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Torah Reading for Beshalach

Torah Reading for Beshalach

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Parshat Beshalach
Shabbat, 15 Shevat, 5777
11 February, 2017
Select a portion:
Complete: (Exodus 13:17 - 17:16; Judges 4:4 - 5:31)
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First Portion

Exodus Chapter 13

17It came to pass when Pharaoh let the people go, that God did not lead them [by] way of the land of the Philistines for it was near, because God said, Lest the people reconsider when they see war and return to Egypt   יזוַיְהִ֗י בְּשַׁלַּ֣ח פַּרְעֹה֘ אֶת־הָעָם֒ וְלֹֽא־נָחָ֣ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים דֶּ֚רֶךְ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים כִּ֥י קָר֖וֹב ה֑וּא כִּ֣י | אָמַ֣ר אֱלֹהִ֗ים פֶּן־יִנָּחֵ֥ם הָעָ֛ם בִּרְאֹתָ֥ם מִלְחָמָ֖ה וְשָׁ֥בוּ מִצְרָֽיְמָה:
It came to pass when Pharaoh let…that God did not lead them: Heb. וְלֹא-נָחָם, and did not lead them, similar to “Go, lead (נְחֵה) the people” (Exod. 32:34) [and] “When you walk, it shall lead (תִּנְחֶה) you” (Prov. 6:22).   ויהי בשלח פרעה וגו' ולא נחם: ולא נהגם, כמו (שמות לב לד) לך נחה את העם, (משלי ו כב) בהתהלכך תנחה אותך:
for it was near: and it was easy to return by that road to Egypt. There are also many aggadic midrashim [regarding this].   כי קרוב הוא: ונוח לשוב באותו הדרך למצרים. ומדרשי אגדה יש הרבה:
when they see war: For instance, the war of “And the Amalekites and the Canaanites descended, etc.” (Num. 14:45). If they had gone on a direct route, they would have returned. Now, if when He led them around in a circuitous route, they said, “Let us appoint a leader and return to Egypt” (Num. 14:4), how much more [would they have planned to do this] if He had led them on a direct route? [According to the sequence of the verse, the headings appear to be transposed. See Mizrachi, Gur Aryeh, and Minchath Yehudah for a correct solution of this problem.]   בראתם מלחמה: כגון מלחמת (במדבר יד מה) וירד העמלקי והכנעני וגו'. אם הלכו דרך ישר היו חוזרים, ומה אם כשהקיפם דרך מעוקם אמרו (במדבר יד ד) נתנה ראש ונשובה מצרימה, אם הוליכם בפשוטה על אחת כמה וכמה:
Lest…reconsider: They will have [second] thoughts about [the fact] that they left Egypt and they will think about returning.   פן ינחם: יחשבו מחשבה על שיצאו ויתנו לב לשוב:
18So God led the people around [by] way of the desert [to] the Red Sea, and the children of Israel were armed when they went up out of Egypt.   יחוַיַּסֵּ֨ב אֱלֹהִ֧ים | אֶת־הָעָ֛ם דֶּ֥רֶךְ הַמִּדְבָּ֖ר יַם־ס֑וּף וַֽחֲמֻשִׁ֛ים עָל֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
led…around: He led them around from a direct route to a circuitous route.   ויסב: הסיבם מן הדרך הפשוטה לדרך העקומה:
the Red Sea: Heb. יַם-סוּף, like לְיַם-סוּף, to the Red Sea. סוּף means a marsh where reeds grow, similar to “and put [it] into the marsh (בַּסוּף)” (Exod. 2:3); “reeds and rushes (וַסוּף) shall be cut off” (Isa. 19:6).   ים סוף: כמו לים סוף. וסוף הוא לשון אגם שגדלים בו קנים, כמו (שמות ב ג) ותשם בסוף, (ישעיהו יט ו) קנה וסוף קמלו:
armed: Heb. חִמֻשִׁים וַחִמֻשִׁים [in this context] can only mean “armed.” (Since He led them around in the desert [circuitously], He caused them to go up armed, for if He had led them around through civilization, they would not have [had to] provide for themselves with everything that they needed, but only [part,] like a person who travels from place to place and intends to purchase there whatever he will need. But if he travels a long distance into a desert, he must prepare all his necessities for himself. This verse was written only to clarify the matter, so you should not wonder where they got weapons in the war with Amalek and in the wars with Sihon and Og and Midian, for the Israelites smote them with the point of the sword.) [In an old Rashi]) And similarly [Scripture] says: “and you shall cross over armed (חִמֻשִׁים)” (Josh. 1:14). And so too Onkelos rendered מְזָרְזִין just as he rendered: “and he armed (וְזָרֵיז) his trained men” (Gen. 14:14). Another interpretation: חִמֻשִׁים means “divided by five,” [meaning] that one out of five (חִמִֹשָה) [Israelites] went out, and four fifths [lit., parts of the people] died during the three days of darkness [see Rashi on Exod. 10:22]. — [from Mechilta, Tanchuma, Beshallach 1]   וחמשים: אין חמושים אלא מזויינים. לפי שהסיבן במדבר גרם להם שעלו חמושים, שאלו הסיבן דרך יישוב לא היו מחומשים להם כל מה שצריכין, אלא כאדם שעובר ממקום למקום ובדעתו לקנות שם מה שיצטרך, אבל כשהוא פורש למדבר צריך לזמן לו כל הצורך, ומקרא זה לא נכתב כי אם לשבר את האוזן, שלא תתמה במלחמת עמלק ובמלחמות סיחון ועוג ומדין, מהיכן היו להם כלי זיין שהכום ישראל בחרב. וכן הוא אומר (יהושע א יד) ואתם תעברו חמושים. וכן תרגם אונקלוס מזרזין, כמו (בראשית יד יד) וירק את חניכיו וזריז. דבר אחר חמושים אחד מחמשה יצאו, וארבעה חלקים מתו בשלשת ימי אפילה:
19Moses took Joseph's bones with him, for he [Joseph] had adjured the sons of Israel, saying, God will surely remember you, and you shall bring up my bones from here with you   יטוַיִּקַּ֥ח משֶׁ֛ה אֶת־עַצְמ֥וֹת יוֹסֵ֖ף עִמּ֑וֹ כִּי֩ הַשְׁבֵּ֨עַ הִשְׁבִּ֜יעַ אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר פָּקֹ֨ד יִפְקֹ֤ד אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהַֽעֲלִיתֶ֧ם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַ֛י מִזֶּ֖ה אִתְּכֶֽם:
for he had adjured: Heb. הִֹשְבִּיעַ הַֹשְבֵּעַ. [The double expression indicates that] he [Joseph] had made them [his brothers] swear that they would make their children swear (Mechilta). Now why did he not make his sons swear to carry him to the land of Canaan immediately [when he died], as Jacob had made [him] swear? Joseph said, “I was a ruler in Egypt, and I had the ability to do [this]. As for my sons-the Egyptians will not let them do [it].” Therefore, he made them swear that when they would be redeemed and would leave there [Egypt], they would carry him [out]. — [from Mechilta]   השבע השביע: השביעם שישביעו לבניהם. ולמה לא השביע את בניו שישאוהו לארץ כנען מיד, כמו שהשביעו יעקב, אמר יוסף אני שליט הייתי במצרים והיה סיפק בידי לעשות, אבל בני לא יניחום מצריים לעשות, לכך השביעם לכשיגאלו ויצאו משם שישאוהו:
and you shall bring up my bones from here with you: He made his brothers swear in this manner. We learn [from this] that the bones of all [the progenitors of] the tribes they brought up [out of Egypt] with them as it is said “with you” -[from Mechilta]   והעליתם את עצמתי מזה אתכם: לאחיו השביע כן, למדנו שאף עצמות כל השבטים העלו עמהם, שנאמר אתכם:
20They traveled from Succoth, and they encamped in Etham, at the edge of the desert.   כוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִסֻּכֹּ֑ת וַיַּֽחֲנ֣וּ בְאֵתָ֔ם בִּקְצֵ֖ה הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
They traveled from Succoth: on the second day, for on the first day they came from Rameses to Succoth.   ויסעו מסכת: ביום השני, שהרי בראשון באו מרעמסס לסכות:
21And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to cause it to lead them on the way and at night in a pillar of fire to give them light, [they thus could] travel day and night.   כאוַֽיהֹוָ֡ה הֹלֵךְ֩ לִפְנֵיהֶ֨ם יוֹמָ֜ם בְּעַמּ֤וּד עָנָן֙ לַנְחֹתָ֣ם הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְלַ֛יְלָה בְּעַמּ֥וּד אֵ֖שׁ לְהָאִ֣יר לָהֶ֑ם לָלֶ֖כֶת יוֹמָ֥ם וָלָֽיְלָה:
to cause it to lead them on the way: Heb. לַנְחֹתָם. [The “lammed” is] vowelized with a “pattach,” which is equivalent to לְהַנְחֹתָם, like “to show you (לַראֹתְכֶם) on the way on which you shall go” (Deut. 1:33), which is like לְהַרְאֹתְכֶם. Here also, [it means] to cause to lead you (לְהַנְחֹתָם) through a messenger. Now who was that messenger? [It was] the pillar of cloud, and the Holy One, blessed be He, in His glory, led it before them. In any case, it was the pillar of cloud that He prepared so that they could be led by it, for they would travel by the pillar of cloud, and the pillar of cloud was not [meant] to provide light but to direct them [on] the way.   לנחתם הדרך: נקוד פת"ח, שהוא כמו להנחותם, כמו (דברים א לג) לראותכם בדרך אשר תלכו בה, שהוא כמו להראותכם, אף כאן להנחותם על ידי שליח. ומי הוא השליח עמוד הענן, והקב"ה בכבודו מוליכו לפניהם. ומכל מקום את עמוד הענן הכין להנחותם על ידו, שהרי על ידי עמוד הענן הם הולכים, ועמוד הענן אינו לאורה אלא להורותם הדרך:
22He did not move away the pillar of cloud by day or the pillar of fire at night [from] before the people.   כבלֹֽא־יָמִ֞ישׁ עַמּ֤וּד הֶֽעָנָן֙ יוֹמָ֔ם וְעַמּ֥וּד הָאֵ֖שׁ לָ֑יְלָה לִפְנֵ֖י הָעָֽם:
He did not move away: [I.e.,] the Holy One, blessed be He, [did not move away] the pillar of cloud by day or the pillar of fire at night. [This verse] tells that the pillar of cloud transmitted [its light to] the pillar of fire, and the pillar of fire transmitted [its light to] the pillar of cloud, for while one had not yet set, the other one would rise. — [from Shab. 23b]   לא ימיש: הקב"ה את עמוד הענן יומם ועמוד האש לילה. מגיד שעמוד הענן משלים לעמוד האש ועמוד האש משלים לעמוד הענן, שעד שלא ישקע זה עולה זה:

Exodus Chapter 14

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, and let them turn back and encamp in front of Pi hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; in front of Baal Zephon, you shall encamp opposite it, by the sea.   בדַּבֵּר֘ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְיָשֻׁ֗בוּ וְיַחֲנוּ֙ לִפְנֵי֙ פִּ֣י הַֽחִירֹ֔ת בֵּ֥ין מִגְדֹּ֖ל וּבֵ֣ין הַיָּ֑ם לִפְנֵי֙ בַּ֣עַל צְפֹ֔ן נִכְח֥וֹ תַֽחֲנ֖וּ עַל־הַיָּֽם:
and let them turn back: to their rear. They approached nearer to Egypt during the entire third day in order to mislead Pharaoh, so that he would say, “They are astray on the road,” as it is said: “And Pharaoh will say about the children of Israel…” (Exod. 14:3).   וישבו: לאחוריהם לצד מצרים היו מקרבין כל יום השלישי כדי להטעות את פרעה שיאמר תועים הם בדרך, כמו שנאמר (פסוק ג) ואמר פרעה לבני ישראל וגו':
and encamp in front of Pi-hahiroth: That is Pithom [one of the cities built by the Israelites, Exod 1:11], but now it was called Pi-hahiroth, since there they [the Israelites] became free men (בְּנֵי חוֹרִין). They [the Hiroth] are two high upright rocks, and [because there is] the valley between them [this] is called the mouth (פִּי) of the rocks. — [from Mechilta]   ויחנו לפני פי החירת: הוא פיתום, ועכשיו נקרא פי החירות על שם שנעשו בני חורין, והם שני סלעים גבוהים וזקופים, והגיא שביניהם קרוי פי הסלעים:
in front of Ba’al Zephon: [Only] this was left from all the Egyptian deities in order to mislead them [the Egyptians], so they would say that their deity is powerful. Concerning this [tactic] Job explained: “He misleads nations and destroys them” (Job 12:23). — [from Mechilta]   לפני בעל צפן: הוא נשאר מכל אלהי מצרים, כדי להטעותן, שיאמרו קשה יראתן. ועליו פירש איוב (איוב יב כג) משגיא לגוים ויאבדם:
3And Pharaoh will say about the children of Israel, They are trapped in the land. The desert has closed in upon them.   גוְאָמַ֤ר פַּרְעֹה֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְבֻכִ֥ים הֵ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ סָגַ֥ר עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
And Pharaoh will say: when he hears that they [the Israelites] are turning back.   ואמר פרעה: כשישמע שהם שבים לאחוריהם:
about the children of Israel: Heb. לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, concerning the children of Israel. And so [the “lammed” is understood similarly in the phrase] "The Lord will fight for you (לָכֶם) (verse 14), on your behalf; [and similarly,] “say about me (לִי)” (Gen. 20:13), [which signifies] concerning me.   לבני ישראל: על בני ישראל. וכן (פסוק יד) ה' ילחם לכם - עליכם, (בראשית כ יג) אמרי לי אחי הוא - אמרי עלי:
They are trapped: Heb. נְבֻכִים, locked in and sunk, and in French serrer, [meaning] press, tighten, or squeeze, like “in the deep (הַבָּכָא) valley” (Ps. 84:7); [and like] “the depths of (מִבְּכִי) the rivers” (Job 28:11); [and likewise] “the locks of (נִבְכֵי) the sea” (Job 38:16). [In his commentary on this verse, Rashi follows Menachem (Machbereth Menachem, p. 45). Rashi on Psalms and Job 28:11, however, interprets those verses as expressions of weeping, from the root בכה. See Judaica Press commentary digest on Job 28:11.]   נבכים הם: כלואים ומשוקעים ובלעז שירי"ץ [לחוצים], כמו (תהלים פד ז) בעמק הבכא, (איוב כח יא) מבכי נהרות, (שם לח טז) נבכי ים:
They are trapped: They are locked in the desert, for they do not know how to get out of it and where to go.   נבכים הם: נבוכים הם כלואים הם במדבר, שאינן יודעין לצאת ממנו ולהיכן ילכו:
4And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them, and I will be glorified through Pharaoh and through his entire force, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord And they did so.   דוְחִזַּקְתִּ֣י אֶת־לֵֽב־פַּרְעֹה֘ וְרָדַ֣ף אַֽחֲרֵיהֶם֒ וְאִכָּֽבְדָ֤ה בְּפַרְעֹה֙ וּבְכָל־חֵיל֔וֹ וְיָֽדְע֥וּ מִצְרַ֖יִם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן:
and I will be glorified through Pharaoh: When the Holy One blessed be He wreaks vengeance upon the wicked, His name becomes magnified and glorified. So it [Scripture] says: “And I will judge against him, etc.” and afterwards [the prophet says], “And I will magnify and sanctify Myself and I will be known, etc.” (Ezek 38:22, 23) And [Scripture similarly] says: “There he broke the arrows of the bow,” [which refers to Sennacherib’s defeat,] and afterwards [i.e., the result of that], “God is known in Judah” (Ps. 76:2,4) And [Scripture similarly] says: “The Lord is known for the judgement that He performed” (Ps. 9:17). — [from Mechilta]   ואכבדה בפרעה: כשהקב"ה מתנקם ברשעים שמו מתגדל ומתכבד. וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל לח כב) ונשפטתי אתו וגו', ואחר כך (שם כג) והתגדלתי והתקדשתי ונודעתי וגו', ואומר (תהלים עו ד) שמה שבר רשפי קשת, ואחר כך (שם פסוק ב) נודע ביהודה א-להים, ואומר (שם ט יז) נודע ה' משפט עשה:
through Pharaoh and through his entire force: He [Pharaoh] initiated the sinful behavior, and [thus] the retribution started with him. — [from Mechilta]   בפרעה ובכל חילו: הוא התחיל בעבירה וממנו התחילה הפורענות:
And they did so: [This is stated] to tell their praise, that they obeyed Moses and did not say, “How will we draw near to our enemies [by returning in the direction of Egypt]? We have to escape.” Instead they said, “All we have are the words of [Moses] the son of Amram.” [I.e., we have no other plan to follow, only the words of the son of Amram.]-[from Mechilta]   ויעשו כן: להגיד שבחן ששמעו לקול משה, ולא אמרו היאך נתקרב אל רודפינו, אנו צריכים לברוח, אלא אמרו אין לנו אלא דברי בן עמרם:
5It was reported to Pharaoh that the people had fled; and Pharaoh and his servants had a change of heart toward the people, and they said, What is this that we have done, that we have released Israel from serving us?   הוַיֻּגַּד֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם כִּ֥י בָרַ֖ח הָעָ֑ם וַיֵּֽ֠הָפֵ֠ךְ לְבַ֨ב פַּרְעֹ֤ה וַֽעֲבָדָיו֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ מַה־זֹּ֣את עָשִׂ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־שִׁלַּ֥חְנוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵֽעָבְדֵֽנוּ:
It was reported to Pharaoh: He [Pharaoh] sent officers with them, and as soon as the three days they [the Israelites] had set to go [into the desert] and return had elapsed, and they [the officers] saw that they were not returning to Egypt, they came and informed Pharaoh on the fourth day. On the fifth and the sixth [days after the Israelites’ departure], they pursued them. On the night preceding the seventh, they went down into the sea. In the morning [of the seventh day], they [the Israelites] recited the Song [of the Sea (Exod. 15:1-18)]. Therefore, we read [in the Torah] the Song on the seventh day, that is the seventh day of Passover.   ויגד למלך מצרים: איקטורין שלח עמהם, וכיון שהגיעו לשלשת ימים שקבעו לילך ולשוב וראו שאינן חוזרין למצרים, באו והגידו לפרעה ביום הרביעי. בחמישי ובששי רדפו אחריהם, וליל שביעי ירדו לים, בשחרית אמרו שירה, והוא יום שביעי של פסח, לכן אנו קורין השירה ביום השביעי:
had a change: He [Pharaoh] had a change of heart from how he had felt [previously], for he had said to them [the Israelites], “Get up and get out from among my people” (Exod. 12:31). His servants [also] had a change of heart, for previously they had said to him, “How long will this one be a stumbling block to us?” (Exod. 10:7). Now they had a change of heart to pursue them [the Israelites] on account of the money that they had lent them. — [based on Mechilta]   ויהפך: נהפך ממה שהיה, שהרי אמר להם (שמות יב לא) קומו צאו מתוך עמי, ונהפך לבב עבדיו, שהרי לשעבר היו אומרים לו (שם י ז) עד מתי יהיה זה לנו למוקש, ועכשיו נהפכו לרדוף אחריהם בשביל ממונם שהשאילום:
from serving us: Heb. מֵעָבְדֵנוּ, from serving us.   מעבדנו: מעבוד אותנו:
6So he [Pharaoh] harnessed his chariot, and took his people with him.   ווַיֶּאְסֹ֖ר אֶת־רִכְבּ֑וֹ וְאֶת־עַמּ֖וֹ לָקַ֥ח עִמּֽוֹ:
So he [Pharaoh] harnessed his chariot: He [did so] personally. — [from Mechilta]   ויאסר את רכבו: הוא בעצמו:
and took his people with him: He attracted them with [his] words, "We suffered, they took our money, and [then] we let them go! Come with me, and I will not behave with you as do other kings. With other kings, it is customary that their servants precede them in battle, but I will precede you," as [indeed] it is said: “Pharaoh drew near” (Exod. 14:10). [This means that Pharaoh] himself drew near and hastened before his armies. "It is customary for other kings to take plunder at the beginning, as much as he [the king] chooses. [But] I will share equally with you," as it is said: “I will share the booty” (Exod. 15:9).   ואת עמו לקח עמו: משכם בדברים לקינו ונטלו ממוננו ושלחנום, בואו עמי ואני לא אתנהג עמכם כשאר מלכים, דרך שאר מלכים עבדיו קודמין לו במלחמה, ואני אקדים לפניכם, שנאמר (פסוק י) ופרעה הקריב, הקריב עצמו ומיהר לפני חיילותיו. דרך שאר מלכים ליטול ביזה בראש כמו שיבחר, אני אשוה עמכם בחלק, שנאמר (שמות טו ט) אחלק שלל:
7He took six hundred select chariots and all the chariots of Egypt, with officers over them all.   זוַיִּקַּ֗ח שֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת רֶ֨כֶב֙ בָּח֔וּר וְכֹ֖ל רֶ֣כֶב מִצְרָ֑יִם וְשָֽׁלִשִׁ֖ם עַל־כֻּלּֽוֹ:
select: Heb. בָּחוּר, chosen. [This is] a singular expression, [meaning that] every single chariot in this number was [a] chosen [chariot].   בחור: נבחרים, בחור לשון יחיד כל רכב ורכב שבמנין זה היה בחור:
and all the chariots of Egypt: And with them, all the rest of the chariots. Now where did all these animals come from? If you say [that they belonged] to the Egyptians, it says already: “and all the livestock of the Egyptians died” (Exod. 9:6). And if [you say that they belonged] to the Israelites, does it not say: “also our cattle will go with us” (Exod. 10:26). Whose were they [from if that was the case]? They [belonged] to those who feared the word of the Lord [i.e., to those who drove their servants and their livestock into the houses as in Exod. 9:20]. From here Rabbi Simeon would say, "[Even] the best of the Egyptians --[you must] kill; [even] the best of the serpents-[you must] crush its head."-[from Mechilta]   וכל רכב מצרים: ועמהם כל שאר הרכב ומהיכן היו הבהמות הללו, אם תאמר משל מצרים, הרי נאמר (שמות ט ו) וימת כל מקנה מצרים, ואם תאמר משל ישראל, והלא נאמר (שם י כו) וגם מקננו ילך עמנו. משל מי היו, מן הירא את דבר ה' (שם ט כ). מכאן היה רבי שמעון אומר כשר שבמצרים הרוג, טוב שבנחשים רצוץ את מוחו:
with officers over them all: Heb. וְשָׁלִשִׁם, officers over the legions, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders.   ושלשם על כלו: שרי צבאות כתרגומו:
8And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and he chased after the children of Israel, and the children of Israel were marching out triumphantly.   חוַיְחַזֵּ֣ק יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶת־לֵ֤ב פַּרְעֹה֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּרְדֹּ֕ף אַֽחֲרֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יֹֽצְאִ֖ים בְּיָ֥ד רָמָֽה:
And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh: Because he vacillated about whether to pursue [the Israelites] or not. [So] He hardened his heart to pursue [them]. — [from Mechilta]   ויחזק ה' את לב פרעה: שהיה תולה אם לרדוף אם לאו. וחזק את לבו לרדוף:
and the children of Israel were marching out triumphantly: Heb. בְּיָד רָמָה, lit., with a high hand. With lofty and openly displayed might.   ביד רמה: גבורה גבוהה ומפורסמת:

Second Portion

Exodus Chapter 14

9The Egyptians chased after them and overtook them encamped by the sea every horse of Pharaoh's chariots, his horsemen, and his force beside Pi hahiroth, in front of Ba'al Zephon.   טוַיִּרְדְּפ֨וּ מִצְרַ֜יִם אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם וַיַּשִּׂ֤יגוּ אוֹתָם֙ חֹנִ֣ים עַל־הַיָּ֔ם כָּל־סוּס֙ רֶ֣כֶב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וּפָֽרָשָׁ֖יו וְחֵיל֑וֹ עַל־פִּי֙ הַֽחִירֹ֔ת לִפְנֵ֖י בַּ֥עַל צְפֹֽן:
10Pharaoh drew near, and the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold! the Egyptians were advancing after them. They were very frightened, and the children of Israel cried out to the Lord.   יוּפַרְעֹ֖ה הִקְרִ֑יב וַיִּשְׂאוּ֩ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל אֶת־עֵֽינֵיהֶ֜ם וְהִנֵּ֥ה מִצְרַ֣יִם | נֹסֵ֣עַ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם וַיִּֽירְאוּ֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַיִּצְעֲק֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֶל־יְהֹוָֽה:
Pharaoh drew near: Heb. וּפַרְעֹה הִקְרִיב, lit., and Pharaoh brought near. It [the verse] should have said: קָרַב. What is the meaning of הִקְרִיב ? He [Pharaoh] drew himself near and strove to go before them [his army], as he had stipulated with them. —   ופרעה הקריב: היה לו לכתוב ופרעה קרב, מהו הקריב, הקריב עצמו ונתאמץ לקדם לפניהם, כמו שהתנה עמהם:
the Egyptians were advancing after them: Heb. נֹסֵעַ [in the singular]. With one accord, like one man. Alternatively, [in the singular it means that] and behold, Egypt was advancing after them, [denoting that] they [the Israelites] saw the heavenly prince of Egypt advancing from heaven to aid the Egyptians. [From] Tanchuma.   נסע אחריהם: בלב אחד כאיש אחד. דבר אחר והנה מצרים נוסע אחריהם, ראו שר של מצרים נוסע מן השמים לעזור למצרים. תנחומא:
cried out: They seized the art of their ancestors [i.e., they prayed]. Concerning Abraham, it [Scripture] says: “to the place where he had stood before the Lord” (Gen. 19:27). 2 Concerning Isaac, [it is stated] “to pray in the field” (Gen. 24:63). Concerning Jacob, “And he entreated the Omnipresent” (Gen. 28:11). (See Judaica Press comm. digest on that verse.)-[from Mechilta; Tanchuma Beshallach 9]   ויצעקו: תפשו אומנות אבותם. באברהם הוא אומר (בראשית יט כז) אל המקום אשר עמד שם, ביצחק (שם כד סג) לשוח בשדה, ביעקב (שם כח יא) ויפגע במקום:
11They said to Moses, Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us to die in the desert? What is this that you have done to us to take us out of Egypt?   יאוַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֘ אֶל־משֶׁה֒ הֲמִבְּלִ֤י אֵֽין־קְבָרִים֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם לְקַחְתָּ֖נוּ לָמ֣וּת בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר מַה־זֹּאת֙ עָשִׂ֣יתָ לָּ֔נוּ לְהֽוֹצִיאָ֖נוּ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
Is it because there are no graves: Heb. הִמִבְּלִי אֵין קְבָרִים. Is it because of the want? Namely that there are no graves in Egypt in which to be buried, that you have taken us out of there? Si por falyanze de non fosses in Old French [i.e., Is it for lack, that there are no graves?].   המבלי אין קברים: וכי מחמת חסרון קברים שאין קברים במצרים ליקבר שם לקחתנו משם. ש"י פו"ר פיילנצ"א ד"י נו"ן פושי"ש בלעז [האם בגלל מחסור של לא קברים]:
12Isn't this the thing [about] which we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, Leave us alone, and we will serve the Egyptians, because we would rather serve the Egyptians than die in the desert   יבהֲלֹא־זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבַּ֨רְנוּ אֵלֶ֤יךָ בְמִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר חֲדַ֥ל מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וְנַֽעַבְדָ֣ה אֶת־מִצְרָ֑יִם כִּ֣י ט֥וֹב לָ֨נוּ֙ עֲבֹ֣ד אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם מִמֻּתֵ֖נוּ בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
Isn’t this the thing [about] which we spoke to you in Egypt: When had they said [this]? "And they said to them, “May the Lord look upon you and judge’ ” (Exod. 5:21). [from Mechilta]   אשר דברנו אליך במצרים: והיכן דברו, (שמות ה כא) ירא ה' עליכם וישפוט:
than die: Heb. מִמֻּתֵנוּ, than we should die. If it [מִמֻּתֵנוּ] were vowelized with a “melupum” (i.e., a “cholam,” [מִמּוֹתֵנוּ] as it is known that the grammarians called a “cholam” a “melupum.” See Rashi below on Exod. 19:24), it would be explained as: “than our death.” Now that it is vowelized with a “shuruk” [מִמֻּתֵנוּ], it is explained as “than we should die.” Likewise [in the verse], “If only we had died (מּוּתֵנוּ)” (Exod. 16:3), [means] that we would die. [Similarly,] “If only I had died (מּוּתֵי) instead of you” (II Sam. 19:1), referring to Absalom [means, I should have died]; [And מּוּתִי is similar to (קוּמִי) in the verse:] “for the day that I will rise up (קוּמִי)” (Zeph. 3:8); [and also similar to (ֹשוּבִי) in the verse] “until I return (ֹשוּבִי) in peace” (II Chron. 18:26), [which mean respectively] that I rise up, that I return.   ממתנו: מאשר נמות, ואם היה נקוד מלאפו"ם היה נבאר ממיתתנו, עכשיו שנקוד בשור"ק נבאר מאשר נמות, וכן (להלן טז ג) מי יתן מותנו - שנמות, וכן (שמואל ב' יט א) מי יתן מותי, דאבשלום - שאמות, כמו (צפניה ג ח) ליום קומי לעד, (דברי הימים ב' יח כו) עד שובי בשלום, שאקום שאשוב:
13Moses said to the people, Don't be afraid! Stand firm and see the Lord's salvation that He will wreak for you today, for the way you have seen the Egyptians is [only] today, [but] you shall no longer continue to see them for eternity.   יגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֣ה אֶל־הָעָם֘ אַל־תִּירָ֒אוּ֒ הִתְיַצְּב֗וּ וּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־יְשׁוּעַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם כִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר רְאִיתֶ֤ם אֶת־מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ הַיּ֔וֹם לֹ֥א תֹסִ֛פוּ לִרְאֹתָ֥ם ע֖וֹד עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
for the way you have seen the Egyptians, etc.: The way you have seen them-that is only today. It is [only] today that you have seen them, but you shall no longer continue [to see them].   כי אשר ראיתם את מצרים וגו': מה שראיתם אותם אינו אלא היום, היום הוא שראיתם אותם ולא תוסיפו עוד:
14The Lord will fight for you, but you shall remain silent.   ידיְהֹוָ֖ה יִלָּחֵ֣ם לָכֶ֑ם וְאַתֶּ֖ם תַּֽחֲרִשֽׁוּן:
The Lord will fight for you: Heb. לָכֶם, for you, and similarly [the “lammed” in the verse], “because the Lord is fighting for them (לָהֶם)” (verse 25), and similarly [in the verse] “Will you contend for God (לָאֵל) ?” (Job 13:8). And similarly, "and Who spoke about me (לִי) (Gen. 24:7), and similarly, “Will you contend for the Baal (לַבַּעַל) ?” (Jud. 6:31).   ה' ילחם לכם: בשבילכם. וכן (פסוק כה) כי ה' נלחם להם, וכן (איוב יג ח) אם לאל תריבון, וכן (בראשית כד ז) ואשר דבר לי וכן (שופטים ו לא) האתם תריבון לבעל:

Third Portion

Exodus Chapter 14

15The Lord said to Moses, Why do you cry out to Me? Speak to the children of Israel and let them travel.   טווַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה מַה־תִּצְעַ֖ק אֵלָ֑י דַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְיִסָּֽעוּ:
Why do you cry out to Me: [This verse] teaches us that Moses was standing and praying. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “This is no time to pray at length, when Israel is in distress.” Another explanation [of God’s question (Why do you cry out to me?) implies]: “The matter depends on Me and not on you,” as it is said further [in Scripture]: “Concerning My children and the work of My hands do you command Me?” (Isa. 45:11). — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 21:8]   מה תצעק אלי: למדנו שהיה משה עומד ומתפלל, אמר לו הקב"ה לא עת עתה להאריך בתפלה שישראל נתונין בצרה. דבר אחר מה תצעק אלי עלי הדבר תלוי ולא עליך, כמו שנאמר להלן (ישעיה מה יא) על בני ועל פועל ידי תצוני:
Speak to the children of Israel and let them travel: They have nothing to do but to travel, for the sea will not stand in their way. The merit of their forefathers and their own [merit], and the faith they had in Me when they came out [of Egypt] are sufficient to split the sea for them. — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 21:8]   דבר אל בני ישראל ויסעו: אין להם אלא ליסע שאין הים עומד בפניהם, כדאי זכות אבותיהם והם והאמונה שהאמינו בי ויצאו, לקרוע להם הים:
16And you raise your staff and stretch out your hand over the sea and split it, and the children of Israel shall come in the midst of the sea on dry land.   טזוְאַתָּ֞ה הָרֵ֣ם אֶת־מַטְּךָ֗ וּנְטֵ֧ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֛ עַל־הַיָּ֖ם וּבְקָעֵ֑הוּ וְיָבֹ֧אוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּ֖ם בַּיַּבָּשָֽׁה:
17And I, behold! I shall harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they will come after you, and I will be glorified through Pharaoh, and through all his force, through his chariots, and through his horsemen.   יזוַֽאֲנִ֗י הִנְנִ֤י מְחַזֵּק֙ אֶת־לֵ֣ב מִצְרַ֔יִם וְיָבֹ֖אוּ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם וְאִכָּֽבְדָ֤ה בְּפַרְעֹה֙ וּבְכָל־חֵיל֔וֹ בְּרִכְבּ֖וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָֽׁיו:
18And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I will be glorified through Pharaoh, through his chariots, and through his horsemen   יחוְיָֽדְע֥וּ מִצְרַ֖יִם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה בְּהִכָּֽבְדִ֣י בְּפַרְעֹ֔ה בְּרִכְבּ֖וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָֽׁיו:
19Then the angel of God, who had been going in front of the Israelite camp, moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved away from in front of them and stood behind them.   יטוַיִּסַּ֞ע מַלְאַ֣ךְ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים הַֽהֹלֵךְ֙ לִפְנֵי֙ מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ מֵאַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּסַּ֞ע עַמּ֤וּד הֶֽעָנָן֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיַּֽעֲמֹ֖ד מֵאַֽחֲרֵיהֶֽם:
and went behind them: to separate between the Egyptians’ camp and the Israelites’ camp and to catch the arrows and the catapult stones of the Egyptians. Everywhere it says: “the angel of the Lord (ה),” but here [it says]: “the angel of God (אֱלֹהִים).” Everywhere [in Scripture] אֱלֹהִים denotes [God’s attribute of] judgment. This teaches that at that moment, the Israelites were being judged whether to be saved or to perish with the Egyptians.   וילך מאחריהם: להבדיל בין מחנה מצרים ובין מחנה ישראל, ולקבל חצים ובליסטראות של מצרים. בכל מקום הוא אומר מלאך ה', וכאן מלאך הא-להים, אין א-להים בכל מקום אלא דין, מלמד שהיו ישראל נתונין בדין באותה שעה אם להנצל אם להאבד עם מצרים:
and the pillar of cloud moved away: When it became dark, and the pillar of cloud delivered the camp to the pillar of fire, the cloud did not go away as it would customarily go away completely in the evening, but it moved away and went behind them [the Israelites] to make it dark for the Egyptians.   ויסע עמוד הענן: כשחשיכה והשלים עמוד הענן את המחנה לעמוד האש, לא נסתלק הענן כמו שהיה רגיל להסתלק ערבית לגמרי, אלא נסע והלך לו מאחריהם להחשיך למצרים:
20And he came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel, and there were the cloud and the darkness, and it illuminated the night, and one did not draw near the other all night long.   כוַיָּבֹ֞א בֵּ֣ין | מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה מִצְרַ֗יִם וּבֵין֙ מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיְהִ֤י הֶֽעָנָן֙ וְהַח֔שֶׁךְ וַיָּ֖אֶר אֶת־הַלָּ֑יְלָה וְלֹֽא־קָרַ֥ב זֶ֛ה אֶל־זֶ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה:
And he came between the camp of Egypt: This can be compared to a person walking along the road with his son walking in front of him. [When] bandits came to capture him [the son], he [the father] took him from in front of him and placed him behind him. A wolf came behind him; so he put him [his son] in front of him. [When] bandits came in front of him and wolves behind him, he put him [his son] on his arms and fought them off. Similarly [the prophet depicts the angel protecting Israel when they drew near to the Red Sea], “But I sent to train Ephraim, he took them on his arms” (Hos. 11:3). — [from Mechilta]   ויבא בין מחנה מצרים: משל למהלך בדרך ובנו מהלך לפניו. באו לסטים לשבותו, נטלו מלפניו ונתנו לאחריו, באו זאבים מאחריו, נתנו לפניו, באו לסטים לפניו וזאבים מאחריו, נתנו על זרועו ונלחם בהם, כך (הושע יא ג) ואנכי תרגלתי לאפרים קחם על זרועותיו:
and there were the cloud and the darkness: for the Egyptians.   ויהי הענן והחשך: למצרים:
and it illuminated: [I.e.,] the pillar of fire [illuminated] the night for the Israelites, and it went before them as it usually went all night long, and the thick darkness [from the cloud] was toward the Egyptians.   ויאר: עמוד האש את הלילה לישראל, והולך לפניהם כדרכו ללכת כל הלילה, והחשך של ערפל לצד מצרים:
and one did not draw near the other: [I.e., one] camp to [the other] camp. — [from Mechilta, Jonathan]   ולא קרב זה אל זה: מחנה אל מחנה:
21And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord led the sea with the strong east wind all night, and He made the sea into dry land and the waters split.   כאוַיֵּ֨ט משֶׁ֣ה אֶת־יָדוֹ֘ עַל־הַיָּם֒ וַיּ֣וֹלֶךְ יְהֹוָ֣ה | אֶת־הַ֠יָּ֠ם בְּר֨וּחַ קָדִ֤ים עַזָּה֙ כָּל־הַלַּ֔יְלָה וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־הַיָּ֖ם לֶחָֽרָבָ֑ה וַיִּבָּֽקְע֖וּ הַמָּֽיִם:
with the strong east wind: [I.e.,] with the east wind, which is the strongest of the winds. That is the wind with which the Holy One, blessed be He, visits retribution upon the wicked, as it is said [in the following verses]: “With an east wind I will scatter them” (Jer. 18:17); “an east wind shall come, a wind of the Lord” (Hos. 13:15); “the east wind broke you in the heart of the seas” (Ezek. 27:26); “He spoke with His harsh wind on the day of the east wind” (Isa. 27:8). — [from Mechilta]   ברוח קדים עזה: ברוח קדים שהיא עזה שברוחות, היא הרוח שהקב"ה נפרע בה מן הרשעים, שנאמר (ירמי' יח יז) ברוח קדים אפיצם, (הושע יג טו) יבא קדים רוח ה', (יחזקאל כז כו) רוח הקדים שברך בלב ימים, (ישעי' כז ח) הגה ברוחו הקשה ביום קדים:
and the waters split: All the water in the world. — [from Mechilta Exod. Rabbah 21:6]   ויבקעו המים: כל מים שבעולם:
22Then the children of Israel came into the midst of the sea on dry land, and the waters were to them as a wall from their right and from their left.   כבוַיָּבֹ֧אוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּ֖ם בַּיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וְהַמַּ֤יִם לָהֶם֙ חוֹמָ֔ה מִֽימִינָ֖ם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָֽם:
23The Egyptians pursued and came after them all Pharaoh s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, into the midst of the sea.   כגוַיִּרְדְּפ֤וּ מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֚ל ס֣וּס פַּרְעֹ֔ה רִכְבּ֖וֹ וּפָֽרָשָׁ֑יו אֶל־תּ֖וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
all Pharaoh’s horses: Heb. כֹּל סוּס פַּרְעֹה, lit., in the singular. Now was there only one horse? This informs us that they [the horses] are all considered by the Omnipresent as one horse. — [from Mechilta Shirah 2]   כל סוס פרעה: וכי סוס אחד היה אלא מגיד שאין כולם חשובין לפני המקום אלא כסוס אחד:
24It came about in the morning watch that the Lord looked down over the Egyptian camp through a pillar of fire and cloud, and He threw the Egyptian camp into confusion.   כדוַֽיְהִי֙ בְּאַשְׁמֹ֣רֶת הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיַּשְׁקֵ֤ף יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּעַמּ֥וּד אֵ֖שׁ וְעָנָ֑ן וַיָּ֕הָם אֵ֖ת מַֽחֲנֵ֥ה מִצְרָֽיִם:
It came about in the morning watch: Heb. בְּאַֹשְמֹרֶת. The three parts of the night are called, אַשְׁמוּרוּת, watches (Ber. 3b), and the one [watch] before morning is called אַשְׁמֹרֶתהַבֹּקֶר, the morning watch. I say that because the night is divided into the watches of the songs of the ministering angels, one group after another into three parts, it is called אַשְׁמֹרֶת, watch. This is what Onkelos [means when he] renders מַטְּרַת.   באשמרת הבקר: שלשת חלקי הלילה קרויין אשמורות, ואותה שלפני הבקר קורא אשמורת הבקר. ואומר אני לפי שהלילה חלוק למשמרות שיר של מלאכי השרת, כת אחר כת לשלשה חלקים, לכך קרוי אשמורת, וזהו שתרגם אונקלוס במטרת:
looked down: Heb. וַיַּשְׁקֵף, looked, that is to say that He turned toward them to destroy them, and the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְאִסְךְתְּכֵי. This too is an expression of looking, like “to the field of seers” (Num. 23:14), [which Onkelos renders:] לַחִקַל סָכוּתָא   וישקף: ויבט, כלומר פנה אליהם להשחיתם, ותרגומו ואסתכי, אף הוא לשון הבטה, כמו (במדבר כג יד) שדה צופים - חקל סכותא:
through a pillar of fire and cloud: The pillar of cloud descends and makes it [the earth] like mud, and the pillar of fire boils it [the earth], and the hoofs of their horses slip. — [from Mechilta]   בעמוד אש וענן: עמוד ענן יורד ועושה אותו כטיט ועמוד אש מרתיחו, וטלפי סוסיהם משתמטות:
and He threw the Egyptian camp into confusion: Heb. וַיָּהָם, an expression of confusion, estordison in Old French. He confused them; He took away their intelligence. We learned in the chapters of Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Yose the Galilean [not found in our edition] [that] wherever it says מְהוּמָה [confusion], it means a tumultuous noise. And the “father” of them all, [the best example of the use of מְהוּמָה, is [in the verse:] “and the Lord thundered with a loud noise, etc., on the Philistines and threw them into confusion (וַיְהוּמֵּם)” (I Sam. 7:10).   ויהם: לשון מהומה, אישטורדישו"ן בלעז [מבוכה] ערבבם, נטל סגניות שלהם. ושנינו בפרקי רבי אליעזר בנו של רבי יוסי הגלילי כל מקום שנאמר בו מהומה, הרעמת קול הוא, וזה אב לכולן (שמואל א' ז י) וירעם ה' בקול גדול וגו' על פלשתים ויהומם:
25And He removed the wheels of their chariots, and He led them with heaviness, and the Egyptians said, Let me run away from the Israelites because the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians   כהוַיָּ֗סַר אֵ֚ת אֹפַ֣ן מַרְכְּבֹתָ֔יו וַיְנַֽהֲגֵ֖הוּ בִּכְבֵדֻ֑ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מִצְרַ֗יִם אָנ֨וּסָה֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה נִלְחָ֥ם לָהֶ֖ם בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:
And He removed the wheels of their chariots: With the fire the wheels were burned, and the chariots dragged, and those sitting in them were moved to and fro, and their limbs were wrenched apart. — [from an unknown source, similar to Mechilta]   ויסר את אפן מרכבתיו: מכח האש נשרפו הגלגלים והמרכבות נגררות, והיושבים בהם נעים ואיבריהן מתפרקין:
and He led them with heaviness: In a manner that was heavy and difficult for them. [This punishment was] in the measure that they [the Egyptians had] measured [to the Israelites], namely “and he made his heart heavy, he and his servants” (Exod. 9:34). Here too, “He led them with heaviness.” -[from an unknown source, similar to Mechilta]   וינהגהו בכבדת: בהנהגה שהיא כבדה וקשה להם, במדה שמדדו (שמות ט לד) ויכבד לבו הוא ועבדיו, אף כאן וינהגהו בכבדות:
is fighting for them against the Egyptians: Heb. בְּמִצְרָיִם, [is like] against the Egyptians. Alternatively: בְּמִצְרָיִם [means] in the land of Egypt, for just as these [Egyptians] were being smitten in the sea, so were those remaining in Egypt being smitten. — [from Mechilta]   נלחם להם במצרים: במצריים. דבר אחר במצרים, בארץ מצרים, שכשם שאלו לוקים על הים, כך לוקים אותם שנשארו במצרים:

Fourth Portion

Exodus Chapter 14

26Thereupon, the Lord said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea, and let the water return upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen   כווַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה נְטֵ֥ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ עַל־הַיָּ֑ם וְיָשֻׁ֤בוּ הַמַּ֨יִם֙ עַל־מִצְרַ֔יִם עַל־רִכְבּ֖וֹ וְעַל־פָּֽרָשָֽׁיו:
and let the water return: [I.e., the water] that is standing upright like a wall [will] return to its place and cover up the Egyptians.   וישבו המים: שזקופים ועומדים כחומה, ישובו למקומם ויכסו על מצרים:
27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and toward morning the sea returned to its strength, as the Egyptians were fleeing toward it, and the Lord stirred the Egyptians into the sea.   כזוַיֵּט֩ משֶׁ֨ה אֶת־יָד֜וֹ עַל־הַיָּ֗ם וַיָּ֨שָׁב הַיָּ֜ם לִפְנ֥וֹת בֹּ֨קֶר֙ לְאֵ֣יתָנ֔וֹ וּמִצְרַ֖יִם נָסִ֣ים לִקְרָאת֑וֹ וַיְנַעֵ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־מִצְרַ֖יִם בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
toward morning: Heb. לִפְנוֹתבֹּקֶר, at the time the morning approaches [lit., turns (פּוֹנֶה) to come].   לפנות בקר: לעת שהבוקר פונה לבא:
to its strength: Heb. לְאֵיתָנוֹ. To its original strength. — [from Mechilta]   לאיתנו: לתקפו הראשון:
were fleeing toward it: Because they were confused and crazed and running toward the water.   נסים לקראתו: שהיו מהוממים ומטורפים ורצין לקראת המים:
and the Lord stirred: Heb. וַיְנַעֵר. As a person stirs (מְנַעֵר) a pot [of food] and turns what is on the top to the bottom and what is on the bottom to the top, so were they [the Egyptians] bobbing up and down and being smashed in the sea, and the Holy One, blessed be He, kept them alive to bear their tortures. — [from Mechilta]   וינער ה': כאדם שמנער את הקדירה והופך העליון למטה והתחתון למעלה, כך היו עולין ויורדין ומשתברין בים, ונתן הקב"ה בהם חיות לקבל היסורין:
stirred: Heb. וַיְנַעֵר. [Onkelos renders it] וְֹשַנִּיק, which means stirring in the Aramaic language, and there are many [examples of this word] in aggadic midrashim.   וינער: ושניק, והוא לשון טרוף בלשון ארמי והרבה יש במדרשי אגדה:
28And the waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, the entire force of Pharaoh coming after them into the sea; not even one of them survived.   כחוַיָּשֻׁ֣בוּ הַמַּ֗יִם וַיְכַסּ֤וּ אֶת־הָרֶ֨כֶב֙ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֣רָשִׁ֔ים לְכֹל֙ חֵ֣יל פַּרְעֹ֔ה הבָּאִ֥ים אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֖ם בַּיָּ֑ם לֹֽא־נִשְׁאַ֥ר בָּהֶ֖ם עַד־אֶחָֽד:
and covered the chariots…the entire force of Pharaoh: Heb. לְכֹל חֵיל פַּרְעֹה So is the custom of Scriptural verses to write a superfluous “lammed,” such as in “all (לְכָל) its utensils you shall make copper” (Exod. 27:3); and similarly, “all (לְכֹל) the utensils of the Tabernacle for all its services” (Exod. 27:19); [and in the phrase] “their stakes and their ropes, along with all (לְכָל) their utensils” (Num. 4:32), and it [the “lammed”] is [used] merely to enhance the language.   ויכסו את הרכב וגו' לכל חיל פרעה: כך דרך המקראות לכתוב למ"ד יתירה, כמו (להלן כג) לכל כליו תעשה נחשת, וכן (שם יט) לכל כלי המשכן בכל עבודתו, (במדבר ד לב) ויתדותם ומיתריהם לכל כליהם, ואינה אלא תיקון לשון:
29But the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea, and the water was to them like a wall from their right and from their left.   כטוּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָֽלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֣וֹךְ הַיָּ֑ם וְהַמַּ֤יִם לָהֶם֙ חֹמָ֔ה מִֽימִינָ֖ם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָֽם:
30On that day the Lord saved Israel from the hand[s] of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the seashore.   לוַיּ֨וֹשַׁע יְהֹוָ֜ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֛וּא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיַּ֤רְא יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵ֖ת עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיָּֽם:
and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the seashore: For the sea spewed them out on its shore, so that the Israelites would not say, "Just as we are coming up on this side [of the sea], so are they coming up on another side, far from us, and they will pursue us."-[from Mechilta and Pes. 118b]   וירא ישראל את מצרים מת: שפלטן הים על שפתו, כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל כשם שאנו עולים מצד זה כך הם עולין מצד אחר רחוק ממנו וירדפו אחרינו:
31And Israel saw the great hand, which the Lord had used upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in Moses, His servant.   לאוַיַּ֨רְא יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַיָּ֣ד הַגְּדֹלָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּֽירְא֥וּ הָעָ֖ם אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽאֲמִ֨ינוּ֙ בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּבְמשֶׁ֖ה עַבְדּֽוֹ:
the great hand: The great mighty deed that the hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, had performed. Many meanings fit the term יָד, and they are all expressions derived from an actual hand, and he who interprets it must adjust the wording according to the context.   את היד הגדלה: את הגבורה הגדולה שעשתה ידו של הקב"ה. והרבה לשונות נופלין על לשון יד, וכולן לשון יד ממש הן, והמפרשו יתקן הלשון אחר ענין הדבור:

Exodus Chapter 15

1Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to the Lord, and they spoke, saying, I will sing to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea.   אאָ֣ז יָשִֽׁיר־משֶׁה֩ וּבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ לֵאמֹ֑ר אָשִׁ֤ירָה לַּֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹֽכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם:
Then…sang: Heb. אָז יָשִׁיר. [The future tense presents a problem. Therefore, Rashi explains:] Then, when he [Moses] saw the miracle, it occurred to him to recite a song, and similarly, “Then Joshua spoke (אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ)” (Josh. 10:12); and similarly, “and the house [which] he would make (יַעֲשֶׂה) for Pharaoh’s daughter” (I Kings 7: 8), [which means] he decided to make it for her. Here too, יָשִׁיר [in the future tense means that] his heart dictated to him that he should sing, and so he did, “and they spoke, saying, I will sing to the Lord.’ ” Likewise, with [the above reference to] Joshua, when he saw the miracle [of the defeat of the Amorite kings (Josh. 10:11)], his heart dictated to him that he speak [praises to God], and so he did, “and he said in the sight of Israel” (Josh. 10:12). Likewise, the song of the well, with which [Scripture] commences: “Then Israel sang (אָז יָשִׁיר)” (Num. 21:17), it explains after it, “Ascend, O well!, sing to it.” [I.e., in these three instances, the “yud” of the future tense denotes the thought, and after each one, Scripture continues that the thought was brought to fruition.] “Then did Solomon build (אָז יִבְנֶה) a high place” (I Kings 11:7); the Sages of Israel explain that he sought to build [it] but did not build [it] (Sanh. 91b). We [thus] learn that the “yud” may serve to indicate a thought. This is to explain its simple meaning, but the midrashic interpretation is [as follows]: Our Rabbis of blessed memory stated: From here is an allusion from the Torah to the resurrection of the dead (Sanh. 91b, Mechilta), and so it is [i.e., the future tense is used] with them all, except that of Solomon, which they explained as [implying] “he sought to build but did not build.” One cannot say and explain this form like other words written in the future, but which mean [that they occurred] immediately, such as “So would Job do (וָעִשֶׂה)” (Job 1:5); “by the command of the Lord would they encamp (יַחֲנוּ)” (Num. 9:23); “And sometimes the cloud would be (יִהְיֶה)” (Num. 9:21), because that is [an example of] something that occurs continually, and either the future or the past is appropriate for it, but that which occurred only once [i.e., the song that was sung], cannot be explained in this manner. —   אז ישיר משה: אז כשראה הנס עלה בלבו שישיר שירה, וכן (יהושע י יב) אז ידבר יהושע, וכן (מלכים א' ז ח) ובית יעשה לבת פרעה, חשב בלבו שיעשה לה, אף כאן ישיר, אמר לו לבו שישיר, וכן עשה, ויאמרו לאמר אשירה לה'. וכן ביהושע, כשראה הנס אמר לו לבו שידבר וכן עשה (יהושע י יב) ויאמר לעיני ישראל, וכן שירת הבאר שפתח בה (במדבר כא יז) אז ישיר ישראל, פירש אחריו עלי באר ענו לה. (מלכים יא ז) אז יבנה שלמה במה, פירשו בו חכמי ישראל שבקש לבנות ולא בנה. למדנו שהיו"ד על שם המחשבה נאמרה, זהו ליישב פשוטו. אבל מדרשו אמרו רבותינו זכרונם לברכה, מכאן רמז לתחיית המתים מן התורה, וכן בכולן חוץ משל שלמה, שפירשוהו, בקש לבנות ולא בנה. ואין לומר וליישב הלשון הזה כשאר דברים הנכתבים בלשון עתיד והן מיד, כגון (איוב א ה) ככה יעשה איוב, (במדבר ט כג) על פי ה' יחנו, (שם כ) ויש אשר יהיה הענן, לפי שהן דבר ההוה תמיד, ונופל בו בין לשון עתיד בין לשון עבר, אבל זה שלא היה אלא לשעה אינו יכול ליישבו בלשון הזה:
for very exalted is He: Heb. גָאֹה גָאָה, [to be interpreted] according to the Targum [He was exalted over the exalted, and the exaltation is His]. Another explanation: [The] doubling [of the verb] comes to say that He did something impossible for a flesh and blood [person] to do. When he fights with his fellow and overwhelms him, he throws him off the horse, but here, “a horse and its rider He cast into the sea,” [i.e., with the rider still on the horse]. Anything that cannot be done by anyone else is described as exaltation (גֵּאוּת), like “for He has performed an exalted act (גֵּאוּת)” (Isa. 12:5). Similarly, [throughout] the entire song you will find the repetitive pattern, such as: “My strength and my praise are the Eternal, and He was my salvation” (verse 2); “The Lord is a Master of war; the Lord is His Name,” (verse 3); and so on, all of them (in an old Rashi). Another explanation: גָאֹה גָאָה means for He is exalted beyond all songs, [i.e.,] for however I will praise Him, He still has more [praise]. [This is] unlike the manner of a human king, who is praised for something he does not possess. — [from Mechilta]   כי גאה גאה: שנתגאה על כל גאה כתרגומו. דבר אחר בא הכפל לומר שעשה דבר שאי אפשר לבשר ודם לעשות, כשהוא נלחם בחבירו ומתגבר עליו מפילו מן הסוס וכאן סוס ורוכבו רמה בים וכל שאי אפשר לעשות על ידי זולתו נופל בו לשון גאות, כמו (ישעיהו יב ה) כי גאות עשה, וכן כל השירה תמצא כפולה (פסוק ב) עזי וזמרת יה ויהי לי לישועה (פסוק ג) ה' איש מלחמה ה' שמו, וכן כולם. דבר אחר כי גאה גאה על כל השירות, וכל מה שאקלס בו עוד יש בו תוספת, ולא כמדת מלך בשר ודם שמקלסין אותו ואין בו:
a horse and its rider: Both bound to one another, and the water lifted them up high and brought them down into the depths, and [still] they did not separate. — [from Mechilta]   סוס ורכבו: שניהם קשורין זה בזה והמים מעלין אותם לרום ומורידין אותם לעומק ואינן נפרדין:
He cast: Heb. רָמָה, [meaning] He cast, and similarly, “and they were cast (וּרְמִיו) into the burning, fiery furnace” (Dan. 3:21). The aggadic midrash, however, [states as follows]: One verse (verse 1) says: רָמָה בַיָם, [derived from רוּם, meaning “to cast up,”] and one verse (verse 4) says: יָרָה בַיָם [meaning “to cast down”]. [This] teaches us that they [the horse and rider] went up and [then] descended into the deep, [i.e., they were thrown up and down]. [The meaning of יָרָה is here] similar to: “who laid (יָרָה) its cornerstone” (Job 38:6), [which signifies laying the stone] from above, downward. — [from Mechilta, Tanchuma, Beshallach 13]   רמה: השליך וכן (דניאל ג ו) יתרמא לגוא אתון נורא. ומדרש אגדה כתוב אחד אומר רמה, וכתוב אחד אומר (פסוק ד) ירה, מלמד שהיו עולין לרום ויורדין לתהום, כמו (איוב לח ו) מי ירה אבן פנתה, מלמעלה למטה:
2The Eternal's strength and His vengeance were my salvation; this is my God, and I will make Him a habitation, the God of my father, and I will ascribe to Him exaltation.   בעָזִּ֤י וְזִמְרָת֙ יָ֔הּ וַֽיְהִי־לִ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה זֶ֤ה אֵלִי֙ וְאַנְוֵ֔הוּ אֱלֹהֵ֥י אָבִ֖י וַֽאֲרֹֽמְמֶֽנְהוּ:
The Eternal’s strength and His vengeance were my salvation: Heb. וְזִמְרָתיָ-ה עָזִי. Onkelos renders: My strength and my praise, [thus interpreting] עָזִי like עֻזִי [my strength] with a “shuruk,” and וְזִמְרָת like וְזִמְרָתִי [my song]. But I wonder about the language of the text, for there is nothing like it [the word עָזִי] in Scripture with its vowelization except in three places [i.e., here and in Isa. 12:2 and Ps. 118:14], where it is next to וְזִמְרָת, but [in] all other places,it is vowelized with a “shuruk" [now called a "kubutz"], [e.g., in the phrase] "O Lord, Who are my power (עֻזִי) and my strength” (Jer. 16:19); “[Because of] his strength (עֻזוֹ), I hope for You” (Ps. 59:10). Likewise, any word [noun] consisting of two letters, vowelized with a “melupum,” [i.e., a "cholam,"] when it is lengthened by [the addition of] a third letter, and the second letter is not punctuated with a “sheva” the first [letter] is vowelized with a “shuruk,” e.g., עֹז strength, becomes עֻזִי, my strength, spittle (Job 30:10), רֹק becomes רֹקִי, my spittle (Job 7:19). allotment (Gen. 47:22), חֹק becomes חֹקִי, my allotment (Prov. 30:8). עֹל, yoke (Deut. 28:48), becomes עֻלוֹ, his yoke, “shall be removed…his yoke עֻלוֹ” (Isa. 10:27). כֹּל, all (Gen. 21:12), becomes כֻּלוֹ, all of it, “with officers over them all כֻּלוֹ” (Exod. 14:7). But these three [examples of the phrase], עָזִי וְזִמְרָת, [namely] the one [written] here, the one [written in] Isaiah (12: 2), and the one [written in] Psalms (118:14) [all examples of the word עָזִי are vowelized with a short “kamatz.” Moreover, not one of them [i.e., of these examples] is written וְזִמְרָתִי but וְזִמְרָת, and next to each of them it says וַיְהִי-לִי לִיֹשוּעָה, were my salvation. Therefore, in order to reconcile the language of the text, I say that עָזִי is not like עֻזִי, nor is וְזִמְרָת like וְזִמְרָתִי, but עָזִי is a noun [and the final “yud” is only stylistic], like [the final “yud” in these examples:] “You Who dwell (הַישְׁבִי) in heaven” (Ps. 123:1); “who dwell (שֹׁכְנִי) in the clefts of the rock” (Obad. 1:3); “Who dwells (שֹׁכְנִי) in the thorn bush” (Deut. 33:16). And this is the praise [that Moses and the Israelites sing to God]: The strength and the vengeance of the Eternal--that was my salvation. [In brief, the “yud” at the end of the word is a stylistic suffix, which has no bearing on the meaning.] And the word וְזִמְרָת is connected to the word denoting the Divine Name, like “to the aid of (לְעֶזְרַת) the Lord” (Jud. 5:23); [and like the word בְּעֶבְרַת in] “By the wrath of (בְּעֶבְרַת) the Lord” (Isa. 9:18); [and the word דִבְרַת in:] “concerning the matter of (דִבְרַת)” (Eccl. 3:18). [In brief, the ַת or, ָת denotes the construct state of a feminine noun.] The expression וְזִמְרָת is an expression related to “and your vineyard you shall not prune (לֹא תִזְמֹר)” (Lev. 25:4); “the downfall of (זְמִיר) the tyrants” (Isa. 25:5), an expression denoting mowing down and cutting off. [Thus the phrase means:] The strength and the vengeance of our God was our salvation. Now [since this is the meaning of the phrase,] do not be puzzled about the expression וַיְהִי, [i.e.,] that it does not say הָיָה [without a “vav” since this is the verb following עָזִי וְזִמְרָת and does not begin a clause as the conversive “vav” usually does], for there are verses worded this way, and this is an example: “[against] the walls of the house around [both] the temple and the sanctuary, he made (וַיַּעַשׂ) chambers around [it]” (I Kings 6:5). It should have said עָשָׂה, “chambers around [it]” [instead of וַיַּעַשׂ]. Similarly, in (II) Chron. (10:17): “But the children of Israel who dwelt in the cities of Judah-Rehoboam reigned (וַיִמְלֹ) over them.” It should have said: “Rehoboam (מָלַ) over them.” [Similarly,] “Because the Lord was unable…He slaughtered them (וַיִשְׁחָטֵם) in the desert” (Num. 14:16). It should have said: שְׁחָטָם. [Similarly,] “But the men whom Moses sent…died (וַיָמוּתוּ)” (Num 14:36, 37). It should have said: מֵתוּ. [Similarly,] “But he who did not pay attention to the word of the Lord left (וַיַעִזֹב)” (Exod. 9:21). It should have said: עָזַב.   עזי וזמרת יה: אונקלום תרגם תוקפי ותושבחתי. עזי כמו עזי בשור"ק, וזמרת כמו וזמרתי. ואני תמה על לשון המקרא שאין לך כמוהו בנקודתו במקרא אלא בשלושה מקומות שהוא סמוך אצל וזמרת, וכל שאר מקומות נקוד שור"ק, (ירמיה טז יט) ה' עזי ומעזי, (תהלים נט י) עזו אליך אשמורה. וכן כל תיבה בת שתי אותיות הנקודה מלאפו"ם כשהיא מארכת באות שלישית ואין השניה בשו"א בחטף, הראשונה נקודה בשור"ק כגון עז עזי, רוק רוקי, חק חקי, עול עולו, יסור עולו (ישעיהו י כז), כל כלו ושלישים על כלו (לעיל יד ז). ואלו שלושה עזי וזמרת של כאן, ושל ישעיה (ישעיהו יב ב) ושל תהלים (תהלים קיח יד) נקודים בחטף קמ"ץ, ועוד אין באחד מהם כתוב וזמרתי אלא וזמרת, וכולם סמוך להם ויהי לי לישועה, לכך אני אומר ליישב לשון המקרא, שאין עזי כמו עזי, ולא וזמרת כמו וזמרתי, אלא עזי שם דבר הוא, כמו (שם קכג א) היושבי בשמים, (עובדיה א ג) שוכני בחגוי סלע, (דברים לג טז) שוכני סנה. וזהו השבח עזי וזמרת יה הוא היה לי לישועה, וזמרת דבוק הוא לתיבת ה', כמו (שופטים ה כג) לעזרת ה', (ישעיה ט יח) בעברת ה', (קהלת ג יח) על דברת בני האדם. ולשון וזמרת לשון (ויקרא כה ד) לא תזמור, (ישעיה כה ה) זמיר עריצים, לשון כסוח וכריתה. עוזו ונקמתו של אלהינו היה לנו לישועה. ואל תתמה על לשון ויהי שלא נאמר היה, שיש לנו כמה מקראות מדברים בלשון זה, וזה דוגמתו (מלכים א ו ה) את קירות הבית סביב להיכל ולדביר ויעש צלעות סביב, היה לו לומר עשה צלעות סביב, וכן בדברי הימים (דברי הימים ב' י יז) ובני ישראל היושבים בערי יהודה וימלוך עליהם רחבעם, היה לו לומר מלך עליהם רחבעם, (במדבר יד טז) מבלתי יכולת ה' וגו' וישחטם, היה לו לומר שחטם, (שם לו - לז) והאנשים אשר שלח משה וגו' וימותו, מתו היה לו לומר, (שמות ט כא) ואשר לא שם לבו אל דבר ה' ויעזוב, היה לו לומר עזב:
this is my God: He revealed Himself in His glory to them [the Israelites], and they pointed at Him with their finger [as denoted by זֶה, this]. By the sea, [even] a maidservant perceived what prophets did not perceive. — [from Mechilta]   זה אלי: בכבודו נגלה עליהם והיו מראין אותו באצבע, ראתה שפחה על הים מה שלא ראו נביאים:
and I will make Him a habitation: Heb. וְאַנְוֵה. Onkelos rendered it as an expression of habitation (נָוֶה) [as in the following phrases]: “a tranquil dwelling (נָוֶה)” (Isa. 33:20); “a sheepfold (נְוֵה)” (Isa. 65:10). Another explanation: וְאַנְוֵהוּ is an expression of beauty (נוּ). [Thus the phrase means] I will tell of His beauty and His praise to those who enter the world, such as: [When Israel is asked:] "How is your beloved more than another beloved…? [Israel will say] My beloved is white and ruddy…" and the entire section [of Song of Songs] (Song of Songs 5:9, 10). — [from Mechilta]   ואנוהו: אונקלוס תרגם לשון נוה, (ישעיה לג כ) נוה שאנן, (שם סה י) לנוה צאן. דבר אחר ואנוהו לשון נוי, אספר נויו ושבחו לבאי עולם, כגון (שיר השירים ה ט - י) מה דודך מדוד דודי צח ואדום, וכל הענין:
the God of my father: is this One, and I will exalt Him.   אלהי אבי: הוא זה וארוממנהו.:
the God of my father: I am not the beginning of the sanctity [i.e., I am not the first to recognize His sanctity], but the sanctity has been established and has remained with me, and His Divinity has been upon me since the days of my forefathers. — [from Mechilta]   אלהי אבי: לא אני תחלת הקדושה, אלא מוחזקת ועומדת לי הקדושה ואלהותו עלי מימי אבותי:
3The Lord is a Master of war; the Lord is His Name.   גיְהֹוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה יְהֹוָ֖ה שְׁמֽוֹ:
The Lord is a Master of war: Heb. אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה, lit., a man of war, [which is inappropriate in reference to the Deity. Therefore,] Rashi renders: Master of war, like “Naomi’s husband (אִישׁ נָעֳמִי)” (Ruth 1:3) and so, every [instance in the Torah of] אִישׁ, husband, and אִישֵׁ, your husband, is rendered: בַּעַל, master. Similarly, “You shall be strong and become a man (לְאִישׁ)” (I Kings 2:2), [meaning] a strong man. —   ה' איש מלחמה: בעל מלחמות, כמו (רות א ג) איש נעמי, וכל איש ואישך מתורגמין בעל, וכן (מלכים א' ב ב) וחזקת והיית לאיש - לגבור:
the Lord is His Name: His wars are not [waged] with weapons, but He wages battle with His Name, as David said [to Goliath before fighting him], “[You come to me with spear and javelin] and I come to you with the Name of the Lord of Hosts” (I Sam. 17:45). Another explanation: The Lord י-ה-ו-ה, denoting the Divine Standard of Clemency,] is His Name--Even when He wages war and takes vengeance upon His enemies, He sticks to His behavior of having mercy on His creatures and nourishing all those who enter the world, unlike the behavior of earthly kings. When he [an earthly king] is engaged in war, he turns away from all his [other] affairs and does not have the ability to do both this [i.e., wage war] and that [other things]. — [from Mechilta]   ה' שמו: מלחמותיו לא בכלי זיין, אלא בשמו הוא נלחם, כמו שאמר דוד (שמואל א' יז מה) ואנכי בא אליך בשם ה' צבאות. דבר אחר ה' שמו אף בשעה שהוא נלחם ונוקם מאויביו, אוחז הוא במדתו לרחם על ברואיו ולזון את כל באי עולם, ולא כמדת מלכי אדמה כשהוא עוסק במלחמה פונה עצמו מכל עסקים, ואין בו כח לעשות זו וזו:
4Pharaoh's chariots and his army He cast into the sea, and the elite of his officers sank in the Red Sea.   דמַרְכְּבֹ֥ת פַּרְעֹ֛ה וְחֵיל֖וֹ יָרָ֣ה בַיָּ֑ם וּמִבְחַ֥ר שָֽׁלִשָׁ֖יו טֻבְּע֥וּ בְיַם־סֽוּף:
He cast into the sea: Heb. יָרָה בַיָם. [Onkelos renders:] שְׁדִי שְׁדִי בְיַמָּא is an expression of casting down (יָרָה), as [Scripture] says: “or shall surely be cast down (יָרֹה יִיָָּרֶה)” (Exod. 19:13), which Onkelos renders: יִשְׁךְתְּדִי אִשְׁךְתְּדָאָה. The “tav” serves in these [forms] in the hithpa’el form.   ירה בים: שדי בימא. שדי לשון ירייה, וכן הוא אומר (שמות יט יג) או ירה יירה או אשתדאה אישתדי, והתי"ו משמשת באלו במקום התפעל:
and the elite of: Heb. וּמִבְחַר, a noun, like מֶרְכָּב, riding gear (Lev. 15:9); מִשְׁכָּב, bed (Lev. 15:23); מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ, holy convocation (Exod. 12:16, Lev. 23:3).   ומבחר: שם דבר, כמו (ויקרא טו ט) מרכב, (שם ד) משכב, (שמות יב טז) מקרא קדש:
sank: Heb. טֻבְּעוּ. The term טְבִיעָה [for sinking] is used [in the Tanach] only [when referring] to a place where there is mud, like “I have sunk (טָבַעְךְתִּי) in muddy depths” (Ps. 69:3); “and Jeremiah sank (וַיִּטְבַּע) into the mud” (Jer. 38: 6). This informs [us] that the sea became mud, to recompense them [the Egyptians] according to their behavior, [namely] that they enslaved the Israelites with [work that entailed] clay and bricks. — [from Mechilta]   טבעו: אין טביעה אלא במקום טיט, כמו (תהלים סט ג) טבעתי ביון מצולה, (ירמיה לח ו) ויטבע ירמיהו בטיט, מלמד שנעשה הים טיט לגמול להם כמדתם, ששיעבדו את ישראל בחומר ובלבנים:
5The depths covered them; they descended into the depths like a stone.   התְּהֹמֹ֖ת יְכַסְיֻ֑מוּ יָֽרְד֥וּ בִמְצוֹלֹ֖ת כְּמוֹ־אָֽבֶן:
covered them: Heb. יְכַסְיֻמוּ, like יְכַסוּם. The “yud” in the middle of it is superfluous. This is, however, a common biblical style [to add an additional “yud”], like “and your cattle and your flocks will increase (יִרְבְּיֻן)” (Deut. 8:13); “They will be sated (יִרְוְיֻן) from the fat of Your house” (Ps. 36:9). The first “yud,” which denotes the future tense, is to be explained as follows: They sank in the Red Sea, so that the water would return and cover them up. There is no word in Scripture similar to יְכַסְיֻמוּ in its vowelization. It would usually be vowelized יְכַסְיֻמוּ with a “melupum.” [Here too it is obvious that Rashi means a “cholam,” as I explained above (Exod. 14:12).]   יכסימו: כמו יכסום, והיו"ד האמצעית יתירה בו, ודרך המקראות בכך, כמו (דברים ח יג) ובקרך וצאנך ירביון, (תהלים לו ט) ירוין מדשן ביתך, והיו"ד ראשונה שמשמעה לשון עתיד כך פרשהו, טבעו בים סוף כדי שיחזרו המים ויכסו אותן. יכסימו אין דומה לו במקרא בנקודתו, ודרכו להיות נקוד יכסימו במלאפו"ם:
like a stone: Elsewhere (verse 10), it says, “they sank like lead.” Still elsewhere (verse 7), it says, “it devoured them like straw.” [The solution is that] the [most] wicked were [treated] like straw, constantly tossed, rising and falling; the average ones like stone; and the best like lead-[i.e.,] they sank immediately [and thus were spared suffering]. — [from Mechilta]   כמו אבן: ובמקום אחר (פסוק י) צללו כעופרת, ובמקום אחר (פסוק ז) יאכלמו כקש, הרשעים כקש הולכים ומטרפין עולין ויורדין, בינונים כאבן, והכשרים כעופרת, שנחו מיד:
6Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful; Your right hand, O Lord, crushes the foe.   ויְמִֽינְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֔ה נֶאְדָּרִ֖י בַּכֹּ֑חַ יְמִֽינְךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה תִּרְעַ֥ץ אוֹיֵֽב:
Your right hand…Your right hand: twice. When the Israelites perform the will of the Omnipresent, [even] the left hand becomes a right hand. — [Rashi from Mechilta]   ימינך ימינך: שתי פעמים, כשישראל עושין את רצונו של מקום השמאל נעשית ימין:
Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful: to save Israel, and Your second right hand crushes the foe. It seems to me, however, that that very right hand [also] crushes the foe, unlike a human being, who cannot perform two kinds of work with the same hand. The simple meaning of the verse is: Your right hand, which is strengthened with might--what is its work? Your right hand, O Lord, crushes the foe. There are many verses resembling it [i.e., where parts of the verse are repeated]: “For behold Your enemies, O Lord, for behold Your enemies will perish” (Ps. 92:10); “How long will the wicked, O Lord, how long will the wicked rejoice?” (Ps. 94:3); “The rivers have raised, O Lord, the rivers have raised their voice” (Ps. 93:3); “Not for us, O Lord, not for us” (Ps. 115:1); “I will answer, says the Lord; I will answer the heavens” (Hos. 2:23); “I to the Lord, I shall sing” (Jud. 5:3); “Had it not been for the Lord, etc. Had it not been for the Lord Who was with us when men rose up against us” (Ps. 124:1, 2); “Praise! Praise! Deborah. Praise! Praise! Utter a song” (Jud. 5:12); “A foot shall trample it, the feet of a poor man” (Isa. 26:6); “And He gave their land as an inheritance, an inheritance to Israel His people” (Ps. 135:12).   ימינך ה' נאדרי בכח: להציל את ישראל וימינך השנית תרעץ אויב. ולי נראה אותה ימין עצמה תרעץ אויב, מה שאי אפשר לאדם לעשות שתי מלאכות ביד אחת. ופשוטו של מקרא ימינך הנאדרת בכח מה מלאכתה, ימינך היא תרעץ אויב, וכמה מקראות דוגמתו (תהלים צב י) כי הנה אויביך ה' כי הנה אויביך יאבדו, (תהלים צד ג) עד מתי רשעים ה' עד מתי רשעים יעלוזו, (תהלים צג ג) נשאו נהרות ה' נשאו נהרות קולם, (תהלים קטו א) לא לנו ה' לא לנו, (הושע ב כג) אענה נאום ה' אענה את השמים, (שופטים ה ג) אנכי לה' אנכי אשירה, (תהלים קכד א - ב) לולי ה' וכו' לולי ה' שהיה לנו בקום עלינו אדם, (שופטים ה יב) עורי עורי דבורה עורי עורי דברי שיר, (ישעי' כו ו) תרמסנה רגל רגלי עני, (תהלים קלו כא - כב) ונתן ארצם לנחלה וכו' נחלה לישראל:
is most powerful: Heb. נֶאְדָּרִי The “yud” is superfluous, like “populous (רַבָּתִי עָם) …princess (שָׂרָתִי) among the provinces” (Lam. 1:1); “what was stolen by day” (גְּנֻבְתִי) (Gen. 31:39).   נאדרי: היו"ד יתירה, כמו (איכה א א) רבתי עם שרתי במדינות, (בראשית לא לט) גנובתי יום:
crushes the foe: Heb. ךְתִּרְעַץ, [which means] it constantly crushes and breaks the foe. Similar to this, “And they crushed (וַיִרְעִצוּ) and broke the children of Israel,” in Jud. (10:8). (Another explanation: Your right hand, which is strengthened with might-it breaks and strikes the foe.)   תרעץ אויב: תמיד היא רועצת ומשברת האויב, ודומה לו וירעצו וירוצצו את בני ישראל בשופטים (שופטים י ח). דבר אחר ימינך הנאדרת בכח היא משברת ומלקה אויב:
7And with Your great pride You tear down those who rise up against You; You send forth Your burning wrath; it devours them like straw.   זוּבְרֹ֥ב גְּאֽוֹנְךָ֖ תַּֽהֲרֹ֣ס קָמֶ֑יךָ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ חֲרֹ֣נְךָ֔ יֹֽאכְלֵ֖מוֹ כַּקַּֽשׁ:
And with Your great pride: (If the hand alone crushes the foe, then when it is raised with its great pride, it will [definitely] tear down those who rise up against Him. And if with His great pride alone His foes are torn down, how much more so, when He sends upon them His burning wrath, will it consume them.)   וברב גאונך: אם היד בלבד רועצת האויב, כשהוא מרומם ברוב גאונו, אז יהרס קמיו, ואם ברוב גאונו לבד אויביו נהרסים, קל וחומר כששלח בם חרון אף יאכלמו:
You tear down: You always tear down those who rise up against You. And who are those who rise up against Him? These are the ones who rise up against Israel, and so does he [the Psalmist] say, “For behold, Your enemies stir.” And what is that stirring? “Against Your people they plot cunningly” (Ps. 83:3, 4). For this reason, he calls them the enemies of the Omnipresent. — [from Mechilta]   תהרס: תמיד אתה הורס קמיך הקמים נגדך, ומי הם הקמים כנגדו, אלו הקמים על ישראל, וכן הוא אומר (תהלים פג ג) כי הנה אויביך יהמיון, ומה היא ההמיה, (שם ב) על עמך יערימו סוד, ועל זה קורא אותם אויביו של מקום:
8And with the breath of Your nostrils the waters were heaped up; the running water stood erect like a wall; the depths congealed in the heart of the sea.   חוּבְר֤וּחַ אַפֶּ֨יךָ֙ נֶ֣עֶרְמוּ מַ֔יִם נִצְּב֥וּ כְמוֹ־נֵ֖ד נֹֽזְלִ֑ים קָֽפְא֥וּ תְהֹמֹ֖ת בְּלֶב־יָֽם:
And with the breath of Your nostrils: Breath which comes out of the two nostrils of the nose. Scripture speaks anthropomorphically about the Shechinah, on the model of a mortal king, in order to enable the ears of the people to hear it [to understand God’s anger] as it usually occurs [in humans], so that they should be able to understand the matter. [Namely that] when a person becomes angry, wind comes out of his nostrils. Likewise, “Smoke went up from His nostrils” (Ps. 18:9), and similarly, “and from the wind of His nostrils they will be destroyed” (Job 4:9). And this is what it [Scripture] says: “For the sake of My Name, I defer My anger” (Isa. 48:9) [lit., I lengthen the breath of My nose]. [This means that] when his [a person’s] anger subsides, his breath becomes longer, and when he becomes angry, his breath becomes shorter; [the verse continues:] “and for My praise I restrain My wrath (אֶחֱטָם) for you” (Isa. 48: 9). [I.e.,] I put a ring (חִטָם) into My nostrils in front of the anger and the wind, [so] that they should not come out. “For you” means “for your sake.” [The word] אֶחֱטָם is like [the expression in the Mishnah:] “a dromedary with a nose ring” (בַּחִטָם) in tractate Shabbath (51b). This is how it appears to me. And concerning every [expression of] אַף and חָרוֹן in the Bible [which are expressions of anger] I say this: [The expression] חָרָה אַף, anger was kindled, is like [the word חָרָה in:] “and my bones dried out (חָרָה) from the heat” (Job 30:30); חָרָה is an expression of fire and burning, for the nostrils heat up and burn at the time of anger. חָרוֹן (burning) is from the root חרה (to burn) just as רָצוֹן (will) is from the root רצה (to desire). And likewise, חֵמָה is an expression of heat (חֲמִימוּת). Therefore, it [Scripture] says: “and his anger (וַחִמָתוֹ) burnt within him” (Esther 1:12), and when the anger subsides, we say, “His mind has cooled off (נִתְקָרְרָה דַעְךְתּוֹ).”   וברוח אפיך: היוצא משני נחירים של אף. דבר הכתוב כביכול בשכינה דוגמת מלך בשר ודם, כדי להשמיע אוזן הבריות כפי ההוה שיוכלו להבין דבר. כשאדם כועס יוצא רוח מנחיריו, וכן (תהלים יח ט) עלה עשן באפו, וכן (איוב ד ט) ומרוח אפו יכלו, וזהו שאמר (ישעיהו מח ט) למען שמי אאריך אפי, כשזעפו נח נשימתו ארוכה, וכשהוא כועס, נשימתו קצרה, (שם) ותהלתי אחטם לך, ולמען תהלתי אשים חטם באפי לסתום נחירי בפני האף והרוח שלא יצאו, לך בשבילך. אחטם כמו נאקה בחטם במסכת שבת (דף נא ב) כך נראה בעיני. וכל אף וחרון שבמקרא אני אומר כן, (דברים ז ד) חרה אף, כמו (איוב ל ל) ועצמי חרה מני חורב, לשון שריפה ומוקד, שהנחירים מתחממים ונחרים בעת הקצף, וחרון מגזרת חרה, כמו רצון מגזרת רצה, וכן חמה לשון חמימות, על כן הוא אומר (אסתר א יב) וחמתו בערה בו, ובנוח החמה אומר נתקררה דעתו:
the waters were heaped up: Heb. נֶעֶרְמוּ. Onkelos rendered [this word] as an expression of cunning (עַרְמִימוּת). According to the clarity of Scripture, however, it is an expression related to “a stack (עִרֵמַת) of wheat” (Song of Songs 7:3), and [the phrase that follows:] “the running water stood erect like a wall” proves this.   נערמו מים: אונקלוס תרגם לשון ערמימות ולשון צחות המקרא, כמו (שיר השירים ז ג) ערמת חטים, ונצבו כמו נד יוכיח. ממוקד רוח שיצא מאפיך יבשו המים והם נעשו כמין גלים וכריות של ערימה שהם גבוהים:
the waters were heaped up: From the heat of the wind that came out of Your nose, the water dried up, and it became like piles and heaps of grain stacks, which are tall.   נערמו מים: ממוקד רוח שיצא מאפיך יבשו המים והם נעשו כמין גלים וכריות של ערימה שהם גבוהים
like a wall: Heb. כְמוֹ-נֵד, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כְּשׁוּר, like a wall. —   כמו נד: כתרגומו כשור, כחומה:
wall: Heb. נֵד, an expression of heaping and gathering, like “a heap (נֵד) of harvest on a day of sickness” (Isa. 17:11); “He gathers (כֹּנֵס) as a mound כַּנֵד” (Ps. 33:7). It does not say, “He brings in as a flask כַּנֹּאד,” but כַּנַּד. Now if כַּנַּד were the same as כַּנֹּאד, and כֹּנֵס were an expression of bringing in, it should have said, “He brings in as into a flask כִּבְנֹאד) (מַכְנִיס the waters of the sea.” Rather, כֹּנֵס is an expression of gathering and heaping, and so, “shall stand in one heap (נֵד)” ; “stood in one heap (נֵד).” (Josh. 3:13, 16); and the expression of rising and standing does not apply to flasks, but to walls and heaps. Moreover, we do not find נֹּאד, meaning a flask, vowelized [with any vowel] but with a “melupum,” (meaning a “cholam,” ) like [in the phrases:] “place my tears into Your flask (בְּנֹּאדֶ)” (Ps. 56:9); “the flask of נֹּאד milk” (Jud. 4:19).   נד: לשון צבור וכנוס, כמו (ישעיהו יז יא) נד קציר ביום נחלה, (תהלים לג ז) כונס כנד, לא כתיב כנאד אלא כנד, ואלו היה כנד כמו כנאד. וכונס לשון הכנסה, היה לו לכתוב מכניס כבנאד מי הים, אלא כונס לשון אוסף וצובר הוא, וכן (יהושע ג טז) קמו נד אחד, (שם יג) ויעמדו נד אחד, ואין לשון קימה ועמידה בנאדות אלא בחומות וצבורים, ולא מצינו נאד נקוד אלא במלאפו"ם, כמו (תהלים נו ט) שימה דמעתי בנאדך, (שופטים ד יט) את נאד החלב:
congealed: Heb. קָפְאוּ, like “and curdle me (ךְתַּקְפִּיאֵנִי) like cheese” (Job 10:10). [I.e.,] that they [the depths] hardened and became like stones, and the water hurled the Egyptians against the stone with [all its] might and fought with them [the Egyptians] with all kinds of harshness.   קפאו: כמו (איוב י י) וכגבינה תקפיאני, שהוקשו ונעשו כאבנים והמים זורקים את המצרים על האבן בכח ונלחמים בם בכל מיני קושי:
in the heart of the sea: Heb. בְּלֶב יָם, in the strongest part of the sea. It is customary for the Scriptures to speak in this manner, [for instance:] “until the heart of (לֵב) the heavens” (Deut. 4:11); in the heart of (בְּלֵב) the terebinth" (II Sam. 18:14). [The heart in these examples is] an expression denoting the root and the strength of anything. —   בלב ים: בחוזק הים, ודרך המקראות לדבר כן (דברים ד יא) עד לב השמים, (שמואל ב' יח יד) בלב האלה, לשון עקרו ותקפו של דבר:
9[Because] the enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will share the booty; my desire will be filled from them; I will draw my sword, my hand will impoverish them.   טאָמַ֥ר אוֹיֵ֛ב אֶרְדֹּ֥ף אַשִּׂ֖יג אֲחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָ֑ל תִּמְלָאֵ֣מוֹ נַפְשִׁ֔י אָרִ֣יק חַרְבִּ֔י תּֽוֹרִישֵׁ֖מוֹ יָדִֽי:
[Because] the enemy said: to his people, when he enticed them with [his] words, "I will pursue, and I will overtake them, and I will share the plunder with my officers and my servants."   אמר אויב: לעמו כשפיתם בדברים, ארדוף ואשיגם ואחלק שלל עם שרי ועבדי:
will be filled from them: Heb. ךְתִּמְלָאֵמוֹ, equivalent to ךְתִּמְלָא מֵהֶם, will be filled from them.   תמלאמו: תתמלא מהם:
my desire: Heb. נַפְשִׁי, lit., my soul, my spirit, and my will. Do not be surprised at [one] word speaking for two [words]; i.e., ךְתִּמְלָאֵמוֹ, instead of ךְתִּמְלָא מֵהֶם, because there are many such words [in Tanach like this], e.g., “you have given me (נְתַךְתָּנִי) dry land” (Jud. 1:15), [which is] like נָתַךְתָּ לִי “and they could not speak with him (דַּבְּרוּ) peacefully” (Gen. 37:4), [which is] like דַּבֵּר עִמוֹ“my children have left me (יְצָאוּנִי) ” (Jer. 10:20), [which is] like יָצְאוּ מִמֶנִי “I will tell him (אַגִּידֶנּוּ) ” (Job 31:37), [which is] like אַגִיד לוֹ. Here too, ךְתִּמְלָאֵמוֹ is equivalent to ךְתִִִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי מֵהֶם.   נפשי: רוחי ורצוני. ואל תתמה על תיבה המדברת בשתים - תמלאמו תמלא מהם, יש הרבה כלשון הזה (שופטים א טו) כי ארץ הנגב נתתני, כמו נתת לי. (בראשית לז ד) ולא יכלו דברו לשלום, כמו דבר עמו. (ירמיה י כ) בני יצאוני, כמו יצאו ממני. (איוב לא לז) מספר צעדי אגידנו, כמו אגיד לו, אף כאן תמלאמו - תמלא נפשי מהם:
I will draw my sword: Heb. חַרְבִּי אָרִיק, lit., I will empty my sword. I will draw, and because one empties the sheath by drawing it [the sword], and it remains empty, an expression of emptying is appropriate, like “And it came to pass that they were emptying (מְרִיקִים) their sacks” (Gen. 42:35); “and they shall empty (יָרִיקוּ) his vessels” (Jer. 48:12). Do not say that the expression of emptiness [in these examples] does not apply to what comes out [of its container] but [instead applies] to the sheath, the sack, or the vessel from which it came out, but not to the sword or the wine, and [thus] to force an interpretation of אָרִיק חַרְבִּי like the language of “and he armed (וַיָרֶק) his trained men” (Gen. 14:14), [claiming that its] meaning [is] "I will arm myself with my sword.” [To this I answer that] we find the expression [of emptying] also applied to that which comes out, e.g., “oil poured forth (ךְתּוּרַק) ” (Song of Songs 1:3); “and he has not been poured (הוּרַק) from one vessel to another vessel” (Jer. 48:11). It is not written: “the vessel was not emptied (הוּרַק)” but “the wine was not poured (הוּרַק) from one vessel to another vessel.” Similarly, “and they will draw (וְהֵרִיקוּ) their swords on the beauty of your wisdom” (Ezek. 28:7), referring to Hiram [the king of Tyre]-[following Onkelos, Jonathan].   אריק חרבי: אשלוף, ועל שם שהוא מריק את התער בשליפתו ונשאר ריק נופל בו לשון הרקה, כמו (בראשית מב לה) מריקים שקיהם, (ירמיה מח יב) וכליו יריקו. ואם תאמר אין לשון ריקות נופל על היוצא, אלא על התיק ועל השק ועל הכלי שיצא ממנה, אבל לא על החרב ועל היין, ולדחוק ולפרש אריק חרבי, כלשון (בראשית יד יד) וירק את חניכיו - אזדיין בחרבי, מצינו הלשון מוסב אף על היוצא (שיר השירים א ג) שמן תורק, (ירמיהו מח יא) ולא הורק מכלי אל כלי, לא הורק הכלי אין כתיב כאן אלא לא הורק היין מכלי אל כלי, מצינו הלשון מוסב על היין. וכן (יחזקאל כח ז) והריקו חרבותם על יפי חכמתך, דחירם:
my hand will impoverish them: Heb. ךְתּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ, an expression of poverty (רֵישׁוּת) and destitution, like “The Lord impoverishes (מוֹרִישׁ) and makes rich” (I Sam. 2:7).   תורישמו: לשון רישות ודלות, כמו (שמואל א' ב ז) מוריש ומעשיר:
10You blew with Your wind, the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the powerful waters.   ינָשַׁ֥פְתָּ בְרֽוּחֲךָ֖ כִּסָּ֣מוֹ יָ֑ם צָֽלֲלוּ֙ כַּֽעוֹפֶ֔רֶת בְּמַ֖יִם אַדִּירִֽים:
You blew: Heb. נָשַׁפְךְתָּ, an expression of blowing, and likewise: “and also He blew (נָשַׁף) on them” (Isa. 40:24).   נשפת: לשון הפחה, וכן (ישעיהו מ כד) וגם נשף בהם:
they sank: Heb. צָלִלוּ, [which means] they sank; they went down to the depths, an expression of מְצוּלָה, deep.   צללו: שקעו, עמקו, לשון (תהלים סט ג) מצולה:
like lead: Heb. כַּעוֹפֶרֶת, plomb in French, lead.   כעופרת: אבר פלו"ם [עופרת] בלעז:
11Who is like You among the powerful, O Lord? Who is like You, powerful in the holy place? Too awesome for praises, performing wonders!   יאמִֽי־כָמֹ֤כָה בָּֽאֵלִם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ נוֹרָ֥א תְהִלֹּ֖ת עֹ֥שֵׂה פֶֽלֶא:
among the powerful: Heb. בָּאֵלִם, among the strong, like “and the powerful (אֵילֵי) of the land he took away” (Ezek. 17:13); “my strength איָלוּתִי, hasten to my assistance” (Ps. 22:20).   באלם: בחזקים, כמו (יחזקאל יז יג) ואת אילי הארץ לקח, (תהלים כב כ) אילותי לעזרתי חושה:
Too awesome for praises: [You are] too awesome for [one] to recite Your praises, lest they fall short, as it is written: “Silence is praise to You” (Ps. 65:2).   נורא תהלות: יראוי מלהגיד תהלותיו פן ימעטו, כמו שכתוב (שם סה ב) לך דומיה תהלה:
12You inclined Your right hand; the earth swallowed them up.   יבנָטִ֨יתָ֙ יְמִ֣ינְךָ֔ תִּבְלָעֵ֖מוֹ אָֽרֶץ:
You inclined Your right hand: When the Holy One, blessed be He, inclines His hand, the wicked perish and fall, because all are placed in His hand, and they fall when He inclines it. Similarly, it [Scripture] says: “and the Lord shall turn His hand, and the helper shall stumble, and the helped one shall fall” (Isa. 31:3). This can be compared to glass vessels placed in a person’s hand. If he inclines his hand a little, they fall and break. — [based on Mechilta]   נטית ימינך: כשהקב"ה נוטה ידו הרשעים כלים ונופלים, לפי שהכל נתון בידו ונופלים בהטייתה וכן הוא אומר (ישעיה לא ג) וה' יטה ידו וכשל עוזר ונפל עזור. משל לכלי זכוכית הנתונים בידי אדם, מטה ידו מעט והן נופלין ומשתברין:
the earth swallowed them up: From here [we deduce] that they merited to be buried as a reward for saying, “The Lord is the righteous One” (Exod. 9:27). — [from Mechilta]   תבלעמו ארץ: מכאן שזכו לקבורה בשכר שאמרו (לעיל ט כז) ה' הצדיק:
13With Your loving kindness You led the people You redeemed; You led [them] with Your might to Your holy abode.   יגנָחִ֥יתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ֖ עַם־ז֣וּ גּאָ֑לְתָּ נֵהַ֥לְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ֖ אֶל־נְוֵ֥ה קָדְשֶֽׁךָ:
You led: Heb. נֵהַלְךְתָּ, an expression of leading. Onkelos, however, rendered [it as] an expression of carrying and bearing, but he was not exact in explaining it in accordance with the Hebrew. [I.e., he explained the sense of the verse, but he did not translate the word literally.]   נהלת: לשון מנהל, ואונקלוס תרגם לשון נושא וסובל, ולא דקדק לפרש אחר לשון העברית:
14Peoples heard, they trembled; a shudder seized the inhabitants of Philistia.   ידשָֽׁמְע֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים יִרְגָּז֑וּן חִ֣יל אָחַ֔ז יֽשְׁבֵ֖י פְּלָֽשֶׁת:
they trembled: Heb. יִרְגָזוּן, [which means] they tremble.   ירגזון: מתרגזין:
the inhabitants of Philistia: [They trembled] since they slew the children of Ephraim, who hastened the end [of their exile] and went out [of Egypt] forcibly, as is delineated in (I) Chronicles (7:21). And the people of [the town of] Gath slew them [the children of Ephraim]. — [from Mechilta]   ישבי פלשת: מפני שהרגו את בני אפרים שמיהרו את הקץ ויצאו בחזקה, כמפורש בדברי הימים (דברי הימים א' ז כא) והרגום אנשי גת:
15Then the chieftains of Edom were startled; [as for] the powerful men of Moab, trembling seized them; all the inhabitants of Canaan melted.   טואָ֤ז נִבְהֲלוּ֙ אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם אֵילֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב יֹֽאחֲזֵ֖מוֹ רָ֑עַד נָמֹ֕גוּ כֹּ֖ל יֽשְׁבֵ֥י כְנָֽעַן:
the chieftains of Edom…the powerful men of Moab: Now they had nothing to fear at all, because they [the Israelites] were not advancing upon them. Rather, [they trembled] because of grief, that they were grieving and suffering because of the glory of Israel.   אלופי אדום אילי מואב: והלא לא היה להם לירא כלום, שהרי לא עליהם הולכים, אלא מפני אנינות שהיו מתאוננים ומצטערים על כבודם של ישראל:
melted: Heb. נָמֹגוּ, [as in the phrase] “with raindrops You dissolve it (ךְתְּמֹגְגֶנָּה)” (Ps. 65:11). They [the inhabitants of Canaan] said, “They are coming upon us to annihilate us and possess our land.” -[from Mechilta]   נמגו: נמסו, כמו (תהלים סה יא) ברביבים תמוגגנה. אמרו עלינו הם באים לכלותינו ולירש את ארצנו:
16May dread and fright fall upon them; with the arm of Your greatness may they become as still as a stone, until Your people cross over, O Lord, until this nation that You have acquired crosses over.   טזתִּפֹּ֨ל עֲלֵיהֶ֤ם אֵימָ֨תָה֙ וָפַ֔חַד בִּגְדֹ֥ל זְרֽוֹעֲךָ֖ יִדְּמ֣וּ כָּאָ֑בֶן עַד־יַֽעֲבֹ֤ר עַמְּךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה עַד־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר עַם־ז֥וּ קָנִֽיתָ:
May dread…fall upon them: Heb. אֵימָתָה, upon the distant ones. — [from Mechilta]   תפל עליהם אימתה: על הרחוקים:
and fright: Heb. וָפַחַד. Upon the nearby ones, as the matter that is stated: “For we have heard how the Lord dried up [the water of the Red Sea for you, etc.]” (Josh. 2:10).[from Mechilta]   ופחד: על הקרובים, כענין שנאמר (יהושע ב י) כי שמענו את אשר הוביש וגו':
until…cross over, until…crosses over: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders.   עד יעבר עד יעבר: כתרגומו:
You have acquired: Heb. קָנִיתָ. [I.e., whom] You loved more than other nations, similar to an article purchased for a high price, which is dear to the person [who purchased it].   קנית: חבבת משאר אומות, כחפץ הקנוי בדמים יקרים, שחביב על האדם:
17You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage, directed toward Your habitation, which You made, O Lord; the sanctuary, O Lord, [which] Your hands founded.   יזתְּבִאֵ֗מוֹ וְתִטָּעֵ֨מוֹ֙ בְּהַ֣ר נַֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֔ מָכ֧וֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ֛ פָּעַ֖לְתָּ יְהֹוָ֑ה מִקְּדָ֕שׁ אֲדֹנָ֖י כּֽוֹנְנ֥וּ יָדֶֽיךָ:
You shall bring them: Moses prophesied that he would not enter the land [of Israel]. Therefore, it does not say: “You shall bring us.” (It appears that it should read “that they would not enter the land, etc.” Indeed, this is the way it is stated in Baba Bathra 119b and in Mechilta: The sons will enter but not the fathers. Although the decree of the spies had not yet been pronounced, he [Moses] prophesied, not knowing what he was prophesying. — [Maharshal])   תבאמו: נתנבא משה שלא יכנס לארץ לכך לא נאמר תביאנו:
directed toward Your habitation: The Temple below is directly opposite the Temple above, which You made. — [from Mechilta]   מכון לשבתך: מקדש של מטה מכוון כנגד כסא של מעלה אשר פעלת:
the sanctuary: Heb. מִקְּדָשׁ. The cantillation sign over it is a “zakef gadol,” to separate it from the word ה following it. [The verse thus means:] the sanctuary which Your hands founded, O Lord. The Temple is beloved, since, whereas the world was created with “one hand,” as it is said: “Even My hand laid the foundation of the earth” (Isa. 48:13), the sanctuary [will be built] with “two hands.” When will it be built with "two hands"? At the time when “the Lord will reign to all eternity” [verse 18]. In the future, when the entire ruling power is His. — [from Mechilta and Keth. 5a]   מקדש: הטעם עליו זקף גדול להפרידו מתיבת השם שלאחריו המקדש אשר כוננו ידיך ה'. חביב בית המקדש שהעולם נברא ביד אחת, שנאמר (ישעיהו מח יג) אף ידי יסדה ארץ, ומקדש בשתי ידים. ואימתי יבנה בשתי ידים, בזמן שה' ימלוך לעולם ועד, לעתיד לבא שכל המלוכה שלו:
18The Lord will reign to all eternity   יחיְהֹוָ֥ה | יִמְלֹ֖ךְ לְעֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד:
to all eternity: Heb. לְעֹלָם וָעֶד. [This is] an expression of eternity, and the “vav” in it is part of the root. Therefore, it is punctuated with a “pattach.” But in “and I am He Who knows, and [I am] a witness וָעֵד” (Jer. 29:23), in which the “vav” is a prefix, it is punctuated with a “kamatz.”[The punctuation referred to here is the sound of the word, which would be the letter "ayin" not "vov". This is punctuated with a "segol" which is sometimes referred to as the "small pattach". ]   לעלם ועד: לשון עולמות הוא והוי"ו בו יסוד לפיכך היא פתוחה, אבל (ירמיהו כט כג) ואנכי היודע ועד, שהוי"ו בו שימוש, קמוצה היא:
19When Pharaoh's horses came with his chariots and his horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought the waters of the sea back upon them, and the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea,   יטכִּ֣י בָא֩ ס֨וּס פַּרְעֹ֜ה בְּרִכְבּ֤וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָׁיו֙ בַּיָּ֔ם וַיָּ֧שֶׁב יְהֹוָ֛ה עֲלֵהֶ֖ם אֶת־מֵ֣י הַיָּ֑ם וּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָֽלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
When Pharaoh’s horses came: Heb. כִּי בָא When they came.   כי בא סוס פרעה: כאשר בא:
20Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron's sister, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women came out after her with timbrels and with dances.   כוַתִּקַּח֩ מִרְיָ֨ם הַנְּבִיאָ֜ה אֲח֧וֹת אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן אֶת־הַתֹּ֖ף בְּיָדָ֑הּ וַתֵּצֶ֤אןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים֙ אַֽחֲרֶ֔יהָ בְּתֻפִּ֖ים וּבִמְחֹלֹֽת:
Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took: When did she prophesy? When she was [known only as] “Aaron’s sister,” before Moses was born, she said, “My mother is destined to bear a son” [who will save Israel], as is found in Sotah 12b, 13a). Another explanation: [It is written] Aaron’s sister since he [Aaron] risked his life for her when she was afflicted with zara’ath; [thus] she is called by his name (Mechilta).   ותקח מרים הנביאה: היכן נתנבאה כשהיתה אחות אהרן, קודם שנולד משה, אמרה עתידה אמי שתלד בן וכו', כדאיתא בסוטה (דף יג א). דבר אחר אחות אהרן לפי שמסר נפשו עליה כשנצטרעה, נקראת על שמו:
a timbrel: Heb. הַךְתֹּף, a type of musical instrument.   את התף: כלי של מיני זמר:
with timbrels and with dances: The righteous women of that generation were [so] certain that the Holy One, blessed be He, would perform miracles for them, they took timbrels out of Egypt. — [from Mechilta]   בתפים ובמחלת: מובטחות היו צדקניות שבדור שהקדוש ברוך הוא עושה להם נסים והוציאו תופים ממצרים:
21And Miriam called out to them, Sing to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea   כאוַתַּ֥עַן לָהֶ֖ם מִרְיָ֑ם שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹֽכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם:
And Miriam called out to them: Moses said the Song to the men, and they answered after him, and Miriam said the song to the women [and they too repeated it]. — [from Mechilta]   ותען להם מרים: משה אמר שירה לאנשים, הוא אומר והם עונין אחריו, ומרים אמרה שירה לנשים:
22Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out into the desert of Shur; they walked for three days in the desert but did not find water.   כבוַיַּסַּ֨ע משֶׁ֤ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִיַּם־ס֔וּף וַיֵּֽצְא֖וּ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־שׁ֑וּר וַיֵּֽלְכ֧וּ שְׁלֽשֶׁת־יָמִ֛ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְלֹא־מָ֥צְאוּ מָֽיִם:
Moses led Israel away: lit., made Israel journey. He led them away against their will, for the Egyptians had adorned their steeds with ornaments of gold, silver, and precious stones, and the Israelites were finding them in the sea. The plunder at the sea was greater than the plunder in Egypt, as it is said: “We will make you rows of gold with studs of silver” (Song of Songs 1:11). Therefore, he had to lead them against their will. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Beshallach 16, Mechilta, Exod. 12:35, Song Rabbah 1:11]   ויסע משה: הסיען בעל כרחם שעטרו מצרים סוסיהם בתכשיטי זהב וכסף ואבנים טובות, והיו ישראל מוצאין אותם בים, וגדולה היתה ביזת הים מביזת מצרים, שנאמר (שיר השירים א יא) תורי זהב נעשה לך עם נקודות הכסף, לפיכך הוצרך להסיען בעל כרחם:
23They came to Marah, but they could not drink water from Marah because it was bitter; therefore, it was named Marah.   כגוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ מָרָ֔תָה וְלֹ֣א יָֽכְל֗וּ לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת מַ֨יִם֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה כִּ֥י מָרִ֖ים הֵ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָֽרָא־שְׁמָ֖הּ מָרָֽה:
They came to Marah: Heb. מָרָתָה, like לְמָרָָה. The “hey” at the end מָרָתָה is instead of a “lammed” [prefix] at the beginning [of the word], and the “thav” is instead of the “hey” [that is part] of the root in the word מָרָָה. But when a suffix is added, when it is attached to a “hey” that replaces a “lammed,” the “hey” of the root is transformed into a “thav.” Similarly, every “hey” that is part of the root of the word is transformed into a “thav” when a suffix is added, like “I have no wrath (חֵמָה) ” (Isa. 27:4), [becomes] “and his wrath (וַחִמָתוֹ) burnt within him” (Esther 1:12). Note that the “hey” of the root is transformed into a “thav” when it is placed next to the added “vav.” Likewise,"bond servants and handmaids (וְאָמָה) “ (Lev. 25:44), [becomes] and "Here is my handmaid (אִמָתִי) Bilhah” (Gen. 30:3); “a living (חַיָה) soul” (Gen. 2:7), [becomes] “and his living spirit (חַיָתוֹ) causes him to abhor food” (Job 33:20); “between Ramah (הָרָמָה)” (Jud. 4:5), [becomes] “And his return was to Ramah (הָרָמָתָה)” (I Sam. 7:17).   ויבאו מרתה: כמו למרה, ה"א בסוף תיבה במקום למ"ד בתחילתה, והתי"ו היא במקום ה"א הנשרשת בתיבת מרה, ובסמיכתה כשהיא נדבקת לה"א, שהוא מוסיף במקום הלמ"ד, תהפך הה"א של שרש לתי"ו, וכן כל ה"א שהיא שרש בתיבה, תתהפך לתי"ו בסמיכתה, כמו (ישעיהו כז ד) חמה אין לי, (אסתר א יב) וחמתו בערה בו, הרי ה"א של שורש נהפכת לתי"ו, מפני שנסמכת אל הו"ו הנוספת, וכן (ויקרא כה מד) עבד ואמה, (בראשית ל ג) הנה אמתי בלהה, (שם ב ז) לנפש חיה, (איוב לג כ) וזהמתו חיתו לחם, (שופטים ד ה) בין הרמה, (שמואל א' ז יז) ותשובתו הרמתה:
24The people complained against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?   כדוַיִּלֹּ֧נוּ הָעָ֛ם עַל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹ֖ר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּֽה:
complained: Heb. וַיִלֹנוּ. This is in the niph’al conjugation. [In this case, the niph’al denotes the reflexive, as we see further in Rashi.] Likewise, in the Targum [Onkelos], it is also a niph’al expression: וְאִתְרַעִמוּ. The nature of the term denoting complaint ךְתְּלוּנָה [is that it] reverts to the person [complaining], מִתְלוֹנֵן [complains] or מִתְרוֹעֵם [storms], but one does not say לוֹנֵן or רוֹעֵם [Hebrew]. The Frenchman also says, “Decomplenst sey.” He reverts the statement to himself when he says, “Sey.”   וילנו: לשון נפעל הוא וכן התרגום לשון נפעל הוא ואתרעמו. כן דרך לשון תלונה להסב הדבור אל האדם מתלונן מתרועם, ולא אמר, לונן, רועם, וכן יאמר הלועז דיקומפליינש"ט שי"י [התלונן], מוסב הדבור אליו באמרו שי"י [עצמו]:
25So he cried out to the Lord, and the Lord instructed him concerning a piece of wood, which he cast into the water, and the water became sweet. There He gave them a statute and an ordinance, and there He tested them.   כהוַיִּצְעַ֣ק אֶל־יְהֹוָ֗ה וַיּוֹרֵ֤הוּ יְהֹוָה֙ עֵ֔ץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ֙ אֶל־הַמַּ֔יִם וַיִּמְתְּק֖וּ הַמָּ֑יִם שָׁ֣ם שָׂ֥ם ל֛וֹ חֹ֥ק וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וְשָׁ֥ם נִסָּֽהוּ:
There He gave them: In Marah, He gave them some sections of the Torah so that they would busy themselves with them, namely [they were given the laws governing] the Sabbath, the red cow, and laws of jurisprudence. — [from Mechilta and Sanh. 56b]   שם שם לו: במרה נתן להם מקצת פרשיות של תורה שיתעסקו בהם, שבת ופרה אדומה ודינין:
and there He tested them: [He tested] the people and saw how stiff-necked they were, that they did not consult Moses with respectful language, “Entreat [God to have] mercy upon us that we should have water to drink,” but they complained. — [from Mechilta]   ושם נסהו: לעם, וראה קשי ערפן שלא נמלכו במשה בלשון יפה, בקש עלינו רחמים שיהיה לנו מים לשתות, אלא נתלוננו:
26And He said, If you hearken to the voice of the Lord, your God, and you do what is proper in His eyes, and you listen closely to His commandments and observe all His statutes, all the sicknesses that I have visited upon Egypt I will not visit upon you, for I, the Lord, heal you   כווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ אִם־שָׁמ֨וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֜ע לְק֣וֹל | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ וְהַיָּשָׁ֤ר בְּעֵינָיו֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ֙ לְמִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֖ כָּל־חֻקָּ֑יו כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲלָ֞ה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֤מְתִּי בְמִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לֹֽא־אָשִׂ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה רֹֽפְאֶֽךָ:
If you hearken: This is the acceptance [of the law] that they should accept upon themselves.   אם שמוע תשמע: זו קבלה שיקבלו עליהם:
and you do: This means the performance [of the commandments].   תעשה: היא עשייה:
and you listen closely: [This means that] you [should] incline your ears to be meticulous in [fulfilling] them.   והאזנת: תטה אזנים לדקדק בהם:
all His statutes: Things that are only the decree of the King, without any [apparent] rationale, and with which the evil inclination finds fault, [saying,] “What is [the sense of] the prohibition of these [things]? Why were they prohibited?” For example, [the prohibitions of] wearing shatnes [a mixture of wool and linen] and eating pork, and [the ritual of] the red cow and their like. — [based on Yoma 67b]   כל חקיו: דברים שאינן אלא גזירת מלך בלא שום טעם, ויצר הרע מקנטר עליהם מה איסור באלו, למה נאסרו, כגון לבישת כלאים ואכילת חזיר ופרה אדומה וכיוצא בהם:
I will not visit upon you: And if I do bring [sickness upon you], it is as if it has not been brought, “for I, the Lord, heal you.” This is its midrashic interpretation (see Sanh. 101a, Mechilta). According to its simple meaning, [we explain:] “for I, the Lord, am your Physician” and [I] teach you the Torah and the mitzvoth in order that you be saved from them [illnesses], like this physician who says to a person, “Do not eat things that will cause you to relapse into the grip of illness.” This [warning] refers to listening closely to the commandments, and so [Scripture] says: “It shall be healing for your navel” (Prov. 3:8). — [from Mechilta]   לא אשים עליך: ואם אשים הרי היא כלא הושמה, כי אני ה' רופאך, זהו מדרשו. ולפי פשוטו כי אני ה' רופאך ומלמדך תורה ומצות למען תנצל מהם, כרופא הזה האומר לאדם אל תאכל [דבר זה פן יביאך לידי חולי זה] וכן הוא אומר (משלי ג ח) רפאות תהי לשרך:

Fifth Portion

Exodus Chapter 15

27They came to Elim, and there were twelve water fountains and seventy palms, and they encamped there by the water.   כזוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אֵילִ֔מָה וְשָׁ֗ם שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֛ה עֵינֹ֥ת מַ֖יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֣ים תְּמָרִ֑ים וַיַּֽחֲנוּ־שָׁ֖ם עַל־הַמָּֽיִם:
twelve water fountains: Corresponding to the twelve tribes, were prepared for them. — [from Mechilta]   שתים עשרה עינות מים: כנגד י"ב שבטים נזדמנו להם:
and seventy palms: Corresponding to the seventy elders. — [from Mechilta, Jonathan]   ושבעים תמרים: כנגד שבעים זקנים:

Exodus Chapter 16

1They journeyed from Elim, and the entire community of the children of Israel came to the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from the land of Egypt.   אוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מֵֽאֵילִ֔ם וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִ֔ין אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּֽין־אֵילִ֖ם וּבֵ֣ין סִינָ֑י בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י לְצֵאתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
on the fifteenth day: The day of this encampment is stated because on that day the cakes that they had taken out of Egypt were depleted, and they needed manna. We learn [from this] that they ate of the remaining dough (or from the remaining matzoth) sixty- one meals. And the manna fell for them on the sixteenth of Iyar, which was a Sunday, as appears in tractate Shabbath (87b). — [from Mechilta]   בחמשה עשר יום: נתפרש היום של חנייה זו, לפי שבו ביום כלתה החררה שהוציאו ממצרים והוצרכו למן, למדנו שאכלו משירי הבצק [משירי המצה] ששים ואחת סעודות, וירד להם מן בששה עשר באייר ויום ראשון בשבת היה, כדאיתא במסכת שבת (דף פז ב):
2The entire community of the children of Israel complained against Moses and against Aaron in the desert.   בוַיִּלּ֜וֹנוּ (כתיב וילינו) כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עַל־משֶׁ֥ה וְעַל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
complained: Because the bread [they had taken out of Egypt] was depleted.   וילונו: לפי שכלה הלחם:
3The children of Israel said to them, If only we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by pots of meat, when we ate bread to our fill! For you have brought us out into this desert, to starve this entire congregation to death   גוַיֹּֽאמְר֨וּ אֲלֵהֶ֜ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מִֽי־יִתֵּ֨ן מוּתֵ֤נוּ בְיַד־יְהֹוָה֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּשִׁבְתֵּ֨נוּ֙ עַל־סִ֣יר הַבָּשָׂ֔ר בְּאָכְלֵ֥נוּ לֶ֖חֶם לָשׂ֑בַע כִּי־הֽוֹצֵאתֶ֤ם אֹתָ֨נוּ֙ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה לְהָמִ֛ית אֶת־כָּל־הַקָּהָ֥ל הַזֶּ֖ה בָּֽרָעָֽב:
If only we had died: Heb. מוּתֵנוּ, that we would have died, but it is not a noun like מוֹתֵנוּ, our death, but like עִשׂוֹתֵנוּ, חִנוֹתֵנוּ, שׁוּבֵנוּ, that we do, that we encamp, [that we return,] that we die. [Literally, this would be translated: Who would grant that we die.] Its targum [Onkelos, however,] is: לְוַי דְמִיתְנָא, like “If only we had died לוּ מָתְנוּ” (Num. 14:2), if only we would have died.   מי יתן מותנו: שנמות, ואינו שם דבר כמו מותנו אלא כמו עשותנו, חנותנו, שובנו, לעשות אנחנו, לחנות אנחנו, למות אנחנו. ותרגומו לוי דמיתנא, כמו (במדבר יד ב) לו מתנו, הלואי והיינו מתים:
4So the Lord said to Moses, Behold! I am going to rain down for you bread from heaven, and the people shall go out and gather what is needed for the day, so that I can test them, whether or not they will follow My teaching.   דוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה הִֽנְנִ֨י מַמְטִ֥יר לָכֶ֛ם לֶ֖חֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְיָצָ֨א הָעָ֤ם וְלָֽקְטוּ֙ דְּבַר־י֣וֹם בְּיוֹמ֔וֹ לְמַ֧עַן אֲנַסֶּ֛נּוּ הֲיֵלֵ֥ךְ בְּתֽוֹרָתִ֖י אִם־לֹֽא:
what is needed for the day: Heb. דְבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ, lit., the thing of a day in its day. What is needed for a day’s eating they will gather on its day, but they will not gather today for the needs of tomorrow. — [from Mechilta]   דבר יום ביומו: צורך אכילת יום ילקטו ביומו, ולא ילקטו היום לצורך מחר:
so that I can test them, whether…they will follow My teaching: [Through giving the manna I will test] whether they will keep the commandments contingent upon it, [i.e.,] that they will not leave any of it over, and that they will not go out on the Sabbath to gather [the manna].   למען אנסנו הילך בתורתי: אם ישמרו מצות התלויות בו, שלא יותירו ממנו ולא יצאו בשבת ללקוט:
5And it shall be on the sixth day that when they prepare what they will bring, it will be double of what they gather every day   הוְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֔י וְהֵכִ֖ינוּ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־יָבִ֑יאוּ וְהָיָ֣ה מִשְׁנֶ֔ה עַ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יִלְקְט֖וּ י֥וֹם | יֽוֹם:
and it will be double: For that day and for the morrow.   והיה משנה: ליום ולמחרת:
double: of what they were accustomed to gather each day of the rest of the days of the week. I believe that [the meaning of] “what they will bring, and it will be double” is that after they bring it [the manna], by measuring [it], they will find it [to be] double of what they gather and measure every day. That is [the meaning of] “they gathered a double portion of bread” (verse 22). Their gathering was found to be a double portion of bread. That is [the meaning of] “Therefore, on the sixth day, He gives you bread for two days” (verse 29). He gives you a blessing (foison [in French, meaning plenty, abundance]) in the house to fill the omer twice for two days of bread.   משנה: על שהיו רגילים ללקוט יום יום של שאר ימות השבוע. ואומר אני אשר יביאו והיה משנה, לאחר שיביאו ימצאו משנה במדידה על אשר ילקטו וימודו יום יום וזהו (להלן פסוק כב) לקטו לחם משנה, בלקיטתו היה נמצא לחם משנה. וזהו (להלן פסוק כט) על כן הוא נותן לכם ביום הששי לחם יומים, נותן לכם ברכה פוישו"ן [שפע] בבית למלאות העומר פעמים ללחם יומים:
6[Thereupon,] Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, [In the] evening, you shall know that the Lord brought you out of the land of Egypt.   ווַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עֶ֕רֶב וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה הוֹצִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
evening: Heb. עֶרֶב. Like בָּעֶרֶב, toward evening. [According to Sifthei Chachamim, the correct reading is בָּעֶרֶב, in the evening.] [from Onkelos and Jonathan]   ערב: כמו לערב:
you shall know that the Lord brought you out of the land of Egypt: Since you [the people of Israel] said to us [Moses and Aaron], “For you have brought us out” (verse 3), you shall know that we are not the ones who brought [you] out, but [it was] the Lord [Who] brought you out, for He will cause the quail to fly to you.[See commentary on verse 13]   וידעתם כי ה' הוציא אתכם מארץ מצרים: לפי שאמרתם לנו כי הוצאתם אותנו, תדעו כי לא אנחנו המוציאים אלא ה' הוציא אתכם, שיגיז לכם את השליו:
7And [in the] morning, you shall see the glory of the Lord when He hears your complaints against the Lord but [of] what [significance] are we, that you make [the people] complain against us?   זוּבֹ֗קֶר וּרְאִיתֶם֙ אֶת־כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּשָׁמְע֥וֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶ֖ם עַל־יְהֹוָ֑ה וְנַ֣חְנוּ מָ֔ה כִּ֥י תַלִּ֖ינוּ (כתיב תלונו) עָלֵֽינוּ:
And [in the] morning, you shall see: This was not stated in reference to “and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud” (verse 10), but this is what he [Moses] said to them: In the evening you shall know that He has the ability to grant your desire, and He will give [you] meat; but He will not give it to you with a smiling countenance, because you requested it inappropriately and with a full stomach. As for the bread, which you requested out of necessity, however, when it comes down in the morning, you shall see the glory of the radiance of His countenance. For He will bring it down to you lovingly, in the morning, when there is time to prepare it, and with dew over it and dew under it as if it were lying in a box. — [from Mechilta Yoma 75a,b]   ובקר וראיתם: לא על הכבוד שנאמר (להלן פסוק י) והנה כבוד ה' נראה בענן, נאמר, אלא כך אמר להם ערב וידעתם כי היכולת בידו ליתן תאותכם ובשר יתן, אך לא בפנים מאירות יתננה לכם, כי שלא כהוגן שאלתם אותו ומכרס מלאה, והלחם ששאלתם לצורך, בירידתו לבקר תראו את כבוד אור פניו שיורידהו לכם דרך חיבה בבקר, שיש שהות להכינו וטל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה כמונח בקופסא:
your complaints against the Lord: As [if it would say]: "your complaints, which are against the Lord."   את תלנתיכם על ה': כמו אשר על ה':
but [of] what [significance] are we: Of what importance are we? -[from Jonathan Mechilta]   ונחנו מה: מה אנחנו חשובין:
that you make [the people] complain: Heb. תַלִּינוּ, that you make everyone complain against us: your sons, your wives, your daughters, and the mixed multitude. Perforce, I must interpret תַלִּינוּ, in the sense of “you make do something,” [i.e., the hiph’il conjugation] because of its [the “lammed’s”] “dagesh” and the way it is read [i.e., the keri as opposed to the kethiv]; because if it were weak [i.e., not punctuated with a “dagesh”], I would interpret it as “you do something,” [i.e., in the kal conjugation,] like “and the people complained (וַיָלֶן) against Moses” (Exod. 17:3), or if it [the “lammed”] were punctuated with a “dagesh” and it did not have a “yud” [after it], and read תִלּוֹנוּ, [as it is written], I would explain it as meaning “you complain.” Now, however, it means: “you cause others to complain,” like [the verse written in reference to] the spies: “and they caused the entire congregation to complain (וַיַלִינוּ) against him” (Num. 14:36).   כי תלינו עלינו: שתרעימו עלינו את הכל, את בניכם ונשיכם ובנותיכם וערב רב, ועל כרחי אני זקוק לפרש תלינו בלשון תפעילו מפני דגשותו וקרייתו, שאלו היה רפה הייתי מפרשו בלשון תפעלו, כמו (שמות יז ג) וילן העם על משה, או אם היה דגוש ואין בו יו"ד ונקרא תלונו, הייתי מפרשו לשון תתלוננו, עכשיו הוא משמע תלינו את אחרים, כמו במרגלים (במדבר יד לו) וילינו עליו את כל העדה:
8And Moses said, When the Lord gives you in the evening meat to eat and bread in the morning [with which] to become sated, when the Lord hears your complaints, which you are making [the people] complain against Him, but [of] what [significance] are we? Not against us are your complaints, but against the Lord   חוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה בְּתֵ֣ת יְהֹוָה֩ לָכֶ֨ם בָּעֶ֜רֶב בָּשָׂ֣ר לֶֽאֱכֹ֗ל וְלֶ֤חֶם בַּבֹּ֨קֶר֙ לִשְׂבֹּ֔עַ בִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֥ם מַלִּינִ֖ם עָלָ֑יו וְנַ֣חְנוּ מָ֔ה לֹֽא־עָלֵ֥ינוּ תְלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶ֖ם כִּ֥י עַל־יְהֹוָֽה:
meat to eat: But not to be satiated. The Torah [here] teaches us a rule of behavior we should not eat meat to satiety. What did He see [what reason did He have] to bring down bread in the morning and meat in the evening? Because they requested bread appropriately, since it is impossible for a person to get along without bread, but they requested meat inappropriately, because they had many animals, and furthermore, it was possible for them to get along without meat. Therefore, He gave it to them at a time when it would be a burden for them to prepare it, [at an] inappropriate [time]. — [from Mechilta Yoma 75b]   בשר לאכל: ולא לשובע, למדה תורה דרך ארץ שאין אוכלין בשר לשובע. ומה ראה להוריד לחם בבקר ובשר בערב, לפי שהלחם שאלו כהוגן, שאי אפשר לו לאדם בלא לחם, אבל בשר שאלו שלא כהוגן, שהרבה בהמות היו להם. ועוד, שהיה אפשר להם בלא בשר, לפיכך נתן להם בשעת טורח, שלא כהוגן:
which you are making [the people] complain against Him: [You are making] others who hear you complaining [complain].   אשר אתם מלינם עליו: את האחרים השומעים אתכם מתלוננים:
9And Moses said to Aaron, Say to the entire community of the children of Israel, Draw near before the Lord, for He has heard your complaints.   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֱמֹ֗ר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל קִרְב֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֣י שָׁמַ֔ע אֵ֖ת תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶֽם:
Draw near: to the place where the cloud has descended.   קרבו: למקום שהענן ירד:
10And it came to pass when Aaron spoke to the entire community of the children of Israel, that they turned toward the desert, and behold! the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.   יוַיְהִ֗י כְּדַבֵּ֤ר אַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּפְנ֖וּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְהִנֵּה֙ כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה נִרְאָ֖ה בֶּֽעָנָֽן:

Sixth Portion

Exodus Chapter 16

11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12I have heard the complaints of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, In the afternoon you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be sated with bread, and you shall know that I am the Lord, your God.   יבשָׁמַ֗עְתִּי אֶת־תְּלוּנּת֘ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ דַּבֵּ֨ר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר בֵּ֤ין הָֽעַרְבַּ֨יִם֙ תֹּֽאכְל֣וּ בָשָׂ֔ר וּבַבֹּ֖קֶר תִּשְׂבְּעוּ־לָ֑חֶם וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
13It came to pass in the evening that the quails went up and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp.   יגוַיְהִ֣י בָעֶ֔רֶב וַתַּ֣עַל הַשְּׂלָ֔ו וַתְּכַ֖ס אֶת־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה וּבַבֹּ֗קֶר הָֽיְתָה֙ שִׁכְבַ֣ת הַטּל סָבִ֖יב לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
the quails: Heb. הַשְׂלָיו, a species of bird that is very fat. -[from Yoma 75b]   השלו: מין עוף ושמן מאד:
there was a layer of dew: The dew lay on the manna. But elsewhere it states: “When the dew descended [on the camp at night, the manna would descend upon it]” (Num. 11:9). [The explanation of the matter is that] the dew would descend on the earth, then the manna would descend upon it, and then [more] dew would descend upon the manna, and it was as if [the manna] was stored in a box.   היתה שכבת הטל: הטל שוכב על המן ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (במדבר יא ט) וברדת הטל וגו' הטל יורד על הארץ והמן יורד עליו, וחוזר ויורד טל עליו והרי הוא כמונח בקופסא:
14The layer of dew went up, and behold, on the surface of the desert, a fine, bare [substance] as fine as frost on the ground.   ידוַתַּ֖עַל שִׁכְבַ֣ת הַטָּ֑ל וְהִנֵּ֞ה עַל־פְּנֵ֤י הַמִּדְבָּר֙ דַּ֣ק מְחֻסְפָּ֔ס דַּ֥ק כַּכְּפֹ֖ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
The layer of dew went up, etc.: When the sun would shine, the dew upon the manna would rise toward the sun, as it is natural for dew to rise toward the sun. [This is similar to] even if you fill an egg shell with dew, close up its opening, and place it in the sun, it [the egg shell] will rise by itself in the air (Yoma 75b, Rashi s.v. כתיב ). Our Rabbis, however, explained that the dew would rise from the earth (into the air) (Mechilta verse 4; Tanchuma, Beshallach 20; Exod. Rabbah 38:4), and when the layer of dew rose, the manna was revealed, “and they saw, and behold, on the surface of the desert, etc.”   ותעל שכבת הטל וגו': כשהחמה זורחת עולה הטל שעל המן לקראת החמה, כדרך טל עולה לקראת החמה, אף אם תמלא שפופרת של ביצה טל, ותסתום את פיה ותניחה בחמה, היא עולה מאליה באויר. ורבותינו דרשו שהטל עולה מן הארץ באויר, וכעלות שכבת הטל נתגלה המן וראו והנה על פני המדבר וגו':
fine: Something thin.   דק: דבר דק:
bare: Heb. מְחֻסְפָּס, [which means bare] but there is no similarity to it [this word] in the Bible. It may be said that מְחֻסְפָּס is an expression related to חִפִיסָה “a leather bag and a case דְּלֻסְקְמָא” [found] in the language of the Mishnah (B.M. 1:8). When it [the manna] was uncovered [by the ascension] of the layer of dew, they saw that there was something thin encased in its midst [as a leather bag encases something] between the two layers of dew. Onkelos, however, rendered: מְקַלַּף, peeled, an expression derived from “baring (מַחְשׂף) the white” (Gen. 30:37).   מחספס: מגולה, ואין דומה לו במקרא. ויש לפרש מחוספס לשון חפיסא ודלוסקמא שבלשון משנה. כשנתגלה משכבת הטל ראו שהיה דבר דק מחוספס בתוכו בין שתי שכבות הטל. ואונקלוס תרגם מקלף, לשון (בראשית ל לז) מחשוף הלבן:
as fine as frost: Heb. כַּכְּפֹר. כְּפֹר means gelede in Old French [meaning frost]. [Onkelos renders:] [hoarfrost] which was as fine as “gir,” [as in the phrase:] “like stones of gir” (Isa. 27:9). That is a type of black dye, as we say [in the Talmud] regarding covering the blood [of a slaughtered fowl or beast, i.e., the substances that we may use are:] “Gir and orpiment” (Chul. 88b). Which was thin as “gir,” like hoarfrost on the earth. [Onkelos explains:] it [the manna] was as fine as “gir” and lay congealed like frost on the earth. This is its meaning: It was as fine as hoarfrost, spread out thin, and joined together like hoarfrost. דַּק means tenves in Old French, [meaning thin] for it had a thin crust on the top. The words “like gir’” that Onkelos translated are added to the Hebrew text, but they have no [corresponding] word in the verse.   ככפר: כפור ייליד"ה בלעז [שכבה קפואה] דעדק כגיר (ישעיהו כז ט) כאבני גיר והוא מין צבע שחור, כדאמרינן גבי כסוי הדם (חולין פח ב) הגיר והזרניך. דעדק כגיר כגלידא על ארעא, דק היה כגיר ושוכב מוגלד כקרח על הארץ. וכן פירוש דק ככפור, שטוח קלוש ומחובר כגליד. דק טינבי"ש בלעז [דק], שהיה מגליד גלד דק מלמעלה. וכגיר שתרגם אונקלוס, תוספת הוא על לשון העברית, ואין לו תיבה בפסוק:
15When the children of Israel saw [it], they said to one another, It is manna, because they did not know what it was, and Moses said to them, It is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat.   טווַיִּרְא֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו֙ מָ֣ן ה֔וּא כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יָֽדְע֖וּ מַה־ה֑וּא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם ה֣וּא הַלֶּ֔חֶם אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֧ן יְהֹוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָֽה:
It is manna: Heb. מָן הוּא. It is a preparation of food, like “The king allotted (וַיְמַן) them” (Dan. 1:5).   מן הוא: הכנת מזון הוא, כמו (דניאל א ה) וימן להם המלך:
because they did not know what it was: that they were able to call it by its name.   כי לא ידעו מה הוא: שיקראוהו בשמו:
16This is the thing that the Lord has commanded, Gather of it each one according to his eating capacity, an omer for each person, according to the number of persons, each one for those in his tent you shall take.   טזזֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לִקְט֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ אִ֖ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֑וֹ עֹ֣מֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּ֗לֶת מִסְפַּר֙ נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אִ֛ישׁ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאָֽהֳל֖וֹ תִּקָּֽחוּ:
an omer: The name of a measure.   עמר: שם מדה:
according to the number of persons: According to the number of people that a person has in his tent, they should take one omer per person.   מספר נפשתיכם: כפי מנין נפשות שיש לאיש באהלו תקחו עומר לכל גולגולת:
17And the children of Israel did so: they gathered, both the one who gathered much and the one who gathered little.   יזוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֖ן בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּלְקְט֔וּ הַמַּרְבֶּ֖ה וְהַמַּמְעִֽיט:
both the one who gathered much and the one who gathered little: Some gathered [too] much [manna] and some gathered [too] little, but when they came home, they measured with an omer, each one what he had gathered, and they found that the one who had gathered [too] much had not exceeded an omer for each person who was in his tent, and the one who had gathered [too] little did not find less than an omer for each person. This was a great miracle that occurred with it [the manna].   המרבה והממעיט: יש שלקטו הרבה ויש שלקטו מעט וכשבאו לביתם ומדדו בעומר, איש איש מה שלקטו, ומצאו שהמרבה ללקוט לא העדיף על עומר לגולגולת אשר באהלו, והממעיט ללקוט לא מצא חסר מעומר לגולגולת, וזהו נס גדול שנעשה בו:
18And they measured [it] with an omer, and whoever gathered much did not have more, and whoever gathered little did not have less; each one according to his eating capacity, they gathered.   יחוַיָּמֹ֣דּוּ בָעֹ֔מֶר וְלֹ֤א הֶעְדִּיף֙ הַמַּרְבֶּ֔ה וְהַמַּמְעִ֖יט לֹ֣א הֶחְסִ֑יר אִ֥ישׁ לְפִֽי־אָכְל֖וֹ לָקָֽטוּ:
19And Moses said to them, Let no one leave over [any] of it until morning   יטוַיֹּ֥אמֶר משֶׁ֖ה אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אִ֕ישׁ אַל־יוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר:
20But [some] men did not obey Moses and left over [some] of it until morning, and it bred worms and became putrid, and Moses became angry with them.   כוְלֹא־שָֽׁמְע֣וּ אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה וַיּוֹתִ֨רוּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ עַד־בֹּ֔קֶר וַיָּ֥רֻם תּֽוֹלָעִ֖ים וַיִּבְאשׁ וַיִּקְצֹ֥ף עֲלֵהֶ֖ם משֶֽׁה:
men: [Specifically these were] Dathan and Abiram. -[from Jonathan and Exod. Rabbah 25:10]   ויותרו אנשים: דתן ואבירם:
and it bred worms: Heb. וַיָּרֻם ךְתּוֹלָעִים, an expression derived from רִמָה, worm. — [from Onkelos, Jonathan]   וירם תולעים: לשון רמה:
and became putrid: This verse is transposed, because first it became putrid and later it bred worms, as it says: “and it did not become putrid, and not a worm was in it” (verse 24), and such is the nature of all things that become wormy. — [from Mechilta]   ויבאש: הרי זה מקרא הפוך, שתחלה הבאיש ולבסוף התליע, כענין שנאמר (פסוק כד) ולא הבאיש ורמה לא היתה בו, וכן דרך כל המתליעים:
21They gathered it morning by morning, each one according to his eating capacity, and [when] the sun grew hot, it melted.   כאוַיִּלְקְט֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֔קֶר אִ֖ישׁ כְּפִ֣י אָכְל֑וֹ וְחַ֥ם הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וְנָמָֽס:
and [when] the sun grew hot, it melted: What remained [of the manna] in the field melted and became streams from which deer and gazelles drank. And the nations of the world would hunt some of them [these animals] and taste in them the flavor of manna and know how great Israel’s praise was. — [from Mechilta]. [Onkelos renders:] פָּשָׁר, an expression of lukewarm water (פּוֹשְׁרִים). Through the sun, it [the manna] would warm up and melt.   וחם השמש ונמס: הנשאר בשדה נמוח ונעשה נחלים, ושותין ממנו אילים וצבאים, ואומות העולם צדין מהם וטועמין בהם טעם מן, ויודעין מה שבחן של ישראל. ותרגומו של נמס פשר, לשון פושרין, על ידי השמש מתחמם ומפשיר דישטיפרי"ר [להפשיר] ודוגמתו בסנהדרין בסוף ארבע מיתות [סז]:
it melted: Heb. וְנָמָס, [French] destemprer, [meaning] to melt, thaw out. There is a similarity to it [the word פָּשָׁר] in [tractate] Sanhedrin, at the end of [the chapter beginning with the words:] “Four death penalties” (67b).   ונמס: דישטיפרי"ר [להפשיר] ודוגמתו בסנהדרין בסוף ארבע מיתות [סז:
22It came to pass on the sixth day that they gathered a double portion of bread, two omers for [each] one, and all the princes of the community came and reported [it] to Moses.   כבוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֗י לָֽקְט֥וּ לֶ֨חֶם֙ מִשְׁנֶ֔ה שְׁנֵ֥י הָעֹ֖מֶר לָֽאֶחָ֑ד וַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵ֣י הָֽעֵדָ֔ה וַיַּגִּ֖ידוּ לְמשֶֽׁה:
they gathered a double portion of bread: When they measured in their tents what they had gathered, they discovered [it was] double, two omers for [each] one. The aggadic midrash, [however, explains it as] לֶחֶם מְֹשֻנֶּה, unusual bread. That day it was favorably different in its aroma and its flavor (Mechilta on verse 5). [Because if it [the Torah] means only to inform us that there were two [measures], is it not written "two omers for each one"? Rather, it means “different” in flavor and aroma.]-[also form Tanchuma Buber, Beshallach 24, and Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai on verse 5]   לקטו לחם משנה: כשמדדו את לקיטתם באהליהם מצאו כפלים שני העומר לאחד. ומדרש אגדה לחם משנה משונה. אותו היום נשתנה לשבח בריחו וטעמו:
and reported [it] to Moses: They asked him, “Why is this day different from other days?” From here we can deduce that Moses had not yet told them the section regarding the Sabbath that he was commanded to tell them, [namely:] “And it will come about on the sixth day that they shall prepare, etc.” (verse 5) until they asked him this [question]. [At that point] he said to them, “That is what the Lord spoke,” (verse 23) which I was commanded to tell you. Therefore, [because Moses had waited to convey this commandment,] Scripture punished him that He said to him “How long will you refuse [to observe My commandments…]” (verse 28) and [in saying this He] did not exclude him [Moses] from the general community [of sinners]. — [from Exod. Rabbah 25:17]   ויגידו למשה: שאלוהו מה היום מיומים, ומכאן יש ללמוד שעדיין לא הגיד להם משה פרשת שבת שנצטווה לומר להם (פסוק ה) והיה ביום הששי והכינו וגו', עד ששאלו את זאת, אמר להם (פסוק כג) הוא אשר דבר ה', שנצטויתי לומר לכם, ולכך ענשו הכתוב, שאמר לו (פסוק כח) עד אנה מאנתם, ולא הוציאו מן הכלל:
23So he said to them, That is what the Lord spoke, Tomorrow is a rest day, a holy Sabbath to the Lord. Bake whatever you wish to bake, and cook whatever you wish to cook, and all the rest leave over to keep until morning.   כגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם ה֚וּא אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה שַׁבָּת֧וֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מָחָ֑ר אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפ֞וּ אֵפ֗וּ וְאֵ֤ת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ֙ בַּשֵּׁ֔לוּ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֹדֵ֔ף הַנִּ֧יחוּ לָכֶ֛ם לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת עַד־הַבֹּֽקֶר:
Bake whatever you wish to bake: Whatever you wish to bake in an oven, bake everything today for two days, and whatever [amount] of it you need to cook in water, cook today. [The word] אִפִיָה, baking applies to bread and the expression בִּשׁוּל to cooked dishes.   את אשר תאפו אפו: מה שאתם רוצים לאפות בתנור, אפו היום, הכל לשני ימים, ומה שאתם צריכים לבשל ממנו במים, בשלו היום. לשון אפייה נופל בלחם, ולשון בישול בתבשיל:
to keep: for storage.   למשמרת: לגניזה:
24So they left it over until morning, as Moses had commanded, and it did not become putrid, and not a worm was in it.   כדוַיַּנִּ֤יחוּ אֹתוֹ֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה משֶׁ֑ה וְלֹ֣א הִבְאִ֔ישׁ וְרִמָּ֖ה לֹא־הָ֥יְתָה בּֽוֹ:
25And Moses said, Eat it today, for today is a Sabbath to the Lord; today you will not find it in the field.   כהוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אִכְלֻ֣הוּ הַיּ֔וֹם כִּֽי־שַׁבָּ֥ת הַיּ֖וֹם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה הַיּ֕וֹם לֹ֥א תִמְצָאֻ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
And Moses said, “Eat it today, etc.”: In the morning, when they were accustomed to go out and gather, they came to ask, “Shall we go out or not?” He [Moses] said to them, “What you have in your possession eat.” In the evening, they came before him again and asked him whether they could go out. He said to them, “Today is the Sabbath.” He saw that they were concerned that perhaps the manna had ceased, and would no longer come down. [So] he said to them, “Today you will not find it.” What is the meaning of "today"? [This implies that] today you will not find it, but tomorrow you will find it. — [from Mechilta]   ויאמר משה אכלהו היום כי שבת היום: שחרית שהיו רגילים לצאת וללקוט, באו לשאול אם נצא אם לאו, אמר להם את שבידכם אכלו. לערב חזרו לפניו ושאלוהו מהו לצאת, אמר להם שבת היום. ראה אותם דואגים שמא פסק המן ולא ירד עוד, אמר להם היום לא תמצאוהו. מה תלמוד לומר היום, היום לא תמצאוהו אבל מחר תמצאוהו:
26Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day [which is the] Sabbath on it there will be none   כושֵׁ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים תִּלְקְטֻ֑הוּ וּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֛י שַׁבָּ֖ת לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־בּֽוֹ:
but on the seventh day [which is the] Sabbath: It is a Sabbath; on it [this day] there will be no manna. This verse comes only to include Yom Kippur and [the] festivals [that no manna will fall on those days as well]. — [from Mechilta]   וביום השביעי שבת: שבת הוא, המן לא יהיה בו, ולא בא הכתוב אלא לרבות יום הכיפורים וימים טובים:
27It came about that on the seventh day, [some] of the people went out to gather [manna], but they did not find [any].   כזוַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י יָֽצְא֥וּ מִן־הָעָ֖ם לִלְקֹ֑ט וְלֹ֖א מָצָֽאוּ:
28The Lord said to Moses, How long will you refuse to observe My commandments and My teachings?   כחוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה עַד־אָ֨נָה֙ מֵֽאַנְתֶּ֔ם לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י וְתֽוֹרֹתָֽי:
How long will you refuse: It is a common proverb: Along with the thorn, the cabbage is torn. Through the wicked, the good suffer disgrace. [from B.K. 92a]   עד אנה מאנתם: משל הדיוט הוא, בהדי הוצא לקי כרבא, על ידי הרשעים מתגנין הכשרין:
29See that the Lord has given you the Sabbath. Therefore, on the sixth day, He gives you bread for two days. Let each man remain in his place; let no man leave his place on the seventh day   כטרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָה֘ נָתַ֣ן לָכֶ֣ם הַשַּׁבָּת֒ עַל־כֵּ֠ן ה֣וּא נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֖י לֶ֣חֶם יוֹמָ֑יִם שְׁב֣וּ | אִ֣ישׁ תַּחְתָּ֗יו אַל־יֵ֥צֵא אִ֛ישׁ מִמְּקֹמ֖וֹ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִֽי:
See: with your own eyes that the Lord in His glory warns you about the Sabbath, for this miracle was performed every Sabbath eve, to give you bread for two days.   ראו: בעיניכם כי ה' בכבודו מזהיר אתכם על השבת, שהרי נס נעשה בכל ערב שבת לתת לכם לחם יומים:
Let each man remain in his place: From here the Sages supported [the law of] four cubits for one who leaves the Sabbath limits [i.e., the 2,000 cubits from one’s city that one is permitted to walk and no more than four cubits from one’s place], three [cubits] for his body and one [cubit] to stretch his hands and feet. — [from Er. 51b]   שבו איש תחתיו: מכאן סמכו חכמים ארבע אמות ליוצא חוץ לתחום:
let no man leave, etc.: These are the 2,000 cubits of the Sabbath limits (Mechilta), but this is not explicit, for [the laws of Sabbath] limits are only Rabbinic enactments [lit., from the words of the scribes] (Sotah 30b), and the essence of the verse was stated regarding those who gathered the manna.   אל יצא איש ממקמו: אלו אלפים אמה של תחום שבת, ולא במפורש, שאין תחומין אלא מדברי סופרים, ועיקרו של מקרא על לוקטי המן נאמר:
30So the people rested on the seventh day.   לוַיִשְׁבְּת֥וּ הָעָ֖ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִעִֽי:
31The house of Israel named it manna, and it was like coriander seed, [it was] white, and it tasted like a wafer with honey.   לאוַיִּקְרְא֧וּ בֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ מָ֑ן וְה֗וּא כְּזֶ֤רַע גַּד֙ לָבָ֔ן וְטַעְמ֖וֹ כְּצַפִּיחִ֥ת בִּדְבָֽשׁ:
and it was like coriander seed, [it was] white: Heb. גַּד, an herb named coliyandre [in Old French]. Its seed is round but it is not white. The manna, however, was white, and it is not compared to coriander seed except for its roundness. It was like coriander seed, and it was white (Yoma 75a).   והוא כזרע גד לבן: עשב ששמו אליינדר"א [כוסבר] וזרע שלו עגול ואינו לבן, והמן היה לבן, ואינו נמשל לזרע גד אלא לענין העגול כזרע גד היה, והוא לבן:
like a wafer: Dough that is fried in honey, and it is called “iskeritin” in the language of the Mishnah (Challah 1:4), and that is the translation of Onkelos.   כצפיחת: בצק שמטגנין אותו בדבש וקורין לו אסקריטין בלשון משנה והוא תרגום של אונקלוס:
32Moses said, This is the thing that the Lord commanded: Let one omerful of it be preserved for your generations, in order that they see the bread that I fed you in the desert when I took you out of the land of Egypt.   לבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה זֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה מְלֹ֤א הָעֹ֨מֶר֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם לְמַ֣עַן | יִרְא֣וּ אֶת־הַלֶּ֗חֶם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶֽאֱכַ֤לְתִּי אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר בְּהֽוֹצִיאִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
preserved: for safekeeping.   למשמרת: לגניזה:
for your generations: In the days of Jeremiah, when Jeremiah rebuked them, [saying] “ Why do you not engage in the Torah?” They would say, “Shall we leave our work and engage in the Torah? From what will we support ourselves?” He brought out to them the jug of manna. He said to them, “You see the word of the Lord” (Jer. 2:31). It does not say ‘hear’ but ‘see.’ With this, your ancestors supported themselves. The Omnipresent has many agents to prepare food for those who fear Him."-[from Mechilta]   לדרותיכם: בימי ירמיהו כשהיה ירמיהו מוכיחם, למה אין אתם עוסקים בתורה והם אומרים נניח מלאכתנו ונעסוק בתורה, מהיכן נתפרנס, הוציא להם צנצנת המן ואמר להם (ירמיהו ב לא) הדור אתם ראו דבר ה', שמעו לא נאמר אלא ראו, בזה נתפרנסו אבותיכם, הרבה שלוחין יש לו למקום להכין מזון ליראיו:
33And Moses said to Aaron, Take one jug and put there an omerful of manna, and deposit it before the Lord to be preserved for your generations   לגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן קַ֚ח צִנְצֶ֣נֶת אַחַ֔ת וְתֶן־שָׁ֥מָּה מְלֹֽא־הָעֹ֖מֶר מָ֑ן וְהַנַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
jug: Heb. צִּנְצֶנֶת, an earthenware jug, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. — [from Mechilta]   צנצנת: צלוחית של חרס, כתרגומו:
and deposit it before the Lord: Before the Ark. This verse was not said until the Tent of Meeting was built, but it was written here in the section dealing with the manna. —   והנח אתו לפני ה': לפני הארון, ולא נאמר מקרא זה עד שנבנה אהל מועד, אלא שנכתב כאן בפרשת המן:
34As the Lord had commanded Moses, Aaron deposited it before the testimony to be preserved.   לדכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיַּנִּיחֵ֧הוּ אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י הָֽעֵדֻ֖ת לְמִשְׁמָֽרֶת:
35And the children of Israel ate the manna for forty years until they came to an inhabited land. They ate the manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan.   להוּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָֽכְל֤וּ אֶת־הַמָּן֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה עַד־בֹּאָ֖ם אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ נוֹשָׁ֑בֶת אֶת־הַמָּן֙ אָֽכְל֔וּ עַד־בֹּאָ֕ם אֶל־קְצֵ֖ה אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
forty years: Now were not thirty days missing? The manna first fell on the fifteenth of Iyar, and on the fifteenth of Nissan it stopped, as it is said: “And the manna ceased on the morrow” (Josh. 5:12). Rather [this] tells [us] that in the cakes the Israelites took out of Egypt they tasted the flavor of manna. — [from Kid. 38a]   ארבעים שנה: והלא חסר שלושים יום, שהרי בחמישה עשר באייר ירד להם המן תחלה, ובחמישה עשר בניסן פסק, שנאמר (יהושע ה יב) וישבות המן ממחרת, אלא מגיד שהעוגות שהוציאו ישראל ממצרים טעמו בהם טעם מן:
to an inhabited land: After they crossed the Jordan (Other editions: For that [land] on the other side of the Jordan was inhabited and good, as it is said: “Let me now cross and see the good land on the other side of the Jordan” (Deut. 3:25). The Targum of נוֹשָׁבֶת is יָתְבָתא, inhabited, Old Rashi). — [from Kid. 38a]   אל ארץ נושבת: לאחר שעברו את הירדן שאותה שבעבר הירדן מיושבת וטובה, שנאמר (דברים ג כה) אעברה נא ואראה את הארץ הטובה אשר בעבר הירדן, ותרגום של נושבת יתבתא, רצה לומר מיושבת:
to the border of the land of Canaan: At the beginning of the border, before they crossed the Jordan, which is the plains of Moab. We find [the two clauses] contradicting each other. Rather, [it means that] in the plains of Moab, when Moses died on the seventh of Adar, the manna stopped coming down. They supplied themselves with the manna that they had gathered on that day until they sacrificed the omer on the sixteenth of Nissan, as it is said: “And they ate of the grain of the land on the morrow of the Passover” (Josh. 5:11). — [from Kid. 38a]   אל קצה ארץ כנען: בתחלת הגבול, קודם שעברו את הירדן, והוא ערבות מואב. נמצאו מכחישין זה את זה, אלא בערבות מואב כשמת משה בשבעה באדר פסק המן מלירד, ונסתפקו ממן שלקטו בו ביום עד שהקריבו העומר בששה עשר בניסן, שנאמר (יהושע ה יא) ויאכלו מעבור הארץ ממחרת הפסח:
36The omer is one tenth of an ephah.   לווְהָעֹ֕מֶר עֲשִׂרִ֥ית הָֽאֵיפָ֖ה הֽוּא:
one tenth of an ephah: The ephah equals three se’ahs, and the se’ah equals six kavs, and the kav equals four logs, and the log equals six eggs. [Hence, an ephah equals 3 x 6 x 4 x 6 = 432 eggs. I.e., the space displaced by 432 eggs.] We find that a tenth of an ephah equals forty-three and a fifth [43.2] eggs. This is the amount for challah [the minimum amount of flour that requires the separation of challah] and for meal offerings. — [from Eruvin 38b]   עשרית האיפה: האיפה שלש סאין, והסאה ששה קבין והקב ארבעה לוגין והלוג שש ביצים נמצא עשירית האיפה ארבעים ושלוש ביצים וחומש ביצה והוא שיעור לחלה ולמנחות:

Seventh Portion

Exodus Chapter 17

1The entire community of the children of Israel journeyed from the desert of Sin to their travels by the mandate of the Lord. They encamped in Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink.   אוַ֠יִּסְע֠וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִ֛ין לְמַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנוּ֙ בִּרְפִידִ֔ים וְאֵ֥ין מַ֖יִם לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת הָעָֽם:
2So the people quarreled with Moses, and they said, Give us water that we may drink Moses said to them, Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you test the Lord?   בוַיָּ֤רֶב הָעָם֙ עִם־משֶׁ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ תְּנוּ־לָ֥נוּ מַ֖יִם וְנִשְׁתֶּ֑ה וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ משֶׁ֔ה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן֙ עִמָּדִ֔י מַה־תְּנַסּ֖וּן אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
Why do you test the Lord: saying, “Can He give water in an arid land?”   מה תנסון: לומר היוכל לתת מים בארץ ציה:
3The people thirsted there for water, and the people complained against Moses, and they said, Why have you brought us up from Egypt to make me and my children and my livestock die of thirst?   גוַיִּצְמָ֨א שָׁ֤ם הָעָם֙ לַמַּ֔יִם וַיָּ֥לֶן הָעָ֖ם עַל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ הֶֽעֱלִיתָ֣נוּ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם לְהָמִ֥ית אֹתִ֛י וְאֶת־בָּנַ֥י וְאֶת־מִקְנַ֖י בַּצָּמָֽא:
4Moses cried out to the Lord, saying, What shall I do for this people? Just a little longer and they will stone me!   דוַיִּצְעַ֤ק משֶׁה֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֣ה לֵאמֹ֔ר מָ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה ע֥וֹד מְעַ֖ט וּסְקָלֻֽנִי:
Just a little longer: If I wait just a little longer, they will stone me.   עוד מעט: אם אמתין עוד מעט וסקלוני:
5And the Lord said to Moses, Pass before the people and take with you [some] of the elders of Israel, and take into your hand your staff, with which you struck the Nile, and go.   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה עֲבֹר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָעָ֔ם וְקַ֥ח אִתְּךָ֖ מִזִּקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמַטְּךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכִּ֤יתָ בּוֹ֙ אֶת־הַיְאֹ֔ר קַ֥ח בְּיָֽדְךָ֖ וְהָלָֽכְתָּ:
Pass before the people: And see whether they stone you. Why have you slandered My children?-[from Tanchuma Beshallach 22]   עבר לפני העם: וראה אם יסקלוך, למה הוצאת לעז על בני:
and take with you [some] of the elders of Israel: for testimony, so that they shall witness that through you the water comes out of the rock, and they [the Israelites] will not say that there were water fountains there from days of yore. — [from Mechilta]   וקח אתך מזקני ישראל: לעדות שיראו שעל ידך המים יוצאים מן הצור, ולא יאמרו מעיינות היו שם מימי קדם:
your staff, with which you struck the Nile: Why must Scripture state "with which you struck the Nile"? [To point out what] the Israelites were saying about the staff, [namely] that it was ready only for retribution. With it, Pharaoh and the Egyptians were smitten with many plagues, both in Egypt and by the sea. Therefore, it is stated: “with which you struck the Nile.” Now they will see that it [the staff] is ready for good as well. — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 26:2]   ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר: מה תלמוד לומר אשר הכית בו את היאור, אלא שהיו ישראל אומרים על המטה שאינו מוכן אלא לפורעניות, בו לקה פרעה ומצרים כמה מכות במצרים ועל הים, לכן נאמר אשר הכית בו את היאר, יראו עתה שאף לטובה הוא מוכן:
6Behold, I shall stand there before you on the rock in Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, and the people will drink Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel.   והִנְנִ֣י עֹמֵד֩ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ שָּׁ֥ם | עַל־הַצּוּר֘ בְּחֹרֵב֒ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַצּ֗וּר וְיָֽצְא֥וּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ מַ֖יִם וְשָׁתָ֣ה הָעָ֑ם וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֵּן֙ משֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and you shall strike the rock: Heb. וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר. It does not say עַל-הַצּוּר, upon the rock, but בַצּוּר, [lit., into the rock]. From here [we deduce] that the staff was of a hard substance called sapphire, and the rock was split by it. — [from Mechilta]   והכית בצור: על הצור לא נאמר אלא בצור, מכאן שהמטה היה של מין דבר חזק ושמו סנפרינון והצור נבקע מפניו:
7He named the place Massah [testing] and Meribah [quarreling] because of the quarrel of the children of Israel and because of their testing the Lord, saying, Is the Lord in our midst or not?   זוַיִּקְרָא֙ שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֔וֹם מַסָּ֖ה וּמְרִיבָ֑ה עַל־רִ֣יב | בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְעַ֨ל נַסֹּתָ֤ם אֶת־יְהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲיֵ֧שׁ יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּקִרְבֵּ֖נוּ אִם־אָֽיִן:
8Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim.   חוַיָּבֹ֖א עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיִּלָּ֥חֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בִּרְפִידִֽם:
Amalek came, etc.: He [God] juxtaposed this section to this verse, ["Is the Lord in our midst or not? "] implying: “I am always among you, and [I am] always prepared for all your necessities, but you say, Is the Lord in our midst or not?’ By your life, the dog will come and bite you, and you will cry out to Me, and [then] you will know where I am ” This can be compared to a man who mounted his son on his shoulder and set out on the road. Whenever his son saw something, he would say, “Father, take that thing and give it to me,” and he [the father] would give it to him. They met a man, and the son said to him, “Have you seen my father?” So his father said to him, “You don’t know where I am?” He threw him [his son] down off him, and a dog came and bit him [the son]. — [from Tanchuma, Yithro 3; Exod. Rabbah 26:2]   ויבא עמלק וגו': סמך פרשה זו למקרא זה, לומר תמיד אני ביניכם ומזומן לכל צרכיכם, ואתם אומרים (פסוק ז) היש ה' בקרבנו אם אין, חייכם שהכלב בא ונושך אתכם ואתם צועקים אלי ותדעון היכן אני. משל לאדם שהרכיב בנו על כתפו ויצא לדרך, היה אותו הבן רואה חפץ ואומר, אבא טול חפץ זה ותן לי, והוא נותן לו, וכן שניה וכן שלישית, פגעו באדם אחד, אמר לו אותו הבן ראית את אבא. אמר לו אביו אינך יודע היכן אני, השליכו מעליו ובא הכלב ונשכו:
9So Moses said to Joshua, Pick men for us, and go out and fight against Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand   טוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֤ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ֙ בְּחַר־לָ֣נוּ אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְצֵ֖א הִלָּחֵ֣ם בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מָחָ֗ר אָֽנֹכִ֤י נִצָּב֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַגִּבְעָ֔ה וּמַטֵּ֥ה הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיָדִֽי:
Pick…for us: For me and for you. From here the Sages stated: “Your disciple’s honor shall be as dear to you as your own honor” (Avoth 4:12). How do we know that you should honor your peer as you revere your mentor? For it is said: “Aaron said to Moses, I beseech you, my lord’ ” (Num. 12:11). Now was Aaron not older than Moses? Yet he [Aaron] considers his peer as his mentor. And how do we know that one must revere his mentor as he reveres Heaven? For it is said: “My lord, Moses, destroy them” (Num. 11:28). Destroy them [Eldad and Medad] from the world. They deserve to be annihilated because they are rebelling against you, [which is] tantamount to having rebelled against the Holy One, blessed be He. — [from Mechilta; Tanchuma, Beshallach 26]   בחר לנו: לי ולך, השוהו לו, מכאן אמרו יהי כבוד תלמידך חביב עליך כשלך וכבוד חבירך כמורא רבך, מנין שנאמר (במדבר יב יא) ויאמר אהרן אל משה בי א-דני והלא אהרן גדול מאחיו היה ועושה את חבירו כרבו. ומורא רבך כמורא שמים מנין, שנאמר (שם יא כח) אדוני משה כלאם, כלם מן העולם, חייבין הם כלייה, המורדים בך, כאלו מרדו בהקב"ה:
and go out and fight: Go out of the cloud and fight with them. — [from Mechilta and Exod. Rabbah, end of Beshallach]   וצא הלחם: צא מן הענן והלחם בו:
Tomorrow: At the time of the battle, I will stand.   מחר: בעת המלחמה אנכי נצב:
Pick men for us: Heb. אִנָשִׁים, mighty men, and God-fearing [men] so that their merit will help us (Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 44, Yalkut Shimoni, Jonathan). Another explanation: who know how to counteract witchcraft, because the Amalekites were sorcerers.   בחר לנו אנשים: גבורים ויראי חטא שתהא זכותן מסייעתן. דבר אחר בחר לנו אנשים שיודעין לבטל כשפים לפי שבני עמלק מכשפין היו:
10Joshua did as Moses had told him, to fight against Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur ascended to the top of the hill.   יוַיַּ֣עַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽמַר־לוֹ֙ משֶׁ֔ה לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק וּמשֶׁה֙ אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן וְח֔וּר עָל֖וּ רֹ֥אשׁ הַגִּבְעָֽה:
and Moses, Aaron, and Hur: From here [we deduce] that on a fast day, three people are required to go before the ark [to lead the prayers], for they were fasting. — [from Mechilta]   ומשה אהרן וחור: מכאן לתענית שצריכים שלשה לעבור לפני התיבה, שבתענית היו שרויים:
Hur: He was the son of Miriam, and Caleb, her husband. — [from Sotah 11b]   חור: בנה של מרים היה וכלב בעלה:
11It came to pass that when Moses would raise his hand, Israel would prevail, and when he would lay down his hand, Amalek would prevail.   יאוְהָיָ֗ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרִ֥ים משֶׁ֛ה יָד֖וֹ וְגָבַ֣ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְכַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנִ֛יחַ יָד֖וֹ וְגָבַ֥ר עֲמָלֵֽק:
when Moses would raise his hand: Did Moses’ hands then make them victorious in battle, etc.? [Rather this is to tell you that when the Israelites looked up and subjugated their hearts to their Father in heaven, they would prevail, and if not, they would fall,] as is found in Rosh Hashanah (29a).   כאשר ירים משה ידו: וכי ידיו של משה נוצחות היו המלחמה וכו' כדאיתא בראש השנה (כט א):
12Now Moses hands were heavy; so they took a stone and placed it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur supported his hands, one from this [side], and one from that [side]; so he was with his hands in faith until sunset.   יבוִידֵ֤י משֶׁה֙ כְּבֵדִ֔ים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶ֛בֶן וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ תַחְתָּ֖יו וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב עָלֶ֑יהָ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֨ן וְח֜וּר תָּֽמְכ֣וּ בְיָדָ֗יו מִזֶּ֤ה אֶחָד֙ וּמִזֶּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד וַיְהִ֥י יָדָ֛יו אֱמוּנָ֖ה עַד־בֹּ֥א הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ:
Now Moses’ hands were heavy: Since he had been lax in [the performance of] the commandment [of warring against Amalek] and had appointed someone else in his stead, his hands became heavy. — [from Mechilta]   וידי משה כבדים: בשביל שנתעצל במצוה ומנה אחר תחתיו, נתייקרו ידיו:
so they took: [I.e.,] Aaron and Hur.   ויקחו: אהרן וחור:
a stone and placed it under him: But he [Moses] did not sit on a mattress or on a pillow, [because] he said, "Israel is in a state of pain. I too will be with them in pain."-[from Ta’anith 11a]   אבן וישימו תחתיו: ולא ישב לו על כר וכסת. אמר ישראל שרויין בצער, אף אני אהיה עמהם בצער:
so he was with his hands in faith: And Moses was with his hands in faith, spread out toward heaven in a faithful and proper prayer.   ויהי ידיו אמונה: ויהי משה ידיו באמונה פרושות השמים בתפלה נאמנה ונכונה:
until sunset: For the Amalekites calculated the hours [i.e., the time] with their astrology [to determine] in what hour they would be victorious, but Moses caused the sun to stand still and confused the hours. — [from Tanchuma 28]   עד בא השמש: שהיו עמלקים מחשבין את השעות באצטרולוגיאה באיזו שעה הם נוצחים, והעמיד להם משה חמה וערבב את השעות:
13Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.   יגוַיַּֽחֲל֧שׁ יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֥ק וְאֶת־עַמּ֖וֹ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
Joshua weakened: He decapitated their [the Amalekites’] strongest warriors, and he left over only the weak among them, but he did not slay them all. From here we learn that he did this according to the mandate of the Shechinah. — [from Mechilta]   ויחלש יהושע: חתך ראשי גבוריו ולא השאיר אלא חלשים שבהם ולא הרגם כולם, מכאן אנו למדין שעשה על פי הדבור של שכינה:
14The Lord said to Moses, Inscribe this [as] a memorial in the book, and recite it into Joshua's ears, that I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens   ידוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־ משֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
Inscribe this [as] a memorial: namely that Amalek came to attack the Israelites before all [other] nations [dared to do so].   כתב זאת זכרון: שבא עמלק להזדווג לישראל קודם לכל האומות:
and recite it into Joshua’s ears: [Joshua] was destined to bring Israel into the land [of Israel and] to pay him [Amalek] his recompense. Here it was hinted to Moses that Joshua would bring Israel into the land. — [from Tanchuma 28, Mechilta]   ושים באזני יהושע: המכניס את ישראל לארץ, שיצוה את ישראל לשלם לו את גמולו, כאן נרמז לו למשה שיהושע מכניס את ישראל לארץ:
I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Therefore, I admonish you in this manner, because I want to obliterate him.   כי מחה אמחה: לכך אני מזהירך כן, כי חפץ אני למחותו:
15Then Moses built an altar, and he named it The Lord is my miracle   טווַיִּ֥בֶן משֶׁ֖ה מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה | נִסִּֽי:
and he named it: The altar. —   ויקרא שמו: של מזבח:
“The Lord is my miracle”: Heb. ה נִסִּי. The Holy One, blessed be He, wrought a great miracle for us here. Not that the altar is called “The Lord,” but whoever mentions the name of the altar remembers the miracle that the Omnipresent performed: The Lord is our miracle. — [from Mechilta]   ה' נסי: הקב"ה עשה לנו כאן נס גדול, לא שהמזבח קרוי ה', אלא המזכיר שמו של מזבח זוכר את הנס שעשה המקום, ה' הוא נס שלנו:
16And he said, For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal, [that there shall be] a war for the Lord against Amalek from generation to generation.   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר:
And he said: [I.e.,] Moses [said].   ויאמר: משה:
For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal: Heb. כִּי-יָד עַל כֵּס יָ-הּ. The hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, was raised to swear by His throne, to have a war and [bear] hatred against Amalek for eternity. Now what is the meaning of כֵּס [as opposed to כִּסֵא and also [why is] the Divine Name divided in half? [I.e., why is the Name יָ-הּ used instead of י-ה-ו-ה ?] [The answer is that] the Holy One, blessed be He, swore that His Name will not be complete and His throne will not be complete until the name of Amalek is completely obliterated. And when his name is obliterated, the Divine Name will be complete, and the throne will be complete, as it is said: “The enemy has been destroyed; swords exist forever (לָנֶצַח)” (Ps. 9:7); this [who they are referring to] is Amalek, about whom it is written: “and kept their fury forever (נֶצַח)” (Amos 1:11). "And You have uprooted the cities-their remembrance is lost" (Ps. 9:7) [i.e., Amalek’s obliteration]. What does it say afterwards? “And the Lord (וַיהוה) shall sit forever” (Ps. 9:8); thus [after Amalek is obliterated] the Name is complete. "He has established His throne (כִּסְאוֹ) for judgment" (Ps. 9:8). Thus the throne is complete [i.e., thus the throne, here spelled with an “aleph,” is now complete]. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, end of Ki Theitzei]   כי יד על כס יה: ידו של הקב"ה הורמה לישבע בכסאו להיות לו מלחמה ואיבה בעמלק עולמית, ומהו כס, ולא נאמר כסא, ואף השם נחלק לחציו, נשבע הקב"ה שאין שמו שלם ואין כסאו שלם עד שימחה שמו של עמלק כולו, וכשימחה שמו יהיה השם שלם והכסא שלם, שנאמר (תהלים ט ז) האויב תמו חרבות לנצח, זהו עמלק שכתוב בו (עמוס א יא) ועברתו שמרה נצח, (תהלים שם) וערים נתשת אבד זכרם המה, מהו אומר אחריו (תהלים ט ח) וה' לעולם ישב, הרי השם שלם, (תהלים שם) כונן למשפט כסאו, הרי כסאו שלם:

Maftir Portion

Exodus Chapter 17

14The Lord said to Moses, Inscribe this [as] a memorial in the book, and recite it into Joshua's ears, that I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens   ידוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־ משֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
Inscribe this [as] a memorial: namely that Amalek came to attack the Israelites before all [other] nations [dared to do so].   כתב זאת זכרון: שבא עמלק להזדווג לישראל קודם לכל האומות:
and recite it into Joshua’s ears: [Joshua] was destined to bring Israel into the land [of Israel and] to pay him [Amalek] his recompense. Here it was hinted to Moses that Joshua would bring Israel into the land. — [from Tanchuma 28, Mechilta]   ושים באזני יהושע: המכניס את ישראל לארץ, שיצוה את ישראל לשלם לו את גמולו, כאן נרמז לו למשה שיהושע מכניס את ישראל לארץ:
I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Therefore, I admonish you in this manner, because I want to obliterate him.   כי מחה אמחה: לכך אני מזהירך כן, כי חפץ אני למחותו:
15Then Moses built an altar, and he named it The Lord is my miracle   טווַיִּ֥בֶן משֶׁ֖ה מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה | נִסִּֽי:
and he named it: The altar. —   ויקרא שמו: של מזבח:
“The Lord is my miracle”: Heb. ה נִסִּי. The Holy One, blessed be He, wrought a great miracle for us here. Not that the altar is called “The Lord,” but whoever mentions the name of the altar remembers the miracle that the Omnipresent performed: The Lord is our miracle. — [from Mechilta]   ה' נסי: הקב"ה עשה לנו כאן נס גדול, לא שהמזבח קרוי ה', אלא המזכיר שמו של מזבח זוכר את הנס שעשה המקום, ה' הוא נס שלנו:
16And he said, For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal, [that there shall be] a war for the Lord against Amalek from generation to generation.   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר:
And he said: [I.e.,] Moses [said].   ויאמר: משה:
For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal: Heb. כִּי-יָד עַל כֵּס יָ-הּ. The hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, was raised to swear by His throne, to have a war and [bear] hatred against Amalek for eternity. Now what is the meaning of כֵּס [as opposed to כִּסֵא and also [why is] the Divine Name divided in half? [I.e., why is the Name יָ-הּ used instead of י-ה-ו-ה ?] [The answer is that] the Holy One, blessed be He, swore that His Name will not be complete and His throne will not be complete until the name of Amalek is completely obliterated. And when his name is obliterated, the Divine Name will be complete, and the throne will be complete, as it is said: “The enemy has been destroyed; swords exist forever (לָנֶצַח)” (Ps. 9:7); this [who they are referring to] is Amalek, about whom it is written: “and kept their fury forever (נֶצַח)” (Amos 1:11). "And You have uprooted the cities-their remembrance is lost" (Ps. 9:7) [i.e., Amalek’s obliteration]. What does it say afterwards? “And the Lord (וַיהוה) shall sit forever” (Ps. 9:8); thus [after Amalek is obliterated] the Name is complete. "He has established His throne (כִּסְאוֹ) for judgment" (Ps. 9:8). Thus the throne is complete [i.e., thus the throne, here spelled with an “aleph,” is now complete]. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, end of Ki Theitzei]   כי יד על כס יה: ידו של הקב"ה הורמה לישבע בכסאו להיות לו מלחמה ואיבה בעמלק עולמית, ומהו כס, ולא נאמר כסא, ואף השם נחלק לחציו, נשבע הקב"ה שאין שמו שלם ואין כסאו שלם עד שימחה שמו של עמלק כולו, וכשימחה שמו יהיה השם שלם והכסא שלם, שנאמר (תהלים ט ז) האויב תמו חרבות לנצח, זהו עמלק שכתוב בו (עמוס א יא) ועברתו שמרה נצח, (תהלים שם) וערים נתשת אבד זכרם המה, מהו אומר אחריו (תהלים ט ח) וה' לעולם ישב, הרי השם שלם, (תהלים שם) כונן למשפט כסאו, הרי כסאו שלם:

Haftarah

Judges Chapter 4

4Now Deborah was a woman prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth; she judged Israel at that time.   דוּדְבוֹרָה֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה נְבִיאָ֔ה אֵ֖שֶׁת לַפִּיד֑וֹת הִ֛יא שֹׁפְטָ֥ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִֽיא:
the wife of Lappidoth: She prepared wicks for the Sanctuary.  
5And she sat under the palm tree of Deborah, between Ramah and Beth-el, in the mountain of Ephraim; and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment.   הוְ֠הִיא יוֹשֶׁ֨בֶת תַּֽחַת־תֹּ֜מֶר דְּבוֹרָ֗ה בֵּ֧ין הָרָמָ֛ה וּבֵ֥ין בֵּֽית־אֵ֖ל בְּהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם וַיַּעֲל֥וּ אֵלֶ֛יהָ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לַמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
under the palm tree: She had palm trees in Jericho.  
between Ramah and Beth-el, in the mountain of Ephraim: According to Targum Jonathan’s rendering, we can derive that this verse is not to be taken literally. These were not her places of lodging but rather she was a wealthy woman and from these places she earned a livelihood and dwelt in her city Ataroth. Hence:  
under the palm tree: She had palm trees in Jericho, vineyards in Ramah, olives in the plain of Beth-el where oil was abundant, and (עָפָר חִיוֵר) white earth in the mountain of Ephraim in Tur Malka. I say that this was sold to potters. Some interpret עפר חיור - A sown field like a grain field.  
6And she sent and called Barak the son of Abinoam out of Kedesh-naphtali. And she said to him, "Indeed the Lord, God of Israel, commanded, 'Go and draw toward Mount Tabor, and take with you ten thousand men of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun.   ווַתִּשְׁלַ֗ח וַתִּקְרָא֙ לְבָרָ֣ק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹ֔עַם מִקֶּ֖דֶשׁ נַפְתָּלִ֑י וַתֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו הֲלֹ֥א צִוָּ֣ה | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לֵ֚ךְ וּמָֽשַׁכְתָּ֙ בְּהַ֣ר תָּב֔וֹר וְלָקַחְתָּ֣ עִמְּךָ֗ עֲשֶֹ֚רֶת אֲלָפִים֙ אִ֔ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י נַפְתָּלִ֖י וּמִבְּנֵ֥י זְבֻלֽוּן:
“Indeed… commanded”: Through Moses (Deut. 20:17), “You shall totally destroy them.” So it is stated in the Mechilta.  
7And I shall draw to you, to the brook Kishon, Sisera, the chieftain of Jabin's army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will give him into your hand.' "   זוּמָשַׁכְתִּ֨י אֵלֶ֜יךָ אֶל־נַ֣חַל קִישׁ֗וֹן אֶת־סִֽיסְרָא֙ שַׂר־צְבָ֣א יָבִ֔ין וְאֶת־רִכְבּ֖וֹ וְאֶת־הֲמוֹנ֑וֹ וּנְתַתִּ֖יהוּ בְּיָדֶֽךָ:
8And Barak said to her, "If you will go with me then I shall go, but if you will not go with me, I shall not go."   חוַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ בָּרָ֔ק אִם־תֵּלְכִ֥י עִמִּ֖י וְהָלָ֑כְתִּי וְאִם־לֹ֥א תֵלְכִ֛י עִמִּ֖י לֹ֥א אֵלֵֽךְ:
9And she said, "I shall surely go with you, but your glory will not be on the way which you go, for into the hand of a woman will the Lord deliver Sisera." And Deborah arose and went with Barak to Kedesh.   טוַתֹּ֜אמֶר הָלֹ֧ךְ אֵלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֗ךְ אֶ֚פֶס כִּי֩ לֹ֨א תִֽהְיֶ֜ה תִּֽפְאַרְתְּךָ֗ עַל־הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתָּ֣ה הוֹלֵ֔ךְ כִּ֣י בְֽיַד־אִשָּׁ֔ה יִמְכֹּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־סִֽיסְרָ֑א וַתָּ֧קָם דְּבוֹרָ֛ה וַתֵּ֥לֶךְ עִם־בָּרָ֖ק קֵֽדְשָׁה:
10And Barak gathered Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and ten thousand men went up at his feet; and Deborah went up with him.   יוַיַּזְעֵ֨ק בָּרָ֜ק אֶת־זְבוּלֻ֚ן וְאֶת־נַפְתָּלִי֙ קֶ֔דְשָׁה וַיַּ֣עַל בְּרַגְלָ֔יו עֲשֶֹ֥רֶת אַלְפֵ֖י אִ֑ישׁ וַתַּ֥עַל עִמּ֖וֹ דְּבוֹרָֽה:
went up at his feet: (An expression meaning) with him.  
11Now Heber the Kenite had separated from the Kenites, of the children of Hobab the father-in-law of Moses; and he pitched his tent as far as Elon-bezaanannim, which is by Kedesh.   יאוְחֶ֚בֶר הַקֵּינִי֙ נִפְרָ֣ד מִקַּ֔יִן מִבְּנֵ֥י חֹבָ֖ב חֹתֵ֣ן משֶׁ֑ה וַיֵּ֣ט אָהֳל֔וֹ עַד־אֵל֥וֹן בְּצַעֲנַנִּ֖ים (כתיב בְּצַעֲנַּ֖יִם) אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶת־קֶֽדֶשׁ:
Elon-bezaanannim: Targum Jonathan renders מֵישָׁר אַגְנַיָא the site of a plain (אֵלוֹן) of pits (בְּצָעִים), mariscusm in 0.F. This (i.e., בְּצָעִים) means אַגְנַיָא, being cavities similar to pits where water gathers, as in (Kiddushin 61a) “They are called pits (אגני) of the ground.”  
12And they told Sisera that Barak, the son of Abinoam, had gone up to Mount Tabor.   יבוַיַּגִּ֖דוּ לְסִֽיסְרָ֑א כִּ֥י עָלָ֛ה בָּרָ֥ק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹ֖עַם הַר־תָּבֽוֹר:
13And Sisera gathered all his chariots, nine hundred iron chariots, and all the people that were with him, from Harosheth-goiim, to the brook Kishon.   יגוַיַּזְעֵ֨ק סִֽיסְרָ֜א אֶת־כָּל־רִכְבּ֗וֹ תְּשַׁ֚ע מֵאוֹת֙ רֶ֣כֶב בַּרְזֶ֔ל וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ מֵחֲר֥שֶׁת הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֶל־נַ֥חַל קִישֽׁוֹן:
from Harosheth-goiim, to the brook Kishon: He gathered them to go to the brook Kishon from Harosheth-goiim where he dwelt.  
14And Deborah said to Barak, "Rise, for this is the day which the Lord has given Sisera into your hand. Did not the Lord go out before you?" And Barak went down from Mount Tabor, with ten thousand men after him.   ידוַתֹּאמֶר֩ דְּבֹרָ֨ה אֶל־בָּרָ֜ק ק֗וּם כִּ֣י זֶ֚ה הַיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁר֩ נָתַ֨ן יְהֹוָ֚ה אֶת־סִֽיסְרָא֙ בְּיָדֶ֔ךָ הֲלֹ֥א יְהֹוָ֖ה יָצָ֣א לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וַיֵּ֚רֶד בָּרָק֙ מֵהַ֣ר תָּב֔וֹר וַעֲשֶֹ֧רֶת אֲלָפִ֛ים אִ֖ישׁ אַחֲרָֽיו:
15And the Lord confused Sisera and all the chariots and all of the camp with the edge of the sword before Barak; and Sisera alighted from his chariot, and fled on foot.   טווַיָּ֣הָם יְ֠הֹוָה אֶת־סִֽיסְרָ֨א וְאֶת־כָּל־הָרֶ֧כֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֛ה לְפִי־חֶ֖רֶב לִפְנֵ֣י בָרָ֑ק וַיֵּ֧רֶד סִֽיסְרָ֛א מֵעַ֥ל הַמֶּרְכָּבָ֖ה וַיָּ֥נָס בְּרַגְלָֽיו:
16And Barak pursued the chariots and the camp, to Harosheth-goiim; and all of Sisera's camp fell by the edge of the sword, not even one was left.   טזוּבָרָ֗ק רָדַ֞ף אַחֲרֵ֚י הָרֶ֙כֶב֙ וְאַחֲרֵ֣י הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה עַ֖ד חֲר֣שֶׁת הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וַיִּפֹּ֞ל כָּל־מַחֲנֵ֚ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב לֹ֥א נִשְׁאַ֖ר עַד־אֶחָֽד:
17And Sisera fled on foot to the tent of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite; for there was peace between Jabin the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite.   יזוְסִֽיסְרָא֙ נָ֣ס בְּרַגְלָ֔יו אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל יָעֵ֔ל אֵ֖שֶׁת חֶ֣בֶר הַקֵּינִ֑י כִּ֣י שָׁל֗וֹם בֵּ֚ין יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶך־חָצ֔וֹר וּבֵ֕ין בֵּ֖ית חֶ֥בֶר הַקֵּינִֽי:
18And Jael went out to meet Sisera and said to him, "Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not." And he turned in to her into the tent, and she covered him with a garment.   יחוַתֵּצֵ֣א יָעֵל֘ לִקְרַ֣את סִֽיסְרָא֒ וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו סוּרָ֧ה אֲדֹנִ֛י סוּרָ֥ה אֵלַ֖י אַל־תִּירָ֑א וַיָּ֚סַר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ הָאֹ֔הֱלָה וַתְּכַסֵּ֖הוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָֽה:
with a garment: Targum Jonathan renders בְּגוּנְכָא which Rav Hai Gaon explains: a garment. Coate in O.F.  
19And he said to her, "Give me now a little water to drink, for I am thirsty;" and she opened the flask of milk and gave him to drink, and covered him.   יטוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלֶ֛יהָ הַשְׁקִינִי־נָ֥א מְעַט־מַ֖יִם כִּ֣י צָמֵ֑אתִי וַתִּפְתַּ֞ח אֶת־נֹ֧אוד הֶחָלָ֛ב וַתַּשְׁקֵ֖הוּ וַתְּכַסֵּֽהוּ:
the flask of milk: She gave him milk because it slackens the body and causes drowsiness.  
20And he said to her, "Stand in the doorway of the tent; and it shall be, if any man comes and asks you and says, 'Is a man here?,' then you shall say, 'There is not.' "   כוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלֶ֔יהָ עֲמֹ֖ד פֶּ֣תַח הָאֹ֑הֶל וְהָיָה֩ אִם־אִ֨ישׁ יָב֜וֹא וּשְׁאֵלֵ֗ךְ וְאָמַ֛ר הֲיֵֽשׁ־פֹּ֥ה אִ֖ישׁ וְאָמַ֥רְתְּ אָֽיִן:
Stand in the doorway of the tent: (עֲמֹד) is masc.) Hasten like a man. And some interpret עֲמֹד as (לַעֲמוֹד) “to stand”.  
21And Jael, the wife of Heber, took the tent-pin, and placed the hammer in her hand, and came to him stealthily, and thrust the pin into his temple, and it pierced through into the ground; and he was in a deep sleep and weary; and he died.   כאוַתִּקַּ֣ח יָעֵ֣ל אֵֽשֶׁת־חֶ֠בֶר אֶת־יְתַ֨ד הָאֹ֜הֶל וַתָּ֧שֶׂם אֶת־הַמַּקֶּ֣בֶת בְּיָדָ֗הּ וַתָּב֚וֹא אֵלָיו֙ בַּלָּ֔אט וַתִּתְקַ֚ע אֶת־הַיָּתֵד֙ בְּרַקָּת֔וֹ וַתִּצְנַ֖ח בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְהֽוּא־נִרְדָּ֥ם וַיָּ֖עַף וַיָּמֹֽת:
Tent pin: Chevilles in 0.F. A peg which is inserted into the ground together with the lower portion of a tent to stretch it out. הַמַּקֶּבֶת, Targum Jonathan renders ארזפתא, martel in Old French (a hammer). בַּלָּאט Targum Jonathan renders בְּרָז i.e., stealthily. וַתִּצְנַח בָּאָרֶץ Targum Jonathan renders וּנְעָצַת בְאַרְעָא : and it pierced through into the ground.  
22And behold, Barak pursued Sisera, and Jael came out to meet him, and she said to him, "Come and I will show you the man whom you seek," and he came to her, and behold, Sisera lay dead, and the pin was in his temple.   כבוְהִנֵּ֣ה בָרָק֘ רֹדֵ֣ף אֶת־סִֽיסְרָא֒ וַתֵּצֵ֚א יָעֵל֙ לִקְרָאת֔וֹ וַתֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֵ֣ךְ וְאַרְאֶ֔ךָּ אֶת־הָאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֣ה מְבַקֵּ֑שׁ וַיָּבֹ֣א אֵלֶ֔יהָ וְהִנֵּ֚ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ נֹפֵ֣ל מֵ֔ת וְהַיָּתֵ֖ד בְּרַקָּתֽוֹ:
in his temple: Targum Jonathan renders בְצִידְעֵיה (in his temple) tenplia in O.F. She had thrust it through his temple into the ground.  
23And God subdued on that day Jabin the king of Canaan, before the children of Israel.   כגוַיַּכְנַ֚ע אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא אֵ֖ת יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָ֑עַן לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
24And the hand of the children of Israel prevailed constantly harder against Jabin the king of Canaan, until they had destroyed Jabin, king of Canaan.   כדוַתֵּ֜לֶךְ יַ֚ד בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ הָל֣וֹךְ וְקָשָׁ֔ה עַ֖ל יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָ֑עַן עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִכְרִ֔יתוּ אֵ֖ת יָבִ֥ין מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָֽעַן:

Judges Chapter 5

1Now Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam sang on that day, saying.   אוַתָּ֣שַׁר דְּבוֹרָ֔ה וּבָרָ֖ק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹ֑עַם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא לֵאמֹֽר:
2"When breaches are made in Israel, when the people offer themselves willingly, bless the Lord.   בבִּפְרֹ֚עַ פְּרָעוֹת֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּהִתְנַדֵּ֖ב עָ֑ם בָּֽרְכ֖וּ יְהֹוָֽה:
When breaches are made in Israel, when the people offer themselves willingly: When breaches come upon Israel, for their enemies made breaches in them because they forsook their God and the masses feel motivated to repent, as of now it is proper to bless God (out of thankfulness) for the salvation He has wrought.  
3Hear, O kings, give ear, O princes; I, to the Lord I shall sing, I shall sing to the Lord, the God of Israel.   גשִׁמְע֣וּ מְלָכִ֔ים הַאֲזִ֖ינוּ רֹֽזְנִ֑ים אָֽנֹכִ֗י לַֽיהֹוָה֙ אָנֹכִ֣י אָשִׁ֔ירָה אֲזַמֵּ֕ר לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
אָנֹכִי אָנֹכִי: This word is repeated. I have heard an Aggadic interpretation: The Holy One did not rob (by withholding) the reward of Mount Tabor and Mount Carmel who arrived at the giving of the Torah, expecting it to be given upon them, and turned away in shame. The Holy One said to them, “I will pay you double fold. It was said at Sinai, (Ex. 20:2) ‘(אָנֹכִי) I am the Lord your God,’ at Tabor it will be said, ‘I… I…’ (אָנֹכִי אָנֹכִי). It was said at Sinai, ‘I am the Lord your God (ה׳ אֱלֹקֶי),’ at Carmel it will be said twice, (I Kings 18:39) ‘The Lord He is God, the Lord He is God (ה׳ הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים)’ in the days of Elijah.”  
4Lord, when You went forth out of Seir, when You marched out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dripped; also the clouds dripped water.   דיְהֹוָ֗ה בְּצֵאתְךָ֚ מִשֵּׂעִיר֙ בְּצַעְדְּךָ֙ מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֱד֔וֹם אֶ֣רֶץ רָעָ֔שָׁה גַּם־שָׁמַ֖יִם נָטָ֑פוּ גַּם־עָבִ֖ים נָ֥טְפוּ מָֽיִם:
Lord, when You went forth out of Seir: This refers to the giving of the Torah as it says, “And He appeared to them from Seir” (Deut. 33:2). The relation here is that thus said Deborah: “The Torah is detrimental to forsake and rewarding to cling to it for amidst awe and might it was given. Therefore Israel was delivered into the hands of their adversaries because they forsook it, but when they decided to engage in it they were saved.” This can be derived from Targum Jonathan’s translation. נָטְפוּ - Dripped a life sustaining dew.  
5The mountains melted at the presence of the Lord, this (was at) Sinai, because of the presence of the Lord, the God of Israel.   ההָרִ֥ים נָזְל֖וּ מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה זֶ֣ה סִינַ֔י מִפְּנֵ֕י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
The mountains melted: (Heb. נָזְלוּ) Like flowing water (נוֹזְלִים) they melted away.  
this (was at) Sinai: It is already stated what appeared there. (See Ex. 19:16 19, 20:15.) It was completely in smoke and amidst thunder, torches, and fire.  
because of the presence of the Lord: This is an abbreviated verse: This was at Sinai; that which occurred there was because God descended upon it.  
6In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, caravans ceased, and travellers walked on crooked paths.   ובִּימֵ֞י שַׁמְגַּ֚ר בֶּן־עֲנָת֙ בִּימֵ֣י יָעֵ֔ל חָדְל֖וּ אֳרָח֑וֹת וְהֹלְכֵ֣י נְתִיב֔וֹת יֵלְכ֕וּ אֳרָח֖וֹת עֲקַלְקַלּֽוֹת:
In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael: (Since they are equated,) This teaches us that Jael also judged Israel in her days.  
caravans ceased: Israel was afraid to travel because of the enemy, hence they followed winding roads in secrecy.  
7The open cities ceased, in Israel they ceased, until I Deborah arose; I arose as a mother in Israel.   זחָדְל֧וּ פְרָז֛וֹן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל חָדֵ֑לּוּ עַ֚ד שַׁקַּ֙מְתִּי֙ דְּבוֹרָ֔ה שַׁקַּ֥מְתִּי אֵ֖ם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
The open cities ceased: Heb. פְרָזוֹן. Open cities (פְּרָזִי), without walls, ceased to be inhabited because of the enemies, and they gathered into the fortified cities.  
until I (Deborah) arose: Heb. שַׁקַּמְתִּי. Interpreted as שֶׁקַּמְתִּי as below (6:17) “שָׁאַתָּה מְדַבֵּר עִמִּי” (That you are speaking with me, understood as שֶׁאַתָּה.)  
8When they chose new gods, then there was war in the cities; was there seen a shield or a spear (when the) forty thousand (went against) Israel?   חיִבְחַר֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים חֲדָשִׁ֔ים אָ֖ז לָחֶ֣ם שְׁעָרִ֑ים מָגֵ֚ן אִם־יֵֽרָאֶה֙ וָרֹ֔מַח בְּאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
When they chose new gods then there was war in the cities: When Israel chose new gods (cf. Deut. 32:17), they were then subject to war within their cities. However, look now when they were willing, will there be seen among Israel a shield or a spear to use in battle against the 40,000 generals the heathens brought upon them. The Almighty confused all of them in the battle with the stars, and the brook of Kishon raked them away.  
cities: (שְׁעָרִים is usually interpreted as gates, however, here it means cities,) as in (Deut. 17:2), “When it will be found among you, within one of your cities” (שְׁעָרֶי).  
9My heart is toward the lawgivers of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people, (saying,) 'Bless the Lord.'   טלִבִּי֙ לְחוֹקְקֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַמִּֽתְנַדְּבִ֖ים בָּעָ֑ם בָּרֲכ֖וּ יְהֹוָֽה:
My heart…: I, Deborah, (my heart) is out to the lawgivers of Israel; to love the wise men of Israel who volunteered to tell the people, “Bless the Lord and return to Him.”  
10The riders of white donkeys, those that sit in judgment, and those that walk on the path, tell of it.   ירֹכְבֵי֩ אֲתֹנ֨וֹת צְחֹר֜וֹת ישְׁבֵ֧י עַל־מִדִּ֛ין וְהֹלְכֵ֥י עַל־דֶּ֖רֶךְ שִֹֽיחוּ:
The riders of white donkeys: The merchants and nobles who may now ride on the precious white donkeys without fear or worry of the heathens, and those that sit in judgment (מִדִּין is an expression of דַיָּינִים, judges), who were afraid to practice justice publicly, and those that travel on foot, recite and tell of this salvation; (v. 11) that instead of the noise of your adversaries, the ambushers, bandits, and tax collectors who banded together to ambush at the water crossings, there the donkey riders and wayfarers will recite the righteous deeds of the Lord. What are His righteous deeds? Deeds of restoring open cities for Israel, for He granted tranquility to Israel to dwell in open cities and go about scattered, singly, without massing together as a group. Then… went down to the cities They now returned to their home cities whence they had fled to gather in the fortified cities.  
11Instead of the noise of adversaries, between the places of drawing water, there they will tell the righteous acts of the Lord, the righteous acts of restoring open cities in Israel. Then the people of the Lord went down to the cities.   יאמִקּ֣וֹל מְחַֽצְצִ֗ים בֵּ֚ין מַשְׁאַבִּ֔ים שָׁ֚ם יְתַנּוּ֙ צִדְק֣וֹת יְהֹוָ֔ה צִדְקֹ֥ת פִּרְזֹנ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אָ֛ז יָרְד֥וּ לַשְּׁעָרִ֖ים עַם־יְהֹוָֽה:
adversaries: Heb. מְחַצְצִים. Menachem (ben Seruk, a Hebrew Grammarian,) interprets, “those that wage war and array battles,” therefore he classifies this along with, (Prov. 30:27) “The locusts have no king, yet they march (חֹצֵץ) together;” an expression of “troops”. Another interpretation is מַשְׁאַבִּים מִקּוֹל מְחַצְצִים בֵּין, When you went to the river to draw water, you feared the sound of the pebbles smoothened by the river, Kiesels in German (cailloux in French is of Celtic origin), for their sound is heard when one passes over them, and you feared being detected by the heathens. However, now you do not have to worry about this. Therefore, it is incumbent upon you to give thanks to His name. מְחַצְצִים (is then) an expression of “pebbles smoothened by the river,” as in (Lam. 3:16) “and he broke with the stones (בֶחָצָץ) my teeth.”  
12Praise! Praise! Deborah. Praise! Praise! Utter a song. Arise Barak, and capture your captives, son of Abinoam.   יבעוּרִ֚י עוּרִי֙ דְּבוֹרָ֔ה ע֥וּרִי ע֖וּרִי דַּבְּרִי־שִׁ֑יר ק֥וּם בָּרָ֛ק וּֽשֲׁבֵ֥ה שֶׁבְיְךָ֖ בֶּן־אֲבִינֹֽעַם:
Praise! Praise! Deborah: (עוּרִי is) An expression of praise, as in its plain meaning: Become firm in your praise. But our Rabbis said, because she praised herself by saying (v. 7) “Until I Deborah arose,” the Divine spirit left her (therefore she had to arouse (עוֹרֵר) it).  
13Then ruled a remnant among the mighty of the nations; the Lord dominated the strong for me.   יגאָ֚ז יְרַ֣ד שָׂרִ֔יד לְאַדִּירִ֖ים עָ֑ם יְהֹוָ֕ה יְרַד־לִ֖י בַּגִּבּוֹרִֽים:
Then ruled a remnant among the mighty: יְרַד = ירדה meaning “ruled,” as in (Isaiah 45:1) “Who rules (לְרַד) nations before Him.” The remnants of Israel ruled over the mighty (אַדִּירֵי) gentiles.  
the Lord dominated the strong for me: He gave me dominion (יְרַד לִי) over the mighty of the gentiles.  
14Out of Ephraim, whose root was against Amalek; after you (will be) Benjamin with your abaters; out of Machir came down officers, and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the scribe.   ידמִנִּ֣י אֶפְרַ֗יִם שָׁרְשָׁם֙ בַּעֲמָלֵ֔ק אַחֲרֶ֥יךָ בִנְיָמִ֖ין בַּֽעֲמָמֶ֑יךָ מִנִּ֣י מָכִ֗יר יָֽרְדוּ֙ מְחֹ֣קְקִ֔ים וּמִ֨זְּבוּלֻ֔ן מֹשְׁכִ֖ים בְּשֵׁ֥בֶט סֹפֵֽר:
Out of Ephraim: From Ephraim issued the root (שׁוֹרֶשׁ, referring to Joshua the son of Nun (their prince), to subdue Amalek and weaken him by the sword (Ex. 17:13). This verse is connected to the previous one and explains: The Lord dominated the strong for me by establishing Joshua to subdue Amalek.  
after you: Will arise from the tribe of Benjamin, Saul the son of Kish who will stone him and slacken (עֲמָם) him like dying (עוֹמְמוֹת) embers. We can (also) interpret בַּעֲמָמֶי referring to the army of 200,000 soldiers with which Saul came upon them (I Sam. 15:4).  
Out of Machir came down officers: Outstanding officers who conquered the Amorites. This refers to those who captured sixty cities, the whole royal stretch conquered under Jair (of Menasseh See Deut. 3: 4, 14).  
15And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah, as was Issachar with Barak; into the valley they rushed forth with their feet. (But) among the divisions of Reuben, (there were) great resolves of heart.   טווְשָׂרַ֚י בְּיִשָּׂשׂכָר֙ עִם־דְּבֹרָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשׂכָר֙ כֵּ֣ן בָּרָ֔ק בָּעֵ֖מֶק שֻׁלַּ֣ח בְּרַגְלָ֑יו בִּפְלַגּ֣וֹת רְאוּבֵ֔ן גְּדֹלִ֖ים חִקְקֵי־לֵֽב:
And the princes of Issachar: The princes of Issachar are the Sanhedrin who were occupied in Torah and “knew how to treat the times” (I Chron. 12:32). They are always (cooperating) with Deborah to teach Israel statutes and laws.  
And the princes of Issachar: Heb. שָׂרַי. The “yud” is inconsequential and does not serve any purpose, as the “yud” in (Ps. 8:8) “the cattle of the field (שָׂדַי)” ; (Jer. 22: 14) “Expand the windows (חַלּוֹנָי).”  
as was Issachar with Barak: (The princes) And the rest of the people of Issachar are faithful to Barak in all that he will instruct.  
into the valley they rushed forth with their feet: He sent them for all his errands; to gather the people and for all the needs of war.  
(But) among the divisions of Reuben: But in the divisions of Reuben’s heart were vast חִקְקֵי לֵב, (which Targum Jonathan renders) נִכְלֵי לִיבָּא i.e., shrewdness. And what was his shrewdness? He dwelt by the edges (מִשִׂפְתֵי) of the battle to hear who would win so that he should join with him.  
16Why do you sit between the borders, to hear the bleatings of the flocks? At the divisions of Reuben, (there are) great searchings of heart.   טזלָ֣מָּה יָשַׁ֗בְתָּ בֵּ֚ין הַֽמִּשְׁפְּתַ֔יִם לִשְׁמֹ֖עַ שְׁרִק֣וֹת עֲדָרִ֑ים לִפְלַגּ֣וֹת רְאוּבֵ֔ן גְּדוֹלִ֖ים חִקְרֵי־לֵֽב:
the bleatings of the flocks: To hear the sound of the flocks in battle; to whom is the sound of victory and to whom is the sound of defeat.  
17Gilead abides beyond the Jordan; and Dan, why does he gather into the ships? Asher dwelt at the shore of the seas, and by his breaches he abides.   יזגִּלְעָ֗ד בְּעֵ֚בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ שָׁכֵ֔ן וְדָ֕ן לָ֥מָּה יָג֖וּר אֳנִיּ֑וֹת אָשֵׁ֗ר יָשַׁב֙ לְח֣וֹף יַמִּ֔ים וְעַ֥ל מִפְרָצָ֖יו יִשְׁכּֽוֹן:
abides beyond the Jordan: And he did not come to the battle, and likewise Dan gathered his wealth into ships to be prepared to escape.  
and by his breaches: To watch the vulnerable parts of his land.  
18Zebulun is a people that jeopardized their lives to die, as did Naphtali, upon the high places of the field.   יחזְבֻל֗וּן עַ֣ם חֵרֵ֥ף נַפְשׁ֛וֹ לָמ֖וּת וְנַפְתָּלִ֑י עַ֖ל מְרוֹמֵ֥י שָׂדֶֽה:
Zebulun is a people that jeopardized…: He scorned himself and submitted himself to die in battle with Barak, and likewise Naphtali on the high places of the field, on Mount Tabor.  
19The kings came and fought; then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of money.   יטבָּ֚אוּ מְלָכִים֙ נִלְחָ֔מוּ אָ֚ז נִלְחֲמוּ֙ מַלְכֵ֣י כְנַ֔עַן בְּתַעְנַ֖ךְ עַל־מֵ֣י מְגִדּ֑וֹ בֶּ֥צַע כֶּ֖סֶף לֹ֥א לָקָֽחוּ:
in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo: Jonathan renders: In Taanach they dwelt and reached until the waters of Megiddo. The edge of the camp was in Taanach and it reached until the waters of Megiddo.  
they took no gain of money: Without payment they came to aid Sisera, they asked no reward.  
20From heaven they fought; the stars from their courses fought against Sisera.   כמִן־שָׁמַ֖יִם נִלְחָ֑מוּ הַכּֽוֹכָבִים֙ מִמְּסִלּוֹתָ֔ם נִלְחֲמ֖וּ עִם־סִיסְרָֽא:
From heaven they fought: (As they sought no gain,) likewise the Holy One sent against them His hosts who do not desire any reward.  
from their courses: The tip of the star being in heaven and its edge upon earth (see following verses). From here it was said: The thickness of the firmament is equivalent to the space between heaven and earth, since the star is inserted in the firmament like a bolt into a door (this refers to an old fashioned bolt which went through the thickness of the door), i.e., the size of its length equaling the thickness of the firmament. Thus from this verse, which attests that from their courses they fought, we derive that the thickness of the firmament is equal to the height between heaven and earth.  
21The brook Kishon swept them away, that ancient brook, the brook Kishon; tread down, O my soul, (their) strength.   כאנַ֚חַל קִישׁוֹן֙ גְּרָפָ֔ם נַ֥חַל קְדוּמִ֖ים נַ֣חַל קִישׁ֑וֹן תִּדְרְכִ֥י נַפְשִׁ֖י עֹֽז:
swept them away: Heb. גְּרָפָם. It swept them from the world like a rake (מַגְרֵפָה) that rakes ashes from an oven.  
that ancient brook: It became a guarantor to the sea concerning this from the days of Egypt as it is stated in Pesachim (118b).  
tread down, O my soul: By using my feet upon the strength (עוֹז) of the mighty of Canaan.  
22Then were pounded the heels of the horses by reason of the prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones.   כבאָ֥ז הָלְמ֖וּ עִקְּבֵי־ס֑וּס מִֽדַּהֲר֖וֹת דַּהֲר֥וֹת אַבִּירָֽיו:
were pounded the heels of the horses: The hoofs of their horses slipped off because the heat of the star would boil the mud and the nail would slip off, as one scalds the feet in boiling water and the hoofs would slip off. And since they slipped off, the feet were stricken (הָלְמוּ) (Mechilta Ex. 14:24).  
by reason of the prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones: They would cause their horses to prance in war as in (Nachum 3:2) “And a horse prancing” (דוֹהֵר). This is an expression of the prancing of a horse.  
23'Curse you Meroz,' said the messenger of the Lord, 'curse you bitterly (you) inhabitants thereof,' because they came not to the aid of the Lord, to the aid of the Lord against the mighty.   כגא֣וֹרוּ מֵר֗וֹז אָמַר֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה אֹ֥רוּ אָר֖וֹר יֹשְׁבֶ֑יהָ כִּ֚י לֹֽא־בָ֙אוּ֙ לְעֶזְרַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה לְעֶזְרַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּגִּבּוֹרִֽים:
“Curse you Meroz,”: Some say it was a star and some say he was a prominent person who was near the battle area and yet did not come.  
said the messenger of the Lord: Said Barak as an agent of the Holy One.  
the inhabitants thereof: Those that dwell within his four cubits. With (the blast of) four hundred horns, Barak excommunicated Meroz.  
to the aid of the Lord: Speaking as though it could be done, for he who aids Israel is as if he is aiding the Divine Presence.  
24Blessed above women shall Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, be; above women in the tent shall she be blessed.   כדתְּבֹרַךְ֙ מִנָּשִׁ֔ים יָעֵ֕ל אֵ֖שֶׁת חֶ֣בֶר הַקֵּינִ֑י מִנָּשִׁ֥ים בָּאֹ֖הֶל תְּבֹרָֽךְ:
above women in the tent: Heb. אֹהֶל. Referring to Sarah of whom it is said, (Gen. 18:9) “She is in the tent,” Rebecca of whom it is said, (ibid. 24:67) “And Isaac brought her into the tent,” and Rachel and Leah of whom it is said, (ibid 31:33) “And he went out of Leah’s tent and he entered Rachel’s tent”.  
above women in the tent shall she be blessed: (Referring to) Jael, because they bore and raised children, but if not Jael, this evil one (i.e., Sisera) would have come and destroyed them. So it states in Genesis Rabbah 48. Another interpretation is that Jael also dwelt in tents (above 4:18), therefore she was mentioned in the blessing of tents.  
25Water he requested, (but) milk she gave him: in a lordly bowl she brought him cream.   כהמַ֥יִם שָׁאַ֖ל חָלָ֣ב נָתָ֑נָה בְּסֵ֥פֶל אַדִּירִ֖ים הִקְרִ֥יבָה חֶמְאָֽה:
(but) milk she gave him: To test his state of consciousness, if he could discern between the taste of water and the taste of milk. So does Targum Jonathan paraphrase.  
in a lordly bowl: Heb. אַדִּירִים. In a vessel that one drinks water, since water is called “mighty” (or lordly i. e., אַדִּירִים), as it says, (Ex. 15:10) “In the mighty (אַדִּירִים) waters”.  
26She put forth her hand to the pin, and her right hand to strike the weary; she struck Sisera, pierced his head, and wounded and penetrated his temple.   כויָדָהּ֙ לַיָּתֵ֣ד תִּשְׁלַ֔חְנָה וִֽימִינָ֖הּ לְהַלְמ֣וּת עֲמֵלִ֑ים וְהָלְמָ֚ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ מָחֲקָ֣ה רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וּמָחֲצָ֥ה וְחָלְפָ֖ה רַקָּתֽוֹ:
to strike the weary: Heb. עֲמֵלִים. Referring to Sisera who was exhausted (עָמֵל) and tired.  
(she) pierced: Heb. מָחֲקָה. An expression of piercing (חִיקוּי).  
and (she) wounded: Heb. מָחֲצָה. An expression of wounding (מַחַץ).  
and penetrated: Heb. חָלְפָה means “she made pass through” referring to the pin which pierced his head) coming out on the other side.  
27At her feet he sank, fell, lay; at her feet he sank (and) fell; where he sank, there he fell down dead.   כזבֵּ֣ין רַגְלֶ֔יהָ כָּרַ֥ע נָפַ֖ל שָׁכָ֑ב בֵּ֚ין רַגְלֶ֙יהָ֙ כָּרַ֣ע נָפָ֔ל בַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר כָּרַ֔ע שָׁ֖ם נָפַ֥ל שָׁדֽוּד:
28Through the window the mother of Sisera looked forth, and peered through the window; why is his chariot late in coming? Why tarry the strides of his chariots?   כחבְּעַד֩ הַחַלּ֨וֹן נִשְׁקְפָ֧ה וַתְּיַבֵּ֛ב אֵ֥ם סִֽיסְרָ֖א בְּעַ֣ד הָֽאֶשְׁנָ֑ב מַדּ֗וּעַ בֹּשֵׁ֚שׁ רִכְבּוֹ֙ לָב֔וֹא מַדּ֣וּעַ אֶֽחֱר֔וּ פַּעֲמֵ֖י מַרְכְּבוֹתָֽיו:
and peered: Heb. וַתְּיַבֵּב. An expression of speaking, as in (Isa. 57:19) “The speech (נִיב) of the lips.” But our Rabbis explained (Rosh Hashanah 33b) מְיַבֵּב as an expression of wailing, as in (Num. 29:1), “Of wailing” (תְּרוּעָה) which is rendered יַבָּבָא. However, I say it is an expression of looking, as in, (Zach. 2:12) “The pupil (בָבַת) of his eye,” and so has Menachem classified it. הָאֶשְׁנָב, the window.  
29The wisest of her princesses answer her, she too returns answers to herself.   כטחַכְמ֥וֹת שָׂרוֹתֶ֖יהָ תַּעֲנֶ֑ינָּה אַף־הִ֕יא תָּשִׁ֥יב אֲמָרֶ֖יהָ לָֽהּ:
The wisest of her princesses answer her: Heb. חַכְמוֹת is interpreted as “the wise of her princesses” (an adjective in the constructive form), therefore the “Heth” is vocalized with a “patach” (“ah” sounding vowel). חָכְמוֹת as a noun is vocalized “hatof kamatz” (an “aw” sound), as in (Prov. 24:7) “Wisdom (חָכְמוֹת) to a fool is like a rare jewel.” However, this form is vocalized חַכְמוֹת and similarly, (Prov. 14:1) “The wise (חַכְמוֹת) of the women establish their house.”  
answer her: The dot in the (second) “nun” replaces the third “nun” (which would be needed to replace the word “her”). It thus means “they answer her.” The dot of a “nun” replaces the word “her” as in (Lev. 6:14) “Scalded he shall bring it,” (lit., her) (תְּבִיאֶנָּה).  
she too returns answers: (Of) Consolation to herself saying: Why am I wondering about my son’s delay? (Are they not, etc.)  
30'Are they not finding (and) dividing the spoils? A damsel, two damsels to every man; a spoil of dyed garments to Sisera, a spoil of dyed garments of embroidery; dyed garments of embroidery for the neck of the spoiler.'   להֲלֹ֨א יִמְצְא֜וּ יְחַלְּק֣וּ שָׁלָ֗ל רַ֚חַם רַחֲמָתַ֙יִם֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ גֶּ֔בֶר שְׁלַ֚ל צְבָעִים֙ לְסִ֣יסְרָ֔א שְׁלַ֥ל צְבָעִ֖ים רִקְמָ֑ה צֶ֥בַע רִקְמָתַ֖יִם לְצַוְּארֵ֥י שָׁלָֽל:
Are they not finding (and) dividing the spoils?: And that is delaying them.  
two damsels to every man: They are ravishing the pretty women of Israel and every one of the men has two or three women in his bed.  
31So may perish all Your enemies, O Lord; but they that love Him (should be) as the sun when he goes forth in his might." And the land rested forty years.   לאכֵּ֠ן יֹאבְד֚וּ כָל־אוֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאֹ֣הֲבָ֔יו כְּצֵ֥את הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָת֑וֹ וַתִּשְׁקֹ֥ט הָאָ֖רֶץ אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה:
So may perish: Deborah said, “This is for her a vain consolation, for so may perish all your enemies, O Lord, as he was destroyed.”  
but they that love Him (should be) as the sun when he goes forth in his might: Which will occur in the coming future seven times seven the light of all the seven days of creation which is 343 times as much (as one day). This equals the sum of forty nine times seven. [Tanchuma].  
And the land rested: These are not Deborah’s words, but rather the words of the writer of this book.  
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