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Sunday, August 8, 2021

Halachic Times (Zmanim)
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Rosh Chodesh Elul
Jewish History

On the last day of Av of the year 2448 from creation (1313 BCE), Moses carved, by G-d's command, two stone tablets -- each a cube measuring 6x6x3 tefachim (a tefach, "handbreadth", is approximately 3.2 inches) -- to replace the two divinely-made tablets, on which G-d had inscribed the Ten Commandments, which Moses had smashed 42 days earlier upon witnessing Israel's worship of the Golden Calf.

Links: The 120-Day Version of the Human Story

Laws and Customs

Today is the first of the two days of Rosh Chodesh (“Head of the Month”) for the month of Elul (when a month has 30 days, both the last day of the month and the first day of the following month serve as the following month’s Rosh Chodesh).

Special portions are added to the daily prayers: Hallel (Psalms 113-118) is recited—in its “partial” form—following the Shacharit morning prayer, and the Yaaleh Veyavo prayer is added to the Amidah and to Grace After Meals; the additional Musaf prayer is said (when Rosh Chodesh is Shabbat, special additions are made to the Shabbat Musaf). Tachanun (confession of sins) and similar prayers are omitted.

Many have the custom to mark Rosh Chodesh with a festive meal and reduced work activity. The latter custom is prevalent amongst women, who have a special affinity with Rosh Chodesh—the month being the feminine aspect of the Jewish calendar.

Links: The 29th Day; The Lunar Files; What Is Rosh Chodesh?

Some of the special Elul practices (see entries and links for tomorrow, Elul 1) begin today. The psalm L'David Hashem Ori (Psalm 27) is recited at the end of the morning and afternoon prayers; this special addition is recited throughout the month of Elul and the High Holiday season, until Hoshanah Rabbah (Tishrei 21) -- a total of 50 days. And although the daily shofar sounding of Elul officially begins on the 2nd Rosh Chodesh, it is customary to practice sounding the shofar (ram's horn) on the 1st Rosh Chodesh, introducing the Elul atmosphere of soul-searching and repentance.

Links: About the shofar; Psalm 27, The High Holiday Anthem

Daily Thought

Appoint judges and officers in all your cities. (Deuteronomy 16:18)

Her husband is known in the gates. (Proverbs 31:23)

The Zohar explains:

You are a city.

You are the master of four gates that enter your city: the Gate of Vision, the Gate of Listening, the Gate of Imagining and the Gate of Speaking.

The husband is the Infinite G‑d, and although He is infinite, He can be known to each of us if we will only clear the gateways for Him to enter.

That is why all the world competes to storm those gates. They want you to see the ugliness they see, hear the cacophony they hear, imagine the nonsense they imagine and speak without end.

They want to be the voting citizens of your city.

And then, you will desire all they desire. You will know only whatever they wish to know. No room will be left in your city for anything but them.

That is why you must remain the master of those gates, so that wisdom will flow through them. Endless wisdom.

Maamar Shoftim 5729.