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Torah Reading for Vayeira

Torah Reading for Vayeira

Parshat Vayeira
Shabbat, 15 Cheshvan, 5778
4 November, 2017
Select a portion:
Haftarah: (Samuel I 1:1 - 2:10)
Please note: These Haftarah texts follow Chabad custom. Other communities could possibly read more, less, or a different section of the Prophets altogether. Please consult with your rabbi.
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I Samuel Chapter 1

1And there was one man from Ramathaim Zophim, from Mt. Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite.   א וַיְהִי֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶחָ֜ד מִן־הָרָמָתַ֛יִם צוֹפִ֖ים מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם וּשְׁמ֡וֹ אֶ֠לְקָנָה בֶּן־יְרֹחָ֧ם בֶּן־אֱלִיה֛וּא בֶּן־תֹּ֥חוּ בֶן־צ֖וּף אֶפְרָתִֽי:
And there was one man: It all follows the order, i.e., Moses gave over the Torah to Joshua, and Joshua to the Elders, and each judge to his successor, until it reached Eli, by whom it was given over to Samuel, as we learned in the Mishnah (Avoth 1:1): and the Elders gave it over to the Prophets.  
from Ramathaim Zophim: There were two hills, each visible to the other. (Meg. 14a) Jonathan, however, renders ‘Zophim’ of the disciples of the Prophets.  
Elkanah: Elkanah was a Levite of the sons of Ebiasaf the son of Korah. Thus his ancestry is recorded in Chron. (I, 6:7 12).  
an Ephraimite: Jonathan renders: on the mountain of the House of Ephraim. Midrash Aggadah (M.S. 1:16): Ephrathi, a palace dweller, a nobleman, an important person, like (the Talmudic word ‘aperion’, used in B.M. 119a): Let us extend ‘aperion’ to Rabbi Simon. An expression of favor.  
2And he had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah and the name of the second was Peninnah; and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.   בוְלוֹ֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֔ים שֵׁ֚ם אַחַת֙ חַנָּ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית פְּנִנָּ֑ה וַיְהִ֚י לִפְנִנָּה֙ יְלָדִ֔ים וּלְחַנָּ֖ה אֵ֥ין יְלָדִֽים:
3And that man was wont to go up from his city from appointed time to appointed time, to prostrate himself and to slaughter (peace offerings) to the Lord of Hosts in Shiloh, and there the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinhas, were serving the Lord.   גוְעָלָה֩ הָאִ֨ישׁ הַה֚וּא מֵֽעִירוֹ֙ מִיָּמִ֣ים | יָמִ֔ימָה לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֹ֧ת וְלִזְבֹּ֛חַ לַיהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת בְּשִׁלֹ֑ה וְשָׁ֞ם שְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עֵלִ֗י חָפְנִי֙ וּפִ֣נְחָ֔ס כֹּהֲנִ֖ים לַיהֹוָֽה:
And that man was wont to go up: This is the present tense. He would go up from one appointed season to another appointed season, to Shiloh. Midrash Aggadah (M.S. 1: 1,5, 7): The route he followed this year he did not follow the next year, in order to publicize (his pilgrimage) to the Israelites that they should do likewise.  
4And when it was the day, and Elkanah slaughtered (peace offerings), and he would give to Peninnah his wife and to all her sons and daughters portions.   דוַיְהִ֣י הַיּ֔וֹם וַיִּזְבַּ֖ח אֶלְקָנָ֑ה וְנָתַ֞ן לִפְנִנָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ וּֽלְכָל־בָּנֶ֛יהָ וּבְנוֹתֶ֖יהָ מָנֽוֹת:
And when it was the day: And it was the festive day.[after Jonathan].  
5And to Hannah he would give one choice portion, for he loved Hannah, and the Lord had shut up her womb.   הוּלְחַנָּ֕ה יִתֵּ֛ן מָנָ֥ה אַחַ֖ת אַפָּ֑יִם כִּ֚י אֶת־חַנָּה֙ אָהֵ֔ב וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה סָגַ֥ר רַחְמָֽהּ:
מנה אחת אפים: one choice portion: a portion which is fit to be accepted with a friendly countenance.  
6And her rival would frequently anger her, in order to make her complain, for the Lord had shut up her womb.   ווְכִֽעֲסַ֚תָּה צָֽרָתָהּ֙ גַּם־כַּ֔עַס בַּעֲב֖וּר הַרְעִמָ֑הּ כִּֽי־סָגַ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּעַ֥ד רַחְמָֽהּ:
And her rival: Her husband’s other wife, Peninnah.  
frequently anger her:: Anger after anger, always. Therefore, it is written: ‘also anger.’ She would say to her, “Did you buy your older son a cloak today, or your younger son a shirt?”  
in order to make her complain:: (Literally, to make her storm.) Our rabbis explain, “in order to make her storm” that she pray. And Peninnah had good intentions.  
her womb:: Lit., opposite her womb, and so is every expression of the word בעד.  
7And so he would do year by year, as often as she went up to the house of the Lord, so she would anger her, and she wept and would not eat.   זוְכֵ֨ן יַעֲשֶֹ֜ה שָׁנָ֣ה בְשָׁנָ֗ה מִדֵּ֚י עֲלֹתָהּ֙ בְּבֵ֣ית יְהֹוָ֔ה כֵּ֖ן תַּכְעִסֶ֑נָּה וַתִּבְכֶּ֖ה וְלֹ֥א תֹאכַֽל:
And so he would do:: I. e., Elkanah.  
year by year:: He would give her a choice portion to demonstrate to her that he loved her and her rival would anger her more and more according to the affection which her husband demonstrated to her.  
8And Elkanah her husband said to her, "Hannah, why do you weep? And why do you not eat? And why is your heart sad? Am I not better to you than ten sons?"   חוַיֹּ֨אמֶר לָ֜הּ אֶלְקָנָ֣ה אִישָׁ֗הּ חַנָּה֙ לָ֣מֶה תִבְכִּ֗י וְלָ֙מֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְלִ֔י וְלָ֖מֶה יֵרַ֣ע לְבָבֵ֑ךְ הֲל֚וֹא אָֽנֹכִי֙ ט֣וֹב לָ֔ךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָ֖ה בָּנִֽים:
better to you:: Don’t I love you more dearly…  
..than (I love) ten sons:: that Peninnah has borne to me?  
after eating: (אכלה). The הא is not dotted and the אלף is voweled with a short קמץ, and it is like אחרי אכול, meaning after eating in Shiloh and after drinking, and this expression is properly used both for masculine and feminine.  
9And Hannah arose after eating and after drinking, and Eli the priest was sitting on the chair beside the doorpost of the Temple of the Lord.   טוַתָּ֣קָם חַנָּ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֛י אָכְלָ֥ה בְשִׁלֹ֖ה וְאַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁתֹ֑ה וְעֵלִ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֗ן ישֵׁב֙ עַל־הַכִּסֵּ֔א עַל־מְזוּזַ֖ת הֵיכַ֥ל יְהֹוָֽה:
after eating: ‘After eating’ is a gerund. It is constructed like לאכלה (Lev. 25:6) to eat, an expression equivalent to לאכול an infinitive.  
and Eli the priest was sitting on the chair:: The defective spelling denotes that on that day, he was seated on a huge chair, for he was appointed judge over Israel.  
beside the doorpost:: lit. on the doorpost.  
10And she was bitter in spirit, and she prayed to the Lord, and wept.   יוְהִ֖יא מָ֣רַת נָ֑פֶשׁ וַתִּתְפַּלֵּ֥ל עַל־יְהֹוָ֖ה וּבָכֹ֥ה תִבְכֶּֽה:
11And she vowed a vow, and said: to Lord of Hosts, if You will look upon the affliction of Your bondswoman, and You will remember me, and You will not forget Your bondswoman and You will give Your bondswoman a man-child, and I shall give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall come upon his head.   יאוַתִּדֹּ֨ר נֶ֜דֶר וַתֹּאמַ֗ר יְהֹוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אִם־רָאֹ֥ה תִרְאֶ֣ה| בָּעֳנִ֣י אֲמָתֶ֗ךָ וּזְכַרְתַּ֙נִי֙ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁכַּ֣ח אֶת־אֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְנָתַתָּ֥ה לַאֲמָתְךָ֖ זֶ֣רַע אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וּנְתַתִּ֚יו לַֽיהֹוָה֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיָּ֔יו וּמוֹרָ֖ה לֹא־יַעֲלֶ֥ה עַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ:
O Lord of Hosts:: Why was this Name designated here? (The answer is as follows:) She said before Him: O Lord of the universe, You created two hosts in Your world. The heavenly beings do not multiply, neither do they die, while the earthly beings both multiply and die. If I am of the earthly beings let me multiply, and if I am of the heavenly beings let me not die. I found this explanation in the Aggadah of Rabbi Jose the Galilean. Our sages in tractate Ber. (31b), however, expounded what they expounded: Until then there was no person who called the Holy One, blessed be He, “Hosts.” (Why then, did Hannah call Him by this Name?) But, so said she before Him: “O Lord of the universe, from all the hosts which You created in Your world, do You find it difficult to grant me one son?”  
if You will look:: (Lit., if seeing You will see.) In tractate Ber., our sages expounded what they expounded.  
Your bondswoman:: which is stated three times in this verse, corresponds to the three precepts which a woman is commanded to observe.  
A man child:: (Lit., seed of men, meaning) righteous men, as it is written (Kings I:2:32): “Upon two righteous men.” אנשים also means important men, as it is written (Deut. 1:13): wise and known men.  
and I shall give him to the Lord:: that he be fit to be given to the Lord.  
and no razor shall come upon his head:: (translation follows K, however,) Jonathan renders: and the fear of man will not be upon him.  
12And it was, as she prayed long before the Lord, that Eli watched her mouth.   יבוְהָיָה֙ כִּ֣י הִרְבְּתָ֔ה לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֖ל לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְעֵלִ֖י שֹׁמֵ֥ר אֶת־פִּֽיהָ:
watched her mouth:: He waited for her to stop. Jonathan renders thus: and Eli waited for her until she stopped.  
watched:: an expression of waiting, as in (Gen. 37:11) “and his father awaited the thing,” and (Job 14:16) “You do not wait for my sin.”  
13But Hannah, she was speaking in her heart, only her lips were moving, and her voice was not heard, and Eli thought her to be a drunken woman.   יגוְחַנָּ֗ה ֤הִיא מְדַבֶּ֣רֶת עַל־לִבָּ֔הּ ֤רַק שְׂפָתֶ֣יהָ נָּע֔וֹת וְקוֹלָ֖הּ לֹ֣א יִשָּׁמֵ֑עַ וַיַּחְשְׁבֶ֥הָ עֵלִ֖י לְשִׁכֹּרָֽה:
and Eli thought her to be a drunken woman:: for they were not accustomed to praying silently.  
14And Eli said to her: Until when will you be drunk? Throw off your wine from upon yourself.   ידוַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ עֵלִ֔י עַד־מָתַ֖י תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִ֑ין הָסִ֥ירִי אֶת־יֵינֵ֖ךְ מֵעָלָֽיִךְ:
15And Hannah answered and said: No, my lord, I am a woman of sorrowful spirit, and neither new wine nor old wine have I drunk, and I poured out my soul before the Lord.   טווַתַּ֨עַן חַנָּ֚ה וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֲדֹנִ֔י אִשָּׁ֚ה קְשַׁת־ר֙וּחַ֙ אָנֹ֔כִי וְיַ֥יִן וְשֵׁכָ֖ר לֹ֣א שָׁתִ֑יתִי וָאֶשְׁפֹּ֥ךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
Not my lord:: You are not a lord in this instance. You yourself have revealed that the holy spirit is not resting upon you, otherwise you would know that I am not intoxicated from wine.  
I am a woman of sorrowful spirit:: like Sarah (who was childless) [old editions of Rashi].  
16Deliver not your bondswoman before the unscrupulous woman, for out of the abundance of my complaint and my vexation have I spoken until now.   טזאַל־תִּתֵּן֙ אֶת־אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔ לִפְנֵ֖י בַּת־בְּלִיָּ֑עַל כִּֽי־מֵרֹ֥ב שִׂיחִ֛י וְכַעְסִ֖י דִּבַּ֥רְתִּי עַד־הֵֽנָּה:
Deliver not your bondswoman:: Considering the fact that she spoke harshly to him, she returned to appease him so that he deliver her not, unprotected and disgraced, at the mercy of her rival, the unscrupulous woman.  
for out of the abundance of my complaint:: have I spoken harshly before you.  
my complaint: (lit., my speech.) In some instances, it is an expression of grief of heart. Another explanation is, according to the Targum, as follows: for out of the abundance of my provocation and my vexation, have I prolonged my prayer until now.  
and my vexation:: which my rival vexes me.  
Deliver not:: (Lit. do not give.) An expression of delivery, like, “deliver me not unto the will of my adversaries” (Ps. 27:12).  
17And Eli answered and said: Go in peace, and the God of Israel will grant your request which you have asked of Him.   יזוַיַּ֧עַן עֵלִ֛י וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לְכִ֣י לְשָׁל֑וֹם וֵאלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל יִתֵּן֙ אֶת־שֵׁ֣לָתֵ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁאַ֖לְתְּ מֵעִמּֽוֹ:
your request: (שלתך, instead of שאלתך). The ‘alef’ is missing to expound in this word an expression of ‘children,’ as in Deut. 28:57: ובשליתה “and against her young, which came out, etc.”  
will grant your request:: He announced to her that her prayer had been accepted.  
18And she said: May your bondswoman find favor in your eyes; and the woman went on her way and ate, and her face was not (sad) anymore.   יחוַתֹּ֕אמֶר תִּמְצָ֧א שִׁפְחָתְךָ֛ חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ וַתֵּ֨לֶךְ הָאִשָּׁ֚ה לְדַרְכָּהּ֙ וַתֹּאכַ֔ל וּפָנֶ֥יהָ לֹא־הָיוּ־לָ֖הּ עֽוֹד:
May your bondswoman find favor:: to beg mercy for her.  
and her face was not (sad) anymore:: (Lit., and she no longer had her face, meaning) the face of anger.  
19And they arose early in the morning, and prostrated themselves before the Lord: and they returned and came to their house, to Ramah, and Elkanah knew Hannah, his wife, and the Lord remembered her.   יטוַיַּשְׁכִּ֣מוּ בַבֹּ֗קֶר וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲווּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיָּשֻׁ֛בוּ וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־בֵּיתָ֖ם הָרָמָ֑תָה וַיֵּ֚דַע אֶלְקָנָה֙ אֶת־חַנָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיִּֽזְכְּרֶ֖הָ יְהֹוָֽה:
and came to their house, and Elkanah knew:: From here is deduced that a traveler is forbidden to have marital relations.  
20And it was, when the time came about, after Hannah had conceived, that she bore a son, and she called his name Samuel, because (she said); "I asked him of the Lord."   כוַיְהִי֙ לִתְקֻפ֣וֹת הַיָּמִ֔ים וַתַּ֥הַר חַנָּ֖ה וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַתִּקְרָ֚א אֶת־שְׁמוֹ֙ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כִּ֥י מֵיְהֹוָ֖ה שְׁאִלְתִּֽיו:
when the time came about:: (After the seasons and the days.) The minimum of seasons is two and the minimum of days is also two. Hence, she gave birth after six months and two days. From here it is deduced that a woman who gives birth after seven months, can give birth after a fraction of the seventh month of pregnancy.  
Samuel:: El after the name of God, and in reference to the incident, he was so called, for I asked him of the Lord.  
21And the man, Elkanah and his entire household, went up to slaughter to the Lord, the sacrifice of the days and his vow.   כאוַיַּ֛עַל הָאִ֥ישׁ אֶלְקָנָ֖ה וְכָל־בֵּית֑וֹ לִזְבֹּ֧חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־זֶ֥בַח הַיָּמִ֖ים וְאֶת־נִדְרֽוֹ:
the sacrifice of the days:: of the appointed seasons.  
his vow:: The vows which he made between pilgrimage festivals, he would sacrifice on the following festival.  
22But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband: "Until the child is weaned, then I shall bring him, and he shall appear before the Lord, and abide there forever.   כבוְחַנָּ֖ה לֹ֣א עָלָ֑תָה כִּֽי־אָמְרָ֣ה לְאִישָׁ֗הּ עַ֣ד יִגָּמֵ֚ל הַנַּ֙עַר֙ וַהֲבִאֹתִ֗יו וְנִרְאָה֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וְיָ֥שַׁב שָׁ֖ם עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
Until the child is weaned:: after twenty two months (other versions, twenty four), for that is the time of nursing a child.  
and abide there forever:: “Forever” in the Levitic sense means fifty years, as it says, (Num. 8:25), “and from the age of fifty years he shall return from the host of the work.” Figuring as follows, we determine that Samuel’s lifetime was fifty-two years. Eli judged Israel for forty years (see 4:18), and on the day of Hannah’s prayer, he was appointed judge (See above v. 9). By subtracting the year in which Hannah conceived Samuel, there remain thirty nine years. Samuel governed Israel from the time of Eli’s death for thirteen years, figuring thus: On the day of Eli’s death, the Ark was abducted, and it remained in the field of the Philistines for seven months (below 6:1). From there, it was brought to Kiriath-jearim, where it remained until David took it out of there after he had reigned seven years in Hebron over Judah, and all Israel had accepted him as their king. And it is written: And is was, from the day that the Ark abode in Kiriath-jearim that the time was long, for it was twenty years, etc. (below 7:2). Subtract from them seven years which David reigned in Hebron. We find that from the time that the Ark was abducted until Saul’s death, were thirteen years and seven months, and Samuel died four months before Saul.  
23And Elkanah her husband said to her: "Do what seems good to you. Stay until you have weaned him, only, may the Lord fulfill His word." And the woman stayed and nursed her son, until she weaned him.   כגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהּ֩ אֶלְקָנָ֨ה אִישָׁ֜הּ עֲשִֹ֧י הַטּ֣וֹב בְּעֵינַ֗יִךְ שְׁבִי֙ עַד־גָּמְלֵ֣ךְ אֹת֔וֹ אַ֛ךְ יָקֵ֥ם יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־דְּבָר֑וֹ וַתֵּ֚שֶׁב הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ וַתֵּ֣ינֶק אֶת־בְּנָ֔הּ עַד־גָּמְלָ֖הּ אֹתֽוֹ:
only, may the Lord fulfill His word:: Since you asked of Him seed of righteous men (above v. 11), and Eli announced to you through divine inspiration: (above v. 17) “The God of Israel will grant your request,” may the Lord fulfill His word. This is according to the simple interpretation. The Midrash Agadah, however, explains thus: Rabbi Nehemiah said in the name of Rabbi Samuel, the son of Rabbi Isaac: Every day, a divine voice would resound throughout the world, and say: A righteous man is destined to arise, and his name will be Samuel. Thereupon, every woman who bore a son, would name him Samuel. As soon as they saw his deeds, they would say, “This is not Samuel.” When our Samuel was born, however, and people saw his deeds, they said, “It seems that this one is the expected righteous man.” This is what Elkanah meant when he said, ‘May the Lord fulfill His word,’ that this be the righteous Samuel.  
24And she brought him with her when she had weaned him, with three bulls, and one ephah of meal, and an earthenware jug of wine, and she brought him to the house of the Lord, to Shiloh, and the child was young.   כדוַתַּעֲלֵ֨הוּ עִמָּ֜הּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר גְּמָלַ֗תּוּ בְּפָרִ֚ים שְׁלשָׁה֙ וְאֵיפָ֨ה אַחַ֥ת קֶ֙מַח֙ וְנֵ֣בֶל יַ֔יִן וַתְּבִאֵ֥הוּ בֵית־יְהֹוָ֖ה שִׁל֑וֹ וְהַנַּ֖עַר נָֽעַר:
and one ephah of meal: I heard from Rabbi Isaac Halevi, that she brought one ephah of meal, which is equivalent to three seahs, from which to extract three tenths of an ephah of fine flour, which are required for one bull (Num. 15:8), as we learned in the Mishnah (Men. 76b): The showbread was made of twenty-four tenths of an ephah from twenty-four seahs; i.e., 1 tenth part of an ephah of fine flour from a seah of wheat.  
and an earthenware jug of wine:: for a drink offering. והנער נער and the child was young (after Jonathan).  
25And they slaughtered the bull, and they brought the child to Eli.   כהוַֽיִּשְׁחֲט֖וּ אֶת־הַפָּ֑ר וַיָּבִ֥אוּ אֶת־הַנַּ֖עַר אֶל־עֵלִֽי:
and they brought the child to Eli: to see that his prophecy was fulfilled. And our sages, however, expounded what they expounded, that he decided a point of law, that a priest is unnecessary for sacrificial slaughter, as it is stated in Tractate Ber. (31b).  
26And she said, "Please, my lord! As surely as your soul lives, my lord, I am the woman who was standing here with you, to pray to the Lord.   כווַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ בִּ֣י אֲדֹנִ֔י חֵ֥י נַפְשְׁךָ֖ אֲדֹנִ֑י אֲנִ֣י הָאִשָּׁ֗ה הַנִּצֶּ֚בֶת עִמְּכָה֙ בָּזֶ֔ה לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֖ל אֶל־יְהֹוָֽה:
Please, my lord:: Take care of him that he become your disciple. And according to the Midrash of our sages, not to punish him with death.  
27For this child did I pray, and the Lord granted me my request, which I asked of Him.   כזאֶל־הַנַּ֥עַר הַזֶּ֖ה הִתְפַּלָּ֑לְתִּי וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהֹוָ֥ה לִי֙ אֶת־שְׁאֵ֣לָתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁאַ֖לְתִּי מֵעִמּֽוֹ:
For this child did I pray:: Do not say, “This one shall die and another one shall be given to you.”  
28And I also have lent him to the Lord; all the days which he will be alive, he is borrowed by the Lord." And he prostrated himself there to the Lord.   כחוְגַ֣ם אָנֹכִ֗י הִשְׁאִלְתִּ֙יהוּ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה כָּל־הַיָּמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֔ה ה֥וּא שָׁא֖וּל לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ שָׁ֖ם לַיהֹוָֽה:
And I also have lent him to the Lord: like a person who lends a utensil to his master, or lends him his son to serve him.  
he is borrowed: empunte in French, i.e., you have no right to punish him, for the Lord has become a borrower over him, since I have lent him to Him, and He must return him to me.  
And he prostrated himself: Samuel, and some say Elkanah.  

I Samuel Chapter 2

1And Hannah prayed and said: "My heart has rejoiced through the Lord; My horn has been raised by the Lord. My mouth is opened wide against my enemies, For I have rejoiced in Your salvation.   אוַתִּתְפַּלֵּ֚ל חַנָּה֙ וַתֹּאמַ֔ר עָלַ֚ץ לִבִּי֙ בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה רָ֥מָה קַרְנִ֖י בַּֽיהֹוָ֑ה רָ֚חַב פִּי֙ עַל־א֣וֹיְבַ֔י כִּ֥י שָׂמַ֖חְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶֽךָ:
My mouth is opened wide against my enemies: against Peninnah.  
2There is none as holy as the Lord, For there is none besides You; And there is no rock like our God.   באֵין־קָד֥וֹשׁ כַּיהֹוָ֖ה כִּ֣י אֵ֣ין בִּלְתֶּ֑ךָ וְאֵ֥ין צ֖וּר כֵּאלֹהֵֽינוּ:
And there is no rock like our God.: There is no artist like our God, Who makes a form within a form (Ber. 10a).  
3Do not increasingly speak haughtily; Let not arrogance come out of your mouth, For the Lord is a God of thoughts, And to Him are deeds counted.   גאַל־תַּרְבּ֚וּ תְדַבְּרוּ֙ גְּבֹהָ֣ה גְבֹהָ֔ה יֵצֵ֥א עָתָ֖ק מִפִּיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י אֵ֚ל דֵּעוֹת֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וְל֥וֹ (כתיב וְלֹ֥א) נִתְכְּנ֖וּ עֲלִלֽוֹת:
Do not increasingly speak haughtily: All those who are haughty when good fortune shines upon them. And according to the peshat, she is speaking for the benefit of Peninnah, who behaved haughtily toward her. According to the derash, however, we follow J’s translation.  
arrogance: (Lit.) strong speech. Others explain it as an expression of falsehood, something which is removed from the truth, like ויעתק“and he moved from there to the mountain” (Gen. 12: 8). We, therefore, render: Let not falsehood come out of your mouth.  
For the Lord is a God of thoughts: He knows what is in your heart.  
And to Him are deeds counted: All men’s deeds are counted before Him. Heb. ‘nithk’nu,’ an expression of number, like: and the number (tochen) of bricks shall you give (Ex. 5:18).  
4The bows of the mighty are broken; And those who stumbled, are girded with strength.   דקֶ֥שֶׁת גִּבֹּרִ֖ים חַתִּ֑ים וְנִכְשָׁלִ֖ים אָ֥זְרוּ חָֽיִל:
The bows of the mighty are broken, etc.: So is the custom of the Most Holy, blessed be He. He weakens the mighty, and strengthens the weak. He sates the hungry and starves those who are satiated.  
5Those who were satiated have hired themselves out for bread, While the hungry have ceased. While the barren woman has born seven, She that had many children, has been bereaved.   השְׂבֵעִ֚ים בַּלֶּ֙חֶם֙ נִשְׂכָּ֔רוּ וּרְעֵבִ֖ים חָדֵ֑לּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה֙ יָלְדָ֣ה שִׁבְעָ֔ה וְרַבַּ֥ת בָּנִ֖ים אֻמְלָֽלָה:
Those who were satiated: and do not need to hire themselves out for any work, He starves them, and they must hire themselves out for their daily bread, while the hungry who would toil and weary themselves for food…  
… have ceased: from their toil. While the barren woman has born seven, she that had many children has been bereaved and buries her children. Hannah bore seven, as it is stated: For the Lord remembered Hannah, and she conceived and bore three sons and two daughters (2:21). When Hannah bore four, Peninnah buried eight, and when she conceived and bore a fifth child, Peninnah prostrated herself at her feet, and begged for mercy. Consequently, they lived, and were therefore called on her name. This is Rabbi Nehemiah’s opinion. Rabbi Judah says: Grandchildren are considered like children, (and she saw Samuel’s two sons). Some say: the numerical value of שבעה (seven) is equivalent to that of שמואל, (thus: ש =300, ב =2, ע =70, ה =5, totaling 377. Likewise, ש =300, מ =40, ו =6, א =1, ל =30, totaling 377).  
6The Lord kills and makes alive; He brings down to the grave and raises up.   ויְהֹוָ֖ה מֵמִ֣ית וּמְחַיֶּ֑ה מוֹרִ֥יד שְׁא֖וֹל וַיָּֽעַל:
7The Lord impoverishes and makes rich. He humbles; He also exalts.   זיְהֹוָ֖ה מוֹרִ֣ישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁ֑יר מַשְׁפִּ֖יל אַף־מְרוֹמֵֽם:
8He lifts the poor from the dust; From the dunghill, He raises the pauper, To seat them with princes, And a seat of honor He causes them to inherit, For the pillars of the earth are the Lord's, And He placed the world upon them.   חמֵקִ֨ים מֵעָפָ֜ר דָּ֗ל מֵֽאַשְׁפֹּת֙ יָרִ֣ים אֶבְי֔וֹן לְהוֹשִׁיב֙ עִם־נְדִיבִ֔ים וְכִסֵּ֥א כָב֖וֹד יַנְחִלֵ֑ם כִּ֚י לַֽיהֹוָה֙ מְצֻ֣קֵי אֶ֔רֶץ וַיָּ֥שֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם תֵּבֵֽל:
9The feet of His pious ones He will guard, And the wicked shall be cut off in darkness, For not by strength will man prevail.   טרַגְלֵ֚י חֲסִידָיו֙ (כתיב חֲסִידָו֙) יִשְׁמֹ֔ר וּרְשָׁעִ֖ים בַּח֣שֶׁךְ יִדָּ֑מּוּ כִּֽי־לֹ֥א בְכֹ֖חַ יִגְבַּר־אִֽישׁ:
His pious ones: It is spelled חסידו, His pious one. It is read חסידיו, His pious ones, i.e., either a single one or many. Likewise, “Those who strive with the Lord will be broken.” This reading is מריביו, those who strive with Him. The spelling is מריבו, he who strives with Him, i.e., either one or many.  
10Those who strive with the Lord will be broken; Upon him will He thunder in Heaven; The Lord will judge the ends of the earth. And He will grant strength to His King, And raise the horn of His anointed one.   ייְהֹוָ֞ה יֵחַ֣תּוּ מְרִיבָ֗יו (כתיב מְרִיבָ֗ו) עָלָיו֙ (כתיב עָלָו֙) בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם יַרְעֵ֔ם יְהֹוָ֖ה יָדִ֣ין אַפְסֵי־אָ֑רֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹ֣ז לְמַלְכּ֔וֹ וְיָרֵ֖ם קֶ֥רֶן מְשִׁיחֽוֹ:
Upon him will he thunder in Heaven: The spelling is עלו, they have ascended, even if they have ascended to the heavens, He thunders upon and casts them down.  
will judge the ends of the earth: will judge them; in old French, jostizier.  
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