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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Me`ilah - Perek 8, Korban Pesach - Perek 1, Korban Pesach - Perek 2

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Me`ilah - Perek 8

1

When workers are working in consecrated orchards, even though it was agreed that they would receive food, they should not eat consecrated figs. If they do, they violate the prohibition against me'ilah. Instead, the Temple treasury should give them money to purchase food.

א

הַפּוֹעֲלִים שֶׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין בְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפָּסְקוּ עִמָּהֶן מְזוֹנוֹת לֹא יֹאכְלוּ מִגְּרוֹגָרוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ וְאִם אָכְלוּ מָעֲלוּ. אֶלָּא הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ נוֹתֵן לָהֶם דְּמֵי מְזוֹנוֹת:

2

When a person is threshing vetch that is consecrated, he must muzzle the ox. Although Deuteronomy 25:4 states: "Do not muzzle an ox while it is threshing," the latter phrase can be interpreted as "threshing appropriate for it."

ב

הַדָּשׁ כַּרְשִׁינֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹסֵם אֶת הַפָּרָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה ד) "לֹא תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ" דַּיִשׁ הָרָאוּי לוֹ:

3

The holiness of consecrated property should not be transferred as payment for work, but only on money.

What is implied? When a craftsman performs a maneh's worth of work for the Temple treasury, he should not be given a consecrated animal, nor a consecrated garment as payment unless its holiness is first transferred to money. After the article became ordinary property, it can be given to the craftsman as his wages. If the treasurers desire, they may then purchase the animal from the Temple treasury.

ג

אֵין מְחַלְּלִין אֶת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל הַמְּלָאכָה אֶלָּא עַל הַמָּעוֹת. כֵּיצַד. אֻמָּן שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ בְּמָנֶה אֵין נוֹתְנִין לוֹ בֶּהֱמַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ אוֹ טַלִּית הֶקְדֵּשׁ בִּשְׂכָרוֹ עַד שֶׁמְּחַלְּלִין אוֹתָן עַל הַמָּעוֹת. וְאַחַר שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ חֻלִּין נוֹתְנִין אוֹתָן לָאֻמָּן בִּשְׂכָרוֹ אִם רָצוּ. וְחוֹזְרִין וְלוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ בְּהֵמָה מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה:

4

When the Temple is being built, consecrated wood and stones should not be taken, nor should the building be built with the intent that it is consecrated. Instead, everything should be built from ordinary property. This is a decree lest one of the workers benefit from the shade of the building or lean on a stone or beam while working. After the building is completed, the holiness of consecrated funds is transferred to the building.

If the treasurers need wood for the Temple for that day alone, they may purchase it with consecrated funds, for they are not delaying the matter for days in which instance it would be necessary to take precautions lest one lean on them and thus violate the prohibition against me'ilah.

ד

כְּשֶׁבּוֹנִין בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אֵין לוֹקְחִין עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ וְלֹא בּוֹנִין אֶת הַבִּנְיָן עַל דַּעַת שֶׁהוּא קֹדֶשׁ אֶלָּא בּוֹנִין הַכּל מִן הַחל. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֵהָנֶה בְּצֵל הַבִּנְיָן אוֹ יִשָּׁעֵן עַל אֶבֶן אוֹ קוֹרָה בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה. וְאַחַר שֶׁיֻּשְׁלַם הַבִּנְיָן מְחַלְּלִין מְעוֹת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל הַבִּנְיָן. וְאִם צָרְכוּ הַגִּזְבָּרִין לְעֵצִים לַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם בִּלְבַד לוֹקְחִין אוֹתָן מִמְּעוֹת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָן מִתְאַחֲרִין יָמִים כְּדֵי שֶׁנָּחוּשׁ לָהֶן שֶׁמָּא יִשָּׁעֵן אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶן וְיִמְעל:

5

When an agreement is made with workers to build in the Temple and its courtyards, the agreement is made for so-and-so many selaim for so-and-so many cubits, considering a cubit as containing 20 thumbbreadths. When a measurement is made of what they built, it is measured and payment determined, considering a cubit as containing 24 thumbbreadths, so that the workers will not take unfair benefit from the Temple treasury, because they are not exact in measurement.

ה

כְּשֶׁפּוֹסְקִין עִם הָאֻמָּנִין לִבְנוֹת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבָעֲזָרוֹת. פּוֹסְקִין עִמָּהֶן כָּךְ וְכָךְ אַמָּה בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ סֶלַע בְּאַמָּה בַּת עֶשְׂרִים אֶצְבַּע. וּכְשֶׁמּוֹשְׁחִין לָהֶן מַה שֶּׁבָּנוּ מוֹשְׁחִין וּמְחַשְּׁבִין לָהֶן בְּאַמָּה גְּדוֹלָה בַּת עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע אֶצְבָּעוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי מְעִילָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מְדַקְדְּקִין בִּמְשִׁיחָה:

6

It is a stipulation of the court that the priests may benefit from consecrated salt and wood while partaking of the sacrifices granted to them as their portion. They may not, however, use the salt of the Temple on their ordinary food.

ו

תְּנַאי בֵּית דִּין שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים נֵאוֹתִין בַּמֶּלַח וּבָעֵצִים בַּאֲכִילַת קָרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁאוֹכְלִין בְּחֶלְקָן. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְּנוּ מֶלַח הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּחֻלִּין שֶׁלָּהֶן:

7

The prohibition against me'ilah applies to salt that is on a limb from a sacrifice to be offered on the altar. It does not, however, apply to salt on the ramp and the top of the altar.

ז

מֶלַח שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵיבָר מוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ. שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׁ וְשֶׁעַל רֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֵין מוֹעֲלִין בּוֹ:

8

It is appropriate for a person to meditate on the judgments of the holy Torah and know their ultimate purpose according to his capacity. If he cannot find a reason or a motivating rationale for a practice, he should not regard it lightly. Nor should he break through to ascend to God, lest God burst forth against him. One's thoughts concerning them should not be like his thoughts concerning other ordinary matters.

See how severe the Torah rules concerning misappropriating sacred property. Now if wood, stones, earth, and ash become holy because the name of the Lord of the world was called upon them through speech alone and anyone who treats them as ordinary articles violates the prohibition against me'ilah and even if he acted unknowingly, he is required to secure atonement, how much more so with regard to the mitzvot which God ordained for us should a person not treat them derisively, because he does not understand their rationale. He should not conjure up matters that are not true concerning God, nor should he think about them with his mind as he would ordinary matters. For Leviticus 19:37 states: "And you shall guard all My decrees and all My judgments and perform them." Our Sages commented:This adjures us to guard and perform both the decrees and the judgments. The meaning of "performing" is well known, i.e,. that one should observe the decrees. "Guarding" means to treat them with caution and not think that they are any less than the judgments.

The judgments are those mitzvot whose motivating rationale is openly revealed and the benefit of their observance in this world is known, e.g., the prohibitions against robbery and bloodshed and honoring one's father and mother. The decrees are the mitzvot whose motivating rationales are not known. Our Sages said: "I ordained decrees and you have no license to question them." A person's natural inclination confronts him concerning them and the nations of the world challenge them, e.g., the prohibition of the meat of a pig, milk and meat, the calf whose neck is broken, the red heifer, and the goat sent to Azazel. To what degree did King David suffer because of the heretics and the idolaters who would issue challenges concerning the decrees! As long as they would pursue him with false retorts that they would arrange according to man's limited knowledge, he would increase his clinging to the Torah, as Psalms 119:69 states: "Willful transgressors have stacked falsehoods against me, but I guard Your precepts with a full heart." And ibid.:86 states concerning this matter: "All of Your mitzvot are faithful; they pursue me with falsehood; help me."

All of the sacrifices are in the category of decrees. Our Sages said: "The world exists for the sake of the service of the sacrifices." For through the performance of the decrees and the judgments the righteous merit the life of the world to come. And between the two of them, the Torah gave precedence to the command for the decrees, as Leviticus 18:5 states: "And you shall heed My decrees and judgments which a person will perform and live through them."

ח

רָאוּי לָאָדָם לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בְּמִשְׁפְּטֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַקְּדוֹשָׁה וְלֵידַע סוֹף עִנְיָנָם כְּפִי כֹּחוֹ. וְדָבָר שֶׁלֹּא יִמְצָא לוֹ טַעַם וְלֹא יֵדַע לוֹ עִלָּה אַל יְהִי קַל בְּעֵינָיו וְלֹא יַהֲרֹס לַעֲלוֹת אֶל ה' פֶּן יִפְרֹץ בּוֹ. וְלֹא תְּהֵא מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ בּוֹ כְּמַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דִּבְרֵי הַחל. בּוֹא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה הֶחְמִירָה תּוֹרָה בִּמְעִילָה. וּמָה אִם עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים וְעָפָר וָאֵפֶר כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּקְרָא שֵׁם אֲדוֹן הָעוֹלָם עֲלֵיהֶם בִּדְבָרִים בִּלְבַד נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ וְכָל הַנּוֹהֵג בָּהֶן מִנְהַג חֹל מָעַל בָּהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג צָרִיךְ כַּפָּרָה. קַל וָחֹמֶר לְמִצְוֹת שֶׁחָקַק לָנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִבְעַט הָאָדָם בָּהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵדַע טַעְמָן. וְלֹא יְחַפֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא כֵּן עַל הַשֵּׁם וְלֹא יַחְשֹׁב בָּהֶן מַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ כְּדִבְרֵי הַחל. הֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא יט לז) (ויקרא כ כב) "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת כָּל חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת כָּל מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם". אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים לִתֵּן שְׁמִירָה וַעֲשִׂיָּה לַחֻקִּים כַּמִּשְׁפָּטִים. וְהָעֲשִׂיָּה יְדוּעָה וְהִיא שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה הַחֻקִּים. וְהַשְּׁמִירָה שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר בָּהֶן וְלֹא יְדַמֶּה שֶׁהֵן פְּחוּתִין מִן הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים. וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הֵן הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁטַּעְמָן גָּלוּי וְטוֹבַת עֲשִׂיָּתָן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה יְדוּעָה כְּגוֹן אִסּוּר גֵּזֶל וּשְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים וְכִבּוּד אָב וָאֵם. וְהַחֻקִּים הֵן הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁאֵין טַעְמָן יָדוּעַ. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים חֻקִּים חַקֹּתִי לְךָ וְאֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לְהַרְהֵר בָּהֶן. וְיִצְרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נוֹקְפוֹ בָּהֶן וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מְשִׁיבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כְּגוֹן אִסּוּר בְּשַׂר חֲזִיר וּבָשָׂר בְּחָלָב וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה וּפָרָה אֲדֻמָּה וְשָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. וְכַמָּה הָיָה דָּוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ מִצְטַעֵר מִן הַמִּינִים וּמִן הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהָיוּ מְשִׁיבִין עַל הַחֻקִּים. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ רוֹדְפִין אוֹתוֹ בִּתְשׁוּבוֹת הַשֶּׁקֶר שֶׁעוֹרְכִין לְפִי קֹצֶר דַּעַת הָאָדָם הָיָה מוֹסִיף דְּבֵקוּת בַּתּוֹרָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהילים קיט סט) "טָפְלוּ עָלַי שֶׁקֶר זֵדִים אֲנִי בְּכָל לֵב אֶצֹּר פִּקּוּדֶיךָ". וְנֶאֱמַר שָׁם בָּעִנְיָן (תהילים קיט פו) "כָּל מִצְוֹתֶיךָ אֱמוּנָה שֶׁקֶר רְדָפוּנִי עָזְרֵנִי". וְכָל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת כֻּלָּן מִכְּלַל הַחֻקִּים הֵן. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל עֲבוֹדַת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָעוֹלָם עוֹמֵד. שֶׁבַּעֲשִׂיַּת הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים זוֹכִין הַיְשָׁרִים לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וְהִקְדִּימָה תּוֹרָה צִוּוּי עַל הַחֻקִּים. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח ה) "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם".

Blessed be the Merciful One who provides assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות מעילה בס"ד:

This concludes the eighth book which is the Book of Temple Service.

נגמר ספר שמיני והוא ספר עבודה:

Korban Pesach - Perek 1

In the name of the Lord, the God of the world.
May my prayer be established as incense before You; the raising of my hands as a meal-offering brought in the afternoon.

The ninth book which is The Book of Sacrifices

It includes six sets of Halachot and this is their order:

The Laws of the Paschal Sacrifice
The Laws of Festive Sacrifices
The Laws of the Firstborn Offering
The Laws [of the Sacrifices Offered to Atone for] Inadvertent Transgressions
The Laws of [the Sacrifices Brought by] those Requiring Atonement
The Laws of the Transfer of Holiness

Introduction to Hilchot Korban Pesach

Included in this text are sixteen mitzvot: 4 positive commandments and 12 negative commandments. They include the following:

1) To slaughter the Pesach sacrifice at the appropriate time;
2) Not to slaughter it while in possession of chametz;
3) Not to leave the fats and organs to be offered on the altar overnight;
4) To slaughter a second Paschal sacrifice;
5) To partake of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice together with matzah and bitter herbs on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan;
6) To partake of the meat of the second Paschal sacrifice together with matzah and bitter herbs on the night of the fifteenth of the second month;
7) Not to partake of the [Paschal sacrifice] lightly roasted or cooked in water;
8) Not to take the meat of the Paschal offering outside of the group [designated to partake of it];
9) That an apostate should not partake of [the Paschal sacrifice];
10) That a gentile resident or hired worker should not be enabled to partake of [the Paschal sacrifice];
11) That an uncircumcised person should not partake of [the Paschal sacrifice];
12) That a bone should not be broken in [the Paschal sacrifice];
13) That a bone should not be broken in the second [Paschal sacrifice];
14) That none [of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice] be left over until the following morning;
15) That none [of the meat of] the second [Paschal sacrifice] be left over until the following morning;
16) That none of the meat of the festive offering brought on the fourteenth [of Nisan] be left over until the morning of the third day;

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

בְּשֵׁם יי אֵל עוֹלָם (בראשית כא לג)
תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ, מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת עָרֶב (תהלים קמא ב)


ספר תשיעי והוא ספר הקרבנות

הלכותיו שש, וזה הוא סידורן:

הלכות קרבן פסח
הלכות חגיגה
הלכות בכורות
הלכות שגגות
הלכות מחוסרי כפרה
הלכות תמורה הלכות קרבן פסח - הקדמה יש בכללן שש עשרה מצוות: ארבע מצוות עשה, ושתים עשרה מצוות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן: (א) לשחוט הפסח בזמנו.
(ב) שלא לזבוח אותו על החמץ.
(ג) שלא תלין אֵמוריו.
(ד) לשחוט פסח שני.
(ה) לאכול בשר הפסח על מצה ומרור בליל חמישה עשר.
(ו) לאכול פסח שני על מצה ומרור בליל חמישה עשר לחודש השני.
(ז) שלא יאכל נא ומבושל.
(ח) שלא יוציא מבשר הפסח חוץ לחבורה.
(ט) שלא יאכל ממנו משומד.
(י) שלא יאכל ממנו לתושב ושכיר.
(יא) שלא יאכל ממנו ערל.
(יב) שלא ישבור בו עצם.
(יג) שלא ישבור עצם בפסח שני.
(יד) שלא ישאיר ממנו לבקר.
(טו) שלא ישאיר מפסח שני לבקר.
(טז) שלא ישאיר מבשר חגיגת ארבעה עשר עד יום שלישי. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

It is a positive commandment to offer the Paschal sacrifice on the fourteenth day of the month of Nisan after midday. This offering is brought only from lambs or goats, a male in its first year. Both men and women are obligated in this mitzvah.

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִשְׁחֹט אֶת הַפֶּסַח בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן אַחַר חֲצוֹת. וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶלָּא מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים אוֹ מִן הָעִזִּים בִּלְבַד זָכָר בֶּן שָׁנָה. וְאֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁה חַיָּבִין בְּמִצְוָה זוֹ:

2

One who willfully nullifies this mitzvah and allows the fourteenth of Nisan to pass without him offering the Paschal sacrifice despite the fact that he is not impure or not on a distant journey, he is liable for karet. If he neglected the offering of this sacrifice inadvertently, he is exempt.

ב

ומִי שֶׁבִּטֵּל מִצְוָה זוֹ בְּזָדוֹן וְעָבַר יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר וְלֹא הִקְרִיב וְהוּא לֹא טָמֵא וְלֹא בַּדֶּרֶךְ רְחוֹקָה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב כָּרֵת. וְאִם בִּטְּלָהּ בִּשְׁגָגָה פָּטוּר:

3

The Paschal sacrifice may be slaughtered only in the Temple Courtyard like other sacrifices. Even when sacrificing in high places was permitted, the Paschal sacrifice would not be offered on an individual alter. Anyone who offers the Paschal sacrifice on an individual altar is liable for lashes as if he offered it in the market place, as Deuteronomy 16:5 states" "You may not sacrifice the Paschal sacrifice in one of your gates." According to the Oral Tradition, it was taught that this is warning not to slaughter a Paschal sacrifice on an individual altar even during the time when sacrificing on the high places was permitted.

ג

אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא בַּעֲזָרָה כִּשְׁאָר הַקָּדָשִׁים. אַף בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר הַבָּמוֹת לֹא הָיוּ מַקְרִיבִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח בְּבָמַת יָחִיד [ב.] וְכָל הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת הַפֶּסַח בְּבָמַת יָחִיד לוֹקֶה [ג.] שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז ה) "לֹא תוּכַל לִזְבֹּחַ אֶת הַפָּסַח בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ אַזְהָרָה לַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּבָמַת יָחִיד אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר הַבָּמוֹת:

4

The slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice takes place after midday. It should not be slaughtered until the afternoon daily offering is slaughtered. After the afternoon incense offering is brought and the lamps of the Menorah are kindled, they begin slaughtering the Paschal sacrifices and continue until the end of the day.

If one slaughtered the Paschal sacrifice after midday, but before the afternoon daily sacrifice was offered, it is acceptable, but one should stir the blood of the Paschal sacrifice until the blood of the daily offering is cast on the altar. Afterwards, the blood of the Paschal sacrifice should be cast after it. If, however, the blood of the Paschal sacrifice is cast before the blood of the daily offering, it is acceptable.

ד

שְׁחִיטַת הַפֶּסַח אַחַר חֲצוֹת. וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת פָּסוּל. וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא אַחַר תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. אַחַר שֶׁמַּקְטִירִין קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם וְאַחַר שֶׁמֵּיטִיבִין אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת מַתְחִילִין לִשְׁחֹט אֶת הַפְּסָחִים עַד סוֹף הַיּוֹם. וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ אַחַר חֲצוֹת קֹדֶם תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם כָּשֵׁר וְיִהְיֶה אֶחָד מְמָרֵס בְּדַם הַפֶּסַח עַד שֶׁיִּזָּרֵק דַּם הַתָּמִיד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִזְרֹק דַּם הַפֶּסַח אַחֲרָיו. וְאִם נִזְרַק דַּם הַפֶּסַח קֹדֶם דַּם הַתָּמִיד כָּשֵׁר:

5

A person who slaughters the Paschal sacrifice at the appropriate time while possessing an olive-sized portion of chametz is liable for lashes, as Exodus 23:18 states: "Do not slaughter sacrificial blood over chametz, i.e., that one should not offer the Paschal sacrifice while chametz continues to exist in his possession.

Whether one slaughters, casts the blood on the altar, or offers the organs and fats, if one of these individuals or one of the members of the company partaking of this Paschal sacrifice possessed chametz in his domain at the time it is offered, he is liable for lashes. The sacrifice is, however, acceptable.

ה

הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַפֶּסַח בִּזְמַנּוֹ וְהָיָה לוֹ כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ לוֹקֶה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יח) "לֹא תִזְבַּח עַל חָמֵץ דַּם זִבְחִי". שֶׁלֹּא יִזְבַּח הַפֶּסַח וְהֶחָמֵץ קַיָּם. אֶחָד הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְאֶחָד הַזּוֹרֵק אֶת הַדָּם וְאֶחָד הַמַּקְטִיר אֶת הָאֵימוּרִין אִם הָיָה בִּרְשׁוּת אֶחָד מֵהֶם אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה שֶׁאוֹכְלִין פֶּסַח זֶה כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ בִּשְׁעַת הַקְרָבָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה וְהַפֶּסַח כָּשֵׁר:

6

The blood of the Paschal sacrifice should be poured out on the base of the altar. After the blood was poured, its belly should be opened up, the fats and organs to be offered on the altar removed. The fats of each Paschal sacrifice should be offered on the pyre individually. The owner of the sacrifice should take his Paschal sacrifice with its hide to his home in Jerusalem.There he roasts it and eats it in the evening.

ו

דַּם הַפֶּסַח טָעוּן שְׁפִיכָה כְּנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד. וְאַחַר שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִים דָּמוֹ מַפְשִׁיטִים אוֹתוֹ וְקוֹרְעִין אֶת בִּטְנוֹ וּמוֹצִיאִין אֶת אֵימוּרָיו וּמַקְטִירִין אוֹתָן חֲלָבִין כָּל זֶבַח וְזֶבַח לְבַדּוֹ. וּבַעַל הַזֶּבַח נוֹטֵל פִּסְחוֹ עִם הָעוֹר שֶׁלּוֹ וּמֵבִיא לְבֵיתוֹ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְצוֹלֵהוּ וְאוֹכֵל לָעֶרֶב:

7

When one leaves these fats and organs and does not offer them until they remain overnight and thus become disqualified because they remained overnight, he violates a negative commandment, as Exodus 23:18 states: "Do not leave over the festive fats until the morning." Even though he transgresses, he is not liable for lashes, for the prohibition does not involve a deed.

ז

הַמַּנִּיחַ אֵימוּרִים וְלֹא הִקְטִירָן עַד שֶׁלָּנוּ וְנִפְסְלוּ בְּלִינָה הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יח) "לֹא יָלִין חֵלֶב חַגִּי עַד בֹּקֶר". וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה:

8

The fats of the Paschal sacrifice may be offered on the altar's pyre until dawn.

When does the above apply? When the fourteenth of Nisan falls on the Sabbath, for fats of sacrifices offered on the Sabbath may be offered on a festival. If, however, the fourteenth fell on a weekday, this leniency is not taken, because we do not offer the fats of sacrifices offered on a weekday on a festival.

ח

וּמַקְטִירִין חֶלְבֵי פְּסָחִים כָּל הַלַּיְלָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁחָל אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי חֶלְבֵי שַׁבָּת קְרֵבִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל אִם חָל אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּחל אֵין מַקְטִירִין חֶלְבֵי חֹל בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

9

The Paschal sacrifice should be offered in three groups, as implied by Exodus 13:6 "And all of the congregation of the community of Israel shall slaughter it." Three collective terms are used "congregation," community," and "Israel." There should be no less than 30 people in each group.

ט

הַפֶּסַח נִשְׁחָט בְּשָׁלֹשׁ כִּתּוֹת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ו) "וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כּל קְהַל עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל". קָהָל. וְעֵדָה. וְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים בְּנֵי אָדָם בְּכָל כַּת וְכַת:

10

If there were only 50 people who came to slaughter the Paschal sacrifice, thirty enter the Temple Courtyard and slaughter their sacrificial animals. Ten depart and another ten enter. Then ten more depart and another ten enter.

י

הָיוּ הַכּל חֲמִשִּׁים. נִכְנָסִים בַּתְּחִלָּה שְׁלֹשִׁים וְשׁוֹחֲטִין. וְיוֹצְאִים עֲשָׂרָה וְנִכְנָסִין עֲשָׂרָה. וְחוֹזְרִין וְיוֹצְאִין עֲשָׂרָה וְנִכְנָסִין עֲשָׂרָה:

11

If there are less than 50 people who seek to offer Paschal sacrifices, the initial preference is not to offer that sacrifice. If, however, it was offered, it is acceptable. If all the Jewish people slaughtered their Paschal sacrifices at one time, it is acceptable.

How is the Paschal sacrifice slaughtered? The first group enters the Temple Courtyard until it is full. Its gates are locked and they begin slaughtering their Paschal sacrifices. As long as they are slaughtering and offering the blood, the Levites recite the Hallel. If they completed its recitation before the group completed its sacrifice, the Hallel is repeated. If they completed its repetition before the group completed its sacrifice, the Hallel is recited a third time. There was never a situation where the Hallel was completed a third time.

יא

הָיוּ פָּחוֹת מֵחֲמִשִּׁים אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח לְכַתְּחִלָּה [וְאִם שָׁחֲטוּ כָּשֵׁר]. וְאִם שָׁחֲטוּ כֻּלָּן בְּבַת אַחַת כָּשֵׁר. כֵּיצַד נִשְׁחָט. נִכְנְסָה הַכַּת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עַד שֶׁתִּתְמַלֵּא הָעֲזָרָה וְנוֹעֲלִין דַּלְתוֹת הָעֲזָרָה וּמַתְחִילִין לִשְׁחֹט אֶת פִּסְחֵיהֶן. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן שׁוֹחֲטִין וּמַקְרִיבִין קוֹרְאִים הַלְּוִיִּים אֶת הַהַלֵּל. אִם גָּמְרוּ הַהַלֵּל וַעֲדַיִן לֹא שָׁלְמָה הַכַּת מִלְּהַקְרִיב שׁוֹנִים. וְאִם שָׁנוּ וְלֹא שָׁלְמוּ לְהַקְרִיב מְשַׁלְּשִׁין. וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא שִׁלְּשׁוּ:

12

For every time the Hallel is read, three blasts are sounded with the trumpets, a tekiah, teruah, and tekiah. Since these sacrifices are not accompanied by libations for the trumpets to be sounded when they are offered, they are sounded when the sacrifices are slaughtered.

יב

עַל כָּל קְרִיאָה וּקְרִיאָה תּוֹקְעִין שָׁלֹשׁ תְּקִיעוֹת בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת. תְּקִיעָה תְּרוּעָה וּתְקִיעָה. הוֹאִיל וְאֵין לוֹ נְסָכִים לִתְקֹעַ בִּשְׁעַת נִסּוּךְ תּוֹקְעִין בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה:

13

The priests stand in lines, holding silver and gold vessels in their hands. One line would all hold silver ones and another, all gold, without them mixing together so that it would be attractive.

The vessels did not have flat bottoms so that they would not be placed down and the blood allowed to coagulate.

יג

הַכֹּהֲנִים עוֹמְדִים שׁוּרוֹת שׁוּרוֹת וּבִידֵיהֶן מִזְרְקֵי כֶּסֶף וּמִזְרְקֵי זָהָב. שׁוּרָה שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ כֶּסֶף כֶּסֶף. שׁוּרָה שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ זָהָב זָהָב. וְלֹא הָיוּ מְעֹרָבִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לָהֶם נוֹי. וְלֹא הָיוּ לַמִּזְרָקִין שׁוּלַיִם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַנִּיחוּם וְיִקְרַשׁ הַדָּם:

14

A slaughterer slaughters the sacrificial animal and a priest receives its blood, gives to his colleague, who gives it to his colleague - so that many will be involved in the mitzvah - until the blood reaches the priest near the altar. He should pour it in a single action towards the altar's base. He receives a full vessel and returns the empty one.

Afterwards, the sacrificial animal is hung and skinned entirely. Its belly is ripped open and its innards are pressed until the filth and waste are removed from them. The organs and fats to be offered are removed, placed in a vessel, salted, and offered by a priest on the altar.

How is the sacrificial animal hung and skinned? There were iron pegs affixed in the walls and the pillars of the Temple Courtyard. The sacrificial animals were hung and skinned on them. For those who did not find a place to hang his animal, there were thin, smooth rods. One would place the rod on his shoulder and on his friend's shoulder and hang the sacrificial animal on it and skin it.

יד

שָׁחַט הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְקִבֵּל הַכֹּהֵן. נוֹתְנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַסְּקוּ רַבִּים בַּמִּצְוָה עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַדָּם אֵצֶל כֹּהֵן הַקָּרוֹב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. שׁוֹפְכוֹ שְׁפִיכָה אַחַת כְּנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד וּמְקַבֵּל מִזְרָק אֶחָד מָלֵא וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַחְזִיר אֶת הָרֵיקָן. וְתוֹלִין וּמַפְשִׁיטִין אֶת כֻּלּוֹ וְקוֹרְעוֹ וּמְמַחֶה אֶת קְרָבָיו עַד שֶׁמֵּסִיר מֵהֶן הַצּוֹאָה וְהַפֶּרֶשׁ. וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הָאֵימוּרִין וְנוֹתְנָן בִּכְלִי וּמוֹלְחָן וּמַקְטִירָן הַכֹּהֵן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְכֵיצַד תּוֹלִין וּמַפְשִׁיטִין. מַסְמְרוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל הָיוּ קְבוּעִין בַּכְּתָלִים וּבָעַמּוּדִים שֶׁבָּהֶן תּוֹלִין וּמַפְשִׁיטִין. וְכָל מִי שֶׁלֹּא מָצָא מָקוֹם לִתְלוֹת מַקְלוֹת דַּקִּים וַחֲלָקִים הָיוּ שָׁם מַנִּיחַ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְעַל כֶּתֶף חֲבֵרוֹ וְתוֹלֶה וּמַפְשִׁיט:

15

After the sacrifice was completed, the gates of the Temple Courtyard are opened. The first group departs and the second group enters. Then the second group departs and the third group enters. The manner in which it was offered the first time was repeated the second time and the third time. When the third group completed its sacrificial service and departed, the Temple Courtyard is washed.

טו

שָׁלְמוּ מִלְּהַקְרִיב פּוֹתְחִין דַּלְתוֹת הָעֲזָרָה וְיוֹצֵאת כַּת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְנִכְנְסָה שְׁנִיָּה. יָצָאת שְׁנִיָּה וְנִכְנְסָה שְׁלִישִׁית. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה רִאשׁוֹנָה כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂה שְׁנִיָּה וּשְׁלִישִׁית. שָׁלְמָה כַּת שְׁלִישִׁית וְיָצָאת רוֹחֲצִים אֶת הָעֲזָרָה:

16

If the fourteenth of Nisan fell on the Sabbath, it was offered on the Sabbath in the same way as it was offered during the week. The floor of the Temple Courtyard would be washed, for prohibitions of the category of shvut are not observed in the Temple, even when the matter is not necessary for the Temple service. For the prohibitions of shvut are released entirely in the Temple.

טז

חָל אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת כְּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְּחל כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְרוֹחֲצִין אֶת הָעֲזָרָה בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר שְׁבוּת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ צֹרֶךְ עֲבוֹדָה אִסּוּר שְׁבוּת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הֶתֵּר הוּא:

17

No one would bring their Paschal sacrifices to their homes on the Sabbath. Instead, the first group would depart with their Paschal sacrifices and sit on the Temple Mount. The second group would depart with their Paschal sacrifices and sit on the surrounding rampart. And the third group would stand in their place in the Temple Courtyard. They would all wait until the conclusion of the Sabbath and then everyone would bring their Paschal sacrifice to his home.

יז

אֵין כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מוֹלִיךְ אֶת פִּסְחוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. אֶלָּא כַּת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹצְאִין בְּפִסְחֵיהֶם וְיוֹשְׁבִין בְּהַר הַבַּיִת. וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה יוֹצְאִין בְּפִסְחֵיהֶן וְיוֹשְׁבִין בַּחֵיל. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית עוֹמְדִין בִּמְקוֹמָן בָּעֲזָרָה. וְשׁוֹהִים הַכּל עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְהוֹלֵךְ כָּל אֶחָד בְּפִסְחוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ:

18

The slaughter of the Paschal sacrifice, pouring its blood on the altar, pressing out its innards, and offering its fats supersede the Sabbath prohibitions. For it is impossible to perform these before the Sabbath, because the sacrifice has a fixed time, as implied by Numbers 9:2 which states that the sacrifice must be brought "at its appointed time." Nevertheless, carrying it through the city, bringing it from outside the Sabbath limits, cutting off its wart with a utensil do not supersede the Sabbath prohibitions, because these activities could be performed before the Sabbath. If, however, he could cut it off by hand on the Sabbath, he may. If it was dried up, he may cut it off, even with a utensil, for the prohibitions defined as shvut do not apply in the Temple at all.

Similarly, roasting it and washing out its innards do not supersede the Sabbath prohibitions, because these activities can be performed after the Sabbath.

יח

שְׁחִיטַת הַפֶּסַח וּזְרִיקַת דָּמוֹ וּמִחוּי קְרָבָיו וְהֶקְטֵר חֲלָבָיו דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי קָבוּעַ לוֹ זְמַן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ט ב ג) "בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ". אֲבָל הַרְכָּבָתוֹ וַהֲבָאָתוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם וַחֲתִיכַת יַבָּלָתוֹ בִּכְלִי אֵינָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאִם יָכוֹל לַחְתֹּךְ יַבַּלְתּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹתֵךְ. וְאִם הָיְתָה יְבֵשָׁה חוֹתְכָהּ אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי שֶׁאֵין שְׁבוּת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ כְּלָל. וְכֵן צְלִיָּתוֹ וַהֲדָחַת קְרָבָיו אֵינָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת:

19

If one forgot and did not bring a knife, he should not bring it on the Sabbath. Instead, he should place it between the horns of the lamb or in its wool and spur it on until it brings it to the Temple. There he should consecrate it. Although he is having an animal carry a burden for him on the Sabbath, since he is doing this in an abnormal manner and because of the mitzvah, it was permitted.

When does this apply? When he has not consecrated his Paschal sacrifice as of yet or said: "This is a Paschal sacrifice." If, however, he consecrated it, he should not have a knife carried upon it, because he is having work performed by a consecrated animal.

Why was a person permitted to consecrate his Paschal sacrifice on the Sabbath? Since the sacrifice has a fixed time, it is permitted to consecrate it on the Sabbath. Similarly, a person may consecrate his festive offering on a festival without any concern.

יט

שָׁכַח וְלֹא הֵבִיא סַכִּין לֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. אֶלָּא נוֹתְנָהּ בֵּין קַרְנֵי הַכֶּבֶשׂ אוֹ בְּצַמְרוֹ וּמַכִּישׁוֹ עַד שֶׁמְּבִיאוֹ לָעֲזָרָה וּמַקְדִּישׁוֹ שָׁם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְחַמֵּר בְּשַׁבָּת מְחַמֵּר כִּלְאַחַר יָד הוּא וּמִפְּנֵי הַמִּצְוָה מֻתָּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁלֹּא הִקְדִּישׁ פִּסְחוֹ עֲדַיִן וְלֹא אָמַר זֶה פֶּסַח אֲבָל אִם הִקְדִּישׁוֹ לֹא יָבִיא סַכִּין עָלָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹבֵד בְּקָדָשִׁים. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הִתִּירוּ לְהַקְדִּישׁ פִּסְחוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת הוֹאִיל וְקָבוּעַ לוֹ זְמַן מֻתָּר לְהַקְדִּישׁוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן מַקְדִּישׁ אָדָם חֲגִיגָתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ:

20

When a person slaughters his Paschal sacrifice and it is discovered to have a disqualifying physical blemish or it is treifah. he may slaughter another one whether on the weekday or on the Sabbath. He may proceed and slaughter one hundred one after the other until one is acceptable or until night falls and his offering of the sacrifice is postponed until the Second Pesach, because he was prevented by forces beyond his control.

כ

הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַפֶּסַח וְנִמְצָא בַּעַל מוּם אוֹ טְרֵפָה הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹחֵט אַחֵר בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה זֶה אַחַר זֶה שׁוֹחֵט וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁיִּכְשַׁר אֶחָד אוֹ עַד שֶׁתֶּחֱשַׁךְ וְיִדָּחֶה לַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁהֲרֵי אָנוּס הוּא:

Korban Pesach - Perek 2

1

The Paschal sacrifice should be slaughtered only for the sake of those who were enumerated for partaking of it, as Exodus 13:4 states: "Everyone... should be enumerated on the lamb." The implication is that one should be enumerated on it while it is alive. Those enumerated on a Paschal sacrifice are referred to as "the members of the company."

א

אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא לִמְנוּיָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ד) "תָּכֹסּוּ עַל הַשֶּׂה" מְלַמֵּד שֶׁמִּתְמַנִּים עָלָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי. וְאֵלּוּ הַמִּתְמַנִּים עַל הַפֶּסַח הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה:

2

When one individual sacrifices a Paschal sacrifice for himself alone, it is acceptable, provided he is capable of partaking of it in its entirety. As an initial preference, an endeavor is made not to sacrifice the Paschal sacrifice for the sake of one individual alone, for Numbers 9:12 states: "They shall offer it."

ב

יָחִיד שֶׁשָּׁחַט אֶת הַפֶּסַח לְעַצְמוֹ כָּשֵׁר. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רָאוּי לֶאֱכוֹל אֶת כֻּלּוֹ. וּמִשְׁתַּדְּלִין שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁחַט לְכַתְּחִלָּה עַל יָחִיד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מז) (במדבר ט יא יב) "יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ":

3

The Paschal sacrifice should be slaughtered only for those who are fit to partake of it. If one of the members of the company was a minor, an elder person, or infirm, he may be counted among those for whom the Paschal sacrifice is slaughtered if he is capable of eating an olive-sized portion. If not, he may not be counted among them, as implied by Exodus 12:4: "A person according to his capacity to eat," indicating that he must be fit to partake of it. Even if the company includes 100, if any one of them is not capable of eating an olive-sized portion, he may not be counted among those for whom it is slaughtered.

ג

אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא עַל מִי שֶׁרָאוּי לֶאֱכל. הָיָה אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה קָטָן אוֹ זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה אִם יָכוֹל לֶאֱכל כְּזַיִת שׁוֹחֲטִין עָלָיו וְאִם לָאו אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עָלָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ד) "אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ" עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רָאוּי לֶאֱכל. אֲפִלּוּ חֲבוּרָה שֶׁל מֵאָה וְאֵין כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לֶאֱכל כְּזַיִת אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עֲלֵיהֶן:

4

A company should not be composed of solely women and servants or minors and servants so that frivolity will not be found among them. A company may, however, be made entirely of women even for the second Paschal sacrifice or entirely of servants. Minors may be counted among the company for whom the Paschal sacrifice is slaughtered, but a company may not be comprised solely of minors, for they are not intellectually mature.

Similarly, a company should not be made up solely of the infirm, the elderly, or those in an acute state of mourning. Even though they are capable of eating, since they will eat only a meager amount, it is possible that they will leave over from the Paschal sacrifice and cause it to become unacceptable. If they transgressed and had a Paschal sacrifice slaughtered for such a company, it is acceptable. Similarly, a company should not be made up solely of converts, lest they not be precise concerning it and cause it to be disqualified. If a Paschal sacrifice was slaughtered for such a company, it is acceptable.

ד

אֵין עוֹשִׂין חֲבוּרָה נָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים אוֹ קְטַנִּים וַעֲבָדִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן. אֲבָל עוֹשִׂים חֲבוּרָה כֻּלָּם נָשִׁים אֲפִלּוּ בְּפֶסַח שֵׁנִי. אוֹ כֻּלָּהּ עֲבָדִים. וְשׁוֹחֲטִין עַל הַקְּטַנִּים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִכְּלַל בְּנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה. לֹא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה חֲבוּרָה כֻּלָּהּ קְטַנִּים שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי דַּעַת. וְכֵן אֵין עוֹשִׂין חֲבוּרָה כֻּלָּהּ חוֹלִים אוֹ זְקֵנִים אוֹ אוֹנְנִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן יְכוֹלִין לֶאֱכל הוֹאִיל וַאֲכִילָתָם מְעוּטָה. שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁאִירוּ הַפֶּסַח וִיבִיאוּהוּ לִידֵי פְּסוּל. וְאִם עָבְרוּ וְשָׁחֲטוּ עַל חֲבוּרָה זוֹ כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן אֵין עוֹשִׂין חֲבוּרָה כֻּלָּהּ גֵּרִים שֶׁמָּא יְדַקְדְּקוּ בּוֹ וִיבִיאוּהוּ לִידֵי פִּסּוּל. וְאִם שָׁחֲטוּ עֲלֵיהֶן כָּשֵׁר:

5

If a Paschal sacrifice was slaughtered for people who were not enumerated upon it or for individuals whom none could eat an olive-sized portion or it was slaughtered for the uncircumcised or those impure, it is unacceptable. If it was slaughtered for one who could partake of it and one who could not partake of an olive-sized portion, for those enumerated on it and for others not enumerated on it, for circumcised and uncircumcised, for the pure and the impure, it is acceptable. Those who are fit to partake of it eat according to law; it is as if he did not have the others in mind.

ה

שְׁחָטוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לִמְנוּיָיו אוֹ לְמִי שֶׁאֵין כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לֶאֱכל כְּזַיִת אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ לַעֲרֵלִים אוֹ לִטְמֵאִים פָּסוּל. שְׁחָטוֹ לְמִי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֶאֱכל וּלְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכל כְּזַיִת. לִמְנוּיָיו וְשֶׁלֹּא לִמְנוּיָיו. לְמוּלִים וְלַעֲרֵלִים. לִטְהוֹרִים וְלִטְמֵאִין. כָּשֵׁר. שֶׁאֵלּוּ הָרְאוּיִין לוֹ אוֹכְלִין כַּהֲלָכָה וְהָאֲחֵרִים כְּאִלּוּ לֹא חָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶם:

6

If the Paschal sacrifice was slaughtered for the sake of the circumcised, but its blood was cast on the altar for the sake of the circumcised and the uncircumcised, it is unacceptable. The rationale is that casting the blood is more severe, because it is the fundamental dimension of the sacrifice.

If he slaughtered it for the circumcised so that the uncircumcised will derive atonement through it, it is unacceptable, because he had the uncircumcised in mind when casting the blood. If he slaughtered it for the sake of those who would partake of it so that its blood would be cast for those who would not partake of it, the Paschal sacrifice is acceptable, but no one fulfills their obligation with it, because the ones who will partake of it were not in mind when the blood was cast.

ו

שְׁחָטוֹ לְמוּלִים וְזָרַק הַדָּם לְשֵׁם מוּלִים וַעֲרֵלִים פָּסוּל. שֶׁהַזְּרִיקָה חֲמוּרָה שֶׁהִיא עִקַּר הַקָּרְבָּן. שְׁחָטוֹ לְמוּלִים שֶׁיִּתְכַּפְּרוּ בּוֹ עֲרֵלִים פָּסוּל שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ מַחֲשֶׁבֶת עֲרֵלִים בִּזְרִיקָה. שְׁחָטוֹ לְאוֹכְלָיו לִזְרֹק דָּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְאוֹכְלָיו הַפֶּסַח כָּשֵׁר וְאֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בּוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַחֲשֶׁבֶת אוֹכְלִים בַּזְּרִיקָה:

7

When one was healthy at the time the sacrificial animal was slaughtered, but sick at the time its blood was cast or sick at the time of slaughter, but healthy at the time the blood was cast, the sacrificial animal should not be slaughtered, nor its blood cast for him unless he is healthy from the time it was slaughtered until its blood was cast.

ז

מִי שֶׁהוּא בָּרִיא בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה וְחוֹלֶה בִּשְׁעַת זְרִיקָה. אוֹ חוֹלֶה בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה וּבָרִיא בִּשְׁעַת זְרִיקָה. אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין וְזוֹרְקִין עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּרִיא מִשְּׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה עַד שְׁעַת זְרִיקָה:

8

A person may have a sacrificial animal slaughtered for the sake of his son or daughter who are below majority and for his Canaanite servants and maidservants,whether with their consent or without their consent. He may not, however, slaughter for the sake of his son or daughter who are above majority or for the sake of his Hebrew servants and maidservants or for the sake of his wife without their consent. If they were silent and did not protest, they are considered to have consented.

ח

שׁוֹחֵט אָדָם עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים בֵּין מִדַּעְתָּן בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתָּן. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ שׁוֹחֵט עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעְתָּן. וְאִם שָׁתְקוּ וְלֹא מִחוּ הֲרֵי זֶה מִדַּעְתָּן:

9

If one slaughtered a sacrificial animal for the sake of his son or daughter who are below majority and/or for his Canaanite servants and maidservants and they went and had one slaughtered for themselves, they fulfill their obligation by partaking of their master's sacrifice.

ט

שָׁחַט עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים וְהָלְכוּ וְשָׁחֲטוּ הֵן לְעַצְמָן יוֹצְאִין בְּשֶׁל רַבָּן:

10

If one slaughtered a sacrificial animal for the sake of his wife, his son or daughter who are above majority and/or for his Hebrew servants and maidservants and they went and had one slaughtered for themselves, there is no greater protest than this. They fulfill their obligation by partaking of their own sacrifice.

י

שָׁחַט עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים וְשָׁחֲטוּ הֵן לְעַצְמָן. אֵין לְךָ מִחוּי גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה וְאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁל עַצְמָן:

11

When a woman is living in her husband's home and her father slaughters for her and her husband slaughters for her, she should partake of her husband's. If she was hurrying to go to her father's home on the first festival after her wedding as is the pattern of all women and both her father and her husband slaughtered for her, she should partake of her father's. From this point onward, she should eat at the place she desires, provided it is clear where she desires to eat at the time of slaughter.

Similarly, if two guardians sacrifice on behalf of an orphan, the orphan should eat where he desires. When does the above apply? To an orphan below majority. If, however, he is above majority, it is as if he was enumerated on two Paschal sacrifices. And when one enumerates himself on two Paschal sacrifices, he may partake only of the one slaughtered first.

יא

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא בְּבֵית בַּעְלָהּ שָׁחַט עָלֶיהָ אָבִיהָ וְשָׁחַט עָלֶיהָ בַּעְלָהּ תֹּאכַל מִשֶּׁל בַּעְלָהּ. הָיְתָה נֶחְפֶּזֶת לָלֶכֶת לְבֵית אָבִיהָ בָּרֶגֶל הָרִאשׁוֹן הַסָּמוּךְ לְנִשּׂוּאֶיהָ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַבָּנוֹת וְשָׁחַט עָלֶיהָ אָבִיהָ וְשָׁחַט עָלֶיהָ בַּעְלָהּ תֹּאכַל מִשֶּׁל אָבִיהָ. מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ תֹּאכַל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִיא רוֹצָה. וְהוּא שֶׁתִּבְרֹר לָהּ מָקוֹם שֶׁתִּרְצֶה בִּשְׁעַת שְׁחִיטָה. וְכֵן יָתוֹם שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ עָלָיו אַפּוֹטְרוֹפְּסִין יֹאכַל מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּיָתוֹם קָטָן. אֲבָל גָּדוֹל נַעֲשֶׂה כִּמְמַנֶּה עַצְמוֹ עַל שְׁנֵי פְּסָחִים וְהַמְמַנֶּה עַצְמוֹ עַל שְׁנֵי פְּסָחִים אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא מִן הַנִּשְׁחָט רִאשׁוֹן:

12

With regard to a Canaanite servant of two partners, if they are untrusting of each other, suspecting that the other will steal the servant, he should not partake of either of their Paschal sacrifice. If they are not untrusting, he may eat where he desires.

יב

עֶבֶד שֶׁל שְׁנֵי שֻׁתָּפִין בִּזְמַן שֶׁמַּקְפִּידִין זֶה עַל זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִגְנְבֶנּוּ לֹא יֹאכַל מִשֶּׁל שְׁנֵיהֶן. וְאִם אֵינָן מַקְפִּידִין מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יֹאכַל:

13

A person who is half a servant and half free, he should not partake of his masters, nor of his own until he attains his freedom.

יג

מִי שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין. לֹא יֹאכַל לֹא מִשֶּׁל רַבּוֹ וְלֹא מִשֶּׁל עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה כֻּלּוֹ בֶּן חוֹרִין:

14

To what extent can people be enumerated on a Paschal sacrifice? Until there is an olive-sized portion for each one.

One may be enumerated upon it and remove himself from it until it is slaughtered. Once it is slaughtered, he may not remove himself from it, for it was already slaughtered on his behalf.

The following rules apply when some people were enumerated on a sacrificial animal and others came and enumerated themselves on the same animal. If there is an olive-sized portion for the first, they may partake of it and are exempt from bringing a second Paschal sacrifice. The later ones who were added until there was not an olive-sized portion for each person should not partake of it and are obligated to offer a second Paschal sacrifice.

יד

עַד כַּמָּה נִמְנִים עַל הַפֶּסַח. עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ כְּזַיִת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. וְנִמְנִין עָלָיו וּמוֹשְׁכִין אֶת יְדֵיהֶן מִמֶּנּוּ עַד שֶׁיִּשָּׁחֵט. כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְשֹׁךְ אֶת יָדוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁחַט עָלָיו. נִמְנוּ עָלָיו וְחָזְרוּ אֲחֵרִים וְנִמְנוּ עָלָיו. רִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם כְּזַיִת אוֹכְלִים וּפְטוּרִים מֵעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי וְאַחֲרוֹנִים שֶׁרָבוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִמְצָא בּוֹ כְּזַיִת לְכָל אֶחָד אֵינָן אוֹכְלִין וְחַיָּבִים לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי:

15

When a person enumerates others on his portion of the Paschal sacrifice without the other members of his company knowing, the members of the company are entitled to give him his portion after it was roasted at the time when the sacrifice is eaten. The members of the company partake of their portion and he eats together with the others whom he enumerated in a second company.

Similarly, if one of the members of a company is a glutton, the members of the company are permitted to remove him and give him his portion which he will eat in his own company. If he is not a glutton, they may not divide.

טו

הַמְמַנֶּה אֲחֵרִים עִמּוֹ עַל חֶלְקוֹ וְלֹא יָדְעוּ בָּהֶן בְּנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה הֲרֵי בְּנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה רַשָּׁאִין לִתֵּן לוֹ חֶלְקוֹ אַחַר שֶׁיִּצָּלֶה בְּעֵת הָאֲכִילָה וּבְנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה אוֹכְלִין מִשֶּׁלָּהֶן וְהוּא אוֹכֵל חֶלְקוֹ עִם הָאֲחֵרִים שֶׁמָּנָה עָלָיו בַּחֲבוּרָה שְׁנִיָּה. וְכֵן בְּנֵי הַחֲבוּרָה שֶׁהָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶם גַּרְגְּרָן רַשָּׁאִים לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵהֶן וְנוֹתְנִין לוֹ חֶלְקוֹ וְיֹאכְלֵהוּ בַּחֲבוּרָתוֹ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ זוֹלֵל אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לְחַלֵּק:

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in the one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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