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Shabbat, June 19, 2021

Halachic Times (Zmanim)
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Jewish History

The Babylonian armies of King Nebuchadnezzar breached the walls of Jerusalem on the 9th of Tammuz in the year 3338 from creation (423 BCE); King Ziddikiahu of Judah was captured and taken to Babylon (Jeremiah 39:5. A month later, the capture of Jerusalem was completed with the destruction of the Holy Temple and the exile of all but a small number of Jews to Babylon). Tammuz 9 was observed as a fast day until the second breaching of Jerusalem's walls (by the Romans) on the 17th of Tammuz, 3829 (69 CE), at which time the fast was moved to that date. (Talmud, Rosh Hashanah and Tur Orach Chaim 549)

Links:
thethreeweeks.com
The Destruction

Laws and Customs

During the summer months, from the Shabbat after Passover until the Shabbat before Rosh Hashahah, we study a weekly chapter of the Talmud's Ethics of the Fathers ("Avot") each Shabbat afternoon; this week we study Chapter Five.

Link: Ethics of the Fathers, Chapter 5

Daily Thought

In the Sukkah, we are all one because in essence we are a single being.

But that which is outside our essence—that which makes us the individuals who we are—that is not yet one.

In the unity of the Etrog, Lulav, Hadasim and Aravot, we are all one as distinct individuals, complementing one another to make a single, harmonious whole.

But we remain apart at the core, united only superficially.

When the two mitzvot come together, then we are one in all ways: The oneness of our essence resonates throughout the harmony of our diversity.

And so it shall be in the entire creation, as a single symphony, soon, very soon.