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Wednesday, 17 Adar II 5774 / March 19, 2014

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Shemini, 4th Portion (Leviticus 10:12-10:15)

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Chapter 10

12. And Moses spoke to Aaron and his surviving sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, "Take the meal offering that is left over from the Lord's fire offerings, and eat it as unleavened loaves beside the altar, for it is a holy of holies;   יב. וַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל אֶלְעָזָר וְאֶל אִיתָמָר | בָּנָיו הַנּוֹתָרִים קְחוּ אֶת הַמִּנְחָה הַנּוֹתֶרֶת מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה וְאִכְלוּהָ מַצּוֹת אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא:
surviving: [i.e., Aaron’s sons who survived] death. [Here, since the verse alludes to the fact that Eleazar and Ithamar survived death, it must mean a death which penalty they themselves had incurred.] This teaches [us] that because of the sin of the [golden] calf, the death penalty had been imposed upon them too. This is the meaning of “And with Aaron, the Lord was very furious, to destroy him (לְהַשְׁמִידוֹ) ” (Deut. 9:20). The term הַשְׁמָדָה, “destruction,” [in Scripture] always denotes the destruction of children, as it is said, “But I destroyed (וְאַשְׁמִיד) his fruit above,” (Amos 2:9), [referring to his children]. Moses’ prayer, however, effected the nullification of half [of this decree, resulting in the survival of Eleazar and Ithamar], as it is said: “and I prayed also for Aaron at that time” (Deut. 9:20), [where the word “also” includes Aaron’s four sons]. - [Vayikra Rabbah 10:5]   הנותרים: מן המיתה. מלמד שאף עליהם נקנסה מיתה על עון העגל, הוא שנאמר (דברים ט כ) ובאהרן התאנף ה' מאד להשמידו, ואין השמדה אלא כלוי בנים, שנאמר (עמוס ב ט) ואשמיד פריו ממעל, ותפלתו של משה בטלה מחצה, שנאמר (דברים ט כ) ואתפלל גם בעד אהרן בעת ההיא:
Take the meal-offering: Although you are אוֹנְנִים [mourners for a close relative on the day of that relative’s demise], and holy [sacrifices] are forbidden to an אוֹנֵן. [Zev. 101b]   קחו את המנחה: אף על פי שאתם אוננין וקדשים אסורים לאונן:
the meal-offering: This is the meal-offering of the eighth [day of the investitures], and the meal-offering of Nahshon [Ben Aminadab, the leader of the tribe of Judah, the first tribe to offer sacrifices for the dedication of the Mishkan (Num. 7:1217). See Torath Kohanim 10:42].   את המנחה: זו מנחת שמיני ומנחת נחשון:
and eat it as unleavened loaves: [But we already know that meal-offerings must be eaten unleavened (see Lev. 2:11). So] what does Scripture come to teach us? Since this was a communal meal-offering, and it was a [special] meal-offering [brought exclusively] at that time, and there is nothing like it in [future] generations, Scripture found it necessary to specify the law of other meal-offerings in its context [to teach us that those laws applied to this meal-offering as well]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:46]   ואכלוה מצות: מה תלמוד לומר, לפי שהיא מנחת צבור ומנחת שעה ואין כיוצא בה לדורות, הוצרך לפרש בה דין שאר מנחות:
13. You shall eat it in a holy place because it is your portion and your sons' portion from the Lord's fire offerings, for so I have been commanded.   יג. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתָהּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ כִּי חָקְךָ וְחָק בָּנֶיךָ הִוא מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה כִּי כֵן צֻוֵּיתִי:
and your sons’ portion: [But] the daughters [of kohanim] do not have a portion in holy [sacrifices]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:46]   וחק בניך: אין לבנות חק בקדשים:
for so I have been commanded: that they eat it when they are אוֹנְנִים [mourners for a close relative on the day of that relative’s demise and burial]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:48]   כי כן צויתי: באנינות יאכלוה:
14. The breast of the waving and the thigh of the raising up you shall eat in a clean place, you and your sons and your daughters with you, for [as] your portion and your sons' portion they have been given, from the peace offerings of the children of Israel.   יד. וְאֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת | שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה תֹּאכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתָּךְ כִּי חָקְךָ וְחָק בָּנֶיךָ נִתְּנוּ מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
The breast of the waving: from the communal peace offerings.   ואת חזה התנופה: של שלמי צבור:
you shall eat in a clean place: Now did they eat the previous sacrifices in an unclean place? Rather, the previous sacrifices were holy of holies (קָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים), and as such, they were required to be eaten in a holy place. These, however, were not required [to be eaten] within the hangings [of the courtyard]. Notwithstanding, they were still to be eaten within the camp of Israel, which is “clean” insofar as those who were afflicted with tzara’ath could not enter therein. From here, then, we learn the law that sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness (קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים) may be eaten anywhere in the city [of Jerusalem, and these specific communal peace offerings had the status of קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, even though communal peace offerings are usually קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים]. — [Zev. 55a]   תאכלו במקום טהור: וכי את הראשונים אכלו במקום טמא, אלא הראשונים שהם קדשי קדשים הוזקקה אכילתם במקום קדוש, אבל אלו אין צריכים תוך הקלעים, אבל צריכים הם להאכל תוך מחנה ישראל, שהוא טהור מליכנס שם מצורעים. מכאן שקדשים קלים נאכלין בכל העיר:
you and your sons and your daughters: You and your sons have a portion. Your daughters, however, do not have a portion. Yet if you give them [sacrificial flesh as] gifts, they are permitted to eat from the breasts and the thighs. [How do we know this?] Perhaps the verse means that the daughters also receive a portion? Scripture therefore states [in the continuation of this verse], “for [as] your portion and your sons’ portion they have been given,” - [i.e., it is given as] a portion to the sons, but not as a portion to the daughters. - [Torath Kohanim 10:50]   אתה ובניך ובנתיך: אתה ובניך בחלק, אבל בנותיך לא בחלק, אלא אם תתנו להן מתנות, רשאות הן לאכול בחזה ושוק. או אינו אלא אף הבנות בחלק, תלמוד לומר כי חקך וחק בניך נתנו, חק לבנים ואין חק לבנות:
15. They shall bring the thigh of the raising up and the breast of the waving upon the fats for fire offerings, to wave as a waving before the Lord. And it shall belong to you and to your sons with you as an eternal due, as the Lord has commanded.   טו. שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וַחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה עַל אִשֵּׁי הַחֲלָבִים יָבִיאוּ לְהָנִיף תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וְהָיָה לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק עוֹלָם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה:
The thigh of the raising-up and the breast of the waving: Heb. שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וַחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה. These words are related to the expressions: “which was waved (הוּנַף) and which was lifted up (הוּרָם) ” (Exod. 29:27). תְּנוּפָה, waving, is performed by a forward and backward motion, whereas תְּרוּמָה, lifting up, is performed by an upward and downward motion. Why Scripture separates them, using “lifting up” in reference to the thigh and “waving” in reference to the breast, we do not know, since both of them were lifted up and waved.   שוק התרומה וחזה התנופה: לשון אשר הונף ואשר הורם. תנופה מוליך ומביא, תרומה מעלה ומוריד. ולמה חלקן הכתוב, תרומה בשוק ותנופה בחזה, לא ידענו, ששניהם בהרמה והנפה:
upon the fats for fire offerings: Heb. הַחִלָבִים עַל אִשֵּי. [This phrase is to be read as equivalent to: עַל חֶלְבֵי הָאִשִּים, meaning “upon the fats for fire-offerings.”] From here we learn that the fats were placed underneath [the breast and thigh portions] at the time of the waving (Torath Kohanim 10:51). [Now, earlier verses (Lev. 7:30 and 9:20) both state that the sacrificial fats were placed on top of the breast and thigh portions, thus seemingly contradicting our verse here, which says, “They should bring the thigh…and the breast…upon the fats.”] However, I have already explained the resolution of all these three verses, so that they do not contradict each other, in the section “Command Aaron” (see Rashi on Lev. 7:30).   על אשי החלבים: מכאן שהחלבים למטה בשעת תנופה, וישוב המקראות שלא יכחישו זה את זה, כבר פירשתי שלשתן בצו את אהרן (ז ל):
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