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The Month of Tammuz
Sunrise in Jerusalem - By <a href=''/k18811''>Alex Levin</a>
Sunrise in Jerusalem - By Alex Levin

Tammuz is the fourth of the 12 months of the Jewish calendar. The month of Tammuz begins the “season” of the summer. The three months of this season are Tammuz, Av and Elul.

The 17th day of Tammuz—a fast day that commemorates the day when the walls of Jerusalem were breached by the Romans (in 69 C.E.)—marks the beginning of a period known as “the Three Weeks.” This is an annual mourning period, when we mourn the destruction of the Holy Temple and the cause of our current ongoing exile. It reaches its climax and concludes with the fast of the Ninth of Av, the date when both Holy Temples were set aflame (423 BCE and 69 C.E., respectively). Because of this and numerous other tragedies that occurred throughout Jewish history during this period, we lessen the extent of our rejoicing during the three-week period leading up to it.

Why the excessive mourning for more than 2,000 years?

G‑d is our Father, and we are His children. And during galut (exile), we constitute a dysfunctional family. We have been expelled from our Father’s home, and our relationship is strained. This is certainly not the way the relationship should be—and this wasn’t always the case. There was a time when we were coddled by our Father’s embrace. His love for us manifested itself in many forms, including miracles, prophets, abundant blessings, and a land flowing with milk and honey. At the center of our relationship was the Holy Temple, G‑d’s home, where He literally dwelt among His people and where His presence was tangible.

All the suffering that has been our lot since the day the Temple was destroyed is a result of our exiled state. This is why we mourn the destruction of the Temples. We believe with perfect faith and pray that the day is near when we will be returned to our Father’s home and once again feel His love. We look forward to a brighter future, when the world will finally reach the culmination of its purpose, and be infused with everlasting peace and goodness.

Tammuz Features
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Ahavat Yisrael
The Kabbalah of the Three Weeks: a buried seed of goodness, a 21-day almond wood, walls that protect and walls that imprison, the pregnant Tet, and a cosmic birth that puts history to rights.
“Remember, Reb Ze’ev,” were the Baal Shem Tov’s parting words to him, “one must know how to properly answer a question. Weigh your words carefully before you speak . . .”
Tammuz Calendar
Special Days in Tammuz
3 Tammuz Rebbe's Yahrtzeit
The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson of righteous memory (b. 1902) passed away in the early morning hours of the 3rd of Tammuz...
6 Tammuz Entebbe Rescue
Jewish hostages held by Arab terrorists at Entebbe Airport, Uganda, were rescued by Israeli commando units in 1976. Links:
More on the Entebbe...
12 Tammuz Liberation of R. Yosef Yitzchak of Lubavitch
On the 12th of Tammuz of 1927, the sixth Lubavitcher rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, was officially granted release from his sentence of...
16 Tammuz Golden Calf Made; Hur Killed
In the year 2448 from Creation (1313 BCE), Tammuz 16 was the 40th day following the Giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, and the people of Israel...
17 Tammuz Moses Breaks Tablets
The Talmud (Taanit 28b) lists five tragic events in Jewish history that occurred on Tammuz 17, on account of which a fast was instituted on this day...
29 Tammuz Passing of Rashi
Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki, known as "Rashi", passed away on the 29th of Tammuz of the year 4865 from creation (1105 CE). Rashi was born in Troyes...
Jewish History In Tammuz
1 Tammuz
1562 and 1452 BCE Birth and Passing of Joseph
Joseph, the son of the patriarch Jacob, was born in Charan (Mesopotamia) on the 1st of Tammuz of the... Read More »
2 Tammuz
1765 Passing of Rabbi Nachman of Horodenka (Gorodenka)
Rabbi Nachman of Horodenka was a close colleague of the Baal Shem Tov. His son, Rabbi Simcha, married... Read More »
3 Tammuz
1273 BCE Joshua Stops the Sun
On the third of Tammuz of the year 2488 from creation (1273 BCE), Joshua was leading the Jewish... Read More »
1851 Lubavitch Fire
A great fire destroyed much of the town of Lubavitch, including the home of the third Chabad... Read More »
1927 R. Yosef Yitzchak Released from Prison
The sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (1880-1950), who was arrested on Sivan... Read More »
1994 Rebbe's Yahrtzeit
The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson of righteous memory (b. 1902) passed away in... Read More »
4 Tammuz
1171 Passing of Rabbeinu Tam
Rabbi Yaakov ben Meir of Romereau (1100?-1171), known as "Rabbeinu Tam", was a grandson of Rashi... Read More »
1286 Maharam Imprisoned
Rabbi Meir ben Baruch ("Maharam") of Rothenburg (1215?-1293), the great Talmudic commentator and... Read More »
5 Tammuz
429 BCE Ezekiel's Vision of the "Chariot"
On the 5th of Tammuz of the year 3332 from creation (429 BCE), Ezekiel, among the only prophets to... Read More »
6 Tammuz
1976 Entebbe Rescue
Jewish hostages held by Arab terrorists at Entebbe Airport, Uganda, were rescued by Israeli commando... Read More »
7 Tammuz
1805 Passing of Rabbi Pinchas Horowitz
Rabbi Pinchas HaLevi Horowitz of Nikelsburg (1730-1805) was the rabbi of Frankfurt and the author of... Read More »
8 Tammuz
1834 Spanish Inquisition Abolished
On July 15, 1834, the Office of the Spanish Inquisition was abolished by the Queen Mother Maria... Read More »
1567 Jews expelled from Genoa
Having become a virtual vassal of Spain, the Republic of Genoa expelled the Jews at the behest... Read More »
9 Tammuz
423 BCE Jerusalem Walls Breached
The Babylonian armies of King Nebuchadnezzar breached the walls of Jerusalem on the 9th of Tammuz in... Read More »
10 Tammuz
423 BCE King Zedekiah captured
When the Babylonians breached the walls of Jerusalem on the 9th of Tammuz, King Zedekiah fled the... Read More »
11 Tammuz
1774 Purim Tammuz (Algiers)
In 1774, the Spanish General O'Reilly attacked the city of Algiers and was successfully repulsed by... Read More »
12 Tammuz
1880 R. Yosef Yitzchak of Lubavitch Born
Tammuz 12 is the birthday the sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn of Lubavitch... Read More »
1927 Liberation of R. Yosef Yitzchak of Lubavitch
On the 12th of Tammuz of 1927, the sixth Lubavitcher rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, was... Read More »
13 Tammuz
1927 R. Yosef Yitzchak Freed
On the 13th of Tammuz of 1927, the sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn... Read More »
14 Tammuz
1401 Jews of Schaffhausen (Switzerland) Burned at the Stake
After the postilion (coach driver) of the governor killed the four-year-old son of a councilor... Read More »
1639 Passing of Rabbi Yosef Trani
Rabbi Yosef Trani, known as the Maharit (1568-1639), was born in Safed and married a descendant of... Read More »
15 Tammuz
1743 Passing of R. Chayim ben Attar (Ohr HaChayim)
Passing of the famed Torah scholar and mystic Rabbi Chayim ben Attar (1696-1743), author of the Ohr... Read More »
16 Tammuz
1313 BCE Golden Calf Made; Hur Killed
In the year 2448 from Creation (1313 BCE), Tammuz 16 was the 40th day following the Giving of the... Read More »
17 Tammuz
1313 BCE Moses Breaks Tablets
The Talmud (Taanit 28b) lists five tragic events in Jewish history that occurred on Tammuz 17, on... Read More »
423 BCE Temple Service Disrupted
The daily sacrificial offerings (Korban Tamid) in the Holy Temple were discontinued, three weeks... Read More »
69 CE Jerusalem Walls Breached
The other three national tragedies mourned on Tammuz 17 are connected with the Roman conquest of... Read More »
18 Tammuz
1313 BCE Golden Calf Destroyed
Moses destroyed the Golden Calf, and re-ascended Mount Sinai to plead G-d's forgiveness for the... Read More »
19 Tammuz
1959 Passing of Rabbi Yitzchak Herzog
Rabbi Yitzchak HaLevi Herzog (1889-1959) was born in Łomża, Poland, and moved to the United... Read More »
20 Tammuz
1954 Passing of Rabbi Avraham Chaim Na’eh
Rabbi Avraham Chaim Na'eh (1890-1954) was born in Hebron to Rabbi Menachem Mendel Na'eh, a... Read More »
21 Tammuz
1636 Passing of Baal Shem of Worms
The noted Kabbalist Rabbi Eliyahu ben Moshe Loanz, known as "Rabbi Eliyahu Baal Shem" of Worms... Read More »
22 Tammuz
1792 Passing of R. Shlomo of Karlin
Rabbi Shlomo (1738-1792), Chassidic Rebbe in the town of Karlin, Russia (near Pinsk), was killed in... Read More »
23 Tammuz
1570 Passing of R. Moshe Cordovero
Passing of Rabbi Moshe Cordovero (1522?-1570) of Safed, the Holy Land, known as the "Ramak"... Read More »
24 Tammuz
1099 Jews of Jerusalem are set aflame
When the crusaders captured Jerusalem during the First Crusade, the Jews of Jerusalem fled into a... Read More »
25 Tammuz
1639 Passing of Rabbi Aharon Berachia of Modina
Rabbi Aharon Berachia ben Moshe of Modina (? - 1639) was an Italian Kabbalist and a student of Rabbi... Read More »
27 Tammuz
1322 Third expulsion from France
After having been allowed back into France in the year 1315 (after the expulsion in 1306 by Philip... Read More »
28 Tammuz
1841 Passing of "Yismach Moshe"
Tammuz 28 is the yahrzeit of Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum (1759-1841) of Uhely, Hungary, author of Yismach... Read More »
1886 Passing of Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried
Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried (1804-1886) was born in Uzhhorod (Ungvar) in the Carpathian region of the... Read More »
29 Tammuz
1105 Passing of Rashi
Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki, known as "Rashi", passed away on the 29th of Tammuz of the year 4865 from... Read More »
Laws & Customs For Tammuz
1 Tammuz
Today is the second of the two Rosh Chodesh ("Head of the Month") days for the Hebrew month of... Read More »
3 Tammuz
Chabad-Lubavitch Chassidim observe the customs of the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the passing) in... Read More »
During the summer months, from the Shabbat after Passover until the Shabbat before Rosh Hashahah, we... Read More »
7 Tammuz
Once a month, as the moon waxes in the sky, we recite a special blessing called Kiddush Levanah... Read More »
10 Tammuz
During the summer months, from the Shabbat after Passover until the Shabbat before Rosh Hashahah, we... Read More »
11 Tammuz
In Chabad practice, starting in the afternoon, Tachnun (confession of sins) and similar prayers are... Read More »
12 Tammuz
In Chabad practice, Tachanun (confession of sins) and similar prayers are omitted... Read More »
13 Tammuz
In Chabad practice, Tachanun (confession of sins) and similar prayers are omitted... Read More »
17 Tammuz
To mourn the breaching of Jerusalem's walls and the other tragic events that occurred on this day... Read More »
The 17th of Tammuz also marks the beginning of The Three Weeks period of mourning which culminates on... Read More »
During the summer months, from the Shabbat after Passover until the Shabbat before Rosh Hashahah, we... Read More »
18 Tammuz
Because of the holiness of Shabbat, the fast of Tammuz 17 is this year postponed to today, Tammuz 18.... Read More »
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
19 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
20 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
21 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
22 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
23 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
24 Tammuz
This Shabbat is Shabbat Mevarchim ("the Shabbat that blesses" the new month): a special prayer is... Read More »
During the summer months, from the Shabbat after Passover until the Shabbat before Rosh Hashahah, we... Read More »
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
25 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
26 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
27 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
28 Tammuz
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
29 Tammuz
Starting in the afternoon, Tachanun (confession of sins) and similar prayers are... Read More »
During the Three Weeks, from 17th of Tamuz to the 9th of Av, we commemorate the conquest of... Read More »
Jewish Women's Events
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Rosh Chodesh
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What Is Rosh Chodesh?
The Jewish calendar follows the lunar year. The renewal of the moon, marks the beginning of the month. Rosh Chodesh, which means ‘head of the month’ celebrates the start of a new month on the Jewish calendar.

Throughout history our light has waxed and waned. But even in utter darkness, it has never been extinguished.

More About Rosh Chodesh
A Monthly Holiday for Women
The special connection between women and Rosh Chodesh harks way back to the episode of the Golden Calf, when the women refused to surrender their jewelry for use in making the idol. As a reward, they were given Rosh Chodesh as a special Holiday for women.

Rosh Chodesh celebrates the monthly renewal of the moon, after it wanes to the point of disappearance. Thus Rosh Chodesh celebrates the concept of perpetuity despite life’s peaks and plunges. It is the woman who through her steadfast faith that ensures our nation’s survival; it is she who ensures that no matter how much we wane, we will always be renewed.

More on the Women Connection
~ In honor of the Gold family of Montreal ~