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Friday, 22 Elul, 5780

Halachic Times (Zmanim)
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Jewish History

R. Yaakov Moelin, known as the Maharil, was recognized as the supreme halachic authority for Ashkenazi Jewry in his day. His customs, collected in Minhagei Maharil (and cited often by R. Moshe Isserles in his comments to the Code of Jewish Law), are the basis for the conduct of Ashkenazi Jewry in many areas of Jewish life, especially in matters relating to prayer and synagogue procedure.

Links: Rabbi Jacob Halevi (Maharil), The Origins of Tashlich (a custom documented by Maharil)

Laws and Customs

As the last month of the Jewish year, Elul is traditionaly a time of introspection and stocktaking -- a time to review one's deeds and spiritual progress over the past year and prepare for the upcoming "Days of Awe" of Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur.

As the month of Divine Mercy and Forgiveness (see "Today in Jewish History" for Elul 1) it is a most opportune time for teshuvah ("return" to G-d), prayer, charity, and increased Ahavat Yisrael (love for a fellow Jew) in the quest for self-improvement and coming closer to G-d. Chassidic master Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi likens the month of Elul to a time when "the king is in the field" and, in contrast to when he is in the royal palace, "everyone who so desires is permitted to meet him, and he receives them all with a cheerful countenance and shows a smiling face to them all."

Specific Elul customs include the daily sounding of the shofar (ram's horn) as a call to repentance. The Baal Shem Tov instituted the custom of reciting three additional chapters of Psalms each day, from the 1st of Elul until Yom Kippur (on Yom Kippur the remaining 36 chapters are recited, thereby completing the entire book of Psalms). Click below to view today's Psalms.

Chapter 64 Chapter 65 Chapter 66

Elul is also the time to have one's tefillin and mezuzot checked by an accredited scribe to ensure that they are in good condition and fit for use.

Links: More on Elul

Daily Thought

Some people think that if they did something beautiful yesterday, or last week, or even several years ago, they’ve done their part and G‑d should continue paying them for it the rest of their lives.

It’s something like loaning money with interest—you lent it to someone last year, and you’re still making a profit off him today.

Problem is, the Torah prohibits charging interest—even from G‑d.

Instead, go into business with G‑d. He values the good that you did. You should value it also. And if you do, you’ll make each day a new investment.

Yesterday was good. Today will be even better.

Likutei Sichot vol. 3, pg. 1010.