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Eber:  (2281-1817 BCE) Great-grandson of Shem. A prophet and righteous man, he headed a school of study together with Shem.  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eber
Ecclesiastes, the Book of:  A book of Tanach containing Solomon's wise observations on life. In many communities it is read on the holiday of Sukkot[3 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Writings (Section of the Tanach) » Ecclesiastes, the Book of
Echad:  (lit. “one”); G-d’s oneness which permeates all existence 
Edom:  (a) (lit. red) Another name for Esau, called so because he sold his birthright in exchange for a red stew. (b) The nation which descended from Esau. In the rabbinic texts, Edom is often equated with Rome.  [3 related articles] Physical World, The » Countries, Lands & Geographical Locations » Biblical Locations » Edom
Edot:  "Testimonials." These are the mitzvot that commemorate or represent something, such as to eat matzah on Passover or to put on tefillin. Without the Torah we would not have thought of these; nevertheless, they are rational acts. A middle category between mishpatim and chukim[2 related articles] Torah, The » Mitzvah; Mitzvot » Edot, Chukim & Mishpatim » Edot
Edut:  Testimony.  [18 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Edut
Eglah Arufah:  (lit. "calf, decapitated"); the calf decapitated as penitence for an unsolved murder  [1 related article] Torah, The » Mitzvah; Mitzvot » Eglah Arufah
Eglon, King of Moab:  Moabite king, allied with Amon and Amalek, oppressed the Israelites for eighteen years. Assassinated by the Israelite Judge Ehud[2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Eglon, King of Moab
Ehud:  Second of the Judges, judged the Israelites for eighty years (1188-1107 BCE) after Othniel’s passing. During his tenure, the Israelites lapsed into idolatry and were oppressed by the Moabite king, Eglon. Ehud cunningly killed Eglon and led a successful military offensive against the Moabites.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Ehud
Eibeschutz, R. Yonatan:  (1690-1764) Talmudic scholar and rabbi of Prague and Hamburg  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Post-Talmudic Sages » Eibeschutz, R. Yonatan
Eichah:  The Book of Lamentations, read on Tishah BeAv.  [14 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Writings (Section of the Tanach) » Eichah
Ein Sof:  (lit. "the Infinite"); used to refer to the infinite dimension of G-dliness  [1 related article] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Chassidism » Concepts in Chassidic Philosophy » Atzmut (the "essence" of G-d) » Ein Sof
Ein Yaakov:  a collection of Aggadah from the Talmud, printed together with the classical commentaries.  Torah, The » Torah Books » Talmud, The » Ein Yaakov
Eitz Chayim:  one of the fundamental texts of Kabbalah, based on the teachings of R. Isaac Luria, authored by R. Chayim Vital  [1 related article] Torah, The » Torah Books » Kabbalistic Works » Eitz Chayim
Eldad & Medad:  Originally selected to be members of the seventy elders council, but humbly declined to join the other elders for the initiation ceremony at the Tabernacle. They nevertheless were endowed with prophetic power, drawing upon themselves Joshua’s ire.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eldad & Medad
Eleazar:  (a) (d. 13th century BCE) Third son of Aaron, overseer of the Levites’ dismantling and reconstruction of the Tabernacle during the Israelites’ desert journeys. After his father’s death, succeeded him as high priest. Together with Joshua, divided the Land of Israel amongst the Tribes. (b) A common Jewish name.  People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eleazar
Eleazar ben Azariah, Rabbi:  (Circa 70 CE-circa 135 CE) Mishnaic sage. At the age of 18, he was appointed as head of the academy in Yavneh, replacing Rabban Gamaliel II as Nassi. Many important halachic decisions were made on that historic day that Rabbi Eleazar took office, and thousands of new students were admitted into the academy. Rabban Gamaliel was soon reinstated, and he and Rabbi Eleazar served jointly.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Eleazar ben Azariah, Rabbi
Eleazar, Rabbi:  (2nd century CE) Mishnaic sage, son of Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai. Joined his father in a cave for thirteen years when the latter was hiding from the Romans. He later served as a criminal detective for the Roman government, despite the disapproval of some of his colleagues.  [5 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Eleazar, Rabbi
Eli, The High Priest:  (a) Last of the Judges, judged the Israelites for forty years (931-891 BCE). High Priest in the Tabernacle in Shiloh. Samuel’s teacher. (b) Common Jewish name.  [6 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Eli, The High Priest
Eliezer (Abraham's Servant):  (a) Trusted servant of Abraham, native of Damascus. His most prominent role was facilitating the marriage of Isaac and Rebecca. (b) A common Jewish name.  [12 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eliezer (Abraham's Servant)
Eliezer (son of Moses):  (a) Moses' and Zipporah's second son. Born in Midian immediately before Moses left to Egypt to liberate the Israelites. (b) A common Jewish name.  People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eliezer (son of Moses)
Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Rabbi:  (a) (Circa 45-117 CE) Mishnaic sage, studied under Rabbi Johanan ben Zakkai, who compared his memory to a “cemented pit, which loses not one drop of water.” Married the daughter of the Nassi, Rabbi Simeon ben Gamaliel I, established an academy in Lod, and authored the Midrashic work, Pirkei D'Rabbi Eliezer. Teacher of Rabbi Akiba. Was embroiled in a halachic dispute with the sages of his generation, and was excommunicated when he refused to accept the majority opinion. (b) A common Jewish first name.  [5 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Rabbi
Elijah the Prophet:  a) A disciple of Ahijah the Shilonite, he famously challenged the prophets of Baal at Mt. Carmel. He did not die, rather ascended to heaven in a fiery chariot in 718 BCE. He was succeeded by his student Elisha. According to Jewish tradition, he occasionally reappears to rescue individuals from danger and reveal secrets of the Torah to the worthy. Additionally, he visits every brit and Passover Seder. Ultimately, he will announce the coming of Moshiach. b) A common Jewish name.  [36 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Elijah the Prophet
Elimelech:  Israelite leader, husband of Naomi, father of Ruth’s first husband. When a famine afflicted his native Israel, he and his family fled to the Land of Moab. For abandoning the Holy Land, he (and his sons) died.  People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Elimelech
Eliphaz:  Son of Esau, father of Amalek[2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eliphaz
Elisha:  (a) (d. 663 BCE) Elijah's student and successor. Before ascending to heaven, Elijah granted him double the prophetic powers that he himself possessed. The Tanach records many of the miracles he preformed. Among them: purification of Jericho's drinking water, transformation of a single cruse of oil into many vessels' worth, resurrecting a dead child, and curing a Gentile general of leprosy. (b) A common Jewish name.  [19 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Elisha
Elkanah, Father of Samuel:  (10th century BCE) Father of Samuel, husband of Hannah and Peninah[1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Elkanah, Father of Samuel
Elokim:  one of G-d’s sacred Names, specifically relating to the Divine attribute of Justice and His manifestation in nature  [23 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Divine Names, The » Elokim
Elul 18:  (“the 18th of the month of Elul”); chassidic festival marking the birthday of the Baal Shem Tov (1698) and the Alter Rebbe (1745)  [36 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Elul 18
Elul, Month of:  the Hebrew month devoted to repentance and soul-searching in preparation for the High Holy Days; occurs in late summer  [99 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Elul, Month of
Emanation, The World of:  (lit. “emanation”); in Kabbalistic terminology, the highest of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence which, although encompassing attributes which have a specific definition, is in a state of infinity and at one with the Infinite Divine Light  [35 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Four Worlds, The » Emanation, The World of
Emunah:  faith  [316 related articles] G-d and Man » Emunah
Enoch:  (a) (3138-2773 BCE) Son of Jared. A righteous man who “walked with G-d.” He ascended to heaven alive. (b) Son of Cain[3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Enoch
Enos:  Enos (or Enosh) was the son of Seth (the third son of Adam and Eve). He was born in the year 235 from creation (3526 BCE) and died in the year 1140 from creation (2621 BCE). It was in his times when idolatry began taking root, and the semi-great flood occurred.  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Enos
Entebbe Rescue :  Jewish hostages held by Arab terrorists at Entebbe Airport, Uganda, were rescued by Israeli commando units in 1976.  [9 related articles] People & Events » History » Historical Periods & Events » Entebbe Rescue
Ephraim:  (a) Joseph’s second son. Born in Egypt before the onset of the fateful famine. His grandfather Jacob elevated him and his brother Manasseh to the status of progenitors of tribes within the nation of Israel. Though he was the younger of the brothers, Jacob foresaw that his descendants would be the greater of the two. (b) A common Jewish name.  [11 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Ephraim
Erev:  (lit. “evening” or “eve of”); the day or evening preceding Shabbat or the festivals; Friday is often referred to as “Erev Shabbat” 
Eruv:  (lit. “merging”); one of several rabbinically-instituted procedures, executed before Shabbat or a holiday, for the purpose of: (a) permitting people to carry in certain areas where it would otherwise be forbidden by rabbinic law; (b) extending the normal boundaries, to permit one to walk distances that would otherwise be forbidden by rabbinic law; (c) permitting one to cook for the following Shabbat day, when the festival day falls on Friday  [10 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Shabbat » Prohibition of Work on Shabbat » Eruv
Eruv Tavshilin:  special "mixture of foods" permitting preparation (of food etc.) on a festival day for Shabbat, when the festival occurs on Friday  [10 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Eruv Tavshilin
Esau:  (1653-1506 BCE) Also known as Edom. Son of Rebecca and Isaac. He sold his birthright to his younger twin Jacob. A hunter, he led an immoral lifestyle, though he excelled in honoring his father. He eventually settled in Seir, and is the progenitor of Edom[45 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Esau
Essence & Expression; Etzem & Giluyim:  The a) essence and core, and b) the manifestations of an entity.  [27 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Chassidism » Concepts in Chassidic Philosophy » Essence & Expression; Etzem & Giluyim
Esther:  (a) (4th century BCE) First cousin of Mordecai, selected as King Ahasuerus's queen after Vashti's execution. At Mordecai's behest, she brought about Ahasuerus's annulment of Haman's decree calling for the extermination of the Jews. (b) A common Jewish name.  [44 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Post First Temple (Biblical Personalities) » Esther
Ethics of the Fathers:  ("Pirkei Avot" in Hebrew) The Ethics of our Fathers, the tractate of the Mishnah which contains the ethical teachings of our Sages.  [226 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Books » Talmud, The » Ethics of the Fathers
Etrog:  (lit. "citron"), used during the festival of Sukkot for the mitzvah of the Four Species  [28 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sukkot » Four Kinds, The » Etrog
Eve:  First woman, mother of all mankind. Formed from her husband Adam's rib. Seduced by the Serpent to eat from the Tree of Knowledge[28 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses (Biblical Personalities) » Eve
Eved Ivri:  ("the Hebrew servant") If a Jew stole and could not afford to make restitution, the courts would sell him into servitude for a six-year term and payment from his "sale" would go towards paying his debt. A poor person could also choose to sell himself into servitude.  [7 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Eved Ivri
Exile:  exile; diaspora.  [163 related articles] People & Events » History » Exile
Exodus, the Book of:  The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle[551 related articles] Torah, The » Parshah (Weekly Torah Reading) » Exodus, the Book of
Ezekiel:  (a) (5th century BCE) He prophesied during the Babylonian exile, encouraging the Jews to remain steadfast to Judaism despite their hardships. His famous prophecies include his vision of the Merkavah, a detailed description of the Third Holy Temple, and the vision of the valley of dry bones. (b) A common Jewish first name.  [8 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Ezekiel
Ezekiel, the Book of:  The book of Tanach containing Ezekiel's prophecies, including his vision of the Merkavah, a detailed description of the Third Holy Temple, and the vision of the valley of dry bones.  [2 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Prophets (Section of the Tanach) » Ezekiel, the Book of
Ezra the Scribe:  (a) (d. 313 BCE) Scribe, spiritual and political Jewish leader, and head of the Great Assembly. A year after the completion of the Second Temple by Jews who had returned to the Land of Israel, Ezra led a second wave of exiles back from Babylon. Ezra taught and encouraged the observance of the laws of the Torah, and copied and disseminated the books of Tanach. (b) A common Jewish name.  [12 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Post First Temple (Biblical Personalities) » Ezra the Scribe
Ezra, the Book of:  The book of Tanach relating Jewish history during the early Second Holy Temple Era under the leadership of Ezra and Nehemiah[3 related articles] Torah, The » Tanach » Writings (Section of the Tanach) » Ezra, the Book of

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