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ב"ה

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 11, Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 12, Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 13

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Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 11

1

The purification of a person afflicted with tzara'at is a positive commandment and his shaving is also a positive commandment.

How is a person who had been afflicted by tzara'at purified? He should bring a new earthenware container - the Received Tradition teaches that it must be new. A fourth of a log of "living water" that is fit to be sanctified as water for the sprinkling of the ashes of the red heifer is placed in it. This measure is a Rabbinic institution.

Two sparrows that are kosher must be brought for the sake of purifying a tzara'at affliction, as Leviticus 14:4 states: "For the one who is to be purified will be taken...." He should slaughter the healthier of the two over the water in the earthenware vessel and squeeze out the blood until it is apparent over the water. He then digs a hole and buries the slaughtered bird in the presence of the afflicted person. This is one of the points received through the Oral Tradition.

He takes a cedar branch - the mitzvah is that it be a cubit long and a fourth the thickness of a bedpost. And he takes a hyssop whose name is not described by an additional term, as we explained, that is not less than a handbreadth long, and a crimson strand weighing a shekel. If one used the dye for another purpose, it is disqualified, as is the rule regarding dyeing wool with blue dye to use for tzitzit. All of these measures are laws transmitted to Moses at Sinai.

A priest takes the three items mentioned above together with the living fowl. All these four items are fundamental requirements. When the cedar branch and the hyssop have been peeled, they are invalid. The hyssop should be bound together with the cedar branch with the crimson thread. The tips of the wings and the tips of the tail of the living bird should be held close to them and the four should be dipped in the water in the container and the blood floating on top of it. He then sprinkles with them seven times on the back of the hand of the afflicted person and sends away the fowl.

How does he send the fowl away? He stands in the town and casts it outside the wall. He does not turn its head to the sea, to the town, or to the desert, as ibid.:53 states: "Outside the city, towards the field." If he sends away and it returns, he should send it away again, even 100 times.

Afterwards, the priest shaves the afflicted person. How does he shave him? He passes a razor over all his skin that is visible including his underarms and pubic region until his entire flesh is smooth like a squash, as ibid.:9 states: "He shall shave all of his hair." If so, why does the verse mention his beard and his eye-brows? To include everything like them and to exclude the hair in the nose, because it is not visible.

Afterwards, he "launders" his garments, immerses himself, and becomes pure with regard to conveying impurity when he enters a building or to the article on which he lies or sits. He may enter within the town's wall. He counts seven days. During them, he is forbidden to engage in physical intimacy, as alluded to by ibid.:8: "outside his tent." This teaches that he is forbidden physical intimacy. A woman afflicted by tzara'at, by contrast, is permitted physical intimacy.

א

טָהֳרַת מְצֹרָע מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. וְתִגְלַחְתּוֹ כְּשֶׁיִּטְהַר מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. כֵּיצַד מְטַהֲרִין אֶת הַמְצֹרָע. מֵבִיא מִזְרָק שֶׁל חֶרֶשׂ חָדָשׁ וְקַבָּלָה הִיא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה [חָדָשׁ] וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ רְבִיעִית מַיִם חַיִּים הָרְאוּיִין לְקַדֵּשׁ אוֹתָן מֵי חַטָּאת. וְשִׁעוּר זֶה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וּמֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי צִפֳּרִים דְּרוֹר טְהוֹרוֹת לְשֵׁם טָהֳרַת צָרַעַת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד ד) "וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר". וְשׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַבְּרוּרָה שֶׁבִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן עַל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי חֶרֶס וּמְמַצֶּה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַדָּם נִכָּר בַּמַּיִם. וְחוֹפֵר וְקוֹבֵר הַצִּפּוֹר הַשְּׁחוּטָה בְּפָנָיו. וְדָבָר זֶה קַבָּלָה מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה. וְנוֹטֵל עֵץ אֶרֶז וּמִצְוָתוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אָרְכּוֹ אַמָּה וְעָבְיוֹ כִּרְבִיעַ כֶּרַע מִכִּרְעֵי הַמִּטָּה. וְאֵזוֹב שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שֵׁם לְוַוי כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֵין פָּחוּת מִטֶּפַח. וּשְׁנִי תּוֹלַעַת מִשְׁקָלוֹ שֶׁקֶל. וְאִם טִעֲמוֹ פְּסָלוֹ כִּצְבִיעַת הַתְּכֵלֶת. וְכָל הַשִּׁעוּרִים הֲלָכָה. וְלוֹקֵחַ עִם שְׁלָשְׁתָּן הַצִּפּוֹר הַחַיָּה. וְאַרְבָּעָה מִינִין אֵלּוּ מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב שֶׁנִּתְקַלְּפוּ פְּסוּלִין. וְכוֹרֵךְ הָאֵזוֹב עִם הָאֶרֶז בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית וּמַקִּיף לָהֶן רָאשֵׁי אֲגַפַּיִים וְרֹאשׁ הַזָּנָב שֶׁל צִפּוֹר הַחַיָּה. וְטוֹבֵל אַרְבַּעְתָּן בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי וּבַדָּם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן. וּמַזֶּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים עַל אַחַר יָדוֹ שֶׁל מְצֹרָע וּמְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת הַצִּפּוֹר. וכֵּיצַד מְשַׁלְּחָהּ. עוֹמֵד בָּעִיר וְזוֹרְקָהּ חוּץ לַחוֹמָה. וְאֵינוֹ הוֹפֵךְ פָּנָיו לֹא לַיָּם וְלֹא לָעִיר וְלֹא לַמִּדְבָּר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד נג) "מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה". שְׁלָחָהּ וְחָזְרָה חוֹזֵר וּמְשַׁלְּחָהּ אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְּעָמִים. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְגַלֵּחַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַמְצֹרָע. כֵּיצַד מְגַלְּחוֹ. מַעֲבִיר תַּעַר עַל כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ הַנִּרְאֶה אֲפִלּוּ בֵּית הַשֶּׁחִי וּבֵית הָעֶרְוָה שֵׂעָר שֶׁעַל כָּל הַגּוּף עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה כִּדְלַעַת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד ח) "אֶת כָּל שְׂעָרוֹ". אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא יד ט) "רֹאשׁוֹ" (ויקרא יד ט) "וּזְקָנוֹ" (ויקרא יד ט) "וְגַבּוֹת עֵינָיו" לְרַבּוֹת כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וּלְמַעֵט שֵׂעָר שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַחֹטֶם לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטוֹבֵל וְיִטְהַר מִלְּטַמֵּא בְּבִיאָה וּמִלְּטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב. וְיִכָּנֵס לְפָנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה וּמוֹנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאָסוּר בָּהֶן בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד ח) "מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאָסוּר בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה. וְהַמְצֹרַעַת מֻתֶּרֶת בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה:

2

For the duration of these seven days, he is still considered as a primary source of impurity and imparts impurity to people and to utensils when touching them, but not when being carried by them. This is indicated by Leviticus 14:9 which states: "And it shall be on the seventh day,... he shall launder his garments...." This teaches that before then, he imparted impurity to his garments. Just as he would impart impurity to his garments by touching them, so too, he would impart impurity to a person when touching him, for any source of impurity that imparts impurity to garments, imparts impurity to humans.

On the seventh day, the priests shaves him a second time like the first. He "launders" and immerses himself, thus becoming pure with regarding to imparting impurity to others. He is like all those who immersed and will become pure in the evening. He may partake of the second tithe. After nightfall, he may partake of terumah. Once he brings his atonement offerings, he may partake of sacrificial foods, as we explained.

ב

כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים הָאֵלּוּ עֲדַיִן הוּא אַב הַטֻּמְאָה מְטַמֵּא אָדָם וְכֵלִים בְּמַגָּע לֹא בְּמַשָּׂא שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יד ט) "וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי" (ויקרא יד ט) "וְכִבֶּס אֶת בְּגָדָיו" וְגוֹ' מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהָיָה מְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים בְּמַגָּע כָּךְ מְטַמֵּא אָדָם בְּמַגָּע שֶׁכָּל הַמְטַמֵּא בְּגָדִים מְטַמֵּא אָדָם. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְגַלְּחוֹ הַכֹּהֵן תִּגְלַחַת שְׁנִיָּה כָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּמְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטוֹבֵל וְיִטְהַר מִלְּטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים. וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּכָל טְבוּלֵי יוֹם וְאוֹכֵל בְּמַעֲשֵׂר. הֶעֱרִיב שִׁמְשׁוֹ אוֹכֵל בִּתְרוּמָה. הֵבִיא כַּפָּרָתוֹ אוֹכֵל בְּקָדָשִׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

When he shaves these two times, he must shave only with a razor. If he shaves with something other than a razor or left two hairs, his actions are of no consequence. The shavings should be performed only by a priest. If he left two hairs in the first shaving and shaved them off in the second shaving, he is considered to have performed only one shaving.

The entire day is acceptable for the shaving of a person afflicted by tzara'at.

ג

כְּשֶׁהוּא מְגַלֵּחַ בִּשְׁתֵּי הַתִּגְלָחוֹת אֵינוֹ מְגַלֵּחַ אֶלָּא בְּתַעַר. וְאִם גִּלֵּחַ שֶׁלֹּא בְּתַעַר אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחַ שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. וְאֵינוֹ מְגַלְּחוֹ אֶלָּא כֹּהֵן. וְאִם שִׁיֵּר שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת בְּתִגְלַחַת רִאשׁוֹנָה וְגִלְּחָן בַּשְּׁנִיָּה לֹא עָלְתָה לוֹ אֶלָּא תִּגְלַחַת אַחַת בִּלְבַד וַהֲרֵי הִיא רִאשׁוֹנָה. וְכָל הַיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר לְטָהֳרַת הַמְצֹרָע:

4

The shaving of a person afflicted by tzara'at, his immersion, and sprinkling the blood of the slaughtered bird upon him are not dependent on each other. Each of the other actions involved in his purification are dependent on each other.

ד

תִּגְלַחַת הַמְצֹרָע וּטְבִילָתוֹ וְהַזָּאָתוֹ אֵינָן מְעַכְּבוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ. וּשְׁאָר כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו מְעַכְּבִים:

5

The slaughter of the fowl, the shaving, and the sprinkling of the blood must be performed during the day. The remainder of the actions may be performed either during the day or at night. The above three must be performed by males. The remainder may be performed by men or by women. The above three must be performed by priests. The remainder may be performed by priests or Israelites.

ה

שְׁחִיטַת הַצִּפּוֹר וְהַתִּגְלַחַת וְהַהַזָּיָה בַּיּוֹם וּשְׁאָר כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו בֵּין בַּיּוֹם בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה. אֵלּוּ בַּאֲנָשִׁים וּשְׁאָר כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו בֵּין בַּאֲנָשִׁים בֵּין בְּנָשִׁים. אֵלּוּ בְּכֹהֲנִים וּשְׁאָר כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו בֵּין בְּכֹהֲנִים בֵּין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:

6

The purification of a person afflicted by tzara'at is carried out in Eretz Yisrael and in the Diaspora, while the Temple is standing and in the era when the Temple is not standing.

It is a mitzvah for the priest who deemed the person impure to perform his purification as indicated by Leviticus 13:59 which states: "to purify him or deem him impure."

Every one is acceptable to perform the purification of a person afflicted by tzara'at, even a zav or one who is impure due to contact with a corpse may perform this purification. One person afflicted with tzara'at may not perform the purification for another. Two people afflicted with tzara'at should not be purified at the same time, for mitzvot should not be performed in bundles.

ו

טָהֳרַת מְצֹרָע זוֹ נוֹהֶגֶת בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת. וְכֹהֵן שֶׁטִּמְּאוֹ מִצְוָה לְטַהֲרוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג נט) "לְטַהֲרוֹ אוֹ לְטַמְּאוֹ". וְהַכּל כְּשֵׁרִין לְטַהֵר אֶת הַמְצֹרָע אֲפִלּוּ זָב וַאֲפִלּוּ טְמֵא מֵת. וְאֵין מְצֹרָע מְטַהֵר מְצֹרָע. וְאֵין מְטַהֲרִין שְׁנֵי מְצֹרָעִין כְּאַחַת שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין מִצְוֹת חֲבִילוֹת:

7

The cedar branch, the hyssop, and the scarlet cord that were used to purify one person afflicted with tzara'at may be used to purify others. Similarly, it is permitted to use a fowl that was sent away to purify other people afflicted with tzara'at and it is permitted to be eaten. It is, however, forbidden to benefit from the fowl that was slaughtered. From when is it forbidden? From the time that it was slaughtered.

When it was slaughtered, but there was no hyssop, cedar branch, or scarlet cord, it is nevertheless, forbidden to benefit from the slaughtered fowl. The rationale is that slaughter which is not befitting is still considered as slaughter. A person who partakes of an olive-sized portion of the slaughtered fowl violates a positive commandment and a negative commandment. For Deuteronomy 14:12 states: "These are what you may not eat from them." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that the wording also includes the fowl that was slaughtered in this purification process. And it is written ibid.:11: "You shall eat all pure fowl." This is a positive commandment. From it, however, one can infer a prohibition: that other species may not be eaten. When a prohibition is derived from a positive commandment, it is considered as a positive commandment.

ז

עֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וּשְׁנִי תּוֹלַעַת שֶׁטָּהַר בָּהֶן מְצֹרָע זֶה מְטַהֵר בָּהֶן מְצֹרָעִים אֲחֵרִים. וְכֵן צִפּוֹר הַמִּשְׁתַּלַּחַת מֻתָּר לְטַהֵר בָּהּ מְצֹרָעִים אֲחֵרִים מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּלְּחָה וּמֻתֶּרֶת בַּאֲכִילָה. אֲבָל הַצִּפּוֹר הַשְּׁחוּטָה אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָאָה. וּמֵאֵימָתַי תֵּאָסֵר, מִשְּׁעַת שְׁחִיטָתָהּ. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֵין שָׁם אֵזוֹב וְלֹא עֵץ אֶרֶז וְלֹא שְׁנִי תּוֹלַעַת הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָאָה שֶׁשְּׁחִיטָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה שְׁמָהּ שְׁחִיטָה. וְהָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִצִּפּוֹר הַשְּׁחוּטָה עָבַר עַל עֲשֵׂה וְעַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד יב) "וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מֵהֶם" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה לְרַבּוֹת הַצִּפּוֹר הַשְּׁחוּטָה. וְנֶאֱמַר (דברים יד יא) "טְהֹרָה תֹּאכֵלוּ" הָא אַחֶרֶת לֹא תֹּאכְלוּ וְלָאו הַבָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה עֲשֵׂה:

8

The two fowl may not be taken from the fowl of a condemned city, nor from fowl exchanged for idols, nor from fowl that killed a person. The optimum way of performing the mitzvah is for the two fowl to be alike in appearance, size, and value, and to be purchased at the same time. Nevertheless, even if they are not alike, or one purchased one on one day and the other on the next, it is acceptable.

If one purchased two fowl for the sake of the purification of a man, it is acceptable to use them for the purification of a woman. Conversely, two purchased for the purification of a woman are acceptable to be used for the purification of a man. If they were taken to purify an afflicted house, they are acceptable to be used for purifying a person. If they were taken to purify a person, they are acceptable to be used for purifying an afflicted house. These concepts may be inferred from Leviticus 14:4 which states: "For the one who is to be purified will be taken...."

ח

אֵין לוֹקְחִין שְׁתֵּי הַצִּפֳּרִים מִצִּפֳּרֵי עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת וְלֹא מִצִּפֳּרִים שֶׁהֶחְלִיפָן בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְלֹא מִצִּפֳּרִים שֶׁהָרְגוּ אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ. וּמִצְוָתָן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת בְּמַרְאֶה בְּקוֹמָה וּבְדָמִים וּלְקִיחָתָן כְּאַחַת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן שָׁווֹת אוֹ שֶׁלָּקַח אַחַת הַיּוֹם וְאַחַת לְמָחָר כְּשֵׁרוֹת. לָקַח שְׁתֵּי הַצִּפֳּרִים לְשֵׁם אִישׁ כְּשֵׁרוֹת לְטַהֵר בָּהֶן אִשָּׁה. לְשֵׁם אִשָּׁה כְּשֵׁרוֹת לְטַהֵר בָּהֶן אִישׁ. לְטַהֵר בָּהֶן בַּיִת מְנֻגָּע כְּשֵׁרוֹת לְטַהֵר אָדָם. לְקָחָן לְאָדָם כְּשֵׁרוֹת לְבַיִת מְנֻגָּע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד ד) "וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר":

9

If one of them was slaughtered and discovered not to be a sparrow, another one should be taken for the second. It is permitted to partake of the one that was slaughtered. If one of them was slaughtered and discovered to be tereifah, another one should be taken for the second. It is permitted to benefit from the one that was slaughtered.

ט

שָׁחַט אַחַת מֵהֶן וְנִמְצֵאת שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה דְּרוֹר יִקַּח זוּג לַשְּׁנִיָּה וְהָרִאשׁוֹנָה מֻתֶּרֶת בַּאֲכִילָה. שָׁחַט הָאַחַת וְנִמְצֵאת טְרֵפָה יִקַּח זוּג לַשְּׁנִיָּה וְהָרִאשׁוֹנָה מֻתֶּרֶת בַּהֲנָאָה:

10

If the blood was spilled, the fowl that would have been sent away is left until it dies. If the fowl to be sent away dies before the sprinkling, the blood is poured out and two other fowl are taken.

י

נִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמִּשְׁתַּלַּחַת עַד שֶׁתָּמוּת. מֵתָה הַמִּשְׁתַּלַּחַת יִשָּׁפֵךְ הַדָּם וְיִקַּח שְׁתַּיִם אֲחֵרוֹת:

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 12

1

The minimum measure for a tzara'at affliction for garments is a gris like an affliction for humans. An affliction smaller than a gris is pure. There are three distinguishing marks for the afflictions of garments: intense green, intense red, and the spreading of the affliction. All three are explicitly mentioned in the Torah.

"Intense green" refers to a dark green hue, like the wings of a peacock or the leaves of a date palm. "Intense red" refers to a dark red hue, a deep red, like fine scarlet thread. These two signs can be combined with each other.

When an affliction is intense green or red, the garment is placed in isolation. If this sign remains for two consecutive weeks, the garment is deemed impure and burnt. Similarly, if the size of the affliction increases, the garment is deemed impure and burnt.

What is implied? When an intense green or an intense red affliction is visible on a garment, it should be isolated for seven days. On the seventh day, it should be inspected. If it expanded, it is deemed definitively impure and burnt. If its appearance remained unchanged, but it did not increase in size, or it increased, but its color faded from the two colors because of which it was isolated, or its color became more intensely red or green, but it did not increase in size, the place of the blemish should be washed, and the garment isolated for a second seven day period. At the end of the second week, i.e., the thirteenth day, it should be assessed. If it turned to a third color, the garment should be washed and it is pure. If the color of the blemish changed from its original hue, i.e., initially, it was intense green, and it became intense red, or initially, it was intense red and then it became intense green, the place of the blemish should be ripped out and a patch sewn in the place that was ripped out. The remainder of the garment is released from the inspection process. It should be laundered a second time, immersed in the mikveh and then it is pure.

If, at the time of the second inspection, the blemish retained the appearance for which it was initially isolated, it should be deemed definitively impure and should be burnt in its entirety.

א

צָרַעַת בְּגָדִים כִּגְרִיס, כְּצָרַעַת אָדָם. אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרִיס טָהוֹר. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה יֵשׁ בָּהֶן. יְרַקְרַק אֲדַמְדַּם וְהַפִּשְׂיוֹן. וּשְׁלָשְׁתָּן מְפֹרָשִׁין בַּתּוֹרָה. יְרַקְרַק הוּא הַיָּרֹק שֶׁבַּיְרֻקִּין שֶׁהוּא יָרֹק הַרְבֵּה כִּכְנַף הַטַּוָּס וּכְהוּצֵי הַדֶּקֶל. וַאֲדַמְדַּם הוּא אָדֹם שֶׁבָּאֲדֻמִּים שֶׁהוּא אָדֹם הַרְבֵּה כִּזְהוֹרִית יָפָה. וּשְׁנֵי מַרְאוֹת אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה בְּמַרְאֶה יְרַקְרַק אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּם מַסְגִּירִין אֶת הַבֶּגֶד. וְאִם עָמַד בְּמַרְאֶה זֶה שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת מַחְלִיטִין וְשׂוֹרְפִין וְכֵן אִם פָּשָׂה מַחְלִיטִין וְשׂוֹרְפִין. כֵּיצַד. בֶּגֶד שֶׁנִּרְאֶה בּוֹ נֶגַע יְרַקְרַק אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּם מַסְגִּירוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי רוֹאֶה אִם פָּשָׂה מַחְלִיטוֹ וְשׂוֹרֵף אֶת כָּל הַבֶּגֶד. וְאִם עָמַד בְּמַרְאֵהוּ וְלֹא פָּשָׂה אוֹ שֶׁפָּשָׂה וְכֵהָה מִשְּׁנֵי הַמַּרְאוֹת שֶׁהֻסְגַּר בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁהוֹסִיף הַמַּרְאֶה לְהַאֲדִים וּלְהוֹרִיק וְלֹא פָּשָׂה יְכַבֵּס מְקוֹם הַנֶּגַע וְיַסְגִּיר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית וּבְסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר רוֹאֶה. אִם כֵּהָה לְמַרְאֶה שְׁלִישִׁית הֲרֵי זֶה טָעוּן כִּבּוּס וְטָהוֹר. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּנָּה הַנֶּגַע מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה יְרַקְרַק וְנַעֲשָׂה אֲדַמְדַּם אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּם וְנַעֲשָׂה יְרַקְרַק קוֹרֵעַ מְקוֹם הַנֶּגַע וְשׂוֹרֵף מַה שֶּׁקָּרַע וְתוֹפֵר מַטְלִית בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁקָּרַע וּפוֹטֵר שְׁאָר הַבֶּגֶד וּמְכַבְּסוֹ כֻּלּוֹ כִּבּוּס שֵׁנִי וּמַטְבִּילוֹ, וְטָהֵר. וְאִם עָמַד בַּמַּרְאֶה שֶׁהֻסְגַּר בּוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה יַחְלִיטוֹ וְיִשְׂרֹף אֶת כֻּלּוֹ:

2

When a blemish that was intense green increased in size, but the new portion was intense red, or it was intense red and increased, but the increase was green, it is considered as an increase.

ב

נֶגַע שֶׁהָיָה יְרַקְרַק וּפָשָׂה אֲדַמְדַּם אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אֲדַמְדַּם וּפָשָׂה יְרַקְרַק הֲרֵי זֶה פִּשְׂיוֹן:

3

When in the midst of a blemish, there was a portion of the garment that was unsoiled and unblemished and then the blemish spread into it, the blemish is not considered to have increased in size. It must increase outward. An increase within the blemish itself is not considered as an increase, not for a blemish on a person's body, nor for one on garments or on buildings.

ג

נֶגַע שֶׁהָיָה בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ מָקוֹם נָקִי בְּלֹא נֶגַע וּפָשָׂה לוֹ הַנֶּגַע אֵינוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן עַד שֶׁיִּפְשֶׂה לַחוּץ. שֶׁאֵין פִּשְׂיוֹן הַנֶּגַע לְתוֹכוֹ פִּשְׂיוֹן בֵּין בְּאָדָם בֵּין בִּבְגָדִים וּבָתִּים:

4

If a blemish spreads to the place immediately adjacent to it, even the slightest spread is considered a sign of impurity. If a blemish appears on a distant place on the garment or one returns after the initial blemish disappeared or was removed, it must be a gris in size.

What is implied? If a garment was isolated and then another blemish the size of a gris emerged some distance from the blemish for which it was isolated, it is considered to have spread and it is burned. If the second blemish is less than a gris, no attention is paid to it. Similarly, when a blemished portion was removed from a garment as explained and then a blemish the size of a gris returned, it should be burnt. Similarly, if a blemish increased in size after the garment was released from the inspection process, the garment should be burnt.

ד

הַפִּשְׂיוֹן הַסָּמוּךְ בַּבְּגָדִים כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְהָרָחוֹק אוֹ הַחוֹזֵר כִּגְרִיס. כֵּיצַד. בֶּגֶד שֶׁהֻסְגַּר וְנוֹלַד בּוֹ נֶגַע אַחֵר כִּגְרִיס רָחוֹק מִן הַנֶּגַע שֶׁהֻסְגַּר בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה פִּשְׂיוֹן וְיִשָּׂרֵף. וְאִם הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרִיס אֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין בּוֹ. וְכֵן בֶּגֶד שֶׁקָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ הַנֶּגַע בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ שֵׁנִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְחָזַר בּוֹ נֶגַע כִּגְרִיס יִשָּׂרֵף. וְכֵן בֶּגֶד שֶׁפָּשָׂה בּוֹ הַנֶּגַע אַחַר שֶׁנִּפְטַר יִשָּׂרֵף:

5

When a person washes a blemish at the end of the first week as we explained, one should also wash part of the garment that is adjacent to it, as implied by Leviticus 13:54: "that on which the blemish is found." Whenever blemishes on a garment must be washed, we use the seven detergents that are used when checking a bloodstain, as explained with regard to nidah impurity.

ה

מִי שֶׁמְּכַבֵּס אֶת הַנֶּגַע בְּשָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ צָרִיךְ לְכַבֵּס מְעַט מִן הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁחוּצָה לוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יג נד) "אֵת אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ הַנָּגַע". וְכָל נִגְעֵי בְּגָדִים שֶׁמְּכַבְּסִין אוֹתָן מַעֲבִירִין עֲלֵיהֶן שִׁבְעָה סַמְמָנִין שֶׁמַּעֲבִירִין עַל הַכֶּתֶם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּעֲבִירִין עַל הַכְּתָמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּעִנְיַן נִדָּה:

6

The following laws apply when the blemished portion of a garment was torn out and a patch sewn in its place, as we explained. If a blemish the size of a gris returned to a different place on the garment, the patch may be removed and saved, while the remainder of the garment must be burnt. If the blemish returned and appeared on the patch, the entire garment must be burnt.

ו

בֶּגֶד שֶׁקָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ מְקוֹם הַנֶּגַע וְתָפַר מַטְלִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְחָזַר נֶגַע כִּגְרִיס עַל הַבֶּגֶד. מַתִּיר אֶת הַמַּטְלִית וּמַצִּילָהּ וְשׂוֹרֵף שְׁאָר הַבֶּגֶד. חָזַר הַנֶּגַע עַל הַמַּטְלִית שׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַכּל:

7

The following rules apply when a person takes a patch of cloth from a garment that was isolated and sews it on a pure garment. If a blemish became manifest on the initial garment again, the patch should be burnt together with it. If the blemish appears again on the patch, the first garment must be burnt and the patch obligates the garment on which it is sewn to be assessed for signs of impurity. If the blemish remains unchanged for two weeks or increases in size, the entire second garment is burnt.

ז

הַטּוֹלֶה מִן הַמֻּסְגָּר בְּטָהוֹר וְחָזַר נֶגַע עַל הַבֶּגֶד שׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַמַּטְלִית. חָזַר עַל הַמַּטְלִית הַבֶּגֶד הָרִאשׁוֹן הַמֻּסְגָּר יִשָּׂרֵף וְהַמַּטְלִית תְּשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁהִיא תְּפוּרָה בּוֹ בְּסִימָנִין. אִם עָמַד בְּעֵינָיו שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת אוֹ פָּשָׂה שׂוֹרְפִין הַכּל:

8

When a garment comes initially entirely intense green or intense red, it should be isolated for one week after another. If the blemish remains unchanged for two weeks, the garment should be burnt. If, however, a garment was isolated because of a blemish and the blemish spread over the entire garment, causing it to become entirely intense green or intense red or the garment was released from the inspection process and after it was released, the blemish returned entirely intense green or intense red, it is pure.

If a blemish was washed and it spread, the garment should be burnt.

ח

בֶּגֶד שֶׁבָּא כֻּלּוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה יְרַקְרַק אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּם מַסְגִּירוֹ שָׁבוּעַ אַחַר שָׁבוּעַ. אִם עָמַד בּוֹ שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת יִשָּׂרֵף. אֲבָל בֶּגֶד שֶׁהִסְגִּירוֹ וּפָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בְּכֻלּוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה יְרַקְרַק אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּם אוֹ שֶׁפְּטָרוֹ וְאַחַר שֶׁפְּטָרוֹ בָּא כֻּלּוֹ יְרַקְרַק אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּם הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. כִּבֵּס וּפָשָׂה יִשָּׂרֵף:

9

When the loose strands of the fabric of a garment extend beyond the fabric of the weave, e.g., a coarse woolen blanket, and a blemish appears in those strands, the blanket is not impure unless the blemish appears in the fabric and the weave itself.

The terms used by Leviticus 13:55 with regard to garment bikarachto and bigabachto mean the following: Karachto refers to worn out garments; gabachto, to new ones.

ט

בֶּגֶד שֶׁמּוֹכִין יוֹצְאִין עַל פָּנָיו מִן הָאָרִיג כְּגוֹן סָגוֹס שֶׁל צֶמֶר וְנִרְאָה בּוֹ נֶגַע אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא עַד שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה הַנֶּגַע בַּמּוֹכִין וּבָאָרִיג עַצְמוֹ. וְזֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּבְּגָדִים (ויקרא יג נה) "בְּקָרַחְתּוֹ אוֹ בְגַבַּחְתּוֹ" קָרַחְתּוֹ אֵלּוּ הַשְּׁחָקִים גַּבַּחְתּוֹ אֵלּוּ הַחֲדָשִׁים:

10

Colored garments do not contract impurity due to blemishes of tzara'at. This applies whether they were dyed by human activity or naturally colored. To contract such impurity, they must be white. If the warp of a garment was colored and its woof, white, or if its woof was colored and its warp, white, everything follows its appearance.

When there is a knit that is less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, it does not contract impurity due to blemishes of tzara'at.

י

הַבְּגָדִים הַצְּבוּעִים אֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים בֵּין שֶׁצְּבוּעִין בִּידֵי אָדָם בֵּין שֶׁצְּבוּעִין בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ לְבָנִים. בֶּגֶד שֶׁשִּׁתְיוֹ צָבוּעַ וְעֶרְבוֹ לָבָן עֶרְבוֹ צָבוּעַ וְשִׁתְיוֹ לָבָן הַכּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַנִּרְאֶה. פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת מִן הָאָרִיג אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים:

11

When a cloth was woven less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths and a blemish was discovered on it and afterwards, one increased its size and made it more than three by three, it is pure.

יא

בֶּגֶד שֶׁאָרַג בּוֹ פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ וְנִרְאָה בּוֹ נֶגַע וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִשְׁלִימוֹ לְשָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ טָהוֹר:

12

When a person sews patches together, each one being less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, and makes a garment from them, it can contract impurity due to blemishes. The rationale is that sewing is like weaving and it is considered as one garment.

יב

הַתּוֹפֵר מַטְלִיּוֹת שֶׁאֵין בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן בֶּגֶד הֲרֵי זֶה מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים שֶׁהַתָּפוּר כְּאָרוּג וְכֻלּוֹ בֶּגֶד אֶחָד הוּא:

13

If a garment was made from many patches, some colored and some, white, and a tzara'at blemish was discovered on a white patch, it should be isolated. If the blemish remains unchanged for two weeks, the entire garment is deemed impure and burnt. Similarly, if the blemish spreads to another white patch, the blemish is considered to have increased in size even though a colored patch intervenes between them.

If the garment was entirely colored except for one line, even if only a gris, it should be isolated if a blemish appears on it. For if it remains with the original color, without increasing its intensity or fading for two weeks, the garment should be burnt.

יג

בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא מַטְלִיּוֹת מַטְלִיּוֹת מֵהֶן צְבוּעִין וּמֵהֶן לְבָנִים וְנִרְאָה נֶגַע בַּלָּבָן שֶׁבּוֹ מַסְגִּירִין אוֹתוֹ אִם עָמַד שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ וְיִשָּׂרֵף. וְכֵן אִם פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בְּמַטְלִית לְבָנָה אַחֶרֶת הֲרֵי זֶה פִּשְׂיוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם צָבוּעַ. הָיָה כֻּלּוֹ צָבוּעַ וּבוֹ פַּס אֶחָד לָבָן אֲפִלּוּ כִּגְרִיס וְנִרְאָה בּוֹ נֶגַע יַסְגִּיר שֶׁאִם עָמַד בְּעֵינָיו וְלֹא הוֹסִיף וְלֹא כֵּהָה שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעוֹת יִשָּׂרֵף:

Tum'at Tsara'at - Chapter 13

1

The only garments that contract impurity due to tzara'at blemishes are wool and linen garments, cloths where the warp or woof is made of wool or linen, and any leather utensil, whether hard or soft. Even leather that is colored naturally is susceptible to impurity because of blemishes. Felt is considered like garments and is susceptible to impurity because of blemishes. Tents are susceptible to impurity because of blemishes whether they are made from wool or linen or they are leather.

א

אֵין מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים אֶלָּא בִּגְדֵי צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים בִּלְבַד. אוֹ הַשְּׁתִי אוֹ הָעֵרֶב שֶׁל צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים. וְכָל כְּלֵי הָעוֹר בֵּין קָשֶׁה בֵּין רַךְ. אַף הָעוֹר הַצָּבוּעַ בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. וְהַלְּבָדִים כִּבְגָדִים וּמִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים. וְהָאֹהָלִים מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁל עוֹר:

2

All garments of wool and linen are susceptible to impurity except those belonging to gentiles. When a person purchases a garment from gentiles, if tzara'at appears on it, it should be viewed as if for the first time. When a garment is made from mixed species - wool and linen - it can incur impurity because of tzara'at blemishes.

ב

כָּל הַבְּגָדִים שֶׁל צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים חוּץ מִבִּגְדֵי עַכּוּ''ם. הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּגָדִים מִן הָעַכּוּ''ם יֵרָאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא כִּלְאַיִם מִן הַצֶּמֶר וּמִן הַפִּשְׁתִּים מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים:

3

The following rules apply when camels' wool and sheep's wool were spun together: If the majority is camels' wool, it does not contract impurity because of blemishes. If the majority is sheep's wool, it does. If equal amounts are used, it can incur impurity. The same laws apply when flax and hemp are mixed together.

The wool of a sheep born from a goat does not contract impurity because of blemishes. When the warp of a garment was linen and its woof, hemp, or its warp hemp and its woof, linen, it does not contract impurity because of blemishes. Similarly, if its warp or woof was linen or wool and the remainder goat's hair or the like, it does not contract impurity because of blemishes.

ג

צֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְצֶמֶר רְחֵלִים שֶׁטְּוָאָן זֶה עִם זֶה אִם רֹב מִן הַגְּמַלִּים אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים וְאִם רֹב מִן הָרְחֵלִים מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּפִשְׁתָּן וְקַנְבּוֹס שֶׁטְּרָפָן זֶה בָּזֶה. וְרָחֵל בַּת עֵז אֵין הַצֶּמֶר שֶׁלָּהּ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. בֶּגֶד שֶׁהָיָה שִׁתְיוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן וְעֶרְבוֹ קַנְבּוֹס אוֹ שִׁתְיוֹ קַנְבּוֹס וְעֶרְבוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה שִׁתְיוֹ אוֹ עֶרְבוֹ פִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ צֶמֶר וְהַשְּׁאָר נוֹצָה שֶׁל עִזִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים:

4

A hide that was not processed does not contract impurity because of blemishes. Similarly, a hide that is an unformed mass before implements were made from it, does not contract impurity because of blemishes. This can be inferred from Leviticus 13:52 which speaks of "leather articles." Nevertheless, all leather articles - whether flat or receptacles - are susceptible to impurity because of blemishes.

ד

הָעוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעֻבָּד אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים. וְכֵן הָעוֹר שֶׁהוּא גּלֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ כֵּלִים אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כְּלִי הָעוֹר. וְכָל (ויקרא יג נב) "כְּלֵי הָעוֹר" בֵּין פְּשׁוּטֵיהֶן בֵּין מְקַבְּלֵיהֶן כָּל שֶׁהֵן מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים:

5

The hides of sea-animals do not contract impurity because of blemishes. If anything that grows on the earth was connected to such a hide, even a strand or string of wool or flax or the hide of an animal or a beast that was processed to any degree, and an implement was made, tzara'at blemishes can cause it to contract impurity, provided it was connected to it in a manner that garments are connected with regard to impurity.

ה

עוֹרוֹת חַיָּה שֶׁבַּיָּם אֵין מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים. חִבֵּר לָהֶן מִן הַגָּדֵל בָּאָרֶץ אֲפִלּוּ חוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָה שֶׁל צֶמֶר אוֹ פִּשְׁתִּים אוֹ עוֹר בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה הַמְעֻבָּדִין כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן כֵּלִים מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִים וְהוּא שֶׁיְּחַבְּרֶנּוּ לוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ חִבּוּרֵי בְּגָדִים לְטֻמְאָה:

6

All utensils that are fit to contract other types of impurity - even though they are not fit to contract the impurity that results when a zav treads on them, because they are not meant to be lied upon or sat upon - are susceptible to impurity because of blemishes. To cite examples: a ship's sail, a curtain, a barber's sheet, a mantle for scrolls, a belt and laces for shoes and sandals that are a gris wide. These all contract impurity because of blemishes. Needless to say, other articles do, e.g., pillows and cushions.

A leather drinking pouch and a carrying case should be inspected in their ordinary fashion. A blemish is considered to have increased in size when it spreads from their inner side to their outer side or from their outer side to their inner side. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations with regard to all two-sided leather utensils.

ו

כָּל כְּלִי הָרָאוּי לְהִתְטַמֵּא בִּשְׁאָר הַטֻּמְאוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרַס הַזָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה לְמִשְׁכָּב אוֹ לְמוֹשָׁב הֲרֵי זֶה מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים כְּגוֹן קֶלַע שֶׁל סְפִינָה וְהַפָּרֹכֶת וְשָׁבִיס שֶׁל שְׂבָכָה וּמִטְפְּחוֹת סְפָרִים וְהָאַבְנֵט וּרְצוּעוֹת מִנְעָל וְסַנְדָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן רֹחַב כִּגְרִיס. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִטַּמֵּא בִּנְגָעִים וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים כְּגוֹן כָּרִים וּכְסָתוֹת. הַחֵמֶת וְהַתּוּרְמָל נִרְאִין כְּדַרְכָּן וּפוֹשֶׂה הַנֶּגַע מִתּוֹכָן לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן וּמֵאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן לְתוֹכָן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִכְּלֵי הָעוֹר הַכְּפוּלִין:

7

When a sheet is creased, its creases are straightened out and then its blemishes are inspected.

ז

סָדִין הַמְקֻמָּט מַפְשִׁיטִין אֶת קְמָטָיו וְרוֹאִין אֶת נִגְעוֹ:

8

The thread for the warp and the woof - whether of wool or of linen - are susceptible to impurity because of blemishes immediately after it has been spun even though the linen has not been whitened, nor the wool soaked in hot water.

How much thread must be on a ball of thread for it to contract impurity because of blemishes? Enough to weave a cloth three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths from it, both the warp and the woof. This applies whether it was all warp threads or all woof threads. If the ball of thread was collected from separate threads, it is not susceptible to impurity because of blemishes.

ח

הַשְּׁתִי וְהָעֵרֶב בֵּין שֶׁל צֶמֶר בֵּין שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן מִטַּמְּאִין בִּנְגָעִין מִיָּד מִשֶּׁיִּטָּווּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא לִבֵּן הַפִּשְׁתָּן וְלֹא שָׁלַק הַצֶּמֶר. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בִּפְקַעַת שֶׁל טָווּי וְתִטָּמֵא בִּנְגָעִים, כְּדֵי לֶאֱרֹג מִמֶּנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב, בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה כֻּלָּהּ שְׁתִי בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה כֻּלָּהּ עֵרֶב. הָיְתָה הַפְּקַעַת מְקֻבֶּצֶת מֵחוּטִים פְּסוּקִין אֵינָהּ מִטַּמְּאָה בִּנְגָעִים:

9

The following law applies when a) they are two balls of thread connected to each other with a thread, b) part of the warp thread is wound over the top frame of the loom and part over the bottom frame of the loom, or c) one side of a cloak is connected to the other with one strand. If a blemish is discovered on one of these entities, the other is pure even though the strand connects them.

If a blemish is discovered in the weaving thread and in the warp that has not yet been woven, even though a portion of the blemish exists on the cloth and a portion on the warp, it is impure. If, however, the blemish appears on the unwoven warp alone, the woven cloth is pure. If the blemish appears on the woven portion alone, the unwoven warp is pure.

If a blemish appears on a wrapping blanket, the strands protruding from it should be burnt with it. If the blemish appears on the strands, the wrapping blanket is pure. If the blemish spreads from the strands to the wrapping blanket, the wrapping blanket is impure.

ט

שְׁתֵּי פְּקָעִיּוֹת הַמְעֻרוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ בְּחוּט. וְכֵן הַשְּׁתִי שֶׁמִּקְצָתוֹ לָפוּף עַל הַכֹּבֶד הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וּמִקְצָתוֹ לָפוּף עַל הַכֹּבֶד הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה. וְכֵן שְׁנֵי דַּפֵּי חָלוּק שֶׁמְּעֵרוֹת בְּחוּט אֶחָד וְנִרְאָה הַנֶּגַע בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן. הַשֵּׁנִי טָהוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחוּט אֶחָד מְחַבֵּר בֵּינֵיהֶן. נִרְאָה הַנֶּגַע בְּנֶפֶשׁ הַמַּסֶּכֶת וּבַשְּׁתִי הָעוֹמֵד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָת הַנֶּגַע בַּבֶּגֶד וּמִקְצָתוֹ בַּשְּׁתִי הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. נִרְאָה הַנֶּגַע בַּשְּׁתִי הָעוֹמֵד לְבַדּוֹ הָאָרוּג טָהוֹר. נִרְאָה בָּאָרוּג לְבַדּוֹ הַשְּׁתִי הָעוֹמֵד טָהוֹר. נִרְאָה בְּסָדִין שׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַנִּימִין. נִרְאָה בַּנִּימִין הַסָּדִין טָהוֹר. פָּשָׂה מִן הַנִּימִין לַסָּדִין הַסָּדִין טָמֵא:

10

When a blemish is discovered in a cloak, its borders may be saved. Even if the border is made of wool or linen, it can be saved and should not be burnt.

י

חָלוּק שֶׁנִּרְאָה בּוֹ נֶגַע מַצִּיל אֶת הָאִמְרִיוֹת שֶׁבּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הָאִימֶרֶת צֶמֶר אוֹ פִּשְׁתִּים מַצִּילָהּ וְאֵינָהּ נִשְׂרֶפֶת:

11

When a garment that was isolated because of a blemish was dyed or sold to a gentile, it is pure. Similarly, if it became mixed with others, they are all deemed pure. If the owner cut it up and made it into small strands, each one less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, it is pure and it is permitted to benefit from it. If one of the strands was three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths and the blemish was discovered on it, it alone is impure.

יא

בֶּגֶד מֻסְגָּר שֶׁצְּבָעוֹ אוֹ מְכָרוֹ לְעַכּוּ''ם טָהוֹר. וְכֵן אִם נִתְעָרֵב בַּאֲחֵרִים כֻּלָּן טְהוֹרִים. קְצָצוֹ וְעָשָׂהוּ מוֹכִין פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ טָהוֹר וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָיָתוֹ. הָיְתָה בָּהֶן אַחַת שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ וְנִרְאָה בָּהּ נֶגַע הִיא לְבַדָּהּ טְמֵאָה:

12

When a garment that had been definitively deemed impure became mixed with others, they are all considered impure and must be burned. This applies even if one is mixed with several thousands. Similarly, even if it was cut up into strands, there are all impure and it is forbidden to benefit from them.

יב

בֶּגֶד מֻחְלָט שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בַּאֲחֵרִים כֻּלָּן טְמֵאִין וְיִשָּׂרְפוּ אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד בְּכַמָּה אֲלָפִים. וְכֵן אִם קְצָצָן וַעֲשָׂאָהוּ מוֹכִין הֲרֵי הֵן טְמֵאִין וְאָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָתָן:

13

With regard to ritual impurity, a garment or a leather utensil or threads for the warp or the woof that were isolated or deemed impure is considered a primary category of ritual impurity and is analogous to a person who contracted tzara'at in all respects. It imparts impurity when touched, when carried, when brought into a building, and imparts impurity to couches and seats on which it is placed even if they are under a stone.

What is implied? When one brings even an olive-sized portion of a garment or a leather utensil or threads for the warp or the woof that were blemished into a building that is ritually pure, everything in the building - humans and utensils - become primary derivatives of impurity. Similarly, if there is a couch or a seat located under a stone and one places an olive-sized portion on the stone, the couch or the seat becomes impure.

יג

אֶחָד בֶּגֶד אוֹ כְּלִי עוֹר אוֹ שְׁתִי אוֹ עֵרֶב הַמֻּסְגָּר אוֹ הַמֻּחְלָט לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה הֲרֵי הוּא אָב מֵאֲבוֹת הַטֻּמְאוֹת כְּאָדָם מְצֹרָע לְכָל דָּבָר מְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא וּבְבִיאָה וְעוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב אֲפִלּוּ מִתַּחַת הָאֶבֶן. כֵּיצַד. בֶּגֶד מְנֻגָּע אוֹ שְׁתִי אוֹ עֵרֶב אוֹ כְּלֵי עוֹר הַמְנֻגָּעִין שֶׁהִכְנִיס מֵהֶן אֲפִלּוּ כְּזַיִת לְבַיִת טָהוֹר נִטְמָא כָּל אֲשֶׁר בַּבַּיִת בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים וְנַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּן רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה. וְכֵן מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב הַמֻּנָּח תַּחַת הָאֶבֶן וְהִנִּיחַ כְּזַיִת מֵהֶן לְמַעְלָה מִן הָאֶבֶן נִטְמָא הַמִּשְׁכָּב אוֹ הַמּוֹשָׁב:

14

When a cloth is three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths even though it does not possess the mass of an olive-sized portion, it renders a house that was pure impure when brought inside. If it was the size of several olive-sized portions, once an olive-size portion is brought into a building that is pure, it renders it impure.

Although all the measures are halachot transmitted to Moses at Sinai there is an allusion in the Torah to the concept that an olive-sized portion of a blemished garment conveys impurity. For Leviticus 14:54-55 states: "For all blemishes of tzara'at, for a netek, for the tzara'at of garments and of houses." An association is made between blemishes affecting humans and those affecting garments and houses. Now a person afflicted by tzara'at is equated with a human corpse, as Numbers 12:12 states: "Let her not be as a corpse." Hence, just as the minimum measure for a portion of a human corpse that imparts impurity is an olive-sized portion, the minimum measure for these is an olive-sized portion.

יד

מַטְלִית שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ כְּזַיִת כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס רֻבָּהּ לְבַיִת טָהוֹר טִמְּאַתּוּ. הָיוּ בָּהּ כַּמָּה זֵיתִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיְת לְבַיִת טָהוֹר נִטְמָא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַשִּׁעוּרִין הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יד נד) "לְכָל נֶגַע הַצָּרַעַת וְלַנָּתֶק" (ויקרא יד נה) "וּלְצָרַעַת הַבֶּגֶד וְלַבָּיִת" הִקִּישׁ נִגְעֵי אָדָם לְנִגְעֵי בְּגָדִים וּבָתִּים וְהִשְׁוָה הַמְצֹרָע לְמֵת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יב יב) "אַל נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת" מָה הַמֵּת בִּכְזַיִת אַף אֵלּוּ בִּכְזַיִת:

15

Blemished garments are sent outside a city, whether it is surrounded by a wall or not. This reflects a stringency relevant to garments over humans.

טו

בְּגָדִים הַמְנֻגָּעִים מְשַׁלְּחִין אוֹתָן חוּץ לָעִיר בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה בֵּין שֶׁאֵינָהּ מֻקֶּפֶת. וְזֶה חֹמֶר בִּבְגָדִים מִבְּאָדָם:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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