן לְבַעַל חוֹב שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטְרֹף אוֹתָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּאַחֲרָיוּת לְקָחָהּ מֵרְאוּבֵן:

11

All of the Geonim have ordained, however, that a creditor may expropriate movable property from the heirs in payment for a debt. This judgment is enforced universally in all courts of law.

In the West, however, they would have a provision written in the promissory notes giving the creditor the right to collect the debt from either landed property or movable property in the creditor's lifetime or after his death. Thus, this provision gives the creditor more power to collect the debt than the ordinance of the Geonim.

This is a great safeguard, because it is possible that the borrower will not have known about ordinance, and thus the property of the heirs will be expropriated unjustly, because an ordinance of the later Sages does not have the legal power to be binding upon heirs.

יא

כְּבָר תִּקְּנוּ גְּאוֹנִים הָאַחֲרוֹנִים כֻּלָּם שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּעַל חוֹב גּוֹבֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין. וְכֵן דָּנִין יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל בֵּית דִּין שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם. אֲבָל בַּמַּעֲרָב הָיוּ כּוֹתְבִין בְּשִׁטְרֵי חוֹבוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִגְבּוֹת מִן הַקַּרְקַע וּמִן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין בֵּין בְּחַיָּיו בֵּין אַחַר מוֹתוֹ וְנִמְצָא גּוֹבֶה עַל תְּנַאי זֶה יוֹתֵר מִן הַתַּקָּנָה. וּסְיָג גָּדוֹל עָשׂוּ בַּדָּבָר שֶׁמָּא לֹא יֵדַע הַלּוֶֹה בְּתַקָּנָה זוֹ וְנִמְצָא מָמוֹן יְתוֹמִים יוֹצֵא שֶׁלֹּא כַּדִּין. שֶׁאֵין כֹּחַ בְּתַקָּנַת אַחֲרוֹנִים לְחַיֵּב בָּהּ יְתוֹמִים:

Malveh veLoveh - Chapter 12

1

We do not expropriate payment from heirs unless they are past majority. When the heirs are below majority, by contrast, we do not collect a debt supported by a promissory note from them.

א

אֵין נִפְרָעִין מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ גְּדוֹלִים. אֲבָל יוֹרְשִׁין קְטַנִּים אֵין נִפְרָעִין מֵהֶן שְׁטַר חוֹב:

2

Even if the promissory note contains all the stipulations in the world, the creditor may not use it to collect the debt until the heirs attain majority, lest they have proof that would disavow the promissory note.

ב

וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בּוֹ כָּל תְּנַאי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם לֹא יִפָּרַע בּוֹ הַמַּלְוֶה כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּילוּ הַיְתוֹמִים שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ לָהֶן רְאָיָה שֶׁשּׁוֹבְרִין בָּהּ אֶת הַשְּׁטָר:

3

If the loan was a debt at interest owed to a gentile, we appoint a guardian, attach the property that the minor inherited, sell it, and pay the debt. The rationale is that the interest consumes the estate.

Similarly, if a woman demands payment of the money due her by virtue of her ketubah - whether she is the deceased's widow or divorcee - we appoint a guardian for the heirs and attach the deceased's property, so that the woman will gain favor in the eyes of others; i.e., so that she will have a minimum of property so that she will remarry. Hence, if the woman hurried and remarried and then came to demand payment of the money due her by virtue of her ketubah from the estate acquired by the heirs, we do not pay heed to her until the heirs come of age." The rationale is that she is no longer entitled to receive her sustenance from the estate of the deceased, and she has remarried.

ג

הָיְתָה הַמִּלְוֶה רִבִּית שֶׁל עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהֲרֵי הָרִבִּית אוֹכֶלֶת בְּנִכְסֵיהֶן מַעֲמִידִין לָהֶם אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וְנִזְקָקִין לְנִכְסֵיהֶן וּמוֹכְרִין וּפוֹרְעִין הַחוֹב. וְכֵן אִשָּׁה שֶׁתָּבְעָה כְּתֻבָּתָהּ בֵּין אַלְמָנָה בֵּין גְּרוּשָׁה מַעֲמִידִים לָהֶם אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וְנִזְקָקִין מִשּׁוּם חֵן הָאִשָּׁה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לָהּ כְּלוּם שֶׁתִּנָּשֵׂא בּוֹ הָאִשָּׁה לְאַחֵר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם קָפְצָה הָאִשָּׁה וְנִשֵּׂאת וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּאת לִתְבֹּעַ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים אֵין נִזְקָקִין לָהּ עַד שֶׁיִּגְדְּלוּ הַיְתוֹמִים שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת וַהֲרֵי נִשֵּׂאת:

4

Several of the Geonim have ruled that if the estate left to the heirs does not have more than the money due the woman because of her ketubah, or it contains less than that amount, we do not pay heed to her. For the heirs will have no benefit from paying the money due the woman because of her ketubah.

According to this opinion, our Sages said: "We attach the estate left to heirs to pay a woman the money due her by virtue of her ketubah from it," only so that the estate would not become devalued because of the need to pay for the widow's sustenance." And in this instance, since the woman takes everything, of what value is it to the heirs who are below majority that the property is attached? These views were not concerned with increasing the favor of the woman in the eyes of others.

ד

הוֹרוּ מִקְצָת הַגְּאוֹנִים שֶׁאִם הָיוּ הַנְּכָסִים כְּנֶגֶד הַכְּתֻבָּה בִּלְבַד אוֹ פְּחוּתִים מִמֶּנָּה אֵין נִזְקָקִין לָהּ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן זְכוּת לַיְתוֹמִים שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ נִזְקָקִין לְנִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים לְהִפָּרַע מֵהֶן הַכְּתוּבָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְחֲתוּ הַנְּכָסִים מֵחֲמַת הַמְּזוֹנוֹת וְזֹאת הוֹאִיל וְהִיא נוֹטֶלֶת הַכּל מַה זְּכוּת יֵשׁ לַיְתוֹמִים הַקְּטַנִּים בְּדָבָר זֶה עַד שֶׁנִּזְקָקִין לָהֶן. וְלֹא חָשׁוּ לְחֵן הָאִשָּׁה:

5

If the testator gave a command, saying: "Give a maneh to so-and-so," we pay heed to the claim, after appointing a guardian for the heirs to advance arguments on behalf of the interests of the heirs. If the testator says: "Give this maneh to so-and-so" or "... this field to so-and-so," we make the endowment; there is no need to appoint a guardian for the heirs.

ה

צִוָּה הַמּוֹרִישָׁן וְאָמַר תְּנוּ מָנֶה לִפְלוֹנִי נִזְקָקִין אַחַר שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס לִטְעֹן טַעֲנָתָם. אָמַר תְּנוּ מָנֶה זֶה לִפְלוֹנִי אוֹ שָׂדֶה זוֹ לִפְלוֹנִי נוֹתְנִין וְאֵין צְרִיכִים לְהַעֲמִיד לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס:

6

If it is discovered that land in the estate does not rightfully belong to the heirs, but instead, the plaintiff claims that the property was stolen by the person whose property they inherited, we pay heed to the claim and appoint a guardian to argue and enter into litigation on their behalf. If it is discovered that the property was in fact stolen, we return it to its owners.

Similarly, if a minor had his servants mount an attack and enter property belonging to a colleague and take control of it, we do not say that we will wait until he attains majority before the matter is adjudicated. Instead, we expropriate the property from him immediately. When he attains majority, if he has witnesses who support his claim, he should bring his witnesses.

ו

נִמְצֵאת קַרְקַע שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁלָּהֶן אֶלָּא טָעַן הַטּוֹעֵן שֶׁהִיא גֵּזֶל בְּיַד מוֹרִישָׁיו נִזְקָקִין לָהֶן וּמַעֲמִידִים לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס לִטְעֹן וְלָדוּן. אִם נִמְצֵאת גְּזוּלָה מַחְזִירִים אוֹתָהּ לִבְעָלֶיהָ. וְכֵן קָטָן שֶׁתָּקַף בַּעֲבָדָיו וְיָרַד לְתוֹךְ שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ וּכְבָשָׁהּ אֵין אוֹמְרִין נַמְתִּין לוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּיל אֶלָּא מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִיָּדוֹ וְלִכְשֶׁיַּגְדִּיל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ עֵדִים יָבִיא עֵדָיו:

7

When land is presumed to be the property of minors, the land is not expropriated from them until they attain majority even in the following situation. Another person comes and claims that he had purchased that land from the person from whom they inherited it, and the purchaser has witnesses who will testify that he established his possession of this land and benefited from it for three years in the lifetime of the deceased. The rationale is that we accept the testimony of witnesses only when delivered in the presence of the litigant against whom they are testifying. And the minor is considered as if he is not present.

If, however, the plaintiff produced a deed of sale that states that the field is property that he purchased, he must validate the authenticity of the deed of sale. Afterwards, he may expropriate the property from the heirs after a guardian is appointed for them.

ז

קַרְקַע שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּחֶזְקַת קְטַנִּים וּבָא אַחֵר וְטָעַן שֶׁהִיא לְקוּחָה מִמּוֹרִישָׁן וְיֵשׁ לוֹ עֵדִים שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בָּהּ וַאֲכָלָהּ שְׁנֵי חֲזָקָה בְּחַיֵּי אֲבִיהֶן אֵין מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִיָּדָן עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּילוּ שֶׁאֵין מְקַבְּלִין עֵדִים שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי בַּעַל דִּין וְהַקָּטָן כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד כָּאן הוּא חָשׁוּב. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא שְׁטָר שֶׁהִיא לְקוּחָה בְּיָדוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַיֵּם אֶת הַשְּׁטָר וּמוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִיָּדָן אַחַר שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים לָהֶם אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס:

8

When the court attaches property belonging to heirs for the purpose of selling it, they evaluate the property and then announce the sale for 30 consecutive days or on Mondays and Thursdays over the span of 60 consecutive days. Announcements are made in the morning and the evening, when workers enter the city, and when workers are sent out to their tasks. Whoever desires to purchase the property can bring his workers there to investigate it.

When an announcement is made, the borders of the field are clarified. They make known its yield, the evaluation given by the court and the reason it is being sold - to repay a creditor or to pay a woman the money due her by virtue of her ketubah. For there are some people who desire to repay a creditor and others who desire to pay a woman the money due her by virtue of her ketubah.

ח

כְּשֶׁנִּזְקָקִין בֵּית דִּין לְנִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים לִמְכֹּר שָׁמִין אֶת הַקַּרְקַע וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַכְרִיזִין עָלֶיהָ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם רְצוּפִין אוֹ שִׁשִּׁים יוֹם שֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי. וּמַכְרִיזִים בַּבֹּקֶר וּבָעֶרֶב בִּשְׁעַת הַכְנָסַת פּוֹעֲלִים וּבִשְׁעַת הוֹצָאַת פּוֹעֲלִין וְכָל מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹת יוֹלִיךְ הַפּוֹעֲלִין לְבַקֵּר לוֹ. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּכְרִיזִין מְסַיְּמִים אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה בִּמְצָרֶיהָ וּמוֹדִיעִין כַּמָּה יָפָה וּבְכַמָּה הוּא שׁוּמָה וּמִפְּנֵי מָה רוֹצִים לְמָכְרָהּ אִם לְהַגְבּוֹת לְבַעַל חוֹב אוֹ לִכְתֻבַּת אִשָּׁה לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִתֵּן לְבַעַל חוֹב וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַגְבּוֹת לְאִשָּׁה:

9

When an adrachta is written with regard to property belonging to heirs -whether they are above majority or below majority - the court must write: "And we identified the property as belonging to so-and-so, the deceased." If they did not write this, the adrachta is invalid, and a purchaser may not benefit from the proceeds of the property even though the announcements of the property's sale were completed.

ט

וּכְשֶׁכּוֹתְבִין הָאַדְרַכְתָּא עַל נִכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים בֵּין גְּדוֹלִים בֵּין קְטַנִּים כּוֹתְבִין בָּהּ וְהִכַּרְנוּ שֶׁהַנְּכָסִים הָאֵלּוּ הֵן שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי הַמֵּת. וְאִם לֹא כָּתְבוּ כָּךְ הֲרֵי אַדְרַכְתָּא זוֹ פְּסוּלָה וְאֵין אוֹכְלִין בָּהּ פֵּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁלְמוּ הַהַכְרָזוֹת:

10

When a court sells property without announcing its sale beforehand, it is considered as if they erred in a matter explicitly stated in the Mishnah. The sale is nullified, and the property is sold again after announcements are made.

When a court sells property, the financial responsibility for it is incumbent on the heirs.

י

בֵּית דִּין שֶׁמָּכְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּהַכְרָזָה נַעֲשׂוּ כְּמִי שֶׁטָּעוּ בִּדְבַר מִשְׁנָה וְחוֹזְרִים וּמוֹכְרִין בְּהַכְרָזָה. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁמָּכְרוּ הָאַחֲרָיוּת עַל הַיְתוֹמִים:

11

When a court made announcements in the proper manner, investigated the matter thoroughly and carefully evaluated the property, their sale is binding even though they erred and sold property worth a maneh for 200, or property worth 200 for a maneh.

The following rules apply when, by contrast, the court was not careful in evaluating the property or did not compose a notice of evaluation, which details its assessment and the announcement of the sale of the property, and it erred in its appraisal. If they evaluated it at a sixth more than its value or at a sixth less than its value, the sale is nullified. If the error was less than a sixth, the sale is binding.

Similar concepts apply if a court sold landed property at a time when it was not necessary to announce its sale beforehand. If it erred and devalued the property by a sixth or overvalued it by a sixth, their sale is nullified. This applies even if it announced the sale beforehand. If their error was less than a sixth, its sale is binding even though it did not announce the sale. For an announcement was not necessary in these situations.

In which situations is it not necessary to make announcements before the sale of property? When land is sold to bury the deceased, for the sustenance of his wife and his daughters, or to pay the head-tax to the king, it is not necessary to announce the sale, because the matter is pressing.

Similar concepts apply if a court sold types of property whose sale need not be announced beforehand. If it erred and devalued the property by a sixth or overvalued it by a sixth, the sale is nullified. If the error was less than a sixth, the sale is binding.

These are the types of property whose sale need not be announced beforehand: servants, promissory notes and movable property; servants, because they may flee; promissory notes and movable property, because they may be stolen. Instead, these articles should be evaluated by the court and sold immediately. If the market place is close to the city, they should be taken to the market place and sold there.

יא

וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁהִכְרִיזוּ כָּרָאוּי וּבָדְקוּ יָפֶה יָפֶה וְדִקְדְּקוּ בַּשּׁוּמָא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּעוּ וּמָכְרוּ שְׁוֵה מָנֶה בְּמָאתַיִם אוֹ מָאתַיִם בְּמָנֶה הֲרֵי מִכְרָן קַיָּם. אֲבָל אִם לֹא בָּדְקוּ בַּשּׁוּמָא וְלֹא כָּתְבוּ אִגֶּרֶת בִּקֹּרֶת שֶׁהִיא דִּקְדּוּק הַשּׁוּמָא וְהַהַכְרָזָה וְטָעוּ וְהוֹתִירוּ שְׁתוּת אוֹ פָּחֲתוּ שְׁתוּת מִכְרָן בָּטֵל. פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתוּת מִכְרָן קַיָּם. וְכֵן אִם מָכְרוּ קַרְקַע בְּעֵת שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְהַכְרִיז עָלֶיהָ וְטָעוּ שְׁתוּת אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ שְׁתוּת מִכְרָן בָּטֵל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִכְרִיזוּ. פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתוּת מִכְרָן קַיָּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִכְרִיזוּ שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין הַכְרָזָה בְּאוֹתוֹ הָעֵת. אֵיזֶהוּ הָעֵת שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין הַכְרָזָה בְּעֵת שֶׁיִּמְכְּרוּ קַרְקַע לִקְבוּרָה אוֹ לִמְזוֹן הָאִשָּׁה וְהַבָּנוֹת אוֹ לִתֵּן מְנַת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין צְרִיכִין הַכְרָזָה לְפִי שֶׁהַדָּבָר נָחוּץ. וְכֵן בֵּית דִּין שֶׁמָּכְרוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן טְעוּנִין הַכְרָזָה וְטָעוּ בִּשְׁתוּת מִכְרָן בָּטֵל. פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתוּת מִכְרָן קַיָּם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין מַכְרִיזִין עֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲבָדִים וְהַשְּׁטָרוֹת וְהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. הָעֲבָדִים שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִבְרְחוּ. וְהַשְּׁטָרוֹת וְהַמִּטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁמָּא יִגָּנְבוּ. לְפִיכָךְ שָׁמִין אוֹתָן בְּבֵית דִּין וּמוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן מִיָּד. וְאִם הַשּׁוּק קָרוֹב לַמְּדִינָה מוֹלִיכִין אוֹתָן לַשּׁוּק:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
Download Rambam Study Schedules: 3 Chapters | 1 Chapter | Daily Mitzvah