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Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 6, Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 7, Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 8

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Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 6

1

[The following is] order of continuous offerings brought each day: Shortly before dawn1 the supervisor in charge of the lotteries comes and knocks gently2 on [the gates of] the Temple Courtyard.3 They are opened for him and an inspection is made of the Temple Courtyard.4 The bakers of the chavitin are roused to prepare the chavitin.5

All of the priests there will have already immersed themselves before the supervisor comes and garbed themselves in the priestly garments. They come and stand in the Chamber of Hewn Stone and carry out the first and second lottery6 and [the priests] who merit [are designated to perform] their services, as we explained.7

The one who merited to remove the ashes [from the outer altar] begins removing them according to the procedure we described.8 Afterwards, he arranges the large array [of wood on the altar], then he arranges the second array,9 and then he brings up two logs of wood and places them on the array to increase the fire.10

Afterwards, they enter the Chamber of the Utensils11 and remove all the utensils that are necessary for the entire day.12 They give [the lamb to be sacrificed as] the continuous offering water to drink.13 The one who merited to slaughter it pulls it to the butchering area. All of the priests who merited to take the limbs [up to the ramp] follow him and wait there until they open the Great Gate14 of the Sanctuary. When the gate is opened [the lamb to be sacrificed as] the continuous offering is slaughtered.15

Afterwards two priests enter the Sanctuary: one who merited to remove the ashes from the inner altar16 and the other who merited to remove the ashes from the Menorah.17

א

סֵדֶר עֲבוֹדוֹת הַתְּמִידוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם כָּךְ הוּא. סָמוּךְ לַעֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר יָבוֹא הַמְמֻנֶּה שֶׁעַל הַפְּיָסוֹת וְיַקִּישׁ עַל הָעֲזָרָה וּפוֹתְחִין לוֹ. וּמְבַלְּשִׁין אֶת כָּל הָעֲזָרָה. וּמַעֲמִידִין עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִיתִין לַעֲשׂוֹת הַחֲבִיתִין. וְכָל הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁשָּׁם כְּבָר טָבְלוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹא הַמְמֻנֶּה וְלָבְשׁוּ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה. וְיָבוֹאוּ וְיַעַמְדוּ בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית. וְיָפִיסוּ פַּיִס רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וְיִזְכֶּה כָּל אֶחָד בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וּמַתְחִיל זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בִּתְרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן וְתוֹרֵם עַל הַסֵּדֶר שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַדֵּר מַעֲרָכָה גְּדוֹלָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסַדֵּר מַעֲרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲלֶה שְׁנֵי גִּזְרֵי עֵצִים וּמַנִּיחָן עַל מַעֲרָכָה גְּדוֹלָה לְהַרְבּוֹת הָאֵשׁ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָסִין לְלִשְׁכַּת הַכֵּלִים וּמוֹצִיאִין כָּל כְּלֵי הַשָּׁרֵת הַצְּרִיכִין לָהֶן כָּל הַיּוֹם. וּמַשְׁקִין אֶת הַתָּמִיד מַיִם וְזֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בִּשְׁחִיטָתוֹ מוֹשְׁכוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם. וְהוֹלְכִין אַחֲרָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁזָּכוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת הָאֵיבָרִים וְשׁוֹהִין שָׁם עַד שֶׁפּוֹתְחִין שַׁעַר הַהֵיכָל הַגָּדוֹל. וּבִשְׁעַת פְּתִיחַת הַשַּׁעַר שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַתָּמִיד. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנָסִין לַהֵיכָל שְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים. הָאֶחָד שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה:

2

The one who removes the ashes from the altar should do that at the same time the slaughterer slaughters [the lamb to be offered] as the continuous offering. Afterwards, the person who receives its blood dashes it on the altar.18

ב

וְהַמְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְדַשְּׁנוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַשּׁוֹחֵט שׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַתָּמִיד. וְאַחַר כָּךְ זוֹרֵק הַדָּם זֶה שֶׁקִּבְּלוֹ:

3

After the blood is dashed on the altar, [the second priest] in the Sanctuary kindles five lamps19 and both of them leave the Sanctuary. The priests in the butchering area skin [the lamb] and cut it into portions.20 Each one brings the limb which he merited to the ramp. The limbs are placed on the lower half of the western portion of the ramp.21 The portions [of the animals sacrificed as] additional offerings are placed on the lower half of the eastern portion of the ramp. Those of the Rosh Chodesh are placed on the top of the altar between the horns, in the place where the priests walk to publicize that it is Rosh Chodesh.22 There they salt the limbs. They also salt the ramp, even on the Sabbath,23 so the priests will not slip and fall while bringing wood up to the ramp. Although the salt intervenes between [the priests'] feet and the ramp, it is not a concern since carrying this wood is not part of [the Temple] service.24

ג

וְאַחַר שֶׁזּוֹרְקִין אֶת הַדָּם מֵטִיב זֶה שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל חָמֵשׁ נֵרוֹת וְיוֹצְאִין שְׁנֵיהֶן מִן הַהֵיכָל. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּבֵית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם מַפְשִׁיטִין וּמְנַתְּחִין וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַעֲלֶה אֵיבָר שֶׁזָּכָה בּוֹ לַכֶּבֶשׁ. וְנוֹתְנִין הָאֵיבָרִים מֵחֲצִי כֶּבֶשׁ וּלְמַטָּה בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ. וְשֶׁל מוּסָפִין הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין אוֹתָן מֵחֲצִי כֶּבֶשׁ וּלְמַטָּה בְּמִזְרָחוֹ. וְשֶׁל רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים נוֹתְנִין עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלְּמַעְלָה בֵּין קֶרֶן לְקֶרֶן בִּמְקוֹם הִלּוּךְ רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים כְּדֵי לְפַרְסְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. וּמוֹלְחִין שָׁם אֶת הָאֵיבָרִים וְזוֹרְקִין מֶלַח עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחְלִיק וְיִפְּלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים שָׁם בְּעֵת הֲלִיכָתָן בָּעֵצִים לַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמֶּלַח חוֹצֵץ בֵּין רַגְלֵיהֶם וּבֵין הַכֶּבֶשׁ הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַהוֹלָכָה הַזֹּאת עֲבוֹדָה אֵינָן חוֹשְׁשִׁין:

4

After the limbs are brought to the ramp, all of the priests gather in the Chamber of Hewn Stone and the supervisor tells them: "Recite one blessing." They begin the recitation of the blessing Ahavas Olam,25 the Ten Commandments,26 the passage Shema, the passage Vehayah Im Shamoa,and the passage Vayomer,27 [the blessing] Emet VaYatziv,28 and the blessings Retzei and Sim Shalom.29 On the Sabbath, another blessing is added. It is recited by the members of the priestly watch that depart30 to the members of the watch that enter: "May He Who causes His name to rest in this house cause love, brotherhood, peace, and friendship to rest among you."

Afterwards, they hold the third and fourth lotteries.31 The priest who merits to offer the incense enters [the Sanctuary] and offers it.32 Afterwards, the one who merited to remove the ashes of the Menorah enters and kindles two candles.33 The priest who offered the incense and the one who removed the ashes of the Menorah depart and stand on the steps of the Entrance Hall together with his priestly brethren.34

ד

וְאַחַר שֶׁמַּעֲלִין הָאֵיבָרִים לַכֶּבֶשׁ מִתְכַּנְּסִין כֻּלָּן לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית. וְהַמְמֻנֶּה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרְכוּ בְּרָכָה אַחַת. וְהֵן פּוֹתְחִין וְקוֹרִין אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם וַעֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת וּשְׁמַע וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ וַיֹּאמֶר וֶאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב וּרְצֵה וְשִׂים שָׁלוֹם. וּבְשַׁבָּת מוֹסִיפִין בְּרָכָה אַחַת וְהִיא שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר הַנִּכְנָס. מִי שֶׁשִּׁכֵּן אֶת שְׁמוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה יַשְׁכִּין בֵּינֵיכֶם אַהֲבָה אַחְוָה שָׁלוֹם וְרֵעוּת. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְפִיסִין פַּיִס שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי וְזוֹכֶה בַּקְּטֹרֶת מִי שֶׁזָּכָה וְנִכְנַס וּמַקְטִיר. וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִכְנַס זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בְּדִשּׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה וּמֵטִיב שְׁתֵּי הַנֵּרוֹת וְיוֹצֵא זֶה שֶׁהִקְטִיר עִם מְדַשֵּׁן הַמְּנוֹרָה. וְעוֹמֵד עַל מַעֲלוֹת הָאוּלָם הוּא וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:

5

When [the priest who offered the incense] reaches the area between the Entrance Hall and the Altar,35 [a priest] takes a rake and throws it between the Entrance Hall and the Altar. It made a loud noise.36 It served three purposes:

a) one who heard its sound would know that his priestly brethren were entering [the Sanctuary] to prostrate themselves37 and he would [also] run and go.

b) a Levite who heard its sound would know that his Levitical brethren were gathering to begin the singing [that accompanied the offerings]38 and he would run and go.

c) when the head of the ma'amad39 heard its sound, he would have the impure people40 stand at the eastern gate41 because of the suspicion, i.e., so that everyone should know that they had not brought their atonement offerings as of yet.

Afterwards, [the priest] who merited [to bring up] the limbs brings the limbs up from the ramp to the altar. After the limbs are brought up,42 [the priests] standing on the steps of the Entrance Hall begin to recite the Priestly Blessing [as] one blessing43[reciting] God's explicit name, as explained in the appropriate place.44

Afterwards, they bring the flour of the accompanying offerings45 up [to the altar]. After the flour, they offer the chavitin on the pyre. After the chavitin, they offer the wine libation. While the wine is being poured, the Levites recite song and the musicians play on the various instruments in the Temple.46 Nine tekiot are sounded during the bars of the song.47

ה

כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ. נָטַל אֶחָד הַמַּגְרֵפָה וּזְרָקָהּ בֵּין הָאוּלָם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְהָיָה לָהּ קוֹל גָּדוֹל. וּשְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בָּהֶן. הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת קוֹלָהּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים נִכְנָסִין לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת וְהוּא רָץ וּבָא. וּבֶן לֵוִי הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת קוֹלָהּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֶחָיו הַלְוִיִּם נִכְנָסִין לְדַבֵּר בְּשִׁיר וְהוּא רָץ וּבָא. וְרֹאשׁ הַמַּעֲמָד כְּשֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת קוֹלָהּ הָיָה מַעֲמִיד אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים עַל שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח מִפְּנֵי הַחֲשָׁד. שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הַכּל שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הֵבִיאוּ כַּפָּרָתָן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲלֶה זֶה שֶׁזָּכָה בָּאֵיבָרִים אֶת הָאֵיבָרִים מִן הַכֶּבֶשׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וְאַחַר שֶׁמַּעֲלִין אֶת הָאֵיבָרִים. מַתְחִילִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁעַל מַעֲלוֹת הָאוּלָם וּמְבָרְכִין בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים בְּרָכָה אַחַת בַּשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּמְקוֹמָהּ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַעֲלִין סלֶת הַנְּסָכִים. וְאַחַר הַסּלֶת מַקְטִיר הַחֲבִיתִין. וְאַחַר הַחֲבִיתִין מַעֲלִין אֶת הַיַּיִן לְנִסּוּךְ. וּבִשְׁעַת הַנִּסּוּךְ אוֹמְרִין הַלְוִיִּם הַשִּׁיר. וּמַכִּין הַמְשׁוֹרְרִין בְּמִינֵי נִגּוּן שֶׁבַּמִּקְדָּשׁ וְתוֹקְעִין תֵּשַׁע תְּקִיעוֹת עַל פִּרְקֵי הַשִּׁיר:

6

When they would give the wine to the priest who would perform the libation, there were two priests holding two trumpets in their hands who would stand on the table where the fats [were placed].48 The Segen49 stands on the corner of the altar with flags in his hands. [When he waves them], they would sound a tekiah, a teruah, and a tekiah.50 [The priests with the trumpets] would then stand next to the priest who was placed in charge of the cymbals,51 one to his right and one to his left.

ו

כְּשֶׁהָיוּ נוֹתְנִין הַיַּיִן לַמְנַסֵּךְ. הָיוּ שְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים עוֹמְדִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן הַחֲלָבִים וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בְּיָדָן. וְהַסְּגָן עוֹמֵד עַל קֶרֶן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַסּוּדָרִין בְּיָדוֹ. וְתָקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקְעוּ. וּבָאוּ וְעָמְדוּ אֵצֶל זֶה הַמְמֻנֶּה עַל הַצִּלְצָל. אֶחָד מִימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ:

7

When the [priest who offered the libation] bent down to pour it, the segen would wave the flags,52 [the priest] with the cymbals would sound them and the others would sound the trumpets. The Levites began singing.53 When they reached [the end] of a bar, [the priests] would sound the trumpets54 and all the people in the Courtyard would prostrate themselves.

At [the conclusion of] every bar [of the song],55 they would sound the trumpets and at every trumpet sounding, [the people] would prostrate themselves. There were a total of nine trumpet blasts56 sounded for the continuous offering, as we explained.57

ז

שָׁהָה הַמְנַסֵּךְ לַנֶּסֶךְ. מֵנִיף הַסְּגָן בְּסוּדָרִין. הִקִּישׁ זֶה בַּצִּלְצָל וְתָקְעוּ אֵלּוּ בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וְדִבְּרוּ הַלְוִיִּם בְּשִׁיר. הִגִּיעוּ לְפֶרֶק תָּקְעוּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ כָּל הָעָם שֶׁבָּעֲזָרָה. עַל כָּל פֶּרֶק תְּקִיעָה וְעַל כָּל תְּקִיעָה הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה. וְכָל הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁעַל הַתָּמִיד תֵּשַׁע כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

8

Song is recited only over the communal burnt-offerings and peace-offerings which are mentioned in the Torah. Song is not recited over the free-will burnt-offerings that are offered from the remaining funds of the Temple collection58 even though they are communal offerings. Similarly, when the additional offerings are brought independently, song is not recited over them.59

ח

אֵין אוֹמְרִין שִׁירָה אֶלָּא עַל עוֹלוֹת הַצִּבּוּר וְזִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיהֶם הָאֲמוּרִין בַּתּוֹרָה. אֲבָל עוֹלוֹת נְדָבָה שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין מִמּוֹתַר תְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל צִבּוּר אֵין אוֹמְרִין שִׁירָה עֲלֵיהֶן. וְכֵן נְסָכִים הַבָּאִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן אֵין אוֹמְרִין עֲלֵיהֶן שִׁירָה:

9

[These are] the songs that the Levites would recite:60 On Sunday, they would recite "The earth and its fullness is God's" (Psalm 24).61 On Monday, they would recite "God is great and exceedingly praised in the city of our Lord" (Psalm 48).62 On Tuesday, they would recite "God stands in the council of judges, among the judges, He delivers judgment" (Psalm 82).63 On Wednesday, they would recite "The Lord is a God of retribution, O God of retribution reveal Yourself" (Psalm 94).64 On Thursday, they would recite "Raise joyous song to God our strength; sound the shofar to the God of Jacob" (Psalm 81).65 On Friday, they would recite "God is King. He clothes Himself with grandeur. God has robed Himself. He has girded Himself with strength" (Psalm 93).66 On the Sabbath, they would recite: "A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day" (Psalm 92).67

For the Musaf offering of the Sabbath, the song Haazinu (Deuteronomy, ch. 32) is recited. It is divided into six segments: haziv lech68 just as it is read in the synagogue.69 One segment is recited each Sabbath. After the song is completed on six Sabbaths, they would return to the beginning.

In the afternoon on the Sabbath, they would recite from "Then Moses sang..." and from "Who is like You...."70 For the Musaf offering of Rosh HaShanah, they would recite "Raise joyous song to God our strength."71 If [Rosh HaShanah] fell on Thursday,72 they would recite "I have removed his shoulder from the burden" (Psalm 81:7).73 In the afternoon on Rosh HaShanah, they would recite: "The voice of God causes the desert to tremble" (ibid. 29:8).74

ט

הַשִּׁיר שֶׁהָיוּ הַלְוִיִּם אוֹמְרִין. בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים כד א) "לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ". בַּשֵּׁנִי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים מח ב) "גָּדוֹל ה' וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד בְּעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַר קָדְשׁוֹ" וְגוֹ'. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים פב א) "אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט". בִּרְבִיעִי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים צד א) "אֵל נְקָמוֹת ה' אֵל נְקָמוֹת הוֹפִיעַ". בַּחֲמִישִׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים פא ב) "הַרְנִינוּ לֵאלֹהִים עוּזֵּנוּ הָרִיעוּ לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב". בַּשִּׁשִּׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים צג א) "ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ לָבֵשׁ ה' עֹז הִתְאַזָּר" וְגוֹ'. בְּשַׁבָּת הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין (תהילים צב א) "מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת". בְּמוּסְפֵי שַׁבָּת אוֹמְרִים שִׁירַת (דברים לב א) "הַאֲזִינוּ" וְחוֹלְקִין אוֹתָהּ לְשִׁשָּׁה פְּרָקִים הַזִּי''ו לָ''ךְ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹרְאִין אוֹתָהּ שִׁשָּׁה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת. וְאוֹמְרִין פֶּרֶק בְּכָל שַׁבָּת. גָּמְרוּ הַשִּׁירָה בְּשִׁשָּׁה שַׁבָּתוֹת חוֹזְרִין לָרֹאשׁ. בְּמִנְחָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר (שמות טו א) "אָז יָשִׁיר משֶׁה" וּ(שמות טו יא) "מִי כָמֹכָה" וְגוֹ'. בְּמוּסָף שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין הַרְנִינוּ לֵאלֹהִים עוּזֵּנוּ. וְאִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי אוֹמֵר (תהילים פא ז) "הֲסִירוֹתִי מִסֵּבֶל שִׁכְמוֹ" וְגוֹ'. בְּמִנְחָה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (תהילים כט ח) "קוֹל ה' יָחִיל מִדְבָּר" וְגוֹ':

10

When Rosh Chodesh falls on the Sabbath, the song of Rosh Chodesh75 takes priority over that of the Sabbath76 in order to publicize that the day is Rosh Chodesh.

י

רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבַּת שִׁירָה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ דּוֹחֶה אֶת שִׁירָה שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְפַרְסֵם שֶׁהַיּוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ:

11

On the Sabbath, the two bowls of frankincense77 are offered on the altar's pyre together with the additional offerings before the wine libation that accompanied those offerings.78

The order that was followed [for the sacrifices offered] in the morning is followed [for the sacrifices offered] in the afternoon79 with the exception of the removal of the ashes from the outer altar,80 the arrangement of the arrays [of wood on the altar], and the lotteries which are only performed each day in the morning, as we explained.81

יא

בְּשַׁבָּת מַקְטִירִין אֶת שְׁנֵי בְּזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה עִם הַמּוּסָפִין. קֹדֶם נִסּוּךְ הַיַּיִן שֶׁל מוּסָפִין. וְכַסֵּדֶר שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּכָל יוֹם בַּבֹּקֶר כָּךְ עוֹשִׂין בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם. חוּץ מֵהֲרָמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן מִמִּזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן וְסִדּוּר הַמַּעֲרָכוֹת וְהַפְּיָסוֹת. שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא בְּכָל יוֹם בַּשַּׁחַר לְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

Footnotes
1.

The term "dawn" refers to the first shining of the rays of the sun on the horizon, more than an hour before sunrise. See the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 1:2) which explains that the meaning of the term "the call of the gever" used by that source.

2.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 1:2) which refers to the Song of Songs 5:2: "The voice of my beloved comes knocking," i.e., a gentle, beckoning knock.

3.

As indicated by Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 8:11, the supervisor would come from the chayl and knock on the outer door of the Chamber of the Hearth where the priests slept. By knocking, he would wake them. They would open the door for him.

Now the Chamber of the Hearth was located in the midst of the wall on the north side of the Temple Courtyard. Half was consecrated and half was not. There were two gates leading to the Temple Courtyard from the Chamber of the Hearth. A large gate which would be opened at dawn and a smaller gate whose keys were hanging in the Chamber of the Hearth. The supervisor would take those keys and enter the Courtyard.

4.

As described in Hilchot Beit HaBechirah, loc. cit.

5.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 13:2 with regard to how this offering was prepared.

6.

It appears that, according to the Rambam, these two lotteries were performed one after the other. The commentaries have noted that from Yoma 22a, 24b, it would appear that there was a span of time between the two.

7.

See Chapter 4, Halachot 1, 5-6.

8.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 12.

9.

The Rambam does not mention the third array which was kept to maintain a fire, because that was kept burning at all times. Nevertheless, if it was necessary to place wood on it, the same priest would do so (Radbaz).

10.

See Chapter 2, Halachah 2, and Chapter 4, Halachah 5.

11.

The location of this chamber is not mentioned in Hilchot Beit HaBecghirah, nor in the Mishnah of Middot.

12.

Tamid 3:4 speaks of removing 93 utensils.

13.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 9.

14.

See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 4:6-7.

15.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 5:5.

16.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 4, and Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

17.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 10, and Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

18.

See Chapter 4, Halachah 6.

19.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 16.

20.

As described in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 6:1.

21.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah, the Ra'avad explains that they were placed there so that they would be "before God," closer to the entrance to the Temple.

22.

I.e., to place them in an openly visible place.

23.

Even though causing the salt to dissolve would be forbidden in other circumstances on the Sabbath.

24.

Implied is that while bringing the limbs to the altar - which is part of the Temple service - there should not be any such intervening substances.

25.

The blessing recited before the recitation of the Shema. The blessing Yotzer Or (which precedes Ahavat Olam in the prayer service) is recited afterwards, when the sun rises, because the order of the blessings of the Shema is not an absolute requirement [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:1)].

26.

There the Rambam writes that the Ten Commandments were chosen because they comprise the fundaments of our faith. Indeed, they should be recited every day as part of the prayer service outside the Temple as well. Nevertheless, our Sages [Berachot 12a; Jerusalem Talmud (Berachot 1:5)] refrained from doing so, lest the heretics say that these alone are the foundation of the Jewish faith.

27.

I.e., they read the three passages of the Shema. Even though the optimum time for the recitation of the Shema has not arrived, the priests are allowed to recite it early (and fulfill their obligation), because afterwards they will be occupied with the Temple services and we fear that they might forget to do so (Rashi, Yoma 37b).

28.

The blessing that follows the Shema.

29.

Two of the final three blessings of the Shemoneh Esreh. These blessings are chosen because they are all prayers for the sake of the Jewish people [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc cit.)].

30.

After the conclusion of their week of service in the Temple, because the priestly watches switch on the Sabbath afternoon (Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:3).

31.

See Chapter 4, Halachot 7-8.

32.

All authorities agree that an interruption is made between kindling the five lamps and kindling the two lamps. There is, however, a difference of opinion between the Sages and Abba Shaul with regard to the service that intervenes. Here the Rambam follows the opinion of the Sages that it is the offering of the incense. In our daily prayers, however, we read the passage "Abbaye would recount the order of the offerings on the altar... according to Abba Shaul" (Yoma 33a). That passage states that the blood of the daily sacrifice was offered on the altar between the kindling of the lamps and the incense was offered afterwards. The Eshkol explains that even though Abbaye's reckoning does not follow the halachah in this instance, it is still included in the prayers, because it is a concise review of all the Temple services

33.

See Chapter 3, Halachah 16.

34.

Where they recite the priestly blessing, as stated in the following halachah.

35.

The Kessef Mishneh maintains that on the basis of Tamid 5:6, this was performed when the priest entered the Sanctuary to offer the incense and not when he departed.

36.

Tamid, loc. cit., states that its noise was so loud that no one in Jerusalem could hear his fellow man speaking to him at that time. And Tamid3:8 states that the noise could be heard even in Jericho.

37.

The prostration was not performed until after the continuous offering had been offered.

38.

In this instance as well, as indicated by the conclusion of the halachah, the singing did not actually begin until later, but the preparations were begun.

39.

The term ma'amad refers to the Israelites who would be present during the offering of the sacrifices as explained in Hilchot K'lei Hamikdash, ch. 6.

40.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 5:6), the Rambam explains that this refers to people who had been afflicted by tzara'at (a skin malediction similar to leprosy) and had been cured, but had not brought their offerings as of yet.

41.

I.e., the Gate of Nicanor which is the main entrance to the Temple Courtyard. See also Hilchot Mechusrei Kapparah 4:2.

42.

This follows the order initiated by Aaron, the High Priest, at the dedication of the altar who did not bless the people until he had completed the offering of the sacrifices (see Leviticus, ch. 9).

43.

I.e., in contrast to the practice outside the Temple, the people would not respond after each blessing. Instead, when all three blessings are completed, they would say: "Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever" (Hilchot Tefilah UNesiat Kapayim 14:9).

44.

Ibid.:10. I.e., they would pronounce the name Y-H-V-H as it is written.

As stated in the above source, after the death of Simon the Just, the priests stopped using this name, lest it be learned by a person of improper character.

45.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 2:1.

46.

See Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 3:2-4.

47.

See Halachot 6-7. Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 7:5

48.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 6:6), the Rambam states that this refers to the marble table that was positioned to the west of the ramp. See Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 2:15.

49.

The assistant to the High Priest. See ibid. 4:16.

50.

The trumpets were sounded like the shofar is sounded on Rosh HaShanah: one long blast (tekiah), a series of staccato blasts (teruah), and then another long blast (tekiah).

51.

See ibid. 7:7.

52.

As a sign for the others to perform their activities.

53.

The songs are recited at this time, because "song is recited only over wine" (Berachot 35a). The songs the Levites would sing are mentioned in Halachah 9.

54.

I.e., a series of tekiah, teruah and tekiah blasts.

55.

Each song had three bars.

56.

I.e., three series of three.

57.

Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 7:5.

58.

See Hilchot Shekalim 4:9.

59.

See ibid 3:2 where the concepts mentioned here are explained in slightly greater detail.

60.

These psalms are also recited as "the song of day" in our daily prayers to recall the Temple Service.

61.

This psalm was associated with Sunday, for the world was created on Sunday and this psalm states how all existence is His [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Tamid 6:7, based on Rosh HaShanah 31a)].

62.

For God's greatness was manifest in the division of the waters, the creation of the second day (ibid.).

63.

For on this day, the earth - the place were judgment is carried out - came into existence (ibid.).

64.

On this day, the sun and the moon were created and this song is a prayer that God will take retribution against those who worship these celestial bodies (ibid.).

65.

On this day, animal life was created. This is truly wondrous and arouses within man a desire to sing praises to the Creator (ibid.).

66.

For on this day, with the creation of man, God's work of creation was brought to its ultimate fulfillment, because man acknowledges God's Kingship (ibid.).

67.

For God rested on the seventh day (Rosh HaShanah 31b). And as the Mishnah (Tamid, loc. cit.) concludes, this is "a song for the ultimate future which will be entirely Sabbath and rest for life everlasting."

68.

I.e., the Hebrew letters are an acronym for the words which begin the verses of these segments: Ha'azinu (32:1), Z'chor (32:7), Yarkiveihu (32:13), Vayar (32:19), Lu (32:29), Ki (32:40).

69.

I.e., as the Torah reading is divided up into aliyot. See Hilchot Tefilah 13:5.

70.

The song of redemption after the splitting of the sea. They would read from the beginning of the song until "Who is like You" (Mi Chamocha, Exodus 15:1-11) on one Sabbath afternoon, and then from that verse until the end of the song on the next Sabbath afternoon. The standard published text of Rosh HaShanah, loc. cit., states that on the third Sabbath they would recite the song of the well (Numbers 21:17), but apparently the Rambam's version of the text did not include that point.

71.

For this psalm also includes the verse "Sound the shofar on the day of the new moon."

72.

When Psalm 81 was recited as the psalm of the day.

73.

I.e., the second half of the psalm. Since the psalm was already recited in the morning, they did not desire to repeat it in its entirety. From Rosh HaShanah 31b, it would appear that when Rosh HaShanah falls on Thursday, they would recite the second half of the psalm in the morning and the first half (which includes the verse concerning the sounding of the shofar) for the Musaf offering. The Rambam's ruling is based on the Jerusalem Talmud (Rosh HaShanah 4:8).

74.

Rashi (Rosh HaShanah, loc. cit.) explains that this verse recalls the sounding of the shofar at Mount Sinai.

75.

There is no Rabbinic source which is extant that mentions which psalm was recited on Rosh Chodesh.

76.

I.e., for the Musaf offering.

77.

That had been on the Golden Table together with the showbread.

78.

The Kessef Mishneh questions the Rambam's source for the concept that the offering of the frankincense preceded the wine libation. Rav Yosef Corcus explains that were there not a verse that teaches otherwise, we would think that the offering of the frankincense takes precedence over the additional offering as well. Hence once the additional offering has been brought, it is offered next.

79.

See Chapter 1, Halachah 10.

80.

The ashes were, by contrast, removed from the Menorah and the inner altar in the afternoon, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 10.

81.

See Chapter 2, Halachot 2 and 11, and Chapter 4, Halachah 8.

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 7

1

On Rosh Chodesh, the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh is offered after the continuous offering of the morning.1 What does the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh comprise? Two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering.2

א

בְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אַחַר תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר. וְכַמָּה הוּא מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. פָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים חַטָּאת:

2

The procedure through which all the burnt-offerings are offered is the same as that of continuous offering.3 The procedure through which the sin-offerings of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals are offered is the same as that employed for the sin-offering which is eaten that we described.4

ב

מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת אֶחָד הוּא כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַתָּמִיד. וּמַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁל רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וְשֶׁל מוֹעֲדוֹת כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

On Pesach, an additional offering is brought every day,5 from the first day to the seventh day, like that of the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh: two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep; all are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering which is eaten.6

On the second day of Pesach, the sixteenth of Nisan,7 besides the additional offering brought each day [of the holiday],8 a lamb is offered as a burnt-offering together with the omer of barley that is waved.9 This is a communal meal-offering, as we explained.10

ג

בְּפֶסַח מַקְרִיבִין קָרְבַּן מוּסָף בְּכָל יוֹם. מִיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּמוּסַף רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים. פָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת. בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא יוֹם שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן מַקְרִיבִין יֶתֶר עַל מוּסָף שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם כֶּבֶשׂ לְעוֹלָה עִם עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה. וְהִיא מִנְחָה שֶׁל צִבּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

There is a fixed time [when this offering is brought]. Hence it supersedes [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] the Sabbath and the restrictions of ritual impurity.11

ד

וּזְמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ וּלְפִיכָךְ דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה:

5

This meal offering may be brought only from Eretz Yisrael,12 as [Leviticus 23:10] states: "And you shall bring the omer, the first of your harvest,13 to the priest." It is a mitzvah to bring the omer from [fields that are] close [to Jerusalem].14 If it was not brought from a close place,15 it may be brought from any place in Eretz Yisrael.

ה

אֵין מְבִיאִין מִנְחָה זוֹ אֶלָּא מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן". מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַקָּרוֹב. לֹא בָּא מִן הַקָּרוֹב מְבִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל:

6

It is a mitzvah that it be reaped at night, on the night of the sixteenth [Nisan].16 [This applies] whether [that day falls] during the week or on the Sabbath.17

ו

מִצְוָתוֹ לְהִקָּצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה בְּלֵיל שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר. בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת:

7

The entire night is acceptable for reaping [the barley for] the omer. If it was reaped during the day, it is acceptable.18

ז

וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה כָּשֵׁר לִקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם קְצָרוּהוּ בַּיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר:

8

The mitzvah is to bring it from standing grain.19 If [appropriate standing grain] was not found, it should be brought from the sheaves.

ח

מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַקָּמָה. לֹא מָצְאוּ יָבִיאוּ מִן הָעֳמָרִים:

9

The mitzvah is [to harvest grain] that is fresh.20 If [such grain] was not found, it may be brought from dried grain.

ט

מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַלַּח. לֹא מָצְאוּ יָבִיאוּ מִן הַיָּבֵשׁ:

10

Their practice was to bring [the omer] from fields to the south [of Jerusalem].21 They would leave one half of the field fallow22 and sow the other half one year. And the following year, they would leave fallow the half of the field that was previously sown and sow the other half and bring [the omer] from it.23

י

דַּרְכָּן הָיָה לְהָבִיא מִשָּׂדוֹת שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם. הָיָה נָר חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה וְזוֹרֵעַ חֶצְיָהּ בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ וּבְשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת נָר חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁזָּרַע וְזוֹרֵעַ הַחֵצִי שֶׁנָּר וּמֵבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ:

11

This omer would come from barley.24 This is a halachah communicated by Moses our teacher.25

How was [the offering] brought? On the day before the festival of Pesach, the agents of the court would go out [to the field] and tie [the barley] into bundles26 while it was still attached to the ground so that it would be easy to reap. [On the evening after Pesach,] all [of the inhabitants] of all the neighboring villages would gather so that it would be reaped with much flourish.27 They would have three men reap three se'ah of barley in three baskets with three sickles.

When it became dark, the reapers would ask those standing [in attendance]: "Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

If it was the Sabbath, they would ask: "Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."28

"Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."

Afterwards, they would ask: "Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

Three [questions and answers] were given regarding each matter. Why was all this necessary? Because of those who erred who departed from the community of Israel in the Second Temple [era].29 They maintained that the Torah's expression [Leviticus 23:11]: "From the day following the Sabbath" [should be understood literally, as referring to] the Sabbath of the week. Nevertheless, according to the Oral Tradition, [our Sages] derived that the intent is not the Sabbath, but the festival.30 And so, was understood at all times by the prophets and the Sanhedrin31 in every generation. They would have the omer waved on the sixteenth of Nisan whether it fell during the week or on the Sabbath.

[This interpretation is also reflected in the Written Torah itself,]32 for it is written in the Torah [ibid.:14]: "You shall not eat bread, roasted grain, or kernels of grain until this self-same day." And [Joshua 4:11] states: "And they ate from the produce of the land on the day after Pesach, matzot and roasted grain."33 And if one would presume that in that year Pesach fell on the Sabbath34 as these fools have supposed,35 why would Scripture make the license for them to eat new grain dependent on a factor that is not fundamental, nor the true cause, but mere coincendence.36 Instead, since [Scripture] made the matter dependent on "the day after Pesach," it is clear that the day after Pesach is the cause that permits new grain [to be eaten] and no attention is paid to the day of the week [on which it falls].

יא

עֹמֶר זֶה מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים הָיָה בָּא. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ. וְכֵיצַד הָיָה נַעֲשֶׂה. מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב יוֹצְאִין שְׁלוּחֵי בֵּית דִּין וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ כְּרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נֹחַ לִקְצֹר. כָּל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִקְצַר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. וְקוֹצְרִין שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין שְׂעוֹרִין בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים. וּבְשָׁלֹשׁ קֻפּוֹת. וּבִשְׁלֹשָׁה מַגָּלוֹת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָשְׁכָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַקּוֹצֵר לְכָל הָעוֹמְדִים שָׁם. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הִין. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. וְאִם הָיָה שַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶן שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הִין. שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר לָהֶן אֶקְצֹר וְהֵן אוֹמְרִין לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה מִפְּנֵי אֵלּוּ הַטּוֹעִים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבַיִת שֵׁנִי. שֶׁהֵן אוֹמְרִין שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כג יא) (ויקרא כג טו טז) "מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת" הוּא שַׁבָּת בְּרֵאשִׁית. וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא יוֹם טוֹב וְכֵן רָאוּ תָּמִיד הַנְּבִיאִים וְהַסַּנְהֶדְרִין בְּכָל דּוֹר וְדוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ מְנִיפִין אֶת הָעֹמֶר בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת. וַהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כג יד) "וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה". וְנֶאֱמַר (יהושע ה יא) "וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח מַצּוֹת וְקָלוּי". וְאִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הַפֶּסַח בְּשַׁבָּת אֵרַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁדִּמּוּ הַטִּפְּשִׁים. הֵיאַךְ תָּלָה הַכָּתוּב הֶתֵּר אֲכִילָתָם לֶחָדָשׁ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ הָעִקָּר וְלֹא הַסִּבָּה אֶלָּא נִקְרָה נִקְרֶה. אֶלָּא מֵאַחַר שֶׁתָּלָה הַדָּבָר בְּמָחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח הַדָּבָר בָּרוּר שֶׁמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח הִיא הָעִלָּה הַמַּתֶּרֶת אֶת הֶחָדָשׁ וְאֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין עַל אֵי זֶה יוֹם הוּא מִימֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ:

12

They reaped [the barley]; [then] they placed it in the baskets, and brought it to the Temple Courtyard. [There] they beat it, winnowed it, and selected [the kernels]. The barley [kernels] were taken and roasted over the fire in a cylinder with holes so that the fire would reach it in its entirety, as [Leviticus 2:14] states: "From ripe ears, roasted over fire, ground from fresh kernels." According to the Oral Tradition,37 we learned that the verse is speaking only about the omer meal-offering. After it is roasted, it is spread out in the Temple Courtyard and the wind wafts through it. It is then taken to a mill for kernels and ground [to produce] three se'ah.38 From that quantity, an isaron39 is taken out after it has been sifted with thirteen sifters. The remainder is redeemed and [afterwards] may be eaten by any person. Challah must be separated from [that grain], but it is exempt from the tithes, as we explained.40

This isaron of fine barley flour is taken and mixed with a log of oil41 on the sixteenth of Nisan and a handful of frankincense is placed upon it like on the other meal offerings.42 It is waved in the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard, being passed to [all four directions], lifted up and brought down.43 It is then brought close to the tip of the southwest corner of the altar like the other meal-offerings.44 A handful of the meal is taken and offered on the altar's pyre. The remainder is eaten by the priests like the remainder of all other meal-offerings.45

When is this handful taken? After the additional offering of the day is offered.46 The lamb brought as a burnt-offering47 is offered before the continuous offering of the afternoon.

יב

קְצָרוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּקֻפּוֹת וֶהֱבִיאוּהוּ לָעֲזָרָה וַחֲבָטוּהוּ. וְזוֹרִין וּבוֹרְרִין. וְלוֹקְחִין אֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִין וּמְהַבְהֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בָּאוּר. בְּאַבּוּב מְנֻקָּב. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט בְּכֻלָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב יד) "אָבִיב קָלוּי בָּאֵשׁ גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר בִּלְבַד. וְאַחַר שֶׁקּוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ שׁוֹטְחִין אוֹתוֹ בָּעֲזָרָה וְהָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בּוֹ. וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ לְרֵחַיִם שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת וְטוֹחֲנִין אֶת הַשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וּמוֹצִיאִין מִן הַכּל עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְנֻפֶּה בִּשְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה. וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְלוֹקְחִין זֶה הָעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל סלֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִים וּבוֹלְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּלוֹג שֶׁמֶן בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן וְנוֹתְנִין עָלָיו קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וּמְנִיפוֹ בַּמִּזְרָח מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד וּמַגִּישׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד חֻדָּהּ שֶׁל קֶרֶן מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וְקוֹמֵץ וּמַקְטִיר. וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים כִּשְׁיָרֵי כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת. ואֵימָתַי קוֹמְצִין אוֹתוֹ. לְאַחַר שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וְכֶבֶשׂ הָעוֹלָה קֹדֶם תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

13

It is forbidden to reap any of the species of grain48 in Eretz Yisrael49 before the reaping50 of the omer, [because Leviticus 23:10] refers [to it as]: "the first of your harvest," [implying that] it should be the first [grain] that is reaped.51

To what does the above apply? To a harvest from which the omer offering could be brought. [A field located] in parched land in a valley, by contrast, may be reaped before [the reaping of] the omer, because it is not fit to bring [the omer offering] from it.52 [Even such grain] should not, however, be collected in a grain heap.

יג

אָסוּר לִקְצֹר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִין מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי תְּבוּאָה קֹדֶם לִקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם" שֶׁיִּהְיֶה תְּחִלָּה לְכָל הַנִּקְצָרִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקָצִיר שֶׁרָאוּי לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ עֹמֶר. אֲבָל בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ קוֹצְרִין אוֹתוֹ מִלִּפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר. אֲבָל לֹא יִגְדּשׁ:

14

When grain grew its roots53 before [the reaping of] the omer, [reaping] the omer causes it to be permitted. If not, it is forbidden to harvest it, just as it is forbidden to partake of it until the omer is harvested next [year].

יד

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁהִשְׁרִישָׁה קֹדֶם הָעֹמֶר הָעֹמֶר מַתִּירָהּ. וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר לְקָצְרָהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא הָעֹמֶר הַבָּא:

15

When grain has not completed the final third of its growth,54 it may be reaped [even if it had not grown roots before the reaping of the omer] to feed it to an animal. [Grain] may be reaped so it does not ruin trees. [Similarly,] it may be reaped to clear a place for an assembly of mourning or an assembly of study. For [the prooftext] states "your harvest." [Implied is that the restrictions] do not [apply] to harvest associated with a mitzvah.

טו

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ מֻתָּר לִקְצֹר מִמֶּנָּה לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֵמָה. וְקוֹצְרִין מִפְּנֵי הַנְּטִיעוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּסְדוּ. וְקוֹצְרִין לְפַנּוֹת מָקוֹם לְבֵית הָאָבֵל אוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "קְצִירְכֶם" וְלֹא קְצִיר מִצְוָה:

16

Even though it is permitted to reap, one should not bind [the stalks of barley] as sheaves55 as the reapers do. Instead, he should leave them as small bundles.56

טז

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִקְצֹר לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָן כְּרִיכוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ הַקּוֹצְרִין. אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֵם צְבָתִים צְבָתִים:

17

We already explained57 that meal-offerings, the meal-offerings for the additional offerings58 and first fruits59 may not be brought from new grain before the bringing of the omer.60 If one brought them, the offering is invalid. [Similarly, these offerings] should not be brought before bringing the two loaves [on Shavuot], but if one brought them, the offering is acceptable.61

יז

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין מְנָחוֹת וְלֹא מִנְחַת נְסָכִים וְלֹא בִּכּוּרִים מִן הֶחָדָשׁ קֹדֶם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם הֵבִיא פָּסוּל. וְלֹא יָבִיא קֹדֶם לַהֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם. וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר:

18

Anyone who offers a meal-offering from new grain should recite the blessing Shehechiyanu.62

יח

וְכָל הַמַּקְרִיב מִנְחָה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ תְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָינוּ:

19

When grain was sown after the offering of the omer and harvested after the omer was offered the following year, there is an unresolved doubt:63 May meal-offerings be brought from it as an initial preference before the two loaves are brought [on Shavuot] because the two loaves and the omer had been brought while this grain [was growing]64 or perhaps [meal-offerings] should not be brought from it until after bringing the two loaves after the omer of the same year were brought.65

יט

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר וּקְצָרָהּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר שֶׁל שָׁנָה הַבָּאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק אִם מְבִיאִין מִמֶּנָּה מְנָחוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה טֶרֶם הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הוֹאִיל וּתְבוּאָה זוֹ עָבַר עָלֶיהָ הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר. אוֹ אֵין מְבִיאִין עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אַחַר הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁל שָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת:

20

Similarly, if grain was growing in the ground and its leaves began to form or they began to blossom at the time of the bringing of the two loaves,66 there is an unresolved question if the blossoming or the formation of leaves is considered equivalent to [the grain] taking root and it is permitted to bring meal-offerings from it or it is not considered as equivalent to it having taken root. Therefore one should not bring [such offerings]. If one did, [we assume that] they were accepted.

כ

וְכֵן תְּבוּאָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּקַּרְקַע וְחָנְטוּ עָלֶיהָ אוֹ הֵנֵצּוּ עָלִים שֶׁלָּהּ כְּשֶׁהֵבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הֲנָצַת הֶעָלִין אוֹ חֲנָטָתָן כְּמוֹ הֻשְׁרְשָׁה וְהֻתְּרָה לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנָּה מְנָחוֹת אוֹ אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַשְׁרָשָׁה. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יָבִיא וְאִם הֵבִיא הֻרְצָה:

21

One who reaps grain before the harvest of the omer is not liable for lashes67 and [the grain] he reaps is fit to be used.68

כא

וְהַקּוֹצֵר קֹדֶם קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה וְהַקָּצִיר כָּשֵׁר:

22

It is a positive commandment to count69 seven complete weeks70 from the day the omer is brought, as [Leviticus 23:15] states: "And from the day after the Sabbath, you shall count... seven weeks." It is a mitzvah to count the days together with the weeks, as [ibid.:15] states: "You shall count 50 days."71

One should count at the inception of the [new] day. Therefore one counts at night,72 [beginning] from the night of the sixteenth of Nisan.

כב

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִסְפֹּר שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימוֹת מִיּוֹם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג טו) "וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת" "שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת". וּמִצְוָה לִמְנוֹת הַיָּמִים עִם הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג טז) "תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם". וּמִתְּחִלַּת הַיּוֹם מוֹנִין לְפִיכָךְ מוֹנֶה בַּלַּיְלָה מִלֵּיל שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן:

23

When one forgot and did not count at night, he should count during the day.73 One should count only when standing.74 If one counted while sitting, he fulfilled his obligation.

כג

שָׁכַח וְלֹא מָנָה בַּלַּיְלָה מוֹנֶה בַּיּוֹם וְאֵין מוֹנִין אֶלָּא מְעֻמָּד. וְאִם מָנָה מְיֻשָּׁב יָצָא:

24

This mitzvah is incumbent on every Jewish male75 in every place76 and at all times.77 Women and servants are absolved from it.78

כד

מִצְוָה זוֹ עַל כָּל אִישׁ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּבְכָל מָקוֹם וּבְכָל זְמַן. וְנָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים פְּטוּרִין מִמֶּנָּה:

25

Each night, the [following] blessing should be recited before counting:79 "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the counting of the omer." If one counted without reciting the blessing, he fulfills his obligation80 and should not recite the blessing afterwards.81

כה

וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל לַיְלָה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר. מָנָה וְלֹא בֵּרֵךְ יָצָא וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ:

Footnotes
1.

For the offerings that are offered more frequently are given precedence over those offered on occasion (Zevachim 89a).

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 42) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 403) include offering the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

2.

See Numbers 28:11-14.

3.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, Chapter 6.

4.

See ibid., Chapter 7.

5.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 43) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 299) include offering the additional offering of Pesach as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

The fact that the same offering is brought on each of the days of the holiday has several consequences in other areas of Jewish Law. Among them: Hallel is only recited on the first (and in the Diaspora, on the first two) days of the holiday. The blessing Shehechiyanu is not recited on the last day(s).

7.

With regard to the date when this offering is brought, see Halachah 11.

8.

As stated in the previous clause.

10.

Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:3.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 44) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 302) include bringing the omer offering and the accompanying sacrifice as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

11.

See Hilchot Bi'at HaMikdash 4:9-17.

12.

In contrast to most of the other meal-offerings that may be brought from the Diaspora as well (Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 6:15).

13.

The words "your harvest" can be interpreted as a reference to the harvest of your land, i.e., Eretz Yisrael. Alternatively, the Rambam is referring to the beginning of the verse "When you come to the land," as some have inferred from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 8:1).

14.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit. 10:2), the Rambam explains that the rationale is that it is improper to pass over the opportunity to perform a mitzvah. Since there was barley fit for this offering in Jerusalem, it was not fitting to seek it elsewhere.

15.

Because the grain close to Jerusalem had not ripened (Rashi, Menachot 83b).

16.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 10:3), the Rambam explains that this preference stems from the fact that the Counting of the Omer must be "seven perfect weeks" (Leviticus 23:15), including both day and night. The counting and the reaping should begin at the same time, as implied by Deuteronomy 16:9 which describes this offering with the phrase: "When the sickle is first put to the standing grain, you shall begin counting." Hence the reaping should also be done at night.

17.

Since offering the omer supersedes the prohibition against forbidden labor on the Sabbath, this applies to all the aspects of its offering, including harvesting the barley.

18.

Menachot 72a states that the Sages that maintain that it is acceptable to harvest the barley for the offering during the day do not accept the view that this barley may be harvested on the Sabbath. How then can the Rambam accept both rulings? Nevertheless, since the Jerusalem Talmud (Rosh HaShanah 1:8, Megilah 2:7) does not see the two as contradictory, it is possible for the Rambam to accept both rulings.

19.

For this offering with the phrase: "When the sickle is first put to the standing grain."

20.

For Leviticus 23:14 uses the term karmel which has the connotation of fresh grain.

21.

I.e., from the southern slopes of the mountains on the outskirts of Jerusalem which had greater exposure to the sun (Tosafot, Menachot 85a).

22.

Plowing it, but not sowing it [see the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 8:2)].

23.

In this way, the field's power of growth would always be restored and the barley would be of high quality. Compare to Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:4.

24.

In contrast to all other meal offerings with the exception of the meal offering brought by a sotah (a woman suspected of infidelity) which were from wheat. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:2, Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 14:3.

25.

I.e., a concept that, although not explicitly stated in the Torah, was given to Moses at Sinai and always practiced among the Jewish people.

26.

Rashi (Menachot 65a) states that all the stalks of barley that could be gathered within the reach of one's forearm would be tied together.

27.

This was to refute the approach of the Sadducees as the Rambam proceeds to explain. Perhaps the Rambam elaborates so extensively in the refutation of the Sadducees, because in his time there were Karaites who also rejected the authority of the Oral Law while claiming to follow the Written Law.

28.

Thus emphasizing that reaping the omer supersedes the prohibition against forbidden labor on the Sabbath, as stated in Halachah 6.

29.

The Sadducees who maintained that only the Written Law was of Godly origin and that the Oral Law should not be followed.

30.

I.e., Pesach. This is an accepted interpretation, because the festivals are referred to as "Sabbaths" several times in the Torah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Chagigah 2:4).

31.

The Supreme Jewish court.

32.

The proof proposed by the Rambam does not appear to be based on any prior Rabbinic source. Although Menachot 65b brings several proofs of this concept from the exegesis of different verses, the Rambam does not refer to them because he is seeking an explicit proof from Scripture which the Saduccees accept rather than a concept derived from exegesis which they do not accept. The Sages did not refer to the proof used by the Rambam, because they would rather employ a proof that has its source in the Torah itself rather than in the works of the prophets (Radbaz).

33.

Thus we can assume the day when the omer was brought and new produce was permitted to be eaten was the day following Pesach.

34.

And thus there would be no proof of what to do in a year when Pesach does not fall on the Sabbath.

35.

Tosafot, Menachot 30a, mentions two opinions with regard to the day of the week on which Moses died: Friday or the Sabbath. Moses died on 7 Adar. Accordingly, Pesach, 15 Nisan, was either a Sunday or a Monday.

36.

For according to the Saduccees' misguided conception, the fundamental point is that they ate the grain on the day after the Sabbath. If their approach was right, Scripture should have emphasized that the event took place then and not "on the day after Pesach."

37.

See Sifra to the verse; Menachot 66b.

38.

A se'ah is approximately 8.3 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah. There are also more stringent views.

39.

An isaron is one tenth of an ephah and an ephah is three se'ah [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 6:6)]. Thus an isaron is approximately 2.4 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah.

The priests would be endeavoring to get one tenth of the original amount of grain. There the Rambam explains that since the kernels of grain are still somewhat underdeveloped - for this offering is being made right at the beginning of the harvest - there will not be as much fine flour and much sifting will be required to produce the desired quantity.

40.

Hilchot Ma'aser 3:25; Hilchot Bikkurim 6:3. The rationale is that once the flour has been redeemed, the holiness associated with it has departed. Hence, dough produced from it must be treated like ordinary dough. The obligation to separate terumah and tithes takes effect at the conclusion of the harvest. At that time, the produce is consecrated and therefore exempt. The obligation to separate challah, by contrast, takes effect when the dough is kneaded and, at that time, the flour has already been redeemed and is no longer consecrated.

41.

As all the other meal-offerings. See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:7

42.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot, loc. cit.

43.

See the description of the waving of the offerings in ibid. 9:6-7.

44.

See ibid. 12:6.

45.

See ibid. 12:9.

46.

For the offering brought more frequently receives priority (Kessef Mishneh).

47.

Which accompanies the omer as stated in Halachah 3.

48.

Wheat, barley, oats, rye, and spelt.

49.

In the Diaspora, this is permitted, however, because the omer may not be brought from there.

50.

The Kessef Mishneh questions why the Rambam puts the limit on the reaping of the omer and not on its offering. Some have suggested that since the verse mentions "your harvest," the prohibition applies only until then.

51.

As mentioned in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:2-3, it is forbidden to partake of any grain before the offering of the omer. That prohibition is referred to as chadash ("new [grain]"). Here the Rambam is emphasizing that even harvesting such grain is forbidden. The prohibition is, however, an outgrowth of a positive commandment and is not considered as a negative commandment. See Halachah 21.

52.

See Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 6:12. Since this grain is not of high quality, the offerings should not be brought from it. It must be emphasized that this is only an a priori consideration. After the fact, such a meal-offering is acceptable.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 10:2), the Rambam explains why this leniency is granted. The prooftext cited above states: "You shall reap your harvest and you shall bring the omer, the first of your harvest." From the first portion of the verse, it appears that the harvest should precede the omer, but the second portion states that the omer is "the first of the harvest." The Oral Tradition resolves the difficulty by teaching: "From the place where you may bring the omer, you may not harvest, but from a place where that offering may not be brought, you may harvest."

53.

The Rabbis explain that it takes fourteen days between the time when seedlings trees are planted and when they took root. One may assume that it takes less time for grain to root.

54.

At this stage, it has not reached a state fit to serve as food for humans. Hence the prohibition mentioned above does not apply. Our translation is dependent on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 10:8).

55.

Larger bindings collected from several smaller bundles (ibid.).

56.

The Rambam does allow the stalks to be tied in contrast to Rashi's view (Menachot 71a).

57.

Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 5:9.

58.

This also includes the wine for the libations (ibid.).

59.

The first-fruits are not mentioned in Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach, loc. cit.

60.

Because the omer must be "the first of your harvest" as mentioned above.

61.

As explained in Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 5:10, the two loaves are described by Leviticus 23:17 as "the first fruits unto God." Hence, no other grain offerings should be offered before them. Nevertheless, since this grain is acceptable for a private individual, after the fact, the offering is still acceptable.

62.

Since it is the first meal-offering to be brought from new grain, it warrants a blessing. The Rambam is interpreting Menachot 75b differently than Rashi.

63.

Our Sages discussed the issue in Menachot 68b and did not arrive at a resolution.

64.

I.e., the two loaves of the previous year and the omer of the present year.

65.

Rav Yosef Corcus states that if one does bring a meal-offering from such grain, after the fact, he is not required to bring a second one. See also the conclusion of the following halachah.

66.

I.e., without the grain having become rooted in the ground. The Kessef Mishneh questions how is it possible for the leaves of a plant to grow without it taking root. He explains that this refers to a situation where the seeds were sprouted in water which could produce leaves before roots.

67.

For the violation of a negative Scriptural commandment is not involved. The Radbaz maintains that one is, however, liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.

68.

Both as food and for a meal-offering (Rav Yosef Corcus). Needless to say, one must wait until the omer or the two loaves are offered.

69.

Verbalizing the reckoning of each day (see Radbaz).

70.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 161) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 306) include this as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

71.

In Sefer HaMitzvot, loc. cit., the Rambam emphasizes that these are not two separate commandments. In some Ashkenazic communities, the custom is to count each night and, at the end of a week, to count the passage of the week. The Sephardic custom is to mention the days and the weeks each night when counting.

72.

For by including the night, the weeks will be "complete," without any lack (Menachot 66a).

73.

It appears that according to the Rambam, after the fact, by counting during the day, one fulfills the mitzvah just as one does by counting at night. Rabbenu Asher does not accept this view. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 489:7) states that if one did not count during the night, he should not recite a blessing while counting during the day.

74.

For in its reference to this mitzvah, Deuteronomy 16:9 mentions "standing grain," which our Rabbis interpret as an allusion to fulfill the mitzvah while standing (Kessef Mishneh).

75.

I.e., the mitzvah of counting is not entrusted to the court as is the mitzvah of counting the Jubilee, but rather is a personal responsibility for every individual (Radbaz).

76.

I.e., in both Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora.

77.

I.e., even after the destruction of the Temple. There are Ashkenazic authorities who differ and maintain that according to Scriptural Law, the mitzvah is dependent on the harvest of the omer. Hence in the present era, our observance only possesses the status of a Rabbinic commandment. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 489:2 writes that although primacy should be given to this view, there is no difference in practice between the two approaches.

78.

As is true with regard to all other mitzvot associated with a specific time.

79.

As one does before fulfilling any other positive commandment (Radbaz, Kessef Mishneh).

80.

For the failure to recite a blessing does not nullify the mitzvah (Kessef Mishneh).

81.

Even if one counted accidentally, one should not count afterwards with a blessing. Therefore if one's friend asks what day of the omer it is, one should answer "Yesterday was such and such" [Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 489:4)].

Temidin uMusafim - Chapter 8

1

The fiftieth day of the counting of the omer is the holiday of Shavuot.1 It is also called Atzeret. On this day, an additional offering is brought like the one brought on Rosh Chodesh:2 Two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering. These are the addition offerings that are mentioned in the Book of Numbers.3 They are the additional offering associated with the day.

Also, besides the additional offering of this day, a meal-offering is brought from new grain: two loaves. Together with the loaves are offered a bull, two rams, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering and two sheep are brought as peace-offerings.4 These are the addition offerings that are mentioned in the Book of Leviticus.5

Thus on this day, besides [the two lambs brought as] continuous offerings, there are offered three bulls, three rams, and fourteen sheep - a total of 20 animals - as burnt offerings and two goats as sin-offerings which are eaten and two sheep as peace-offerings which are eaten.

א

בְּיוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים מִסְּפִירַת הָעֹמֶר. הוּא חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת. וְהוּא עֲצֶרֶת. וּבַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מַקְרִיבִין מוּסָף כְּמוֹ מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵי פָּרִים וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּם עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים וְהֵם מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וְעוֹד מְבִיאִין יֶתֶר עַל הַמּוּסָף בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּמַקְרִיבִין עִם הַלֶּחֶם פַּר וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים. הַכּל עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וּשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּחֻמַּשׁ וַיִּקְרָא. נִמְצָא הַקָּרֵב בְּיוֹם זֶה יֶתֶר עַל שְׁנֵי הַתְּמִידִין שְׁלֹשָׁה פָּרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵילִים וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים. הַכּל עֶשְׂרִים בְּהֵמָה עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי חַטָּאוֹת נֶאֱכָלִים. וּשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים שְׁלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִים:

2

These two loaves may be brought only from Eretz Yisrael and from freshly-harvested grain,6 as [indicated by Leviticus 23:17]: "From your dwelling places,7 bring bread that will be waved...." If freshly-harvested grain cannot be found, one may bring from that which had been stored away.8

ב

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא מִן הָאָרֶץ וּמִן הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג יז) "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה" וְגוֹ'. לֹא מָצְאוּ חָדָשׁ יָבִיאוּ מִן הָעֲלִיָּה:

3

If wheat kernels descended from the clouds,9 there is an unresolved doubt whether they are considered as coming from "your dwelling places."10 Hence, [as an initial preference, the two loaves] should not be brought [from such grain]. After the fact, [the offering] is acceptable.

How are [the two loaves] brought? Three se'ah of wheat from new grain are brought. [The kernels] are struck and tread upon as [is done] for all the meal offerings.11 They should be ground into fine flour [to produce] two esronim12 that are sifted with twelve sifters. The remainder is redeemed and [afterwards] may be eaten by any person. Challah must be separated from [that grain], but it is exempt from the tithes, as we explained.13

ג

חִטִּים שֶׁיָּרְדוּ בְּעָבְיָם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם סָפֵק אִם אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בָּהֶם (ויקרא כג יז) "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם" אוֹ אֵינָם מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יָבִיא וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. מְבִיאִין שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין חִטִּין חֲדָשׁוֹת וְשָׁפִין אוֹתָן וּבוֹעֲטִין בָּהֶם כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת וְטוֹחֲנִין אוֹתָן סלֶת וּמְנַפִּין מֵהֶן שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת מְנֻפֶּה בִּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

The two loaves that come from new grain must each come from an isaron produced from a se'ah and a half [of kernels]. They are sifted with twelve sifters. For the showbread that comes from grain that grown for a full season, it is sufficient to use eleven sifters and an isaron is produced from every se'ah.14 The omer which, however, comes from fresh barley does not come from choice grain.15 [Hence it requires] three se'ah and thirteen sifters.

ד

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁהֵן מִן הֶחָדָשׁ צְרִיכִין לָבוֹא עִשָּׂרוֹן מִכָּל סְאָה וּמֶחֱצָה וּמְנַפִּין אוֹתָן בִּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה. וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִן הַיָּשָׁן דַּי לוֹ בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה וְהוּא בָּא עִשָּׂרוֹן מִכָּל סְאָה. אֲבָל הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים חֲדָשׁוֹת אֵינוֹ בָּא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר אֶלָּא מִשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וּבִשְׁלֹשׁ עֲשָׂרָה נָפָה:

5

In all these instances, if one added the number of se'ah used or subtracted from them,16 [the offering] is acceptable.17

ה

וְכֻלָּם אִם רִבָּה בְּמִדַּת הַסְּאִין שֶׁבָּאִין מֵהֶן אוֹ מִעֵט כָּשֵׁר:

6

The two esronim are taken and each one is kneaded into dough individually and baked individually.18

ו

וְלוֹקְחִין שְׁנֵי הָעֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת וְלָשִׁין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת וְאוֹפִין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת:

7

The dough for them is made and they are shaped outside [the Temple Courtyard].19 They are, however, baked inside [the Courtyard] like all the meal-offerings.20

ז

וְלִישָׁתָן וַעֲרִיכָתָן בַּחוּץ וַאֲפִיָּתָן בִּפְנִים כְּכָל הַמְּנָחוֹת:

8

Preparing these loaves does not supersede [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] the festivals and needless to say, not [those of] Sabbath. Instead, they are baked on the day preceding the festival. For [Exodus 12:16 which permits cooking and baking on the festivals states]: "It alone may be done for yourselves." [Implied is an exclusion:] "For yourselves and not for the Most High.21

ח

וְאֵין עֲשִׂיָּתָן דּוֹחָה יוֹם טוֹב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב טז) "הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם" לָכֶם וְלֹא לְגָבוֹהַּ:

9

If the day before the festival is the Sabbath, they should be baked on Friday and eaten on the third day after they were baked which is the festival.

It is explicitly stated in the Torah that they should be leavened bread.22 How were they prepared? On would bring yeast from another place and place it into the isaron measure. He would then fill that measure with fine flour and let it leaven with that yeast.23

ט

הָיָה עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שַׁבָּת אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנֶאֱכָלוֹת בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי לַאֲפִיָּתָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב. וַהֲרֵי מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁהֵם חָמֵץ. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. מֵבִיא שְׂאוֹר מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָעִשָּׂרוֹן וּמְמַלֵּא הָעִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת וּמְחַמְּצוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַשְּׂאוֹר:

10

They were rectangular.24 The length of each loaf is seven handbreadths and their width was four handbreadths. Their height was four fingerbreadths.

י

וּמְרֻבָּעוֹת הֵן. אֹרֶךְ כָּל חַלָּה שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים וְרָחְבָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְגָבְהָהּ אַרְבַּע אֶצְבָּעוֹת:

11

How is the bread waved together with the two sheep brought as peace offerings?25 Two sheep are brought and they should be waved while they are still alive, as [Leviticus 23:20] states: "And [the priest] shall wave them...." If one waved each of them individually, the obligation is fulfilled. Afterwards, they are slaughtered and skinned.

The breast and the thigh from both of them are taken and placed aside the two loaves. [A priest] should place both of his hands below them and wave them all as a single entity26 in the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard in the place where all the waving [of offerings] is performed.27 One should bring them back and forth [to each of the four directions] and up and down. If he waved each of the loaves [together with one breast and one thigh] individually, the obligation is fulfilled.

Afterwards, the eimorim28 of the sheep are offered on the altar's pyre. The remainder of the meat is eaten by the priests.29 With regard to the two loaves: the High Priest receives one of them30 and the other is divided among all the priestly watches.31 They both may be eaten for the entire day and half the night like the meat of the sacrifices of the most sacred order.32

יא

כֵּיצַד הֲנָפַת הַלֶּחֶם עִם שְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי הַשְּׁלָמִים. מֵבִיא שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמְנִיפָם בְּעוֹדָן חַיִּים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד יב) "וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה". וְאִם הֵנִיף זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְזֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָן וּמַפְשִׁיט. וְלוֹקֵחַ חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק מִכָּל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם וּמַנִּיחָן בְּצַד שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּמֵנִיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו מִלְּמַטָּן וּמֵנִיף הַכּל כְּאֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח בִּמְקוֹם כָּל הַתְּנוּפוֹת. מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא. מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד. וְאִם הֱנִיפָן אֶחָד אֶחָד יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵי שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים וּשְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי הַחַלּוֹת נוֹטֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אַחַת מֵהֶן. וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה מִתְחַלֶּקֶת לְכָל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת. וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן נֶאֱכָלוֹת אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וַחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה כִּבְשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים:

12

[The following laws apply if] one slaughtered the two sheep for four loaves: If [the priest performing the service] said:33 "Let two of the four become sanctified," he should remove two of the four, and wave them.34 The remainder should be redeemed inside the Temple Courtyard35 and eaten outside like other ordinary [bread]. If he did not make such a stipulation, the bread does not become sanctified.

יב

שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים עַל אַרְבַּע חַלּוֹת. אִם אָמַר יִקָּדְשׁוּ שְׁתַּיִם מִתּוֹךְ אַרְבַּע מוֹשֵׁךְ שְׁתַּיִם מֵהֶן וּמְנִיפָן. וְהַשְּׁאָר פּוֹדִין אוֹתָן בִּפְנִים וְנֶאֱכָלִין בַּחוּץ כִּשְׁאָר הַחֻלִּין. וְאִם לֹא הִתְנָה לֹא קָדַשׁ הַלֶּחֶם:

13

If he slaughtered four sheep for two loaves, they should take away two of them and dash their blood on the altar with the intent that they not be for this offering.36 He should then wave the remaining two together with the two loaves.37

יג

שָׁחַט אַרְבָּעָה כְּבָשִׂים עַל שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת. מוֹשֵׁךְ שְׁנַיִם מֵהֶם וְזוֹרֵק דָּמָן שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָן. וּמֵנִיף הַשְּׁנַיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים הַכְּשֵׁרִים עִם שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם:

14

The two breads are each indispensable requirements for the offering of each other38 and the two sheep are each indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.39 If one of them died, fled, or became treifah, a partner should be taken for the second. If one was slaughtered with the proper intent [and then the other died or the like], a partner should be taken for [the first].40

יד

שְׁתֵּי הַחַלּוֹת מְעַכְּבוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ. וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. מֵת אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אוֹ בָּרַח אוֹ נַעֲשָׂה טְרֵפָה. יִקַּח זוּג לְשֵׁנִי. שָׁחַט אֶחָד לִשְׁמוֹ. יִקַּח לוֹ זוּג:

15

The two loaves are indispensable requirements for the offering of the sheep,41 but the two sheep are not indispensable requirements for the offering of the loaves.42 [Nevertheless,] if [the loaves] were waved together with the sheep, they are indispensable requirements for their being offered.43 Thus if the loaves were lost, the sheep should be destroyed and if the sheep were lost, the loaves should be destroyed and other loaves and other sheep should be brought.

טו

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הַכְּבָשִׂים. וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הַלֶּחֶם. וְאִם הוּנְפוּ עִם הַכְּבָשִׂים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאִם אָבַד הַלֶּחֶם יֹאבְדוּ הַכְּבָשִׂים וְאִם אָבְדוּ הַכְּבָשִׂים יֹאבְדוּ הַלֶּחֶם וְיָבִיאוּ לֶחֶם אַחֵר וּכְבָשִׂים אֲחֵרִים:

16

How should the two loaves be brought when they are brought without the sheep? They should be waved and then [left] until their form spoils44 and then taken out to the place where [sacrifices] are burnt.45 This is a decree, [enacted] lest sheep be available in the coming year and the loaves be offered without them.

The two rams, seven sheep46 and the goat47 brought on this day because of the loaves are not indispensable requirements for the offering of the loaves, nor are the loaves indispensable requirements for their being offered.

טז

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּאוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן בְּלֹא כְּבָשִׂים כֵּיצַד עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן. יוּנְפוּ וּתְעֵבַּר צוּרָתָן וְיֵצְאוּ לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְצְאוּ כְּבָשִׂים לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה וְיָבִיאוּ לֶחֶם בְּלֹא כְּבָשִׂים. הַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי הָאֵילִים וְשִׁבְעַת הַכְּבָשִׂים וְהַשָּׂעִיר הַבָּאִים בְּיוֹם זֶה בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא הַלֶּחֶם מְעַכְּבָן:

17

The two bulls of the additional offering of the day and the bull brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.48

יז

שְׁנֵי פָּרִים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וּפַר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

18

The ram of the additional offering of the day and the two rams brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.49

יח

אַיִל שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים הַבָּאִין בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין (זֶה אֶת זֶה):

19

The seven sheep of the additional offering of the day and the seven sheep brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.50 If they were slaughtered, they are indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.51

יט

שִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַבָּאִים בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאִם נִשְׁחֲטוּ כֻּלָּן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

20

The continuous offerings are not indispensable requirements for the additional offerings, nor are the additional offerings indispensable requirements for the continuous offerings, nor are the additional offerings indispensable requirements for each other, nor is the entire amount of burnt offerings an indispensable requirement.

What is implied? If only six sheep were found, the six should be offered. Even if one found only one sheep, it should be offered.52 [This applies] whether on Rosh Chodesh or on the festivals or Sabbaths. There is no obligation to offer the other animals on the following day or at any other time. Instead, whenever the date for a communal sacrifice passes without it being offered, [the obligation to offer] the sacrifice is nullified.53

If there were only two sheep to be found and thus if they would be offered for the additional offering of the day, there would not be any for the continuous offering on the next day, the options are of equal weight.54 If they were offered for the additional offering of that day, the offering [is acceptable]. If it was desired that they be left to be offered on the following day, they should be left.

כ

הַתְּמִידִין אֵינָם מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַמּוּסָפִין וְלֹא הַמּוּסָפִין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתְּמִידִין וְלֹא הַמּוּסָפִין מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה וְלֹא מִנְיַן הָעוֹלוֹת כֻּלָּן מְעַכֵּב. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שִׁשָּׁה כְּבָשִׂים מַקְרִיבִין שִׁשָּׁה אֲפִלּוּ לֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא אֶחָד מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים בֵּין בִּימֵי הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת וְהַשַּׁבָּתוֹת. וְאֵינָן חַיָּבִין לְהַקְרִיב הַשְּׁאָר לְמָחָר אוֹ לְמוֹעֵד אַחֵר אֶלָּא כָּל קָרְבַּן צִבּוּר שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנּוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ. לֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים אִם יַקְרִיבוּ אוֹתָן לְמוּסַף הַיּוֹם אֵין לָהֶן תְּמִידִין לְמָחָר. הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר שָׁקוּל אִם הִקְרִיבוּם לְמוּסַף הַיּוֹם הִקְרִיבוּ וְאִם רָצוּ לְהַנִּיחָם לְמָחָר לִתְמִידִין יַנִּיחוּ:

Footnotes
1.

I.e., unlike other holidays, the celebration of Shavuot is not associated with a specific date of the month, but is instead dependent on the counting of the omer. In the era of the Temple, when the calendar was established based on the sighting of the moon, it was possible for the holiday to be celebrated on the fifth, sixth, or the seventh of the month. See Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 3:12.

2.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 45) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 404) include offering the additional offering of Shavuot as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

4.

Sefer HaMitzvot (positive commandment 46) and Sefer HaChinuch (mitzvah 307) include offering these loaves and these sacrifices as one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah.

5.

Leviticus 23:16-19. The Rambam is following the opinion of Rabbi Akiva (Menachot 45b) who sees the two as two different sets of offerings.

6.

For Leviticus 23:16 describes this as "a new meal-offering," i.e., a meal-offering from grain harvested in the present year.

7.

I.e., Eretz Yisrael.

8.

The literal meaning of the Rambam's words is "from the attic." To support such a ruling, Menachot 83b explains that the expression "a new meal-offering" can be interpreted to mean that after these two loaves are brought, meal-offerings can be brought from new grain.

9.

I.e., miraculously, without there being a logical explanation for their descent (see Tosafot, Menachot 69b).

10.

I.e., from a simple perspective, the phrase "from your dwelling places," comes to exclude the Diaspora. Hence one might think grain from the clouds would be acceptable. Nevertheless, grain from the clouds also does not come "from your dwelling places." Hence there is room to say that it is excluded (Menachot, loc. cit.).

11.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 6, and Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach 7:4.

12.

As mentioned in the notes to Chapter 7, Halachah 12, an isaron is one tenth of an ephah and an ephah is three se'ah. Thus an isaron is approximately 2.4 liter in contemporary measure according to Shiurei Torah.

The priests would be endeavoring to get one fifth of the original amount of grain. Since the kernels of grain are still somewhat underdeveloped, for this is an early stage in the harvest, there will not be as much fine flour and much sifting will be required to produce the desired quantity.

13.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 12; Hilchot Ma'aser 3:25; Hilchot Bikkurim 6:3.

14.

Since the grain has had more time to grow, the kernels of wheat have matured more, and there is more fine flour in each kernel. Hence, there is no need to sift them so thoroughly and more fine flour is produced per se'ah.

15.

Because at the beginning of the harvest such grain does not exist.

16.

The same law applies if the grain was sifted less (see Chapter 5, Halachah 6).

17.

He must, however, used the required amount of esronim for each offering (Kessef Mishneh).

18.

In his Commentary to the Mishneh (Menachot 11:1), the Rambam states that this practice has its roots in the Oral Tradition transmitted by Moses from Sinai.

19.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid.:2), the Rambam notes that the Talmud does not explain why the two loaves were not prepared in the Temple Courtyard.

20.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:23.

21.

Even though the priests do partake of these two loaves, the purpose of their preparation is not to serve as food, but to be an offering unto God.

22.

See Leviticus 23:17. Aside from one of the types of breads offered together with the thanksgiving offering, all of the meal-offerings were unleavened bread.

23.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:18 with regard to the leavening of one of the types of the bread used for the thanksgiving offering.

24.

The Kessef Mishneh states that the Rambam derived this concept from the showbread. See also Tosefta, Menachot 11:1.

25.

As stated in Chapter 9, Halachah 9, the two loaves should be offered before the sheep that accompany them.

26.

Menachot 61a derives this from the description of the guilt offering and the log of oil that accompanies it.

27.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 12; Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 9:6.

28.

The fats and organs offered on the altar.

29.

I.e., the meat, and apparently also the bread, may not be eaten until the eimorim were offered on the altar.

30.

As in the instance of the showbread where half the loaves are given to the High Prist (Chapter 4, Halachah 14; Kessef Mishneh).

31.

For the priests of all the watches are able to offer the sacrifices of the festivals and share in their division (see Hilchot K'lei HaMikdash 4:4-5). As the Radbaz emphasizes, this division is followed even though each of the priests will receive only a miniscule portion.

32.

As stated in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 10:8, this is a Rabbinic safeguard. According to Scriptural Law, the sacrifices may be eaten until dawn. Even though they are peace offerings, since they are communal sacrifices, they are considered sacrifices of the most holy order and the time during which they may be eaten is regulated accordingly (Kessef Mishneh).

33.

The Radbaz emphasizes that if the priest does not make such a statement explicitly, the breads are not sanctified.

34.

And they are acceptable for the offering.

35.

For if they were redeemed outside the Temple, they would be disqualified (Menachot 47b). Rav Yosef Corcus explains that although one is forbidden to bring ordinary food into the Temple Courtyard, in this instance, one is not bringing the bread into the Temple Courtyard, The loaves are redeemed while they are located there. Afterwards, they are removed.

36.

In such an instance, the sacrifices are not disqualified, but they are not considered as fulfilling the obligation of the given offering. Hence they are no longer associated with the two loaves. If, however, the blood of the first two sheep was offered with the proper intent, the later two are disqualified, before they were slaughtered. For this reason, the option mentioned by the Rambam is preferable (Menachot 48a). That passage asks: Should one slaughter a sacrifice without the proper intent, because there is a redeeming factor by doing so? It explains that there is no transgression involved in slaughtering a sacrifice without the proper intent. Hence in this situation, it is the most desired alternative.

37.

And they are acceptable.

38.

One is not acceptable without the other and should not be brought (Menachot 27a).

39.

One is not acceptable without the other and should not be brought (Menachot 27a).

40.

Our additions were made on the basis of the gloss of the Kessef Mishneh. The Or Sameach suggests (and his suggestion is borne out by some manuscript copies of the Mishneh Torah) amending the text to read "If one was slaughtered without the proper intent, (i.e., and thus disqualified,) a partner should be taken for the other."

41.

If there are no loaves, the sheep should not be offered.

42.

And even if there are no sheep, the loaves should be offered [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Menachot 4:3)].

43.

For waving them together establishes interdependence (see Menachot 46b). The Ra'avad states that the matter is left unresolved by the Talmud and hence, questions the Rambam's ruling. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh, however, offer an interpretation of the passage that supports the Rambam's approach.

44.

Since they were waved, they are considered as sacrificial entities and may not be burnt until they are disqualified.

45.

In the initial version of his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.; this is the version in the standard published text), the Rambam rules according to Scriptural Law and states that the loaves should be eaten. Afterwards, he amended that text to read as above (Rav Kappach's notes).

46.

Offered as burnt offerings (Halachah 1).

47.

Offered as a sin offering (ibid.).

48.

Indeed, the two bulls brought because of the additional offering are not even indispensable requirements for the offering of each other (Kessef Mishneh).

49.

In this instance, however, the two rams brought because of the bread are indispenaible requirements for the offering of each other (ibid.).

50.

Here also the seven sheep brought because of the additional offering are not even indispenaible requirements for the offering of each other. The Ra'avad maintains, however, that the seven sheep brought because of the bread are indispenaible requirements for the offering of each other. The Kessef Mishneh differs and maintains that none of the sheep are indispenaible requirements for each other.

51.

For the fact that they were slaughtered for the same purposes causes them to be considered as a single entity. The Ra'avad does not accept this concept, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh offer an explanation of the Rambam's source, Menachot 55b, that supports his ruling.

52.

With regard to the Rosh Chodesh sacrifice, Ezekiel 46:7 speaks of offering one bull, while the Torah (Numbers 28:11) speaks of bringing two. Menachot 45a reconciles the apparent contradiction stating that if two are available, two should be offered. If only one is available, that one should be brought. Similarly that passage speaks of offering "six sheep... that one's hand will come by," though the Torah speaks of seven. Implied is that if seven are not available, six should be brought. And if six are not available, whatever animals "that one's hand will come by" should be offered.

53.

See Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 1:7.

54.

The continuous offerings have the advantage of being offered more frequently, but the additional offerings are on a higher level of holiness. See also Chapter 9, Halachah 2.

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The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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