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Sages, the:  refers to the great body of teachers who taught and expounded the traditional laws and traditions of Israel from the time of Ezra to the completion of the Talmudic/Midrashic literature (approx. 450 BCE-500 CE) 
Salome Alexandra:  (d. 65 BCE) Hasmonean queen, sister of Simeon ben Shetach. After the death of her husband Aristobulus I, she freed his brother, Alexander Jannaeus from prison, and married him shortly thereafter, in accordance with the laws of yibbum. After her second husband's death, she ruled for nine years, during which the Jews prospered both politically and spiritually.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Salome Alexandra
Samach:  the fifteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, prounounced "s," with a numerical value of 60  [4 related articles] Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Holy Tongue, the; Hebrew » Aleph-Beit, The » Samach
Samson:  (a) The seventh of the Judges, he judged the Israelites for twenty years (951-931 BCE). A nazirite from birth and of legendary strength, he single-handedly terrorized the occupying Philistines, once killing one thousand of them with a donkey’s jawbone. Samson’s Philistine wife, Delilah, persuaded him to reveal to her the source of his great strength—his never-cut hair. She revealed the secret to the Philistines, who cut his hair and incarcerated him. At a pagan festival, Samson knocked down the pillars supporting the building, killing himself and thousands of Philistines. (b) A common Jewish name.  [12 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Samson
Samuel:   (931-877 BCE) Son of Hannah and Elkanah, a nazirite from birth, a disciple of Eli the last of the Judges, he would travel throughout Israel to teach and judge the people. Anointed Saul and David, the first two Israelite monarchs.  [19 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Samuel
Samuel:  A common Jewish name. 
Samuel bar Abba:  (d. 257) Talmudic sage, resident of Nahrdea, Babylonia, a contemporary of Rav. In his youth, Samuel studied in Tiberias, Israel, at the Torah academy of Rabbi Judah the Prince. He later returned to his native Babylon, and became the principal of the academy in Nahardea. The Talmud records many examples of Samuel's proficiency in economics, medicine, zoology, astronomy and calendric science.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Sages of the Talmud » Samuel bar Abba
Samuel bar Shilat, Rabbi:  Talmudic sage, an extremely devoted school teacher, a contemporary of Rav[2 related articles] People & Events » People » Sages of the Talmud » Samuel bar Shilat, Rabbi
Samuel, the Book of:  The (two-part) book of Tanach relating the history of the Israelites during Samuel's lifetime and during the reigns of Saul and David (931-c. 837 BCE).  [2 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Prophets (Section of the Tanach) » Samuel, the Book of
Sanctification of the Moon:  (lit. “sanctification of the moon”) prayer service recited in the first half of each month blessing the new moon  [13 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Month, The » Sanctification of the Moon
Sandek:  The one who holds the boy while the circumcision is performed. This is the highest honor at a Brit[2 related articles] Human Being, The » Life Cycles » Brit Milah; Circumcision » Sandek
Sanhedrin:  the central rabbinical supreme court of ancient Israel, composed of 71 sages, which emerged as an especially crucial source of leadership following the destruction of the Second Temple; also, the tractate of the Talmud of that name  [8 related articles] Human Being, The » Self & Fellow » Leadership & Authority » Sanhedrin
Sar Hamashkim:  Fell out of Pharaoh’s graces. Was incarcerated in the same prison-dungeon as Joseph, where Joseph correctly deciphered a dream he had, interpreting it as a sign that he would be restored to his original post. He later recommended that Joseph interpret Pharaoh's dreams, leading to Joseph's appointment as viceroy of Egypt.  [5 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Sar Hamashkim
Sarah:  (a) (1803-1677 BCE) First of the four Matriarchs, wife of Abraham. Together with her husband, she was instrumental in converting thousands of people to monotheism. She was miraculously protected when she was abducted by the kings of Egypt and Philistine. She gave birth to Isaac at the age of ninety. She is buried in the Cave of Machpelah. (b) A common Jewish name.  [54 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Sarah
Saul:  (a) (d. 877 BCE) A righteous member of the Tribe of Benjamin. Anointed by Samuel as the first Israelite king in 880 BCE. When he failed to destroy Amalek as commanded by G-d, Samuel anointed David in his stead. Overcome with jealousy, Saul pursued David until he himself was killed in battle by the Philistines. (b) A common Jewish name.  [13 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Saul
Schmaltz:  (Yiddish) chicken or goose fat used for frying or as a spread  [1 related article] Human Being, The » Body, The Human » Food; Eating » Fat » Schmaltz
Schneur Zalman of Liadi:  1745-1812, founder and first Rebbe of the Chabad branch of chassidism, known also as the "Alter Rebbe," “the Rav,” and as Baal HaTanya; lived in Li'ozna and Liadi, White Russia; author of Tanya, a classic text of the chassidic tradition, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a code of Jewish law  [176 related articles] People & Events » People » Chassidic Personalities » Chabad Personalities » Chabad Rebbes » Schneur Zalman of Liadi
Scroll of Esther, The:  The book of Tanach describing Haman's plot to annihilate the Jews, Mordecai and Esther's successful foiling thereof, and the institution of the holiday of Purim. It is read every year on Purim.  [43 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Writings (Section of the Tanach) » Scroll of Esther, The
Seah:  a liquid measure of the Talmudic period; 40 seah equals 87.59 gallons or 331.78 liter in modern measure according to Shiurei Torah by Rav Chayim Naeh  Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Shiurim (quantities) » Seah
Sechach:  the vegetative covering of a sukkah  [1 related article] Calendar, The Jewish » Sukkot » Sukkah » Sechach
Second Day of Yom Tov:  The additional day appended to biblical holidays and festivals in the diaspora. See Why are holidays celebrated an extra day in the Diaspora?  [4 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Festivals, The » Second Day of Yom Tov
Sedarim:  (lit. “order”); the order of service observed at home on the first night (first two nights in the Diaspora) of Passover. Plural: Sedarim.  [496 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Sedarim
Sedarim of the Mishnah:  The Mishnah is divided into six general sections, called sedarim (“orders”). 
Seder Hishtalshelut:  (Chassidic term; lit. "order of evolution"); the chainlike progression of spiritual worlds; the spiritual cosmos 
Seder Plate, The:  the plate of symbolic foods used at the Passover seder  [32 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Seder, the » Seder Plate, The
Seder, the:  (lit. “order”); the order of service observed at home on the first night (first two nights in the Diaspora) of Passover. Plural: Sedarim.  [496 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Seder, the
Sedra:  The weekly Torah portion.  [2700 related articles] Torah, The » Sedra
Sefarim:  [Sacred] books.  [902 related articles] Torah, The » Sefarim
Sefer Avodah:  (lit. "the “Book of Divine Service”); the eighth of the fourteen books of the Mishneh Torah which focuses on the service in the Beit HaMikdash  Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Mishneh Torah (Rambam) » Sefer Avodah
Sefer HaMefoar:  (lit. “Book of the Magnificent”); book on mussar by R. Yehudah Kolatz (15th century)  Torah, The » Torah Books » Sefer HaMefoar
Sefer HaMitzvot:  (lit. "book of the commandments"); text authored by the Rambam for the purpose of defining the 613 mitzvot  [14 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Sefer HaMitzvot
Sefer HaPardes:  (lit. “book of the orchard”); principal written work on Kabbalah by Ramak  Torah, The » Torah Books » Kabbalistic Works » Sefer HaPardes
Sefer Torah:  Torah scroll.  [107 related articles] Torah, The » Sefer Torah
Sefirah:  (a) One of the Divine attributes or emanations which are manifested in each of the Four Worlds, and are the source of the corresponding ten faculties (kochot) of the soul; (b) (lit. "count") A reference to the Counting of the Omer.  [302 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Sefirah
Sefirat HaOmer:  (lit. "counting of the measure"); the formal counting of the 49 days from the second day of Passover to the eve of Shavuot, signifying our preparation for the receiving of the Torah on the holiday of Shavuot.  [55 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sefirat HaOmer period » Sefirat HaOmer
Sefirot, The (seven, ten):  Divine attributes or emanations which are manifested in each of the Four Worlds, and are the source of the corresponding ten faculties (kochot) of the soul  [302 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Sefirot, The (seven, ten)
Segol:  one of the Hebrew vowel signs  [1 related article] Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Holy Tongue, the; Hebrew » Hebrew vowel signs » Segol
Selichot:  (a) penitential prayers read before dawn during the week preceding Rosh Hashanah; (b) the days during which these prayers are recited; (c) special prayers recited on fast days and Yom Kippur Katan  [21 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Selichot
Semichah:  Rabbinic ordination.  [17 related articles] G-d and Man » Religion; Religious Ritual » Clergy; Religious Offices » Rabbi, The » Semichah
Sennacherib:  (d. 548 BCE) King of Assyria, he conquered all the areas surrounding Judea. He then threatened to conquer Judea and asked for its surrender—while blaspheming G-d. King Hezekiah prayed for deliverance, and that night all the Assyrian soldiers – hundreds of thousands of them – were killed by an angel of G-d. Defeated and shamed, Sennacherib returned to his capital Nineveh where he was slain by his own sons.  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Sennacherib
Sephardi:  Sephardi: Jews of South European or North African origin; pertaining to such Jews.  [7 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Jewishness; Jewish Identity » Ashkenazim and Sephardim » Sephardi
Serah:  Daughter of Asher. According to the Midrash, she softly delivered the news to her grandfather Jacob that Joseph was still alive. Playing a song on her harp, she gradually mixed in the words "Joseph is alive..." Jacob greatly appreciated this and blessed her with longevity.  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Serah
Seraph:  (lit. “burning one”) a category of the ministering angels, given this name because they are characterized by a love for G-d which consumes like fire seraphim, groups of angels 
Seresh:  A chamberlain in King Ahasuerus's court. Together with his colleague Bigthan, plotted to assassinate the king. Mordecai discovered their plot, and they were both hanged. This event played a pivotal role in the Purim story, as described in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Post First Temple (Biblical Personalities) » Seresh
Seth:  Third son of Adam and Eve. He was Noah’s ancestor, and thus the antecedent of all mankind that survived the Flood [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Seth
Seudah:  meal, especially a festive one 
Seudah HaMafseket:  last meal eaten before a fast 
Seudah Shelishit:  (lit. "the third meal"); the third of Shabbat's required three meals, held right before sunset, during the mystic time of Shabbat's waning  [7 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat » Shabbat Meals » Seudah Shelishit
Seudat Mitzvah:  (lit. "meal of commandment"); festive meal held in celebration of a religious obligation 
Seventy Elders:  Appointed by Moses, at G-d’s behest, to assist him in leading the Israelites. Moses conferred upon them from the divine spirit that he was blessed with.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Seventy Elders
Sha!:  (Yiddish) “Silence!” 
Shaah Zmanit:  halachic hour, one-twelfth of the period from the beginning of the day (sunrise) until its conclusion (sunset)  Calendar, The Jewish » Day, The » Halachic Times » Shaah Zmanit
Shaarei Orah:  (lit. “Gates of Illumination”); Chassidic essays by the Mitteler Rebbe on the festivals of Chanukah and Purim  Torah, The » Torah Books » Chassidic Works » Shaarei Orah
Shabbat:  (lit. "rest", "cessation [of work]"); the Sabbath, the divinely-ordained day of rest on the seventh day of the week.  [808 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat
Shabbat Bereishit:  the Shabbat following Simchat Torah, at which the first portion of the Torah, Genesis, is read begninning a new year of the weekly Torah reading cycle  [5 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat Bereishit
Shabbat Chazon:  (lit. "Sabbath of Vision"); the Shabbat before Tishah BeAv, so called because of the passage “Chazon” (Isaiah 1:1) read for the Haftorah  [22 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Three Weeks, The » Three of Rebuke » Shabbat Chazon
Shabbat HaGadol:  (lit. “the Great Sabbath”); the Shabbat preceding Passover  [13 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Shabbat HaGadol
Shabbat Kallah:  On the Shabbat before a wedding, it is customary for a bride to enjoy an elegant social gathering with her female friends and relatives.  [2 related articles] Human Being, The » Self & Fellow » Relationships » Marriage » Engagement » Shabbat Kallah
Shabbat Mevarchim:  (lit. "Sabbath of Blessing"); the Shabbat on which the forthcoming new month is blessed  [7 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Month, The » Shabbat Mevarchim
Shabbat Nachamu:  (lit. "Sabbath of Consolation"); the Shabbat following the fast of Tishah B'Av, so called because of the passage “Nachamu” (Yeshayahu 40:1) read for the Haftorah  [14 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Seven of Consolation » Shabbat Nachamu
Shabbat Selichot:  The Shabbat preceding the week of Rosh Hashanah, the day before the recitation of Selichot begins. 
Shabbat Shirah:  (lit. "Sabbath of Song"); the Shabbat on which one reads Parshat Beshalach, which includes the Shirah, the Song of the Sea (Shmot 15:1-19) 
Shabbat Shuvah:  (lit. “the Sabbath of Repentance”); the Shabbat between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur; also known as Shabbat Shuvah (from the first word of the Haftorah read on that day, beginning Hoshea 14:2)  [11 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Ten Days of Repentance » Shabbat Shuvah
Shabbosdik:  (Yiddish) appropriate for or in the spirit of Shabbat.  [1 related article]
Shacharit (morning prayer):  (lit. "the dawning"); the morning prayer service  [42 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Three Daily Prayers, The » Shacharit (morning prayer)
Shadchonus:  (Yid.-Heb.) marriage broker’s fee 
Shaliach:  (lit. "emissary"); commonly denoting emissaries of the Lubavitcher Rebbe involved in Jewish outreach work  [16 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Religions & other 'Ism's » Judaism » Jewish Movements & Organizations » Shelichut » Shaliach
Shalom Aleichem:  (lit. “Peace upon you”); (a) a common greeting; (b) hymn of welcome to the ministering angels who visit every Jewish home on Friday eve  [10 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat » Shabbat Meals » Shalom Aleichem
Shalomtzion:  (d. 65 BCE) Hasmonean queen, sister of Simeon ben Shetach. After the death of her husband Aristobulus I, she freed his brother, Alexander Jannaeus from prison, and married him shortly thereafter, in accordance with the laws of yibbum. After her second husband's death, she ruled for nine years, during which the Jews prospered both politically and spiritually.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Shalomtzion
Shalosh Seudot:  (lit. "the third meal"); the third of Shabbat's required three meals, held right before sunset, during the mystic time of Shabbat's waning  [7 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat » Shabbat Meals » Shalosh Seudot
Shamash:  (lit. "Attendant") The synagogue beadle. In charge of managing the synagogue's daily operations.  G-d and Man » Prayer » Synagogue, The » Shamash
Shamash, The:  The candle from which the Chanukah lamps are lit.  [2 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Chanukah (Hanukkah) » Chanukah Menorah » Shamash, The
Shamgar ben Anath:  (d. 1107 BCE) Third of the Judges, ruled together with Ehud during the last years of the latter’s leadership. When the Philistines oppressed the Israelites living in the southwest region of Israel, Shamgar came to the rescue, killing 600 Philistines with a cattle prod.  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Shamgar ben Anath
Shamir:  wormlike creature that was miraculously able to chew through stone and which was used in the construction of the first Beit HaMikdash. 
Shammai:  (1st century BCE) Mishnaic sage, student of Shemaiah and Abtalion, served as the head of the Sanhedrin under Hillel. Known for his quick temper and strict interpretation of the Torah. His Torah academy was known as the “House of Shammai.”  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Shammai
Shammai & Hillel, Houses of :  The Torah academies founded by Hillel and Shammai were known as the “Houses of Hillel and Shammai.” The Mishnah records 316 disagreements between the schools, with the House of Hillel generally taking the lenient view and the House of Shammai, the more stringent one. In all but 18 cases, the halachah is accordance with the House of Hillel.  [22 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Shammai & Hillel, Houses of
Shammes:  (Yid. pronunciation of “shamash”; lit., “assistant”); (a) the custodian of a synagogue; (b) the personal assistant of a rabbi or other communal official 
Shankbone:  the shankbone used on the Passover seder plate; represents the Paschal sacrifice  [3 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Seder, the » Seder Plate, The » Shankbone
Shas:  (Acronym of Shisha Sidrei Mishnah lit., “the Six Orders of the Mishnah”); the Talmud in its entirety.  [562 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Books » Shas
Shatnez (Prohibition against mixing wool and linen in garments):  a mixture of wool and linen forbidden by the Torah  [15 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Kilayim » Shatnez (Prohibition against mixing wool and linen in garments)
Shavuot:  (lit. “weeks”) The one-day holiday (two in the Diaspora) commemorating the Giving of the Torah on Mount Sinai. This late-spring holiday commences on the fiftieth day (the morrow of seven “weeks”) following the second day of Passover[187 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shavuot
Shechem (son of Chamor):  Son of Hamor, the governor of the city of Shechem. Kidnapped and violated Dinah the daughter of Jacob. Dinah’s brothers Simeon and Levi avenged this deed, destroying the city of Shechem and killing all its adult male inhabitants.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Shechem (son of Chamor)
Shechem (the city):  City in northern Israel. There Dinah was abducted, and it is the location of Joseph's Tomb.  [2 related articles] Physical World, The » Countries, Lands & Geographical Locations » Israel, The Land of » Shechem (the city)
Shechinah ("feminine aspect" of the Divine):  The manifestation of the divine presence in this world; G-d's feminine manifestation.  [26 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Shechinah ("feminine aspect" of the Divine)
Shechitah (Ritual Slaughtering):  ritual slaughtering  [27 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Shechitah (Ritual Slaughtering)
SheHakol:  blessing (“by whose word all things come to be”) recited over various foods  [1 related article] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Blessing on Food » SheHakol
Shehecheyanu:  blessing (“who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this season”) recited at the advent of festivals, at a fortuitous occasion, when eating new fruit, wearing new clothing, or performing a mitzvah for the first time that season.  [7 related articles] G-d and Man » Blessing » Shehecheyanu
Shehiya:  (lit. “leaving”);The rabbinic prohibition to leave a pot on the fire for Shabbat (unless specific criteria being met).  [2 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat » Prohibition of Work on Shabbat » Prohibition of Cooking on Shabbat » Shehiya
Sheiltot:  (a) expositions on the Torah written in question and answer format by the Gaonim in the period after the compostion of the Talmud; (b) refers also to the most widely studied of these, the Sheiltot of Rav Achai Gaon  Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Sheiltot
Shekel:  a silver coin of the Biblical era; the standard monetary unit of the State of Israel 
Shelah:  acronym for Shnei Luchot HaBrit, a major halachic, ethical and mystical work by Rabbi Yeshayahu Horowitz (c. 1565-1630); also used to refer to the author himself  [1 related article] Torah, The » Torah Books » Kabbalistic Works » Shelah
Sheliach Tzibbur:  (lit. "emissary of the congregation"); one who leads the congregation in prayer  [2 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Sheliach Tzibbur
Shem:  (2203-1603 BCE) Son of Noah, survived the Flood together with his family by entering the Ark. Progenitor of Abraham. He headed a Torah-study house together with his great-grandson Eber[8 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Shem
Shema, The:  (lit. "hear"); the daily declaration of faith, recited in the morning and evening prayers and before retiring for the night  [118 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Shema, The
Shemini Atzeret:  (lit."eighth assembly"); the eighth day of the Sukkot festival, a holiday in its own right, celebrated with great joy  [6 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah » Shemini Atzeret
Shemittah (Sabbatical Year):  the seventh year in the seven-year agricultural cycle, when the land is left to lie fallow  [44 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Year, The » Sabbatical and Jubilee Cycles » Shemittah (Sabbatical Year)
Shemone Esrei:  (lit. "Eighteen Benedictions"); also referred to as the Amidah ("standing"); the main section of the daily prayers, recited standing  [45 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Shemone Esrei
Shemot:  The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle[551 related articles] Torah, The » Parshah (Weekly Torah Reading) » Shemot
Shemot:  (lit. “names”); the Book of Exodus  [54 related articles] Torah, The » Parshah (Weekly Torah Reading) » Exodus, the Book of » Shemot
Shesh Zechirot:  verses recited daily at the close of the morning prayers in fulfillment of the Scriptural commandment to remember the subjects of which they speak  [2 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Three Daily Prayers, The » Shacharit (morning prayer) » Shesh Zechirot
Sheva Brachot:  (lit. "seven blessings"); (a) the seven blessings recited under the wedding canopy; (b) the week of festivities following the wedding, during which the blessings are repeated  [14 related articles] Human Being, The » Self & Fellow » Relationships » Marriage » Jewish Wedding, The » Sheva Brachot
Sheva Mitzvos B'nei Noach:  "Seven Noahide laws." Seven universal laws -- a morality code -- which form the basis of civilization. All descendents of Noah, i.e. all of humanity, are required to follow these laws.  [61 related articles] Torah, The » Sheva Mitzvos B'nei Noach
Shevarim:  the three Shofar blasts of intermediate length  [1 related article] Calendar, The Jewish » Rosh Hashanah » Shofar » Shevarim
Shevat 10:  (a) anniversary of the passing of the sixth Chabad Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (1950); (b) the day his successor, the seventh Chabad Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, accepted his position as Rebbe (1951)  [55 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shevat 10
Shevat 22:  the 22nd day of Shevat is the anniversary of passing of Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka Schneerson, wife of the Lubavitcher Rebbe of righteous memory  [5 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shevat 22
Shevat, Month of:  Hebrew month corresponding to January-February  [7 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shevat, Month of
Shichachah:  the obligation to abandon produce which one forgot to reap so that the poor may harvest it 
Shidduch:  a match, especially for marriage  [3 related articles]
Shikchah:  The biblical mitzvah obligating a person to leave for the poor sheaves of grain that he had forgotten to harvest.  [6 related articles] Torah, The » Mitzvah; Mitzvot » Chessed; Acts of Kindness » Charity » Shikchah
Shimon ben Chalafta:  (2nd century CE) One of the last Mishnaic sages, pupil of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Judah the Prince, a colleague of Rabbi Hiyya. The Talmud records many stories demonstrating his proficiency in botany and veterinary science.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Shimon ben Chalafta
Shimon ben Halafta:  (2nd century CE) One of the last Mishnaic sages, pupil of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Judah the Prince, a colleague of Rabbi Hiyya. The Talmud records many stories demonstrating his proficiency in botany and veterinary science.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Shimon ben Halafta
Shimon ben Shetach:  (1st century BCE) During John Hyrcanus' persecution of the Pharisees, he was hidden by his sister Salome Alexandra. Later, during Alexander Jannaeus's reign, he became the head of the Sanhedrin, and succeeded in ousting the Sadducees from the Sanhedrin. Together with his colleague, the high priest Joshua ben Gamla, he instituted a public educational system so that all children could learn Torah[3 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Shimon ben Shetach
Shimon Hatzaddik:  From the last members of the Great Assembly, served as high priest and head of the Sanhedrin for 40 years. In 313 BCE, when the Samaritans tried to have the Holy Temple destroyed, Simeon met with Alexander the Great who agreed to leave the Temple standing, foiling the Samaritans' plot.  [7 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Shimon Hatzaddik
Shimshon:  (a) The seventh of the Judges, he judged the Israelites for twenty years (951-931 BCE). A nazirite from birth and of legendary strength, he single-handedly terrorized the occupying Philistines, once killing one thousand of them with a donkey’s jawbone. Samson’s Philistine wife, Delilah, persuaded him to reveal to her the source of his great strength—his never-cut hair. She revealed the secret to the Philistines, who cut his hair and incarcerated him. At a pagan festival, Samson knocked down the pillars supporting the building, killing himself and thousands of Philistines. (b) A common Jewish name.  [12 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Shimshon
Shimusha Rabba:  the halachic text by Rav Sar-Shalom; title is also use to refer to the author himself  Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Shimusha Rabba
Shin:  the twenty-first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, prounounced "sh" (if the dot is on the right, or "s" if the dot is on the left, and the letter is then called "sin"), with a numerical value of 300  [6 related articles] Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Holy Tongue, the; Hebrew » Aleph-Beit, The » Shin
Shir HaMaalot:  (lit. “Song of Ascents”); Psalms 120-134, which begin with that phrase 
Shir Hama'alot:    [2 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Writings (Section of the Tanach) » Psalms » Shir Hama'alot
Shir Shel Yom:  (lit. “the Song of the Day”); the particular Psalm originally sung with instrumental accompaniment on the steps of the Beit HaMikdash and now recited towards the end of the morning prayers 
Shirah:  song 
Shiur:  study session; class; lesson, Torah lesson 
Shiva:  (lit. seven) The seven day mourning period following the funeral of a deceased next of kin.  [32 related articles] Human Being, The » Psychology & Behavior » Loss, Mourning & Consolation » Shiva
Shlimazel:  (Yiddish) a luckless bungler 
Shlita:  an acronym for the Hebrew words meaning, “May he live a long and good life” 
Shlomo:  (a) (849-797 BCE) Son of David and Bathsheba, appointed king over Israel at the age of twelve. Built the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem. During his reign, the Israelites enjoyed unprecedented peace and prosperity; they were feared and respected by the neighboring nations. The wisest man of all times, his superlative wisdom is recorded in the books of Song of Songs, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes. (b) A common Jewish name.  [24 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Shlomo
Shlosh Esreh Middot ShehaTorah Nidreshet Bahem:  "The Thirteen Principles of Torah Exegesis"; G-d gave the Written Torah to Moses, along with instructions on how one is to study and explain it, extracting nuance and hidden meaning from the simple text. These thirteen principles were codified by Rabbi Ishmael and recorded in the Sifra, and are incorporated into the prayer book to be read on a daily basis.  [1 related article] Torah, The » Oral Torah, The » Shlosh Esreh Middot ShehaTorah Nidreshet Bahem
Shloshet Yemei Hagbalah:  the “three days of separation” in preparation for the Giving of the Torah at Sinai  People & Events » History » Biblical Events » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Events) » Giving of the Torah » Shloshet Yemei Hagbalah
Shloshim:  (lit. thirty) The thirty-day mourning period following the funeral of a deceased next of kin.  [9 related articles] Human Being, The » Psychology & Behavior » Loss, Mourning & Consolation » Shloshim
Shluchah:  (fem. form of "emissary"); commonly denoting female emissaries of the Lubavitcher Rebbe involved in Jewish outreach work.  [16 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Religions & other 'Ism's » Judaism » Jewish Movements & Organizations » Shelichut » Shluchah
Shluchim:  (lit. "emissaries"); commonly denoting emissaries of the Lubavitcher Rebbe involved in Jewish outreach work  [16 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Religions & other 'Ism's » Judaism » Jewish Movements & Organizations » Shelichut » Shluchim
Shmuel:   (931-877 BCE) Son of Hannah and Elkanah, a nazirite from birth, a disciple of Eli the last of the Judges, he would travel throughout Israel to teach and judge the people. Anointed Saul and David, the first two Israelite monarchs.  [19 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Shmuel
Shmuel Munkes:  one of the leading Chassidim of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi; known for his wit and “Chassidic pranks”  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Chassidic Personalities » Chabad Personalities » Chabad Chassidim » Shmuel Munkes
Shmurah Matzah:  (lit. “matzah that has been watched”); matzah prepared under exacting supervision from the time the wheat is harvested through the end of the baking to guard against the minutest moisture  [30 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Seder, the » Matzah » Shmurah Matzah
Shochet:  (lit. "ritual slaughterer"); One who slaughters and inspects cattle and fowl in the ritually-prescribed manner, for kosher consumption.  [5 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Shechitah (Ritual Slaughtering) » Shochet
Shofar:  Ram’s horn sounded during the month of Elul, on Rosh HaShanah and at the close of Yom Kippur; reminiscent of the ram “tangled in the bush by its horns” during the Binding of Isaac (Genesis 22), the shofar sounded at Sinai (Exodus 19) and the shofar of Moshiach (Isaiah 27:13, etc.)  [100 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Rosh Hashanah » Shofar
Shofrot:  (a) plural for shofar (ram's horn); (b) a blessing consisting of verses reflecting the importance of sounding the shofar; one of the blessings of the Musaf service on Rosh HaShanah 
Shoftim:  (lit. "judges"); (a) Succession of Torah authorities and leaders who ruled Israel from the year 2533 from creation (1228 BCE, 17 years after the death of Joshua) to the anointing of Saul as king in 2882 (879 BCE). (b) A section of the Torah in Deuteronomy. (c) The thirteenth book of Maimonide's Mishne Torah.  [41 related articles] Torah, The » Parshah (Weekly Torah Reading) » Deuteronomy, the Book of » Shoftim
Shoftim:  The book of Tanach relating the history of the Israelites during the time that the Judges led the Israelites (1228-931 BCE).  [5 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Prophets (Section of the Tanach) » Shoftim
Shomer Shabbat:  Sabbath-observant 
Show Bread:  The bread offered on the sacred table in the Sanctuary each week, described in Leviticus 24:5-9.  [7 related articles] G-d and Man » Holy Temple, The » Components of the Holy Temple » Table, The » Show Bread
Shtetl:  (Yiddish, lit. “village”) the Eastern European townships where many Jews lived in the previous centuries  [4 related articles]
Shtreimel:  (Yiddish) wide fur-brimmed hat worn by some Chassidim on Shabbat, festivals, and other important occasions 
Shulchan Aruch:  (lit. "set table"); standard code of Jewish law, compiled by R. Joseph Karo (1488-1575 C. E.)  [11 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch HaRav:  the Code of Jewish Law compiled by the Alter Rebbe (1770)  [4 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Shulchan Orech:  (lit: "set table"); the eleventh activity of the seder--eating the festive meal  [3 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Seder, the » 15 Steps of the Seder, the » Shulchan Orech
Shushan Purim:  Purim as observed on the fifteenth of Adar, instead of the fourteenth, in certain cities (including Jerusalem) that were walled in ancient times  [7 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Purim » Shushan Purim
Sichah:  (lit. “a talk”); an informal Torah discourse delivered by a Rebbe 
Siddur:  (lit. "order"); traditional prayer book  [30 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Siddur
Sifra:  also known as Torat Kohanim, an exegetical treatise on the Book of Leviticus written in the period of the Mishnah  Torah, The » Torah Books » Sifra
Sifri:  a treatise on the derivation of Torah law from the exegesis of the verses of Numbers and Deuteronomy, written during the time of the Mishnah by Rav  Torah, The » Torah Books » Sifri
Simchah:  (lit. “joy”); a happy occasion or Jewish life-cycle celebration, e.g., bar mitzvah  [224 related articles] Human Being, The » Psychology & Behavior » Simchah
Simchat Beit Hashoeivah:  (lit. “the rejoicing of the place of the water-drawing”); celebration accompanying the water libation ceremony on Sukkot in Temple times, recalled today by Sukkot celebrations.  [16 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sukkot » Simchat Beit Hashoeivah
Simchat Torah:  (lit., "the Rejoicing of the Torah''); festival immediately following Sukkot, on which the public reading of the Torah is annually concluded and recommenced; observed with great joy, singing and the Hakafot procession with the Torah scrolls  [41 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah » Simchat Torah
Simchat Yom-Tov:  the joy of a festival  [2 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Festivals, The » Simchat Yom-Tov
Simeon:  (a) (1567-1447 BCE) Second son of Jacob and Leah, second of the Twelve Tribes. He and his brother Levi destroyed the city of Shechem in retaliation for their sister Dinah’s abduction and violation. (b) A common Jewish name.  [9 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Simeon
Simeon ben Gamaliel I, Rabbi:  (d. 70 CE) Mishnaic sage, Nassi of the Sanhedrin during the years immediately preceding the destruction of the Holy Temple. He died during the siege of Jerusalem, and was succeeded by Johanan ben Zakkai[3 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Simeon ben Gamaliel I, Rabbi
Simeon ben Halafta, Rabbi:  (2nd century CE) One of the last Mishnaic sages, pupil of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Judah the Prince, a colleague of Rabbi Hiyya. The Talmud records many stories demonstrating his proficiency in botany and veterinary science.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Simeon ben Halafta, Rabbi
Simeon ben Shetach, Rabbi:  (1st century BCE) During John Hyrcanus' persecution of the Pharisees, he was hidden by his sister Salome Alexandra. Later, during Alexander Jannaeus's reign, he became the head of the Sanhedrin, and succeeded in ousting the Sadducees from the Sanhedrin. Together with his colleague, the high priest Joshua ben Gamla, he instituted a public educational system so that all children could learn Torah[3 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Simeon ben Shetach, Rabbi
Simeon ben Yohai, Rabbi:  (c. 100-160 CE) Mishnaic sage and mystic, student of Rabbi Akiba. When he evoked the wrath of the Roman authorities, he, together with his son Eleazar, hid in a cave for thirteen years, where their needs were miraculously provided for. He authored the Zohar, the most fundamental kabbalistic work. The anniversary of his passing, the 18th of Iyar, known as Lag BaOmer, is celebrated every year, as per his request.  [40 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Simeon ben Yohai, Rabbi
Simeon the Righteous:  From the last members of the Great Assembly, served as high priest and head of the Sanhedrin for 40 years. In 313 BCE, when the Samaritans tried to have the Holy Temple destroyed, Simeon met with Alexander the Great who agreed to leave the Temple standing, foiling the Samaritans' plot.  [7 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Simeon the Righteous
Sinful Thoughts:    [36 related articles] G-d and Man » Sin » Sinful Thoughts
Sirtuk:  (Yiddish) frock coat worn on Shabbat and Yom-Tov  [1 related article] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Chassidism » Chassidic Dress » Sirtuk
Sisera:  Mighty army general of King Jabin of Canaan, oppressed the Israelites for twenty years. Handily defeated by Deborah and Barak’s fledgling Israelite army. Following the rout, he fled on foot to the tent of Heber the Kenite, where he was killed by Heber’s courageous wife, Jael[1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Sisera
Sitra Achara:  (Aramaic, lit. “the other side”); the opposite of holiness; the forces of evil  [99 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Sitra Achara
Sivan 28:  The date on which, in 1941, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, and his wife, Rebbetzin Chaya Mushkah, arrived safely in America, after escaping Nazi-occupied France. Shortly after his arrival, the Rebbe began his decades-long revolutionary work to revitalize Jewish life in the Western Hemisphere.

  [10 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sivan 28
Sivan, Month of:  Hebrew month corresponding to May-June, month in which the festival of Shavuot is celebrated  [5 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sivan, Month of
Six Remembrances, the:  verses recited daily at the close of the morning prayers in fulfillment of the Scriptural commandment to remember the subjects of which they speak  [2 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Three Daily Prayers, The » Shacharit (morning prayer) » Six Remembrances, the
Siyum:  (lit. "completion"); the celebration held upon completing the study of a tractate of Mishnah or Talmud.  [8 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Study » Siyum
Skullcap:  (Heb: Kippah; Yiddish: yarmulkeh) The head covering worn by Jewish men symbolizing recognition of G-d above.  [20 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Skullcap
Sod:  (lit. "secret"); the mystical dimension of Torah study 
Solomon, King:  (a) (849-797 BCE) Son of David and Bathsheba, appointed king over Israel at the age of twelve. Built the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem. During his reign, the Israelites enjoyed unprecedented peace and prosperity; they were feared and respected by the neighboring nations. The wisest man of all times, his superlative wisdom is recorded in the books of Song of Songs, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes. (b) A common Jewish name.  [24 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Solomon, King
Song at the Sea:  The song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service  [24 related articles] People & Events » History » Biblical Events » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Events) » Splitting of the Sea, The » Song at the Sea
Song of Songs:  A book of Tanach authored by Solomon, depicting the love between G-d and the Jewish people, employing the metaphor of the love between husband and wife. In many communities it is read on the holiday of Passover[8 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Writings (Section of the Tanach) » Song of Songs
Song of the Well:  The Israelites sang this song of thanksgiving for the well which had accompanied them through the desert for forty years, as described in Numbers 21.  [3 related articles] People & Events » History » Biblical Events » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Events) » Song of the Well
Sotah (the "wayward wife"):  (a) A woman suspected by her husband of adultery. Despite his circumstantial evidence, she proclaims her innocence. She would submit to the test of drinking the “bitter waters.” If she had been unfaithful, both she and the adulterer would die. (b) The Talmudic tractate that discusses the laws of the Sotah.  [19 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Sotah (the "wayward wife")
Soul, levels of:  The five terms Scripture uses to refer to man’s soul; each denotes a different gradation of the soul — in ascending order from Nefesh to Yechidah: Nefesh is the basic life-force or natural soul in general, and specifically relates to the soul’s basic or external manifestations in terms of the faculties of thought, speech and action. Ruach (Spirit) and Neshamah (Soul, Breath) are the spiritual life-force in man, relating to the Middot and Mochin respectively. Chayah (Living), often also referred to as Neshamah leNeshamah (Soul of the Soul), is the sublime root for the lower three grades. Yechidah (Only One; Unique) is the quintessence, the Divine spark as it were, the ultimate source of the soul — compounding yet transcending the lower grades. The higher grades of the soul are latently presenting the Nefesh, in proportionally increasing concealment, but it will become ever more manifest — to the point of conscious awareness — by man’s continuous self-improvement and spiritual ascent.  [24 related articles] Human Being, The » Soul, The » Soul, levels of
Sovev Kol Almin:  (Chassidic term; lit. “encompassing all worlds”); G-d’s transcendent light which reveals His unbounded nature 
Special Needs:    [114 related articles] Human Being, The » Life Cycles » Childhood; Children » Special Needs
Spies, The:  Twelve men--one from each tribe--were chosen to spy the Land of Canaan, to determine how best to capture it. When they returned to the Israelite camp, they discouraged the Israelites from going to Israel, saying it would be unconquerable.  [75 related articles] People & Events » History » Biblical Events » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Events) » Spies, The
Star of David:    [6 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Star of David
Strasheller Chassidim:  followers of Rabbi Aharon of Strashelle, a disciple of R. Schneur Zalman of Liadi and a colleague and rival of his son R. Dovber of Lubavitch 
Succot:  (lit. “booths”); festival of seven days (eight in the Diaspora) beginning on 15 Tishrei, taking its name from the temporary dwelling (sukkah) in which one lives during this period; this festival is marked for its special joy (“zeman simchateinu”—“time of our rejoicing”) and by the mitzvah of the four species  [307 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Succot
Sufganiot:  Fried donuts, traditionally served on Chanukah.  [6 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Chanukah (Hanukkah) » Sufganiot
Sukkah:  A hut or booth roofed with vegetation in which the autumn festival of Sukkot is observed.  [91 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sukkot » Sukkah
Sukkot:  (lit. “booths”); festival of seven days (eight in the Diaspora) beginning on 15 Tishrei, taking its name from the temporary dwelling (sukkah) in which one lives during this period; this festival is marked for its special joy (“zeman simchateinu”—“time of our rejoicing”) and by the mitzvah of the four species  [307 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sukkot
Sunrise:  Sunrise. The calculation of shaot zmaniot begins now according to many opinions (including the Alter Rebbe in his Siddur), and all the Halachic times provided by Chabad.org reflect this view. Those who wish to pray vatikin, start the recitation of the amidah at this time.  Calendar, The Jewish » Day, The » Halachic Times » Sunrise
Sunset:  

Sunset. The latest time for minchah, the afternoon prayer, and all mitzvot associated with daytime hours. B'dieved (if one missed this time) one may still recite minchah, and do all "daytime mitzvot" until Tzeit Hakochavim (although the blessing on the mitzvah would be omitted if done after Shkiah).

The Jewish 24 hour day begins at nightfall. However, the technical definition of nightfall is unclear. It can be as early as Shkiah, or as late as Tzeit Hakochavim. Therefore, the time following shkiah and before tzeit hakochavim is called bein hashmashot. Many laws relate to this period and it can be categorized as either the previous or the next day.

  [1 related article] Calendar, The Jewish » Day, The » Halachic Times » Sunset

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