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Torah Reading for Sukkot, Chol Hamoed, Shabbat

Torah Reading for Sukkot, Chol Hamoed, Shabbat

Third Day of Sukkot, Chol Hamoed, Shabbat
Shabbat, 17 Tishrei, 5778
7 October, 2017
Select a portion:
Complete: (Exodus 33:12 - 34:26; Numbers 29:17-22; Ezekiel 38:18 - 39:16)
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First Portion

Exodus Chapter 33

12Moses said to the Lord: "Look, You say to me: 'Bring this people up!' But You have not informed me whom You will send with me. And You said: 'I have known you by name and you have also found favor in My eyes.'   יבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֗ה רְ֠אֵ֠ה אַתָּ֞ה אֹמֵ֤ר אֵלַי֙ הַ֚עַל אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א הֽוֹדַעְתַּ֔נִי אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַ֖ח עִמִּ֑י וְאַתָּ֤ה אָמַ֨רְתָּ֙ יְדַעְתִּ֣יךָ בְשֵׁ֔ם וְגַם־מָצָ֥אתָ חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינָֽי:
Look, You say to me: Heb. רְאֵה, lit., see. רְאֵה means: Direct Your eyes and Your heart on Your words. [I.e., think about what You are saying!] You say to me [“Lead”] but You have not informed me [who will come with us]. You said to me, “Behold, I am sending an angel” (Exod. 23:20), [yet] this is not considered informing because I do not want it [to occur this way]. [Reggio edition: I do not want him.] -[See Exod. Rabbah 45:4]   ראה אתה אומר אלי: ראה, תן עיניך ולבך על דבריך. אתה אומר אלי וגו' ואתה לא הודעתני וגו', ואשר אמרת לי (שמות כג כ) הנה אנכי שולח מלאך, אין זו הודעה, שאין אני חפץ בה:
And You said: ‘I have known you by name’: [which means that God is saying:] I have recognized you from other people with a name of importance. For [God] said to me [Moses]: “Behold, I am coming to you in the thickness of the cloud… and they will also believe in you forever” (Exod. 19:9).   ואתה אמרת ידעתיך בשם: הכרתיך משאר בני אדם בשם חשיבות, שהרי אמרת לי (שמות יט ט) הנה אנכי בא אליך בעב הענן וגו' וגם בך יאמינו לעולם:
13And now, if I have indeed found favor in Your eyes, pray let me know Your ways, so that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your eyes; and consider that this nation is Your people."   יגוְעַתָּ֡ה אִם־נָא֩ מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֜ן בְּעֵינֶ֗יךָ הֽוֹדִעֵ֤נִי נָא֙ אֶת־דְּרָכֶ֔ךָ וְאֵדָ֣עֲךָ֔ לְמַ֥עַן אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ וּרְאֵ֕ה כִּ֥י עַמְּךָ֖ הַגּ֥וֹי הַזֶּֽה:
And now: If it is true that I have found favor in Your eyes, pray let me know Your ways, [i.e.,] what reward You give to those who find favor in Your eyes.   ועתה: אם אמת שמצאתי חן בעיניך הודיעני נא את דרכך, מה שכר אתה נותן למוצאי חן בעיניך:
so that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your eyes: And with this I will know the standard of Your recompense, [i.e.,] what constitutes finding favor, since I have found favor in Your eyes. The explanation of “so that I may find favor” means: in order that I may recognize how great the reward of finding favor [with You] is.   ואדעך למען אמצא חן בעיניך: ואדע בזו מדת תגמולך מה היא מציאת חן שמצאתי בעיניך, ופתרון למען אמצא חן, למען אכיר כמה שכר מציאת החן:
and consider that this nation is Your people: That You should not say, “and I will make you into a great nation” and [then] forsake these [people]. See [i.e., remember] that they are Your people from long ago, and if You reject them, I would not rely on [only] those descendants who come from my loins to survive; make known to me [now] the payment of my reward through this people. Although our Rabbis expounded on this in tractate Berachoth (7a), I have come to reconcile the verses according to their context and their sequence.   וראה כי עמך הגוי הזה: שלא תאמר ואעשה אותך לגוי גדול, ואת אלה תעזוב, ראה כי עמך הם מקדם, ואם בהם תמאס, איני סומך על היוצאים מחלצי שיתקיימו, ואת תשלום השכר שלי בעם הזה תודיעני, ורבותינו דרשוהו במסכת ברכות (דף ז א) ואני ליישב המקראות על אופניהם ועל סדרם באתי:
14So He said, "My Presence will go, and I will give you rest."   ידוַיֹּאמַ֑ר פָּנַ֥י יֵלֵ֖כוּ וַֽהֲנִחֹ֥תִי לָֽךְ:
So He said, “My Presence will go…”: Heb. פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ, lit., My countenance will go. [This is to be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [שְׁכִנְתִּי תְהַ], I will no longer send an angel; I Myself will go, similar to [the verse:] “and you personally go (הֹלְכִים וּפָנֶי) to battle” (II Sam. 17:11).   ויאמר פני ילכו: כתרגומו, לא אשלח עוד מלאך, אני בעצמי אלך, כמו (שמואל ב' יז יא) ופניך הולכים בקרב:
15And he said to Him, "If Your Presence does not go [with us], do not take us up from here.   טווַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלָ֑יו אִם־אֵ֤ין פָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ הֹֽלְכִ֔ים אַל־תַּֽעֲלֵ֖נוּ מִזֶּֽה:
And he said to Him: This is what I want, because [I] do not [want you to] take us up from here [if it is] through an angel.   ויאמר אליו: בזו אני חפץ, כי על ידי מלאך אל תעלנו מזה:
16For how then will it be known that I have found favor in Your eyes, I and Your people? Is it not in that You will go with us? Then I and Your people will be distinguished from every [other] nation on the face of the earth."   טזוּבַמֶּ֣ה | יִוָּדַ֣ע אֵפ֗וֹא כִּֽי־מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֨יךָ֙ אֲנִ֣י וְעַמֶּ֔ךָ הֲל֖וֹא בְּלֶכְתְּךָ֣ עִמָּ֑נוּ וְנִפְלִ֨ינוּ֙ אֲנִ֣י וְעַמְּךָ֔ מִכָּ֨ל־הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
For how then will it be known: [I.e., how] will the finding of favor be known? Is it not in that You will go with us? One other thing I ask of You [I ask] that Your Shechinah shall no longer rest upon heathen nations. -[from Ber. 7a]   ובמה יודע אפוא: יודע מציאות החן, הלא בלכתך עמנו. ועוד דבר אחר אני שואל ממך שלא תשרה שכינתך [עוד] על אומות העולם:
Then I and Your people will be distinguished: Heb. וְנִפְלִינוּ. In this respect, we will be separated from every [other] nation, like “And the Lord will make a separation (וְהִפְלָה) …between the livestock of Egypt” (Exod. 9:4).   ונפלינו אני ועמך: ונהיה מובדלים בדבר הזה מכל העם, כמו (שמות ט ד) והפלה ה' בין מקנה ישראל וגו':

Second Portion

Exodus Chapter 33

17And the Lord said to Moses: "Even this thing that you have spoken, I will do, for you have found favor in My eyes, and I have known you by name."   יזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה גַּ֣ם אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֑ה כִּֽי־מָצָ֤אתָ חֵן֙ בְּעֵינַ֔י וָֽאֵדָֽעֲךָ֖ בְּשֵֽׁם:
Even this thing: [namely] that My Shechinah should no longer rest upon heathens, I will do. Balaam’s [i.e., the gentile prophet] words did not come about through the resting of the Shechinah [on him], but [his prophecy would occur when] he would “fall and his eyes would be unveiled” (Num. 24:4); such as “Now a word was conveyed secretly to me” (Job 4:12). They [these heathen prophets] would hear [the prophecy] through a messenger.   גם את הדבר הזה: שלא יושרה שכינתי עוד על אומות העולם, אעשה, ואין דבריו של בלעם על ידי שריית שכינה, אלא נופל וגלוי עינים, כגון (איוב ד יב) ואלי דבר יגונב, שומעין על ידי שליח:
18And he said: "Show me, now, Your glory!"   יחוַיֹּאמַ֑ר הַרְאֵ֥נִי נָ֖א אֶת־כְּבֹדֶֽךָ:
And he said: “Show me, now, Your glory!”: Moses perceived that it was a time of [God’s] good will, and his words were accepted, so he continued to ask that He show him the appearance of His glory.   ויאמר הראני נא את כבודך: ראה משה שהיה עת רצון ודבריו מקובלים, והוסיף לשאול לראותו מראית כבודו:
19He said: "I will let all My goodness pass before you; I will proclaim the name of the Lord before you, and I will favor when I wish to favor, and I will have compassion when I wish to have compassion."   יטוַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֲנִ֨י אַֽעֲבִ֤יר כָּל־טוּבִי֙ עַל־פָּנֶ֔יךָ וְקָרָ֧אתִי בְשֵׁ֛ם יְהֹוָ֖ה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וְחַנֹּתִי֙ אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָחֹ֔ן וְרִֽחַמְתִּ֖י אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲרַחֵֽם:
He said: “I will let… pass before you”: The time has come that you shall see some of My glory that I will permit you to see, because I want and I need to teach you the order of prayer. Because when you had to beg mercy for Israel, you begged Me to remember the merit of the Patriarchs. You think that if the merit of the Patriarchs is depleted, there is no longer any hope. I will [therefore] let all the attribute of My goodness pass before you while you are hidden in a cave.   ויאמר אני אעביר וגו': הגיעה שעה, שתראה בכבודי מה שארשה אותך לראות, לפי שאני רוצה וצריך ללמדך סדר תפלה, שכשנצרכת לבקש רחמים על ישראל, הזכרת לי זכות אבות, כסבור אתה, שאם תמה זכות אבות אין עוד תקוה, אני אעביר כל מדת טובי לפניך על הצור, ואתה צפון במערה:
I will proclaim the name of the Lord before you: to teach you the procedure for begging for compassion [i.e., praying] even if the merit of the Patriarchs is depleted. According to this procedure, [during] which you [will] see Me enwrapped [see commentary on Exod. 34:6] and proclaiming the Thirteen Attributes, teach the Israelites to do likewise. Through their mentioning before Me [the words] “Compassionate and gracious,” they will be answered, for My compassion never ends. -[from Rosh Hashanah 17b]   וקראתי בשם ה' לפניך: ללמדך סדר בקשת רחמים אף אם תכלה זכות אבות, וכסדר זה שאתה רואה אותי מעוטף וקרא י"ג מדות הוי מלמד את ישראל לעשות כן, ועל ידי שיזכירו לפני רחום וחנון יהיו נענין כי רחמי לא כלים:
and I will favor when I wish to favor: [At] those times that I will want to [show] favor.   וחנתי את אשר אחן: אותן פעמים שארצה לחון:
and I will have compassion: At the time I will want to have compassion. Until this point, He promised him [Moses] only that “at times I will answer, and at times I will not answer.” At the time of the deed [when God revealed to Moses the Thirteen Attributes], however, He said to him, “Behold! I will form a covenant” (Exod. 34:10). He promised him that they [the Israelites] would never return empty [i.e., without an answer to their prayers]. -[from Rosh Hashanah 17b]   ורחמתי: עת שאחפוץ לרחם. עד כאן לא הבטיחו אלא עתים אענה עתים לא אענה, אבל בשעת מעשה אמר לו (שמות לד י) הנה אנכי כורת ברית, הבטיחו שאינן חוזרות ריקם:

Third Portion

Exodus Chapter 33

20And He said, "You will not be able to see My face, for man shall not see Me and live."   כוַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לִרְאֹ֣ת אֶת־פָּנָ֑י כִּ֛י לֹֽא־יִרְאַ֥נִי הָֽאָדָ֖ם וָחָֽי:
And He said, “You will not be able…”: Even when I let all My goodness pass before you, I [still] do not grant you permission to see My face.   ויאמר לא תוכל וגו': אף כשאעביר כל טובי על פניך איני נותן לך רשות לראות את פני:
21And the Lord said: "Behold, there is a place with Me, and you shall stand on the rock.   כאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֔ה הִנֵּ֥ה מָק֖וֹם אִתִּ֑י וְנִצַּבְתָּ֖ עַל־הַצּֽוּר:
Behold, there is a place with Me: on the mountain, where I always speak to you. I have a place prepared for your benefit, where I will hide you so that you will not be hurt, and from there you shall see what you shall see. This is its simple meaning, but its midrashic meaning is that [God] is speaking of the place where the Shechinah is, and He says: “The place is with Me,” but He does not say: “I am in the place,” for the Holy One, blessed is He, is the place of the world [i.e., the world is within Him], but the world is not His place [i.e., the world does not encompass him] (Gen. Rabbah 68:9).   הנה מקום אתי: בהר אשר אני מדבר עמך תמיד, יש מקום מוכן לי לצרכך שאטמינך שם שלא תזוק, ומשם תראה מה שתראה, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו על מקום שהשכינה שם מדבר ואומר המקום אתי, ואיני אומר אני במקום, שהקב"ה מקומו של עולם ואין עולמו מקומו:
22And it shall be that when My glory passes by, I will place you into the cleft of the rock, and I will cover you with My hand until I have passed by.   כבוְהָיָה֙ בַּֽעֲבֹ֣ר כְּבֹדִ֔י וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךָ בְּנִקְרַ֣ת הַצּ֑וּר וְשַׂכֹּתִ֥י כַפִּ֛י עָלֶ֖יךָ עַד־עָבְרִֽי:
when My glory passes by: When I pass by before you.   בעבור כבודי: כשאעבור לפניך:
into the cleft of the rock: Heb. בְּנִקְרַתהַצוּר, like [the following verses:] Even if you pick out תִּנַקֵּר those people’s eyes” (Num. 16:14); “May the ravens of the valley pick it out (יִקְּרוּה) ” (Prov. 30:17); [and] “I dug (קַרְתִּי) and drank water” (Isa. 37:25). [All] these [examples] have one root (קר). נִקְרַת הַצוּר means the digging out of the rock [i.e., the cleft].   בנקרת הצור: כמו (במדבר טז יד) העיני האנשים ההם תנקר, (משלי ל יז) יקרוה עורבי נחל, (מלכים ב' יט כד) אני קרתי ושתיתי מים, גזרה אחת להם, נקרת הצור כריית הצור:
and I will cover you with My hand: From here [we understand] that power was given to destructive forces to destroy [Moses] (Num. Rabbah 14:19). Its Aramaic translation is וְאָגֵין בְּמֵימְרִי, and I will protect with My word. This is a euphemism out of honor of the Most High, for He does not need to cover over him [Moses] with an actual hand.   ושכתי כפי: מכאן שנתנה רשות למחבלים לחבל, ותרגומו ואגין במימרי, כנוי הוא לדרך כבוד של מעלה, שאינו צריך לסוכך עליו בכף ממש:
23Then I will remove My hand, and you will see My back but My face shall not be seen."   כגוַֽהֲסִֽרֹתִי֙ אֶת־כַּפִּ֔י וְרָאִ֖יתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָ֑י וּפָנַ֖י לֹ֥א יֵֽרָאֽוּ:
Then I will remove My hand: [Onkelos renders:] Then I will remove the guidance [i.e., My guidance] of My glory, when the guidance of My glory passes by from opposite your face, to go further from there [this means that even Moses would not be permitted to grasp the essence of God, only His attributes and His deeds (Nethinah LaGer)].   והסרותי את כפי: ואעדי ית דברת יקרי, כשאסלק הנהגת כבודי מנגד פניך ללכת משם ולהלן:
and you will see My back: [Then] He showed him the knot of the tefillin. -[from Ber. 7a]   וראית את אחורי: הראהו קשר של תפילין:

Fourth Portion

Exodus Chapter 34

1And the Lord said to Moses: "Hew for yourself two stone tablets like the first ones. And I will inscribe upon the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה פְּסָל־לְךָ֛ שְׁנֵֽי־לֻחֹ֥ת אֲבָנִ֖ים כָּרִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים וְכָֽתַבְתִּי֙ עַל־הַלֻּחֹ֔ת אֶת־הַ֨דְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֛וּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹ֥ת הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר שִׁבַּֽרְתָּ:
Hew for yourself: Heb. פְּסָל לְ. He [God] showed him [Moses] a sapphire mine from within his tent, and He said to him, “The [sapphire] chips shall be yours,” and from there Moses became very wealthy. -[from Tanchuma 29, Lev. Rabbah 32:2]   פסל לך: הראהו מחצב סנפירינון מתוך אהלו, ואמר לו הפסולת יהיה שלך, ומשם נתעשר משה הרבה:
Hew for yourself: You broke the first ones. You hew others for yourself. This can be compared to a king who went abroad and left his betrothed with the maidservants. Because of the immoral behavior of the maidservants, she acquired a bad reputation. Her bridesman [the person appointed to defend the bride should any problems arise] arose and tore up her marriage contract. He said, “If the king decides to kill her, I will say to him, ‘She is not yet your wife.’” The king investigated and discovered that only the maidservants were guilty of immoral behavior. He [therefore] became appeased to her. So her bridesman said to him, “Write her another marriage contract because the first one was torn up.” The king replied to him, “You tore it up. You buy yourself another [sheet of] paper, and I will write to her with my [personal] hand [writing].” Likewise, the king represents the Holy One, blessed is He. The maidservants represent the mixed multitude. The bridesman is Moses, and the betrothed of the Holy One, blessed is He, is Israel. That is why it says: “Hew for yourself.” -[from Tanchuma 30]   פסל לך: אתה שברת הראשונות, אתה פסל לך אחרות. משל למלך שהלך למדינת הים והניח ארוסתו עם השפחות, מתוך קלקול השפחות יצא עליה שם רע, עמד שושבינה וקרע כתובתה, אמר אם יאמר המלך להורגה אומר לו עדיין אינה אשתך. בדק המלך ומצא, שלא היה הקלקול אלא מן השפחות, נתרצה לה. אמר לו שושבינה כתוב לה כתובה אחרת, שנקרעה הראשונה. אמר לו המלך אתה קרעת אותה, אתה קנה לך נייר אחר, ואני אכתוב לה בכתב ידי, כן המלך זה הקדוש ברוך הוא, השפחות אלו ערב רב, והשושבין זה משה, ארוסתו של הקדוש ברוך הוא אלו ישראל, לכך נאמר פסל לך:
2Be prepared for the morning, and in the morning you shall ascend Mount Sinai and stand before Me there on the top of the mountain.   בוֶֽהְיֵ֥ה נָכ֖וֹן לַבֹּ֑קֶר וְעָלִ֤יתָ בַבֹּ֨קֶר֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר סִינַ֔י וְנִצַּבְתָּ֥ לִ֛י שָׁ֖ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָהָֽר:
prepared: Heb. נָכוֹן, ready.   נכון: מזומן:
3No one shall ascend with you, neither shall anyone be seen anywhere on the mountain, neither shall the sheep and the cattle graze facing that mountain."   גוְאִישׁ֙ לֹא־יַֽעֲלֶ֣ה עִמָּ֔ךְ וְגַם־אִ֥ישׁ אַל־יֵרָ֖א בְּכָל־הָהָ֑ר גַּם־הַצֹּ֤אן וְהַבָּקָר֙ אַל־יִרְע֔וּ אֶל־מ֖וּל הָהָ֥ר הַהֽוּא:
No one shall ascend with you: Since the first ones [i.e., tablets] were accompanied by loud noises, sounds, and with a multitude, the evil eye affected them. [Our conclusion is that] there is nothing better than modesty. -[from Tanchuma 30]   ואיש לא יעלה עמך: הראשונות על ידי שהיו בתשואות וקולות וקהלה, שלטה בהן עין רעה, אין לך מדה יפה מן הצניעות:

Fifth Portion

Exodus Chapter 34

4So he [Moses] hewed two stone tablets like the first ones, and Moses arose early in the morning and ascended Mount Sinai as the Lord had commanded him, and he took two stone tablets in his hand.   דוַיִּפְסֹ֡ל שְׁנֵֽי־לֻחֹ֨ת אֲבָנִ֜ים כָּרִֽאשֹׁנִ֗ים וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם משֶׁ֤ה בַבֹּ֨קֶר֙ וַיַּ֨עַל֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר סִינַ֔י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֹת֑וֹ וַיִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָד֔וֹ שְׁנֵ֖י לֻחֹ֥ת אֲבָנִֽים:
5And the Lord descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and He called out in the name of the Lord.   הוַיֵּ֤רֶד יְהֹוָה֙ בֶּֽעָנָ֔ן וַיִּתְיַצֵּ֥ב עִמּ֖וֹ שָׁ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֥א בְשֵׁ֖ם יְהֹוָֽה:
and He called out in the name of the Lord: We render: וּקְרָא בִשְׁמָא דַיְיָ, and he called out in the name of the Lord. [from Onkelos]   ויקרא בשם ה': מתרגמינן וקרא בשמא דה':
6And the Lord passed before him and proclaimed: Lord, Lord, benevolent God, Who is compassionate and gracious, slow to anger and abundant in loving kindness and truth,   ווַיַּֽעֲבֹ֨ר יְהֹוָ֥ה | עַל־פָּנָיו֘ וַיִּקְרָא֒ יְהֹוָ֣ה | יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֥ל רַח֖וּם וְחַנּ֑וּן אֶ֥רֶךְ אַפַּ֖יִם וְרַב־חֶ֥סֶד וֶֽאֱמֶֽת:
Lord, Lord: This is God's Attribute of Compassion. [It is repeated,] once for before the person sins, and once for after he sins and repents.   ה' ה': מדת הרחמים היא, אחת קודם שיחטא, ואחת אחר שיחטא וישוב:
God: Heb. אֵל. This too is an attribute of compassion [for God], and so he [the Psalmist] says: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?” (Ps. 22:2). One cannot say to the Divine attribute of justice, “Why have You forsaken me?” I found this in the Mechilta (Exod. 15:2).   אל: אף זו מדת רחמים, וכן הוא אומר (תהלים כב ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני, ואין לומר למדת הדין למה עזבני כך מצאתי במכילתא:
slow to anger: He puts off His anger and does not hasten to exact retribution, [hoping that] perhaps he [the sinner] will repent.   ארך אפים: מאריך אפו ואינו ממהר ליפרע, שמא יעשה תשובה:
and abundant in loving-kindness: for those who need loving-kindness because they lack sufficient merits. -[from R.H. 17a]   ורב חסד: לצריכים חסד, שאין להם זכיות כל כך:
and truth: to pay a good reward to those who do His will.   ואמת: לשלם שכר טוב לעושי רצונו:
7preserving loving kindness for thousands, forgiving iniquity and rebellion and sin; yet He does not completely clear [of sin] He visits the iniquity of parents on children and children's children, to the third and fourth generations."   זנֹצֵ֥ר חֶ֨סֶד֙ לָֽאֲלָפִ֔ים נֹשֵׂ֥א עָוֹ֛ן וָפֶ֖שַׁע וְחַטָּאָ֑ה וְנַקֵּה֙ לֹ֣א יְנַקֶּ֔ה פֹּקֵ֣ד | עֲוֹ֣ן אָב֗וֹת עַל־בָּנִים֙ וְעַל־בְּנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֖ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִֽים:
preserving loving-kindness: that a person does before Him.   נצר חסד: שהאדם עושה לפניו:
for thousands: For two thousand generations.   לאלפים: לשני אלפים דורות:
[iniquity and rebellion]: Iniquities (עִוֹנוֹת) are intentional sins. פְּשָׁעִים are sins committed out of rebellion, which a person commits [in order] to anger [God]. -[from Yoma 36b]   עון ופשע: עונות אלו הזדונות. פשעים אלו המרדים, שאדם עושה להכעיס:
yet He does not completely clear [of sin]: Heb. וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה. According to its simple interpretation, it means that He does not completely overlook the iniquity but exacts retribution for it little by little. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted [this expression to mean]: He clears those who repent, but does not clear those who do not repent (from Yoma 86a, targumim).   ונקה לא ינקה: לפי פשוטו משמע, שאינו מוותר על העון לגמרי, אלא נפרע ממנו מעט מעט. ורבותינו דרשו מנקה הוא לשבים ולא ינקה לשאינן שבים:
He visits the iniquity of parents on the children: when they hold onto the deeds of their parents in their hands [i.e., emulate their ways], for He already explained this in another verse, [that it means only] “of those who hate Me” (Exod. 20:5). -[from Ber. 7a]   פקד עון אבות על בנים: כשאוחזים מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם, שכבר פירש במקרא אחר (שמות כ ד) לשונאי:
and fourth generations: Heb. וְעַל רִבֵּעִים, the fourth generation. Thus, the [i.e., God’s] attribute of goodness exceeds the attribute of retribution by a ratio of one to five hundred. Concerning the attribute of goodness, He says: “preserving loving-kindness for thousands.” -[from Tosefta, Sotah 4:1]   ועל רבעים: דור רביעי, נמצאת מדה טובה מרובה על מדת פורענות אחת לחמש מאות, שבמדה טובה הוא אומר נוצר חסד לאלפים:
8And Moses hastened, bowed his head to the ground and prostrated himself,   חוַיְמַהֵ֖ר משֶׁ֑ה וַיִּקֹּ֥ד אַ֖רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּֽחוּ:
And Moses hastened: When Moses saw the Shechinah passing [in front of him] and he heard the voice calling, he immediately prostrated himself.   וימהר משה: כשראה משה שכינה עוברת ושמע קול הקריאה, מיד וישתחו:
9and said: "If I have now found favor in Your eyes, O Lord, let the Lord go now in our midst [even] if they are a stiff necked people, and You shall forgive our iniquity and our sin and thus secure us as Your possession."   טוַיֹּ֡אמֶר אִם־נָא֩ מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֨יךָ֙ אֲדֹנָ֔י יֵֽלֶךְ־נָ֥א אֲדֹנָ֖י בְּקִרְבֵּ֑נוּ כִּ֤י עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹ֨רֶף֙ ה֔וּא וְסָֽלַחְתָּ֛ לַֽעֲו‍ֹנֵ֥נוּ וּלְחַטָּאתֵ֖נוּ וּנְחַלְתָּֽנוּ:
let the Lord go now in our midst: As You promised us, since You forgive iniquity. [Which means:] and if they are a stiff-necked people, and they rebelled against You, and You have said concerning this, “Lest I destroy you on the way” (Exod. 33:3), You [still] will forgive our iniquity, etc. There are [other instances where] כִּי [is used] instead of אִם if.   ילך נא ה' בקרבנו: כמו שהבטחת, מאחר שאתה נושא עון, ואם עם קשה עורף הוא וימרו בך, ואמרת על זאת פן אכלך בדרך, אתה תסלח לעונינו. ויש כי במקום אם:
and thus secure us as Your possession: And You shall give us to Yourself as a special possession. (Other editions read: and You shall give us a special possession.) That is the [same] request of: “Then I and Your people will be distinguished” (Exod. 33:16), [meaning] that the Shechinah should not rest upon the pagan nations.   ונחלתנו: ותתננו לך לנחלה מיוחדת, זו היא בקשת ונפלינו אני ועמך, שלא תשרה שכינתך על האומות:
10And He said: "Behold! I will form a covenant; in the presence of all your people, I will make distinctions such as have not been created upon all the earth and among all the nations, and all the people in whose midst you are shall see the work of the Lord how awe inspiring it is that which I will perform with you.   יוַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֣ה אָנֹכִי֘ כֹּרֵ֣ת בְּרִית֒ נֶ֤גֶד כָּל־עַמְּךָ֙ אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֣ה נִפְלָאֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־נִבְרְא֥וּ בְכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ וּבְכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְרָאָ֣ה כָל־הָ֠עָ֠ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֨ה בְקִרְבּ֜וֹ אֶת־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־נוֹרָ֣א ה֔וּא אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י עֹשֶׂ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ:
[I will] form a covenant: Concerning this.   כורת ברית: על זאת:
in the presence of all your people, I will make distinctions: Heb. נִפְלָאֹת אֶעֱשִֶׂה, an expression related to וְנִפְלִינוּ, “and [we] shall be distinguished” (Exod. 33:16), [meaning] that you shall be separated from all the pagan nations, that My Shechinah shall not rest upon them [these other nations].   אעשה נפלאות: לשון ונפלינו שתהיו מובדלים בזו מכל האומות, שלא תשרה שכינתי עליהם:

Sixth Portion

Exodus Chapter 34

11Keep carefully what I am commanding you today: Lo! I will drive out from before you the Amorites and the Canaanites, the Hittites and the Perizzites, the Hivvites and the Jebusites.   יאשְׁמָ֨ר־לְךָ֔ אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוְּךָ֣ הַיּ֑וֹם הִֽנְנִ֧י גֹרֵ֣שׁ מִפָּנֶ֗יךָ אֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֔י וְהַֽחִתִּי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי:
the Amorites…: Six nations are [enumerated] here [not the proverbial seven], because the Girgashites [i.e., the seventh nation] got up and emigrated because of them [the Israelites]. -[from Lev. Rabbah 17:6, Yerushalmi Shevi ith 6:1.]   את האמרי וגו': שש אומות יש כאן, כי הגרגשי עמד ופנה מפניהם:
12Beware lest you form a covenant with the inhabitant[s] of the land into which you are coming, lest it become a snare in your midst.   יבהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹ֤ת בְּרִית֙ לְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה בָּ֣א עָלֶ֑יהָ פֶּן־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְמוֹקֵ֖שׁ בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
13But you shall demolish their altars, shatter their monuments, and cut down their sacred trees.   יגכִּ֤י אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם֙ תִּתֹּצ֔וּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּֽבֹתָ֖ם תְּשַׁבֵּר֑וּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָ֖יו תִּכְרֹתֽוּן:
their sacred trees: This is a tree they worship.   אשריו: הוא אילן שעובדים אותו:
14For you shall not prostrate yourself before another god, because the Lord, Whose Name is "Jealous One," is a jealous God.   ידכִּ֛י לֹ֥א תִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֖ה לְאֵ֣ל אַחֵ֑ר כִּ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ קַנָּ֣א שְׁמ֔וֹ אֵ֥ל קַנָּ֖א הֽוּא:
Whose Name is “Jealous One”: He is zealous to mete out retribution, and He is not indulgent. That is [the meaning of] every expression of jealousy (קִנְאָה) [when used in connection with God]. [It] means that He is steadfast in His superiority [over other deities] and exacts retribution upon those who forsake Him.   קנא שמו: מקנא להפרע ואינו מוותר, וזהו כל לשון קנאה, אוחז נצחונו ופורע מעוזביו:
15Lest you form a covenant with the inhabitant[s] of the land, and they [the gentiles] go astray after their gods, and they offer sacrifices to their gods, and they invite you, and you eat of their slaughtering,   טופֶּן־תִּכְרֹ֥ת בְּרִ֖ית לְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֑רֶץ וְזָנ֣וּ | אַֽחֲרֵ֣י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֗ם וְזָבְחוּ֙ לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם וְקָרָ֣א לְךָ֔ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֖ מִזִּבְחֽוֹ:
and you eat of their slaughtering: You [may] think that there is no punishment for eating it, but [when you eat it] I consider it for you as if you endorsed its worship, for through this [eating of the sacrifice] you will come to take from their daughters for your sons.   ואכלת מזבחו: כסבור אתה שאין עונש באכילתו, ואני מעלה עליך כמודה בעבודתם, שמתוך כך אתה בא ולוקח מבנותיו לבניך:
16and you take of their daughters for your sons; then their daughters will go astray after their gods and lead your sons astray after their gods.   טזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֥ מִבְּנֹתָ֖יו לְבָנֶ֑יךָ וְזָנ֣וּ בְנֹתָ֗יו אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ן וְהִזְנוּ֙ אֶת־בָּנֶ֔יךָ אַֽחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽן:
17You shall not make molten gods for yourself.   יזאֱלֹהֵ֥י מַסֵּכָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ:

Seventh Portion

Exodus Chapter 34

18The Festival of Unleavened Cakes you shall keep; seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes which I have commanded you, at the appointed meeting time of the month of spring, for in the month of spring you went out of Egypt.   יחאֶת־חַ֣ג הַמַּצּוֹת֘ תִּשְׁמֹר֒ שִׁבְעַ֨ת יָמִ֜ים תֹּאכַ֤ל מַצּוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֔ךָ לְמוֹעֵ֖ד חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֑יב כִּ֚י בְּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב יָצָ֖אתָ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
the month of spring: The month of early ripening, when the grain first ripens.   חדש האביב: חדש הביכור, שהתבואה מבכרת בבישולה:
19All that opens the womb is Mine, and all your livestock [that] bears a male, [by] the emergence of ox or lamb.   יטכָּל־פֶּ֥טֶר רֶ֖חֶם לִ֑י וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ֙ תִּזָּכָ֔ר פֶּ֖טֶר שׁ֥וֹר וָשֶֽׂה:
All that opens the womb is Mine: Among humans.   כל פטר רחם לי: באדם:
and all your livestock [that] bears a male…: Heb. תִּזָּכָר. And all your livestock that bears a [firstborn] male by the emergence of an ox or lamb [from the womb], meaning that a male will open its womb [i.e., its firstborn is a male].   וכל מקנך תזכר וגו': וכל מקנך אשר תזכר בפטר שור ושה, אשר יפטור זכר את רחמה:
emergence: Heb. פֶּטֶר, a word that means opening. Similarly, “The beginning of strife is like letting out (פּוֹטֵר) water” (Prov. 17:14). The “tav” of תִּזָּכָר is an expression of the feminine, referring to the [animal] that gives birth.   פטר: לשון פתיחה, וכן (משלי יז יד) פוטר מים ראשית מדון. תי"ו של תזכר לשון נקבה היא, מוסב על היולדת:
20And a firstborn donkey you shall redeem with a lamb; if you do not redeem it, you shall decapitate it; every firstborn of your sons you shall redeem, and they shall not appear before Me empty handed.   כוּפֶ֤טֶר חֲמוֹר֙ תִּפְדֶּ֣ה בְשֶׂ֔ה וְאִם־לֹ֥א תִפְדֶּ֖ה וַֽעֲרַפְתּ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל בְּכ֤וֹר בָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ תִּפְדֶּ֔ה וְלֹא־יֵֽרָא֥וּ פָנַ֖י רֵיקָֽם:
And a firstborn donkey: But not [the firstborn of] other unclean animals. -[from Bech. 5b]   ופטר חמור: ולא שאר בהמה טמאה:
you shall redeem with a lamb: [The owner] gives a lamb to the kohen, and it [becomes] the ordinary [unconsecrated] property of the kohen, and the firstborn donkey may be put to work by its owner. -[from Bech. 9b]   תפדה בשה: נותן שה לכהן, והוא חולין ביד כהן, ופטר חמור מותר בעבודה לבעלים:
you shall decapitate it: He decapitates it with a cleaver. [The rationale is:] He caused the kohen to lose his money [by neglecting to give him the redemption lamb]. Therefore, he must lose his own money [by decapitating his donkey]. -[from Bech. 10b, Mechilta on Exod. 13:13]   וערפתו: עורפו בקופיץ, הוא הפסיד ממון כהן, לפיכך יופסד ממונו:
every firstborn of your sons you shall redeem: His redemption is established as five selas, as it is said: “And his redemption you shall perform from the age of one month [by the evaluation of five shekels, etc.]” (Num. 18:16).   כל בכור בניך תפדה: חמישה סלעים פדיונו קצוב, שנאמר (במדבר יח טז) ופדויו מבן חדש תפדה:
and they shall not appear before Me empty-handed: According to the simple meaning of the verse, this is a separate matter [from the rest of this verse] and is unrelated to the firstborn, because there is no obligation to appear [in the Temple] in the commandment dealing with the firstborn. Instead this is another warning, [meaning] and when you ascend [to the Temple] on the festivals, you shall not appear before Me empty-handed, [but] it is incumbent upon you to bring burnt offerings (Chag. 7a) whenever appearing before God. According to the way it is interpreted by a Baraitha, this is a superfluous verse [for this was already stated in Exod. 23:15], and it is free [i.e., has no additional reason for being here other than] to be used for a גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, [i.e.,] an instance of similar wording, to teach [us] about the provisions given a Hebrew slave [when he is freed]-that it is five selas from each kind [i.e., of sheep, grain, and wine], as much as the redemption of a firstborn. [This is elaborated upon] in tractate Kiddushin (17a).   ולא יראו פני ריקם: לפי פשוטו של מקרא דבר בפני עצמו הוא, ואינו מוסב על הבכור, שאין במצות בכור ראיית בפנים, אלא אזהרה אחרת היא וכשתעלו לרגל לראות לא יראו פני ריקם, מצוה עליכם להביא עולת ראיית פנים, ולפי מדרש ברייתא מקרא יתר הוא, ומופנה לגזרה שוה, ללמד על הענקתו של עבד עברי שהיא חמשה סלעים מכל מין ומין, כפידיון בכור, במסכת קדושין (דף יז א):
21Six days you may work, and on the seventh day you shall rest; in plowing and in harvest you shall rest.   כאשֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת בֶּֽחָרִ֥ישׁ וּבַקָּצִ֖יר תִּשְׁבֹּֽת:
in plowing and in harvest you shall rest: [If this refers to the Sabbath,] why are plowing and harvest mentioned [in particular, and not other kinds of work]? Some of our Rabbis say that this [verse prohibits] plowing before the seventh year [i.e., the sixth year] which enters the seventh year [i.e., plowing that benefits crops that grow in the seventh year], and the harvest of the seventh year that grows after the seventh year [i.e., crops that have at least one third of their growth during the seventh year must be treated with the sanctity of the seventh year]. This is to teach you that we must add from the unholy [the year preceding the seventh year] to the holy [the seventh year]. Accordingly, this is its meaning: “Six days you may work, and on the seventh day you shall rest” -and [concerning] the work of the six days, which I have permitted you, there is a year in which plowing and harvest are prohibited. The plowing and harvest of the seventh year need not be stated, because it already says: “Your field you shall not sow…” (Lev. 25:4). [Consequently, we deduce that this verse means the plowing before the seventh year and the harvest after the seventh year.] Others [of the Rabbis] say that [the verse] speaks only about the [weekly] Sabbath, and the plowing and harvest mentioned in its context are to inform you that just as [the prohibited] plowing is optional [plowing], so is harvest [referred to here] optional [harvesting]. The harvest of the omer [however] is excluded [from this prohibition] because it is mandatory, and [consequently] it supersedes the Sabbath. -[from R.H. 9a]   בחריש ובקציר תשבות: למה נזכר חריש וקציר, יש מרבותינו אומרים על חריש של ערב שביעית הנכנס לשביעית, וקציר של שביעית היוצא למוצאי שביעית, ללמדך שמוסיפין מחול על הקדש. וכך משמעו, ששת ימים תעבוד וביום השביעי תשבות ועבודת ששת הימים שהתרתי לך יש שנה שהחריש והקציר אסור, ואין צריך לומר חריש וקציר של שביעית, שהרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא כה ד) שדך לא תזרע וגו' ויש מהם אומרים, שאינו מדבר אלא בשבת, וחריש וקציר שהוזכר בו, לומר לך מה חריש רשות אף קציר רשות, יצא קציר העומר, שהוא מצוה ודוחה את השבת:
22And you shall make for yourself a Festival of Weeks, the first of the wheat harvest, and the festival of the ingathering, at the turn of the year.   כבוְחַ֤ג שָֽׁבֻעֹת֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לְךָ֔ בִּכּוּרֵ֖י קְצִ֣יר חִטִּ֑ים וְחַג֙ הָ֣אָסִ֔יף תְּקוּפַ֖ת הַשָּׁנָֽה:
the first of the wheat harvest: [This is the festival] on which you bring the two breads made from the wheat [as in Lev. 23:17].   בכורי קציר חטים: שאתה מביא בו שתי הלחם מן החטים:
the first: For it is the first meal offering brought to Temple from the new wheat crop, because the meal offering of the omer on Passover is brought from the barley. -[from Men. 84a]   בכורי: שהיא מנחה ראשונה הבאה מן החדש של חטים למקדש, כי מנחת העומר הבאה בפסח מן השעורים היא:
and the festival of the ingathering: Heb. וְחַג הָאָָסִיף, [which occurs] at the time you gather your grain from the field into the house. This gathering (אִסִיפָה) is a term denoting bringing into the house, like “you shall take it (וַאִסַפְתּוֹ) into your house” (Deut. 22:2).   וחג האסיף: בזמן שאתה אוסף תבואתך מן השדה לבית. אסיפה זו לשון הכנסה לבית, כמו (דברים כב ב) ואספתו אל תוך ביתך:
at the turn of the year: which is at the return of the year, at the beginning of the coming year. [I.e., it is in the month of Tishri, which is the first month of the year, counting from Creation.]   תקופת השנה: שהיא בחזרת השנה, בתחלת השנה הבאה:
at the turn of: Heb. תְּקוּפַת, a term denoting going around and encompassing (הַקָּפָה) [i.e., going in a circle].   תקופת: לשון מסיבה והקפה:
23Three times during the year shall all your male[s] appear directly before the Master, the Lord, the God of Israel.   כגשָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה יֵֽרָאֶה֙ כָּל־זְכ֣וּרְךָ֔ אֶת־פְּנֵ֛י הָֽאָדֹ֥ן | יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
all your male[s]: Heb. כָּל זְכוּרְ, all the males among you. [This is repeated elsewhere as are] many commandments in the Torah, [which] are stated and repeated, many of them three or four times, in order to cause liability and mete out punishment according to the number of the negative commandments they contain and the number of positive commandments they contain.   כל זכורך: כל הזכרים שבך. הרבה מצות בתורה נאמרו ונכפלו, ויש מהם שלש פעמים וארבע, לחייב ולענוש על מנין לאוין שבהם ועל מנין עשה שבהם:
24When I drive out nations from before you and I widen your border, no one will covet your land when you go up, to appear before the Lord, your God, three times each year.   כדכִּֽי־אוֹרִ֤ישׁ גּוֹיִם֙ מִפָּנֶ֔יךָ וְהִרְחַבְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּבֻלֶ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־יַחְמֹ֥ד אִישׁ֙ אֶת־אַרְצְךָ֔ בַּֽעֲלֹֽתְךָ֗ לֵֽרָאוֹת֙ אֶת־פְּנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ שָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָֽה:
I drive out: Heb. אוֹרִישׁ as the Targum renders: אִתָרֵ, I will drive out, and so is “begin to drive out (רָשׁ) ” (Deut. 2:31), and so is “and he drove out (וַיוֹרֶשׁ) the Amorites” (Num. 21:32), an expression of driving out.   אוריש: כתרגומו אתרך, וכן (דברים ב לא) החל רש, וכן (במדבר כא לב) ויורש את האמורי, לשון גרושין:
and I widen your border: And [this way] you will be far from the Temple, and [so] you cannot constantly appear before Me. Therefore, I am setting these three pilgrimage festivals for you.   והרחבתי את גבלך: ואתה רחוק מבית הבחירה ואינך יכול לראות לפני תמיד, לכך אני קובע לך שלש רגלים הללו:
25You shall not slaughter [or sprinkle] the blood of My sacrifice with leaven, and the offering of the Passover feast shall not remain overnight until the morning.   כהלֹֽא־תִשְׁחַ֥ט עַל־חָמֵ֖ץ דַּם־זִבְחִ֑י וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֣ין לַבֹּ֔קֶר זֶ֖בַח חַ֥ג הַפָּֽסַח:
You shall not slaughter…: You shall not slaughter the Passover sacrifice as long as leaven still exists. This is a [specific] warning to the slaughterer, to the one who sprinkles the blood, or to one of the members of the group [bringing this sacrifice]. -[from Pes. 63b]   לא תשחט וגו': לא תשחט את הפסח ועדיין חמץ קיים, אזהרה לשוחט או לזורק או לאחד מבני החבורה:
shall not remain overnight until the morning: As the Targum [Onkelos] paraphrases: [it shall not remain overnight until the morning away from the altar]. Remaining overnight on top of the altar has no effect [i.e., does not disqualify the sacrifice] (Mechilta, Exodus 23:18), and [the prohibition of] staying overnight is only completed at the break of dawn (Zev. 87a).   ולא ילין: כתרגומו. אין לינה מועלת בראש המזבח, ואין לינה אלא בעמוד השחר:
and the offering of the Passover feast: [This refers to] its sacrificial parts. From here you learn [to apply this rule to all instances of] burning the fats or the limbs [of sacrifices, namely that it may not be performed after the break of dawn if the sacrificial parts stayed off the altar all night until the break of dawn].   זבח חג הפסח: אימוריו, ומכאן אתה למד לכל הקטר חלבים ואברים:
26The choicest of the first of your soil you shall bring to the house of the Lord, your God. You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk."   כורֵאשִׁ֗ית בִּכּוּרֵי֙ אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ תָּבִ֕יא בֵּ֖ית יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּֽחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ:
The choicest of the first of your soil: [This refers to the fruits] of the seven species delineated as the praise of your land, “A land of wheat and barley, vines, [figs, and pomegranates, a land of oil-producing olives,] and honey” (Deut. 8:8). That is the honey of dates. -[from Bikkurim 3:1]   ראשית בכורי אדמתך: משבעת המינין האמורים בשבח ארצך (דברים ח ח) ארץ חטה ושעורה וגפן ותאנה ורמון, ארץ זית שמן ודבש, הוא דבש תמרים:
You shall not cook a kid: This is the warning against [cooking] meat and milk [together]. This commandment is written in the Torah three times (Exod. 23:19, Deut. 14:21), one for eating, one for deriving benefit, and one for the prohibition of cooking. -[from Chul. 115b]   לא תבשל גדי: אזהרה לבשר בחלב, ושלוש פעמים כתוב בתורה אחד לאכילה, ואחד להנאה, ואחד לאיסור בישול:
a kid: Heb. גְּדִי. Any young offspring is meant, even a calf or a lamb. Since [the Torah] had to specify in many places גְּדִי עִזִּים [when a young goat is meant], you learn that [mention of] גְּדִי unqualified means all sucklings. -[from Chul. 113b]   גדי: כל ולד רך במשמע ואף עגל וכבש. ממה שהוצרך לפרש בכמה מקומות (בראשית לח יז) גדי עזים, למדת שגדי סתם כל יונקים במשמע:
in its mother’s milk: This excludes fowl, which has no milk, which is not prohibited by the Torah but by the decree of the Scribes [the Sages]. -[from Chul. 113a]   בחלב אמו: פרט לעוף שאין לו חלב אם, שאין איסורו מן התורה אלא מדברי סופרים:

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 29

17And on the second day, twelve young bulls, two rams, and fourteen lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   יזוּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשֵּׁנִ֗י פָּרִ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־בָקָ֛ר שְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:
18And their meal offerings and their libations, for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, as prescribed.   יחוּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַפָּרִ֠ים לָֽאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
And their meal-offerings and their libations, for the bulls: The seventy bulls of the [’Succoth’] festival corresponded to the seventy nations, which progressively decrease in number, symbolizing their [the nations’] destruction [Midrash Aggadah]. At the time of the Temple, they [the sacrifices] shielded them from adversity [Mid. Tehillim 109:4, Rashi on Sukkah 55b; Rashi on Ps. 109:5; Mid. Tadshei ch. 11; Pesikta d’Rav Kahana pp. 193b, 194a; Mid. Song Rabbah 4:2, Mid. Tanchuma Pinchas 16].   ומנחתם ונסכיהם לפרים: פרי החג שבעים הם. כנגד שבעים אומות שמתמעטים והולכים, סימן כליה להם, ובימי המקדש היו מגינין עליהם מן היסורין:
and for the lambs: corresponding to Israel, who are called ‘a scattered lamb’ (Jer. 50:17). Their number remains constant, and it totals ninety-eight, to counter the ninety-eight curses related in ‘Mishneh Torah’ [the Book of Deuteronomy] (28:15-68) (Mid. Aggadah). On the second day it says, וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם,“and their libations” relating to the two daily continual offerings. The language [of Scripture] varies only for expository purposes, following our Sages, of blessed memory, who said: On the second day, וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם, “and their libations”; on the sixth day, וּנְסָכֶיהָ “and its libations”; on the seventh day כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם“as prescribed for them” [instead of כַּמִּשְׁפָּט,“as prescribed”]. [The additional letters in these three words are] ‘mem’ ’yud’ ‘mem’ which form [the word] מַיִם, ‘water.’ This suggests that the [ceremony of] water libation during the festival [of 'Succoth’] is of Torah origin. — [Sifrei Pinchas 54, Ta’anith 2b]   ולכבשים: כנגד ישראל שנקראו (ירמיה נ, יז) שה פזורה, והם קבועים ומנינם תשעים ושמונה לכלות מהם תשעים ושמונה קללות שבמשנה תורה. בשני נאמר ונסכיהם על שני תמידי היום ולא שינה הלשון אלא לדרוש, כמו שאמרו רז"ל בשני ונסכיהם, בששי ונסכיה, בשביעי כמשפטם, מ"ם יו"ד מ"ם, הרי כאן מים, רמז לנסוך המים מן התורה בחג:
19And one young male goat for a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its meal offering, and their libations.   יטוּשְׂעִֽיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד חַטָּ֑את מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶֽם:
20And on the third day, eleven bulls, two rams, and fourteen lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished.   כוּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י פָּרִ֥ים עַשְׁתֵּֽי־עָשָׂ֖ר אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:
21And their meal offerings and their libations, for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, as prescribed.   כאוּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִ֠ים לָֽאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
22And one young male goat for a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its meal offering and its libation.   כבוּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:


Ezekiel Chapter 38

18And it will come to pass on that day, when Gog comes against the land of Israel, declares the Lord God, that My blazing indignation will flame in My nostrils.   יחוְהָיָ֣ה | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא בְּי֨וֹם בּ֥וֹא גוֹג֙ עַל־אַדְמַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה תַּֽעֲלֶ֥ה חֲמָתִ֖י בְּאַפִּֽי:
19For in My jealousy and in the fire of My wrath I have spoken; Surely there shall be a great noise on that day in the land of Israel.   יטוּבְקִנְאָתִ֥י בְאֵֽשׁ־עֶבְרָתִ֖י דִּבַּ֑רְתִּי אִם־לֹ֣א | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ רַ֣עַשׁ גָּד֔וֹל עַ֖ל אַדְמַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
a great noise: [Heb. רַעַשּׁ,] through noise and thunder, as he states.  
20And at My presence, the fishes of the sea and the birds of the heaven and the beasts of the field and all the creeping things that creep upon the earth and all the men who are upon the surface of the earth shall quake, and all the mountains shall be thrown down, and the cliffs shall fall to the ground.   כוְרָֽעֲשׁ֣וּ מִפָּנַ֡י דְּגֵ֣י הַיָּם֩ וְע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם וְחַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה וְכָל־הָרֶ֙מֶשׂ֙ הָֽרֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה וְכֹל֙ הָ֣אָדָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וְנֶֽהֱרְס֣וּ הֶֽהָרִ֗ים וְנָֽפְלוּ֙ הַמַּדְרֵג֔וֹת וְכָל־חוֹמָ֖ה לָאָ֥רֶץ תִּפּֽוֹל:
and the cliffs shall fall: [Heb. הַמַּדְרִגוֹת.] I heard that they are perpendicular hanging rocks, which appear to be falling, but I say that they are mounds of the towers, for they dig around and cast up the earth in the center to raise the mound, and it is made into steps, eschelons, eschillons in Old French, steps, in order that the earth remain, and after it is pressed down well, they remove the forms that hold up the step.  
21And I will call the sword against him upon all My mountains, says the Lord God: every man's sword shall be against his brother.   כאוְקָרָ֨אתִי עָלָ֚יו לְכָל־הָרַי֙ חֶ֔רֶב נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה חֶ֥רֶב אִ֖ישׁ בְּאָחִ֥יו תִּֽהְיֶֽה:
And I will call the sword against him upon all My mountains: for the sword to come upon them, against him. “And I will call” means, I will prepare. And what is the sword that I will call against him? Their own sword: “every man’s sword shall be against his brother.”  
22And I will judge against him with pestilence and with blood, and rain bringing floods, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone will I rain down upon him and upon his hordes and upon the many peoples that are with him.   כבוְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּ֥י אִתּ֖וֹ בְּדֶ֣בֶר וּבְדָ֑ם וְגֶ֣שֶׁם שׁוֹטֵף֩ וְאַבְנֵ֨י אֶלְגָּבִ֜ישׁ אֵ֣שׁ וְגָפְרִ֗ית אַמְטִ֚יר עָלָיו֙ וְעַל־אֲגַפָּ֔יו וְעַל־עַמִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ:
and great hailstones: Hailstones that glisten like precious stones named גָּבִישּׁ, crystal, as the matter is stated (Job 28:18): “Coral and crystal (וְגָּבִישּׁ).” Our Sages said (Ber. 54b): עַל גַב אִישּׁ : Hailstones that started to fall on Egypt, and stood in the air over the man (עַל גַב אִישּׁ), Moses, who prayed that they not fall, as the matter that is stated (Exod. 9:33), לֹא נִתַּ אַרְצָה“[it] did not reach the ground.”  
23And I will reveal Myself in My greatness and in My holiness and will be recognized in the eyes of many nations, and they will know that I am the Lord.   כגוְהִתְגַּדִּלְתִּי֙ וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתִּ֔י וְנ֣וֹדַעְתִּ֔י לְעֵינֵ֖י גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֑ים וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:

Ezekiel Chapter 39

1And you, Son of man, prophesy about Gog, and say; So says the Lord God: Lo! I am against you, O Gog, prince and head of Meshech and Tubal.   אוְאַתָּ֚ה בֶן־אָדָם֙ הִנָּבֵ֣א עַל־גּ֔וֹג וְאָ֣מַרְתָּ֔ כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה הִנְנִ֚י אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ גּ֔וֹג נְשִׂ֕יא רֹ֖אשׁ מֶ֥שֶׁךְ וְתֻבָֽל:
2And I will unbridle and entice you and lead you up from the utmost parts of the north and bring you upon the mountains of Israel.   בוְשֹֽׁבַבְתִּ֙יךָ֙ וְשִׁשֵּׁאתִ֔יךָ וְהַֽעֲלִיתִ֖יךָ מִיַּרְכְּתֵ֣י צָפ֑וֹן וַֽהֲבִֽאוֹתִ֖ךָ עַל־הָרֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and I will entice you: [Heb. וְשִּׁשֵּׁאתִי,] like וְהִשֵּׁאתִי, I will entice you upon My people, as in (Ps. 89:23): “No enemy will entice (יַשִׂיא) him.”  
3And I will smite the bow out of your left hand and make your arrows fall from your right hand.   גוְהִכֵּיתִ֥י קַשְׁתְּךָ֖ מִיַּ֣ד שְׂמֹאולֶ֑ךָ וְחִצֶּ֕יךָ מִיַּ֥ד יְמִֽינְךָ֖ אַפִּֽיל:
4Upon the mountains of Israel shall you fall, you and all your hordes, and the people that are with you; to the birds of prey, to all the winged creatures and the beasts of the field have I given you to be devoured.   דעַל־הָרֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל תִּפּ֗וֹל אַתָּה֙ וְכָל־אֲגַפֶּ֔יךָ וְעַמִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתָּ֑ךְ לְעֵ֨יט צִפּ֧וֹר כָּל־כָּנָ֛ף וְחַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה נְתַתִּ֥יךָ לְאָכְלָֽה:
5Upon the open field shall you fall, for I have spoken, says the Lord God.   העַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה תִּפּ֑וֹל כִּי אֲנִ֣י דִבַּ֔רְתִּי נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
6And I will send fire on Magog and on those who dwell in safety in the islands, and they will know that I am the Lord.   ווְשִׁלַּחְתִּי־אֵ֣שׁ בְּמָג֔וֹג וּבְיֹֽשְׁבֵ֥י הָֽאִיִּ֖ים לָבֶ֑טַח וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
7And I will make known My Holy Name in the midst of My people Israel, and I will no longer cause My Holy Name to be profaned, and the nations will know that I, the Lord, am holy in Israel.   זוְאֶת־שֵׁ֨ם קָדְשִׁ֜י אוֹדִ֗יעַ בְּתוֹךְ֙ עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלֹֽא־אַחֵ֥ל אֶת־שֵֽׁם־קָדְשִׁ֖י ע֑וֹד וְיָֽדְע֚וּ הַגּוֹיִם֙ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה קָד֖וֹשׁ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and I will no longer cause My Holy Name to be profaned: For Israel’s degradation is a profanation of His Name, “inasmuch as it is said of them, ‘these are the people of the Lord’” (above 36:20), and He is unable to save them.  
8Behold it is coming, and it will be, says the Lord God: that is the day whereof I have spoken.   חהִנֵּ֚ה בָאָה֙ וְנִהְיָ֔תָה נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה ה֥וּא הַיּ֖וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתִּי:
9Then the inhabitants of the cities of Israel will go forth and make fires and heat up with the weapons, the bucklers, and the encompassing shields, the bows and the arrows and the handstaves and the spears, and burn them as fires for seven years.   טוְיָֽצְא֞וּ יֹֽשְׁבֵ֣י | עָרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּבִֽעֲר֡וּ וְ֠הִשִּׂיקוּ בְּנֶ֨שֶׁק וּמָגֵ֚ן וְצִנָּה֙ בְּקֶ֣שֶׁת וּבְחִצִּ֔ים וּבְמַקֵּ֥ל יָ֖ד וּבְרֹ֑מַח וּבִֽעֲר֥וּ בָהֶ֛ם אֵ֖שׁ שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִֽים:
and heat up: [Heb. וְהִשִּׂיקוּ,] like (Orlah 3:5): “An oven that they heated up (שֶּׁהִטִיקוּהָ)” in the language of the Mishnah.  
with the weapons: [Heb. בַנֶשֶּׁק,] an armures in Old French, with weapons.  
10So that they shall carry no wood from the fields nor cut down any from the forests, for they shall make fires from the weapons. Thus will they spoil those who spoiled them and plunder those who plundered them, says the Lord God.   יוְלֹֽא־יִשְׂא֨וּ עֵצִ֜ים מִן־הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה וְלֹ֚א יַחְטְבוּ֙ מִן־הַיְּעָרִ֔ים כִּ֥י בַנֶּ֖שֶׁק יְבַֽעֲרוּ־אֵ֑שׁ וְשָֽׁלְל֣וּ אֶת־שֹֽׁלְלֵיהֶ֗ם וּבָֽזְזוּ֙ אֶת־בֹּ֣זְזֵיהֶ֔ם נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
11And it shall come to pass on that day that I will give Gog a place there as a grave in Israel, the valley of them who pass along the east side of the sea, and it will then stop those who pass along. And there shall they bury Gog and all his hordes, and they shall call it the Valley of Hamon Gog [the masses of Gog].   יאוְהָיָ֣ה בַיּ֣וֹם הַה֡וּא אֶתֵּ֣ן לְגוֹג֩ | מְקֽוֹם־שָׁ֨ם קֶ֜בֶר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל גֵּ֚י הָעֹֽבְרִים֙ קִדְמַ֣ת הַיָּ֔ם וְחֹסֶ֥מֶת הִ֖יא אֶת־הָעֹֽבְרִ֑ים וְקָ֣בְרוּ שָׁ֗ם אֶת־גּוֹג֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־הֲמוֹנ֔וֹ (כתיב הֲמוֹנֹ֔ה) וְקָ֣רְא֔וּ גֵּ֖יא הֲמ֥וֹן גּֽוֹג:
I will give Gog a place there as a grave: A place where there will be a grave for them. Since he is of the seed of Japtheth, who covered his father’s nakedness, he therefore merited burial.  
the valley of those who pass along: The valley where people pass the Sea of Kinnereth to bring from there Genossar fruits regularly.  
the east side of the sea: Jonathan renders: on the east of the Sea of Gennasar.  
and it will then stop those who pass along: [Heb. וְחֹסֶמֶת.] It closes off those who pass, like (Deut. 25:4): “You shall not muzzle (לֹא תַחְסוֹם).” Because of the many corpses that will fall there, travelers will be prevented from passing through. Therefore, they will pass by them and bury them. Menachem (p. 91) interprets it in his book (Machbereth) to mean that they will close their nose so as not to smell the odor of the corpses.  
12And seven months shall the House of Israel be burying them in order to purify the land.   יבוּקְבָרוּם֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְמַ֖עַן טַהֵ֣ר אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ שִׁבְעָ֖ה חֳדָשִֽׁים:
13They will bury all the people of the land, and they will be renowned; it is a day when I will be glorified, says the Lord God.   יגוְקָֽבְרוּ֙ כָּל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהָיָ֥ה לָהֶ֖ם לְשֵׁ֑ם יוֹם הִכָּ֣בְדִ֔י נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
They will bury all the people of the land: because they died there.  
and they will be renowned: All the nations will speak their name as praise and as a sign of kindness: “There are no nations as compassionate as this one; do you find a man who buries his enemy who rose up against him to kill him?”  
14Men of continuous employment they shall separate, who pass through the land, burying those who pass through with those who are left on the surface of the land, in order to purify it, at the end of seven months shall they search.   ידוְאַנְשֵׁ֨י תָמִ֚יד יַבְדִּ֙ילוּ֙ עֹֽבְרִ֣ים בָּאָ֔רֶץ מְקַבְּרִ֣ים אֶת־הָעֹֽבְרִ֗ים אֶת־הַנּֽוֹתָרִ֛ים עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאָ֖רֶץ לְטַֽהֲרָ֑הּ מִקְצֵ֥ה שִׁבְעָה־חֳדָשִׁ֖ים יַחְקֹֽרוּ:
Men of continuous employment: Men designed to continuously devote themselves to this. Israel will separate out in order to [be able to] pass through the land and gather the scattered [corpses].  
burying with those who pass through: Burying with (Heb. אֶת) those who pass through; the corpses (אֶתהַנוֹתָרִים) that will block off and hinder the crossing. Those who crossed the ocean will bury them for their own benefit.  
with those who pass through: Heb. אֶתהַעֹבְרִים, with those who pass through. So I heard, and so did Jonathan render.  
those who are left on the surface of the land: far from the crossing. Those who cross the sea will not occupy themselves with burying them. Those designated to devote themselves to this purpose will bury them.  
at the end of seven months: the majority of the corpses visible to the eye will have been buried; from then on they will probe through the land in the hidden places, in the briars and among the thorns, and bury whomever find.  
15And when they that pass through shall pass and see a human bone, they shall build a sign next to it until the buriers bury it in the Valley of Hamon Gog.   טווְעָֽבְר֚וּ הָעֹֽבְרִים֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וְרָאָה֙ עֶ֣צֶם אָדָ֔ם וּבָנָ֥ה אֶצְל֖וֹ צִיּ֑וּן עַ֣ד קָֽבְר֚וּ אֹתוֹ֙ הַֽמְקַבְּרִ֔ים אֶל־גֵּ֖יא הֲמ֥וֹן גּֽוֹג:
And when they that pass through the land shall pass: Wayfarers who see a human bone will construct a marker next to it as a sign that there is a bone of a dead body there, in order that wayfarers and those who prepare ritually pure food should stay away from it.  
until: the men of continuous employment, designated to search, will come and bury it.  
16And also the name of the city shall be Hamonah. Thus they shall purify the land.   טזוְגַ֥ם שֶׁם־עִ֛יר הֲמוֹנָ֖ה וְטִֽהֲר֥וּ הָאָֽרֶץ:
And also the name of the city shall be Hamonah: And also the city whose name is “the city stirring with numerous people,” that is, the wicked city, the masses of its inhabitants will be buried there.  
Thus they shall purify the land: [i.e.,] Israel will purify their ritually pure foods and their terumoth in the Land.  
Hamonah: without a “mappiq hey” since the final “hey” serves as an adjective, for הֲמוֹנָה is like הוֹמִיָה, stirring.  
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