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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Shechenim - Chapter Seven, Shechenim - Chapter Eight, Shechenim - Chapter Nine

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Shechenim - Chapter Seven

1

When a person has a window in his wall and a colleague comes and builds a courtyard next to it, the owner of the courtyard cannot tell the owner of the window: "Close this window, so that you will not look at me," for the owner of the window has established his right to maintain the window even though it is a source of damage.

If his colleague desires to build a wall opposite the window to block the invasion of his privacy, he must leave a space of four cubits next to the window, to avoid casting a shadow upon it.

א

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ חַלּוֹן בְּכָתְלוֹ וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וְעָשָׂה חָצֵר בְּצִדּוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְבַעַל הַחַלּוֹן סְתֹם חַלּוֹן זֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַּבִּיט בִּי שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶחֱזִיק בְּהֶזֵּק זֶה. וְאִם בָּא חֲבֵרוֹ לִבְנוֹת כָּתְלוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּסוּר הֶזֵּק רְאִיָּתוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק אֶת כָּתְלוֹ מִכְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַאֲפִיל עָלָיו:

2

If the window was positioned low in the wall, the owner of the window may force the owner of the courtyard to build the wall four cubits away from the window and build it at least four cubits high, so that the owner of the courtyard cannot look through the window and watch the owner of the window.

ב

הָיְתָה הַחַלּוֹן לְמַטָּה בַּכֹּתֶל כּוֹפֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ לִבְנוֹת כְּנֶגְדָּהּ בְּרִחוּק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּלְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַבִּנְיָן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַבִּיט בּוֹ מִן הַחַלּוֹן:

3

The following rules apply when the window was positioned high on the wall and the owner of the courtyard built a wall below the window. If there were more than four cubits from the top of the wall to the window, the owner of the window may not prevent the owner of the courtyard from building the wall even though he does not leave any space between his wall and the wall in which the window is located. For the new wall is not casting a shadow over his window, nor does it invade the privacy of the owner of the window.

If, however, there is less than four cubits between the top of the wall and the window, the owner of the window may force the owner of the wall either to lower the wall so that the owner of the courtyard will not be able to stand on the wall and look through the window; or he may force the owner of the courtyard to build his wall four cubits from the window, and build it more than four cubits higher than the wall. In this way, it will not cast a shadow, nor will the owner of the courtyard be able to look in and see him.

ג

הָיְתָה הַחַלּוֹן לְמַעְלָה בַּכֹּתֶל וּבָנָה חֲבֵרוֹ כֹּתֶל כְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹן מִלְּמַטָּה אִם הָיָה מֵרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁבָּנָה עַד הַחַלּוֹן גֹּבַהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אוֹ יוֹתֵר אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְמָנְעוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִרְחִיק מִכֹּתֶל הַחַלּוֹן כְּלוּם שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הֶאֱפִיל עָלָיו וְאֵינוֹ מַזִּיקוֹ בִּרְאִיָּה. אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁאַר גֹּבַהּ מֵרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל עַד הַחַלּוֹן פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כּוֹפֵהוּ לְמַעֵט הַכֹּתֶל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲמֹד עַל רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל וְיַשְׁקִיף מִן הַחַלּוֹן. אוֹ יַגְבִּיהַּ הַכֹּתֶל עַל הַחַלּוֹן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְיִהְיֶה הַכֹּתֶל רָחוֹק מִן הַחַלּוֹן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַאֲפִיל וְלֹא יָצִיץ וְיִרְאֶה:

4

When the owner of the courtyard builds one wall next to the window, he must build the wall at least a handbreadth away from the window, and must build the wall at least four cubits higher than the window or make the wall narrow on top, so that he will not sit on it, and look into the window and watch his neighbor.

ד

בָּנָה כֹּתֶל אֶחָד בְּצַד הַחַלּוֹן צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מִן הַחַלּוֹן טֶפַח וּמַגְבִּיהַּ הַכֹּתֶל אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַל הַחַלּוֹן אוֹ כּוֹנֵס רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו וְיָצִיץ וְיִרְאֶה:

5

When a person builds two walls, one on either side of the window, there must be at least four cubits between them, and the window must be situated in the center of those four cubits. The owner of the courtyard may not place s'chach over the space between the walls, unless he leaves a space of four cubits between the s'chach and the wall where the window is located, so that it will not cast a shadow over it.

Accordingly, if a person comes to open a window - whether a large window or a small window - overlooking a courtyard belonging to a colleague, that colleague may prevent him from doing so, for he can tell the owner of the window: "You will be invading my privacy by looking at me. " Even if the window is located high on the inner wall, the owner of the courtyard may protest, saying: "You will climb up on a ladder and look at me."

ה

בָּנָה שְׁנֵי כְּתָלִין מִשְּׁנֵי צִדֵּי הַחַלּוֹן. צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בֵּינֵיהֶן רֹחַב אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְהַחַלּוֹן בְּאֶמְצַע הָאַרְבַּע. וְלֹא יְסַכֵּךְ עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִרְחִיק הַסִּכּוּךְ מִן הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הַחַלּוֹן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַאֲפִיל עָלָיו. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁבָּא לִפְתֹּחַ חַלּוֹן לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין חַלּוֹן גְּדוֹלָה בֵּין חַלּוֹן קְטַנָּה בֵּין לְמַעְלָה בֵּין לְמַטָּה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמֵר לוֹ תַּזִּיק לִי בִּרְאִיָּה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא גְּבוֹהָה תַּעֲלֶה בַּסֻּלָּם וְתִרְאֶה:

6

If a person has opened a window overlooking a courtyard belonging to a colleague, and the owner of the courtyard waived his right to protest or displayed his willingness to consent - e.g., he helped him in the window's construction or he knew about this source of damage and did not protest - the owner of the window has established his right to the window. The owner of the courtyard cannot come at a later date and protest that he must close it.

What are the laws that apply with regard to this window that he was allowed to open? If it is large enough for a person to insert his head, or it is less than four cubits high, even if it is not large enough for a person to insert his head into it, the owner of the courtyard may not build a wall opposite or at its side unless he moves four cubits away, as explained in the previous halachah.

ו

הֲרֵי שֶׁפָּתַח חַלּוֹן לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ וּמָחַל לוֹ בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר אוֹ שֶׁגִּלָּה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּא וְסִיֵּעַ עִמּוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁיָּדַע הַנֵּזֶק וְלֹא עִרְעֵר. הֲרֵי זֶה הֶחֱזִיק בַּחַלּוֹן וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל אַחַר כָּךְ לַחְזֹר וּלְעַרְעֵר עָלָיו לִסְתֹּם. וְכֵיצַד דִּינָהּ שֶׁל חַלּוֹן זֶה שֶׁהִנִּיחָהּ לְפָתְחָהּ. אִם רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס מִמֶּנָּה אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה לְמַטָּה מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין רֹאשׁוֹ נִכְנָס מִמֶּנָּה אֵין בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִבְנוֹת כְּנֶגְדָּהּ אוֹ מִצִּדֶּיהָ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

7

If, however, the window was too small for the head of a person to be inserted, and it is more than four cubits high, the owner of the courtyard may build a wall opposite it or at its sides. For he can claim: "I allowed you to open the window only because it is small and high, but it was not my intent to give you a right that would require me to move away my building."

When does the above apply? When the window was opened to be used or to allow air to enter. If, however, the window was opened so that light could enter, even if it was very small and very high, since the owner of the courtyard did not protest at the time of its construction, the owner of the window is granted a right to it. The owner of the courtyard may not build a structure opposite it or at its side unless he moves four cubits away, so that he does not cast a shadow against it, for he granted him the right to the light.

Similarly, if a person had a window for which he established a right, and the owner of the courtyard built opposite it or at its side without moving away, or he closed the window, and the owner of the window did not protest, the owner of the window cannot come at a later time protesting and demanding that the window be opened or that the structure be moved. Since he remained silent, he waived his right to protest. For a person will not remain silent while another person blocks his light unless he relinquishes his right.

ז

הָיְתָה חַלּוֹן קְטַנָּה שֶׁאֵין רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִכְנָס מִמֶּנָּה וְהָיְתָה לְמַעְלָה מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִבְנוֹת כְּנֶגְדָּהּ וּבִצְדֶדֶיהָ שֶׁהֲרֵי טוֹעֵן וְאוֹמֵר לֹא הִנַּחְתִּיךָ לִפְתֹּחַ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה וּגְבוֹהָה. אֲבָל שֶׁתַּחְזִיק עָלַי עַד שֶׁאַרְחִיק הַבִּנְיָן לֹא הִנַּחְתִּי. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁפְּתָחָהּ לְתַשְׁמִישׁ אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בָּהּ הָרוּחַ. אֲבָל אִם פְּתָחָהּ לְאוֹרָה אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה בְּיוֹתֵר וּגְבוֹהָה בְּיוֹתֵר הוֹאִיל וְלֹא עִרְעֵר הֶחֱזִיק וְאֵין בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִבְנוֹת כְּנֶגְדָּהּ אוֹ מִצְּדָדֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַאֲפִיל עָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי מָחַל לוֹ עַל הָאוֹרָה. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ חַלּוֹן מֻחְזֶקֶת וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ וּבָנָה כְּנֶגְדָּהּ אוֹ מִצְּדָדֶיהָ בְּלֹא הַרְחָקָה אוֹ סְתָמָהּ וְשָׁתַק בַּעַל הַחַלּוֹן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר וּלְעַרְעֵר לִפְתֹּחַ הַחַלּוֹן אוֹ לְהַרְחִיק הַבִּנְיָן. שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁתַק מָחַל שֶׁאֵין אָדָם עָשׂוּי שֶׁסּוֹתְמִין אוֹרוֹ בְּפָנָיו וְשׁוֹתֵק אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מָחַל:

8

When a person has windows on the lower portion of his wall, and a person who owns an adjoining property desires to erect a building that would block them he is not permitted to do so. Even if he proposes: "I will open up new windows for you in this wall above these others, " the owner of the windows may prevent him from doing so, explaining "When you open the windows, you will shake the foundations of the wall and ruin it."

Even if the person who desires to build offers: "I will tear down your wall and rebuild it for you with windows higher up. And I will rent a home for you to live in until I build it, " the owner of the home can still prevent him. For he may say: "I do not want the trouble moving from one place to another."

Therefore, if there is no difficulty involved at all, and it is not necessary for him to leave his home, he cannot prevent him from performing this construction. We compel him to allow his friend to close the window below and build a new window for him higher up. Not to allow this would be following the traits of Sodom. Similarly, whenever there is a situation where one person will benefit and his colleague will not lose nor be lacking anything, we compel that person to cooperate.

ח

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ חַלּוֹנוֹת לְמַטָּה בְּכָתְלוֹ וּבָא חֲבֵרוֹ לִבְנוֹת בִּפְנֵיהֶן וְאָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי אֶפְתַּח לְךָ חַלּוֹנוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת בְּכֹתֶל זֶה עַצְמוֹ לְמַעְלָה מֵאֵלּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁתִּפְתַּח הַחַלּוֹנוֹת תַּרְעִיד אֶת הַכֹּתֶל וּתְקַלְקֵל אוֹתוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ אָמַר אֲנִי אֶסְתֹּר כָּל הַכֹּתֶל וְאֶבְנֶה אוֹתוֹ לְךָ חָדָשׁ וְאֶעֱשֶׂה בּוֹ חַלּוֹנוֹת לְמַעְלָה וְאֶשְׂכֹּר לְךָ בַּיִת שֶׁתָּדוּר בּוֹ עַד שֶׁאֶבְנֶה יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ אֵין רְצוֹנִי שֶׁאֶטְרַח מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם. לְפִיכָךְ אִם לֹא הָיָה שָׁם טֹרַח כְּלָל וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִפְנוֹת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְכוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חֲבֵרוֹ סוֹתֵם חַלּוֹן זֶה שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ חַלּוֹן מִלְּמַעְלָה שֶׁזּוֹ מִדַּת סְדוֹם. וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁזֶּה נֶהֱנֶה בּוֹ וְאֵין חֲבֵרוֹ מַפְסִיד וְאֵין חָסֵר כְּלוּם כּוֹפִין עָלָיו:

9

When, by contrast, the owner of a window desires to change the location of his window, whether to raise it or lower it, the owner of the adjoining courtyard can prevent him from doing so. This applies even if the window was large, and its owner says: "I will open only a small window in another place, and close this one. " Needless to say, he cannot make the window larger.

ט

אֲבָל בַּעַל הַחַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁרָצָה לְשַׁנּוֹת מְקוֹם חַלּוֹנוֹ בֵּין לְמַעְלָה בֵּין לְמַטָּה אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה גְּדוֹלָה וְאָמַר אֶפְתַּח אַחֶרֶת קְטַנָּה וְאֶסְתֹּם זוֹ בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְכֵן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַרְחִיב בַּחַלּוֹן כָּל שֶׁהוּא:

10

The following rule applies when two brothers divide a courtyard that they received as an inheritance on their own accord, evaluating the building and the trees in each other's portion, but failing to pay attention to the value of the open space. Thus, one received the garden of the courtyard, and one received an excedra. If the brother who received the garden in the courtyard desires to build a wall at the end of his portion, in front of his brother's excedra, he may do so, even though he casts a shadow over it. For when dividing the estate, they did not pay attention to the value of the open space.

י

שְׁנֵי אַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ חָצֵר מִדַּעְתָּן וְשָׁמוּ הַבִּנְיָן וְהָעֵצִים זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחוּ עַל שׁוּמַת הָאֲוִיר. וְהִגִּיעַ לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּחֶלְקוֹ תַּרְבַּץ הֶחָצֵר וְלַשֵּׁנִי הָאַכְסַדְרָה. אִם רָצָה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת כֹּתֶל בְּסוֹף חֶלְקוֹ בּוֹנֶה בִּפְנֵי הָאַכְסַדְרָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּאֲפִיל עָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא שָׁמוּ הָאֲוִיר:

Shechenim - Chapter Eight

1

When a person desires to build a projection from his property - regardless of its size - extending over the space above a courtyard belonging to his colleague, his colleague may prevent him from doing so, for he will invade his privacy by looking at him when he hangs articles on the projection or uses it in any way.

If he built the projection and the owner of courtyard did not protest immediately, the builder of the projection establishes his right to it.

א

הַמְבַקֵשׁ לְהוֹצִיא זִיז מִכָּתְלוֹ עַל אֲוִיר חֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי מַזִּיקוֹ בִּרְאִיָּה בְּעֵת שֶׁתּוֹלֶה בּוֹ וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ. הוֹצִיא אֶת הַזִּיז וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ לְאַלְתַּר בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר הֲרֵי הֶחֱזִיק בַּעַל הַזִּיז:

2

If the projection was a handbreadth wide, the owner of the projection has established his right to the empty space of the courtyard. If the owner of the courtyard desires to build under the projection and as a result nullify its usefulness, the owner of the projection may prevent him from doing so.

If the projection is not a square handbreadth, the owner of the projection does not establish his right to the empty space of the courtyard. Whenever the owner of the courtyard desires, he may build under the projection and as a result nullify its usefulness. The owner of the projection may not prevent him from doing so.

ב

הָיָה הַזִּיז טֶפַח הֶחֱזִיק בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. וְאִם רָצָה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת תַּחַת הַזִּיז וּלְבַטֵּל תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בַּעַל הַזִּיז מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְאִם אֵין בַּזִּיז טֶפַח לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר וְכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת תַּחְתָּיו וּלְבַטֵּל תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ שֶׁל זִיז אֵין בַּעַל הַזִּיז יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו:

3

When the projection that was constructed was one handbreadth wide and extended out four handbreadths into the space of his colleague's courtyard, and the owner of the courtyard did not protest against this, the owner of the projection establishes the right to a space four handbreadths by four handbreadths. If the owner of the projection desires, he may widen the projection until it is four handbreadths by four handbreadths.

The owner of the courtyard may not build anything in the space of his courtyard below the projection unless he leaves a space of ten handbreadths below the projection so that the owner of the projection may make use of it.

ג

הָיָה הַזִּיז שֶׁהוֹצִיא רָחְבּוֹ טֶפַח וּמָשׁוּךְ בַּאֲוִיר חֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ הֶחֱזִיק בּוֹ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה וְאִם רָצָה לְהַרְחִיב אֶת הַזִּיז עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה הֲרֵי זֶה מַרְחִיב וְאֵין בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִבְנוֹת בַּאֲוִיר חֲצֵרוֹ תַּחַת הַזִּיז כְּלוּם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִנִּיחַ לוֹ תַּחְתָּיו גֹּבַהּ אֲוִיר עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּזִּיז:

4

When a person sets up a small ladder that has fewer than four rungsin a courtyard or a field belonging to a colleague next to his own wall, he has not established a right to use his colleague's property in this manner. Whenever the owner of the courtyard desires, he may build next to the ladder and nullify its usefulness.

If by contrast the ladder is large - possessing four rungs or more - the owner of the ladder establishes his right to maintain it. If the owner of the courtyard desires to build a structure that would nullify its usefulness, the owner of the ladder may prevent him from doing so unless he moves a sufficient distance away. For he granted him the right of constructing a large ladder.

For this reason, if an owner of a roof comes to set up a large ladder in an adjacent courtyard, the owner of the courtyard may protest and prevent him from doing so, so that he does not establish this right. If, however, he sets up a small ladder, the owner of the courtyard may not prevent him from doing so. For we tell him: "You are losing nothing from this. Whenever you desire, you may move it away."

ד

הַמַּעֲמִיד סֻלָּם קָטָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה חַוָּקִין בְּצַד כָּתְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ חָצֵר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בְּנֵזֶק זֶה וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר בּוֹנֶה בְּצַד סֻלָּם וּמְבַטֵּל תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה סֻלָּם גָּדוֹל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה חַוָּקִין אוֹ יָתֵר הֶחֱזִיק וְאִם בָּא לִבְנוֹת וּלְבַטְּלוֹ בַּעַל הַסֻּלָּם מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁהֲרֵי מָחַל לוֹ לְהַעֲמִיד סֻלָּם גָּדוֹל. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא בַּעַל הַגַּג לְהַעֲמִיד סֻלָּם גָּדוֹל בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזִיק עָלָיו. אֲבָל אִם הֶעֱמִיד סֻלָּם קָטָן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְמָנְעוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹמְרִין לוֹ אֵין עָלֶיךָ הֶפְסֵד בָּזֶה כָּל זְמַן שֶׁתִּרְצֶה תִּטְּלֶנּוּ:

5

The following rules apply when a person desires to extend a drainpipe from his roof over a courtyard belonging to a colleague so that water will flow unto his colleague's property, or he made a gutter on his wall, so that the water will drain off and descend into his colleague's courtyard. The owner of the courtyard can prevent him from doing so. If the owner of the courtyard does not protest, the neighbor establishes his right to the drainpipe.

If, afterwards, the owner of the pipe desires to close it, the owner of the courtyard can prevent him from doing so. For just as the owner of the roof established his right to have his water flow into the courtyard belonging to his colleague, the owner of the courtyard established his right to have the water from his colleague's roof flow into his garden.

If the owner of the roof desired to move the drainpipe from one corner of the roof to the other or the drainpipe was long and he desired to shorten it, the owner of the courtyard may not prevent him from doing so. For the right that he established was merely that the water flow into his property.

Similarly, if the owner of the courtyard desires to build under the drainpipe, the owner of the projection may not prevent him from doing so. For a drain pipe is not made for use like a projection, so that it could be said that the owner of the roof has established his right to the open space of the courtyard. For a drainpipe is made only for the purpose of letting water flow through it.

ה

הָרוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיא צִנּוֹר עַל חֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַלֵּחַ שָׁם הַמַּיִם. אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה מַזְחֵילָה עַל כָּתְלוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּיִם נִזְחָלִין וְיוֹרְדִין לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ. בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְאִם לֹא מִחָה בּוֹ הֶחֱזִיק זֶה בַּצִּנּוֹר. רָצָה אַחַר כָּךְ לִסְתֹּם הַצִּנּוֹר בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בַּעַל הַגַּג לִשְׁפֹּךְ מֵימָיו לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ כָּךְ הֶחֱזִיק בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֵימֵי גַּגּוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ בָּאִין אֶצְלוֹ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ. רָצָה בַּעַל הַגַּג לַעֲקֹר הַצִּנּוֹר מִצַּד זֶה וּלְהַחְזִירוֹ בְּצַד אַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אָרֹךְ וְרָצָה לְקַצְּרוֹ אֵין בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱזִיק אֶלָּא בְּמֵימֵי הַגַּג וַהֲרֵי הֵם בָּאִים אֶצְלוֹ מִכָּל מָקוֹם. וְכֵן אִם רָצָה בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר לִבְנוֹת תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר אֵין בַּעַל הַגַּג יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו שֶׁאֵין הַצִּנּוֹר עָשׂוּי לְתַשְׁמִישׁ כְּזִיז כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּחְזִיק בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵר. שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי אֶלָּא לְקִלּוּחַ הַמַּיִם:

6

The following rules apply when a person caused the water from his roof to descend unto the courtyard of his colleague and established his right to this privilege. If the water was dripping in several places and he desired to have it collect to one place and make a drainpipe, he may. Similarly, if the water would descend in one place, and the owner of the roof wanted it to flow in several different places, he may.

He may even build a slanted canopy on his roof, so that the water will flow speedily into the courtyard of his colleague, for he has established the right to have water descend into the courtyard of his colleague.

ו

מִי שֶׁהוֹרִיד מֵי גַּגּוֹ עַל חֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ וְהֶחֱזִיק בְּדָבָר זֶה. אִם הַמַּיִם מְנַטְּפִין וְרָצָה לְקַבְּצָם לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְלַעֲשׂוֹתָם צִנּוֹר עוֹשֶׂה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ בָּאִין דֶּרֶךְ צִנּוֹר מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וְחִלְּקָן עַל רֹחַב הַכֹּתֶל וְהֶחֱזִירָן נוֹטְפִין עוֹשֶׂה. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִבְנוֹת עַל גַּגּוֹ כְּמִין צְרִיף עַד שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ הַמַּיִם בִּמְהֵרָה לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ בּוֹנֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֻחְזְקוּ מֵימָיו שֶׁל זֶה לֵירֵד לַחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ:

7

When there is a wall between the properties of Reuven and Shimon, and they share its ownership, both may use it. One may hollow out space from one side and insert his beams, regardless of their size, and the other may hollow out space from the other side and insert his beams.

If the wall belonged to Reuven alone, Shimon may not make use of it. If, however, Shimon hollowed out space in the wall and inserted one beam, and Reuven remained silent and did not protest, he established his right to the place of that beam. Even if his original beam was small and Shimon desired to change it to a big and thick beam, he may.

If the beam was part of a temporary sukkah, he does not establish the right to maintain it for 30 days. For Reuven will say: "I did not waive my right to protest. I allowed it merely because it was temporary." If the owner of the beam maintains the sukkah for 30 days, he establishes his right to it, for that is no longer considered temporary.

Different rules apply if he constructed a sukkah for the holiday. Within all the seven days of the holiday, he does not establish his right to maintain it. After the seven days are completed, he does establish his right.

If he joins the end of the beam to the wall with mortar, he establishes his right immediately, provided he brings proof that Reuven helped him in the construction or saw and did not protest.

ז

כֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין רְאוּבֵן וְשִׁמְעוֹן אִם הָיוּ שֻׁתָּפִין בּוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ זֶה חוֹפֵר מִצַּד זֶה וּמַכְנִיס קוֹרוֹתָיו כָּל שֶׁהֵן. וְזֶה חוֹפֵר מִצַּד זֶה וּמַכְנִיס קוֹרוֹתָיו. הָיָה הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן לְבַדּוֹ אֵין שִׁמְעוֹן יָכוֹל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ. חָפַר שִׁמְעוֹן בְּכֹתֶל זֶה וְהִכְנִיס בָּהּ קוֹרָה אַחַת וְשָׁתַק רְאוּבֵן וְלֹא מִחָה בּוֹ הֶחֱזִיק בִּמְקוֹם הַקּוֹרָה. אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה וְרָצָה שִׁמְעוֹן לְהַחְלִיפָהּ בְּקוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה וְעָבָה מַחְלִיף. הָיְתָה הַקּוֹרָה סֻכַּת עַרְאַי כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ סְתָם שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאוּבֵן אוֹמֵר לֹא מָחַלְתִּי וְהִנַּחְתִּיךָ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עַרְאַי. לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֶחֱזִיק שֶׁאֵין זֶה עַרְאַי. וְאִם סֻכַּת יְמֵי הֶחָג הִיא כָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הֶחָג לֹא הֶחֱזִיק לְאַחַר שִׁבְעָה הֶחֱזִיק. וְאִם חִבֵּר רֹאשׁ הַקּוֹרָה בַּכֹּתֶל בְּטִיט מִיָּד הֶחֱזִיק וְהוּא שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁרְאוּבֵן סִיֵּעַ עִמּוֹ אוֹ רָאָה וְלֹא מִחָה:

8

If a person established a right to insert one beam into a wall, he does not have a right to insert a second beam. For the owner of wall waived his right to protest with regard to only one beam.

When does the above apply? When the person inserting the beam admitted that the wall did not belong to him, and the owner waived his right to protest with regard to the insertion of this beam. If, however, he claimed, "I am a partner in this wall," since he made use of it for one beam, his word is accepted and he is allowed to insert all his beams. He takes a sh'vuat hesset that he is a partner in the entire wall.

ח

מִי שֶׁהֶחְזִיק בְּכֹתֶל זֶה בְּקוֹרָה אַחַת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַחֲזִיק בְּקוֹרָה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא מָחַל לוֹ אֶלָּא עַל הָאַחַת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהוֹדָה שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּתֶל זֶה שֶׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲבֵרוֹ מָחַל לוֹ עַל הַכְנָסַת קוֹרָה זוֹ. אֲבָל אִם טָעַן שֶׁכֹּתֶל זֶה שֻׁתָּף אֲנִי בּוֹ הוֹאִיל וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּקוֹרָה אַחַת נֶאֱמָן וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכֻלָּן אַחַר שֶׁיִּשָּׁבַע שְׁבוּעַת הֶסֵּת שֶׁהוּא שֻׁתָּף בְּכָל הַכֹּתֶל:

9

When one of the colleagues builds the wall without the participation of the other, only he has the right to it. If beams belonging to Reuven were placed within the wall, and there was also space hollowed out on Shimon's side for him to place his beams, Shimon has not established his right to it. Shimon may not insert his beams into the wall, nor may he claim that he is a partner in it, for he has no right to use it.

Reuven can refute Shimon's claims, stating: "Before building the wall I hollowed out these places on your side, so that they will be prepared for you so that when you will purchase a share from me, or when you will request me to waive my right to protest and allow you to insert your beams, you will be able to do so without hollowing out the wall, so that the wall will not be shaken when it is hollowed out.

ט

הָיוּ קוֹרוֹתָיו שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַכֹּתֶל וּבְצַד שִׁמְעוֹן מְקוֹמוֹת חֲפוּרִין לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶן רָאשֵׁי הַקּוֹרוֹת לֹא הֶחֱזִיק בָּהֶן שִׁמְעוֹן לְהַכְנִיס בָּהּ קוֹרוֹת וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן שֶׁהוּא שֻׁתָּף בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ בּוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ וְיָכוֹל רְאוּבֵן לִטְעֹן שֶׁאֲנִי חָפַרְתִּי מְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּצִדְּךָ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מוּכָנִים עַד שֶׁתִּקְנֶה מִמֶּנִּי אוֹ שֶׁתְּבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶמְחל לְךָ וְתַכְנִיס הַקּוֹרוֹת בְּלֹא חֲפִירָה בַּכֹּתֶל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְמַטְמֵט כָּתְלִי בְּעֵת חֲפִירָה:

Shechenim - Chapter Nine

1

A person may not dig a cistern, a trench or a storage vat next to a wall belonging to a colleague unless he distances himself at least three handbreadths from the wall. Nor may he extend an irrigation ditch or make a pool for soaking clothes to be laundered near a wall, unless he makes such a separation. He must seal the wall of this cistern, water reservoir or irrigation ditch with cement on the side near his colleague, so that the water does not seep through and damage his colleague's wall.

א

לֹא יַחְפֹּר אָדָם בּוֹר וְלֹא שִׁיחַ וְלֹא מְעָרָה וְלֹא יָבִיא אַמַּת הַמַּיִם וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּרֵכַת הַמַּיִם לִשְׁרוֹת בָּהּ בְּגָדִים לְכַבֵּס בְּצַד כָּתְלוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִרְחִיק מִכֹּתֶל חֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וִיסַיֵּד בְּסִיד לְכֹתֶל בּוֹר זֶה אוֹ מִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם זֶה אוֹ כֹּתֶל הָאַמָּה מִצַּד חֲבֵרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַבְלִיעוּ הַמַּיִם וְיַזִּיקוּ כֹּתֶל חֲבֵרוֹ:

2

A separation of three handbreadths must be placed between olive debris, tar, salt, lime, or flint stones and a wall belonging to one's colleague, or these substances must be coated with cement.

Similarly, a separation of three handbreadths must be made between a wall and plants, plowing, and a cesspool where urine is collected.

ב

מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַגֶּפֶת וְאֶת הַזֶּפֶת וְאֶת הַמֶּלַח וְאֶת הַסִּיד וְאֶת הַסְּלָעִים מִכָּתְלוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים אוֹ סָד בְּסִיד. וּמַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַזְּרָעִים וְאֶת הַחֲרִישָׁה וְאֶת הַגּוּמָא שֶׁמִּתְקַבֵּץ בָּהּ מֵימֵי רַגְלַיִם מִן הַכֹּתֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים:

3

A mill must be placed at a distance from a colleague's wall. The lower millstone must be separated from the wall by at least three handbreadths, causing the upper millstone to be separated by four handbreadths, so that the millstone will not cause tremors to the wall, and so that its noise will not frighten the neighbor.

ג

מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הָרֵחָיִם [מִן הַכֹּתֶל] שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים מִן הָרֵחָיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה שֶׁהֵן אַרְבָּעָה מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָנִיד אוֹתוֹ אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְבַהֲלֶנּוּ בְּקוֹל הָרֵחָיִם:

4

An oven should be separated from a wall; a separation of three handbreadths should be made between the wall and its base, resulting in a distance of four handbreadths between the wall and its upper portion, so that the wall will not become heated.

ד

מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַתַּנּוּר מִן הַכֹּתֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים מִקַּרְקָעִיתוֹ שֶׁהֵן אַרְבָּעָה מִשְּׂפָתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵחַם הַכֹּתֶל:

5

A separation of four cubits must be made between a wall belonging to a colleague and a stone used by a launderer to beat garments until they become white. For otherwise, when the launderer beats the garments with the stone, the water will spray outward and damage the wall.

ה

אֶבֶן שֶׁהַכּוֹבֵס מַכֶּה בְּגָדִים עָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁיִּתְלַבְּנוּ צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק אוֹתָהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת מִכֹּתֶל שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁבְּעֵת שֶׁהַכּוֹבֵס מַכֶּה עָלֶיהָ הַמַּיִם נִתָּזִין וּמַזִּיקִין לַכֹּתֶל:

6

A person should not urinate next to a wall belonging to a colleague unless he distances himself three handbreadths from it.

When does the above apply? With regard to a brick wall. With regard to a stone wall, by contrast, it is necessary to distance oneself by only one handbreadth. If the stones are marble, one may urinate on the side of the wall without making any separation.

ו

לֹא יַשְׁתִּין אָדָם מַיִם בְּצַד כָּתְלוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִרְחִיק מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּכֹתֶל לְבֵנִים. אֲבָל בְּכֹתֶל אֲבָנִים יַרְחִיק טֶפַח. וְאִם הָיוּ הָאֲבָנִים צְחִיחַ סֶלַע מַשְׁתִּין בְּצִדּוֹ בְּלֹא הַרְחָקָה:

7

A ladder should be separated from a dovecote by at least four cubits, so that, when the ladder is placed down, a marten will not leap up and ascend to the dovecote and eat the doves.

ז

מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַסֻּלָּם מֵהַשּׁוֹבָךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְפֹּץ הַנְּמִיָּה בְּעֵת שֶׁמֵּנִיחַ הַסֻּלָּם וְתַעֲלֶה לַשּׁוֹבָךְ וְתֹאכַל הַגּוֹזָלוֹת:

8

One should leave a space of four cubits between a wall and a drainpipe belonging to a colleague, so that the owner of the drainpipe can set up a ladder to fix his drainpipe. Since he has established his right to the drainpipe he is given this additional privilege.

ח

וּמַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַכֹּתֶל מִן הַמַּזְחֵילָה שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מָקוֹם לְבַעַל הַמַּזְחֵילָה לִזְקֹף סֻלָּם וּלְתַקֵּן מַזְחֵילָה שֶׁלּוֹ הוֹאִיל וְהֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ:

9

When a wall belonging to Reuven was joined to a wall belonging to Shimon in a L shape, and Reuven desires to build a second wall opposite Shimon's wall so that the three walls will appear as a Bet, Shimon can prevent him from doing so, and require him to leave a space of four cubits between the walls so that there will be a wide space between the walls where people can tread and strengthen the earth.

When does the above apply? With regard to a wall of a garden, or with regard to the wall of a courtyard in a new city. In an older city, by contrast, this is unnecessary, and one may build opposite the wall without making any separation. Similarly, if the length of Shimon's wall opposite which Reuven was building was less than four cubits, Reuven may build opposite it without making any separation, even though he prevents people from walking there. The rationale is that a wall that is less than four cubits long does not have to have the earth near it strengthened.

ט

רְאוּבֵן שֶׁהָיָה כָּתְלוֹ סָמוּךְ לְכֹתֶל שִׁמְעוֹן כְּמִין גַּם וּבָא רְאוּבֵן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֹּתֶל שֵׁנִי כְּנֶגֶד כֹּתֶל שִׁמְעוֹן עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה כְּתָלִין כְּמִין בֵּי''ת הֲרֵי שִׁמְעוֹן מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק מִכְּנֶגְדּוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַמָּקוֹם בֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּתָלִים רָחָב כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּדוּשׁוּ בּוֹ רַבִּים וְתִתְחַזֵּק הָאָרֶץ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּכֹתֶל גִּנָּה אוֹ בְּכֹתֶל חָצֵר בְּעִיר חֲדָשָׁה. אֲבָל בְּעִיר יְשָׁנָה כְּבָר נִתְחַזְּקָה וּבוֹנֶה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בְּלֹא הַרְחָקָה. וְכֵן אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּאֹרֶךְ כֹּתֶל שִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁבּוֹנֶה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אֵינוֹ מַרְחִיק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹנֵעַ הָרֶגֶל מִלְּהַלֵּךְ שָׁם. שֶׁהַכֹּתֶל שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ חִזּוּק הָאָרֶץ:

10

The following rules apply when a person comes to dig a cistern at the end of his field, near the property boundary of a colleague. If the field belonging to the person's colleague is not appropriate to contain cisterns, the person may dig his cistern next to the boundary. The colleague may not protest against him. If the colleague changes his mind and decides to dig a cistern next to the cistern that was dug, he must separate himself three handbreadths from the wall of the cistern, so that there will be six handbreadths between the cavities of the two cisterns.

If the field belonging to the person's colleague is appropriate to contain cisterns, the person may not dig his cistern next to the boundary. Instead, he must distance himself three handbreadths from the boundary before digging. Similarly, when his colleague comes to dig a cistern, he must also make a separation, digging the cistern three handbreadths within his field.

י

מִי שֶׁבָּא לַחְפֹּר בּוֹר בְּסוֹף שָׂדֵהוּ לִסְמֹךְ לְמֵצַר חֲבֵרוֹ אִם שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְבוֹרוֹת סוֹמֵךְ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ. וְאִם יִמָּלֵךְ חֲבֵרוֹ לַחְפֹּר בּוֹר בְּצִדּוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַרְחִיק מִן כֹּתֶל הַבּוֹר שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בֵּין חֲלַל שְׁתֵּי הַבּוֹרוֹת שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. וְאִם הָיְתָה שְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ עֲשׂוּיָה לְבוֹרוֹת אֵינוֹ סוֹמֵךְ עַד שֶׁיַּרְחִיק מִן הַמֵּצַר שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וְיַחְפֹּר. וּכְשֶׁיָּבוֹא חֲבֵרוֹ לַחְפֹּר יַרְחִיק גַּם הוּא שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְיַחְפֹּר:

11

The following rules apply when the first storey of a house and its second storey belong to two separate individuals. The owner of the house should not build an oven in the first storey of his house unless he leaves a space of four cubits above it. The owner of the second storey may not build an oven until there is a ceiling three handbreadths thick below it. For a range, one handbreadth is sufficient. If he desires to build a baker's oven, there must be a ceiling four handbreadths thick below it. For a range belonging to a baker, three handbreadths is required.

Even if the person took the necessary precautions and separated the required distance, if a fire emanated from the oven and caused damage, he must pay for the damages, as explained in the source dealing with this subject.

יא

הַבַּיִת וְהָעֲלִיָּה שֶׁל שְׁנַיִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בַּעַל הַבַּיִת תַּנּוּר בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ עַל גַּבָּיו גֹּבַהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. וְכֵן לֹא יַעֲמִיד בַּעַל הָעֲלִיָּה תַּנּוּר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ תַּחְתָּיו מַעֲזִיבָה שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וּבְכִירָה טֶפַח. וְאִם תַּנּוּר שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִים הוּא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא תַּחְתָּיו אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וּבְכִירָה שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִרְחִיק הַשִּׁעוּר אִם יָצָאת הָאֵשׁ וְהִזִּיקָה מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁהִזִּיק כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:

12

The following rules apply when a person owns a store below a storage warehouse belonging to a colleague. In the store, he should not make a bakery, a paint factory or a barn for cattle, nor should he bring in hay or other substances that generate warm air, for this will damage the produce stored in the warehouse.

For this reason, if the warehouse was used to store wine in Eretz Yisrael that is not ruined by heat, the store owner may perform any task involving fire that he desires. He should not, however, make it a barn for cattle, for this will spoil the aroma of the wine.

If the store had already been established as a barn, a bakery or the like, and afterwards the owner of the second storey desired to make his loft a warehouse for produce, he may not protest against the store owner's continued use of the premises for their original purpose.

יב

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ חֲנוּת תַּחַת אוֹצַר חֲבֵרוֹ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בָּהּ לֹא נַחְתּוֹם וְלֹא צַבָּע וְלֹא רֶפֶת בָּקָר וְלֹא יַכְנִיס שָׁם אַסְפַּסְתָּא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁעוֹלֶה מֵהֶם הֶבֶל חַם הַרְבֵּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַחֹם מַפְסִיד פֵּרוֹת הָאוֹצָר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה אוֹצַר יַיִן בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאֵין הַחֹם מַפְסִידוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה בַּחֲנוּתוֹ כָּל מְלֶאכֶת אֵשׁ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. אֲבָל לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה רֶפֶת בָּקָר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּפְסִיד רֵיחַ הַיַּיִן. וְאִם הֻחְזְקָה הַחֲנוּת בַּתְּחִלָּה לְרֶפֶת אוֹ לְנַחְתּוֹם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָצָה בַּעַל הָעֲלִיָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲלִיָּתוֹ אוֹצַר אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ:

13

If the owner of the second storey swept out his premises and sprinkled water on the floor, or made many windows so that he could use his premises as a warehouse, and the owner of the lower storey rushed and began building an oven before his colleague brought in produce to the warehouse, the owner of the second story began to store sesame seeds, pomegranates, dates and the like, and the owner of the lower storey rushed and began building an oven before his colleague brought in wheat to the warehouse, or the owner of the store built a loft on top of his store to separate between the store and the warehouse, the owner of the warehouse may prevent him from taking these actions. If, however, the owner of the store transgressed and built an oven or the like, the owner of the warehouse does not have the power to force him to remove the oven in all these situations.

יג

כִּבֵּד בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְרִבֵּץ עֲלִיָּתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁרִבָּה בָּהּ חַלּוֹנוֹת כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ אוֹצָר וְקָדַם זֶה וְעָשָׂה תַּנּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּכְנִיס פֵּרוֹת לָאוֹצָר. אוֹ שֶׁהִתְחִיל לֶאֱצֹר שֻׁמְשְׁמִין אוֹ רִמּוֹנִים אוֹ תְּמָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְקָדַם זֶה וְעָשָׂה הַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁאָצַר הַחִטִּין. אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה בַּעַל הַחֲנוּת מְחִילָה עַל גַּבָּהּ לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַחֲנוּת וּבֵין הָאוֹצָר. בְּכָל אֵלּוּ בַּעַל הָאוֹצָר מְעַכֵּב עָלָיו. וְאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה תַּנּוּר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֵין בַּעַל הָאוֹצָר יָכוֹל לְהָסִיר הַתַּנּוּר בְּכָל אֵלּוּ:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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