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Torah Reading for Bereishit

Torah Reading for Bereishit

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Parshat Bereishit
Shabbat, 24 Tishrei, 5778
14 October, 2017
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Complete: (Genesis 1:1 - 6:8; Isaiah 66:1-24)
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First Portion

Genesis Chapter 1

1In the beginning of God's creation of the heavens and the earth.   אבְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
In the beginning: Said Rabbi Isaac: It was not necessary to begin the Torah except from “This month is to you,” (Exod. 12:2) which is the first commandment that the Israelites were commanded, (for the main purpose of the Torah is its commandments, and although several commandments are found in Genesis, e.g., circumcision and the prohibition of eating the thigh sinew, they could have been included together with the other commandments). Now for what reason did He commence with “In the beginning?” Because of [the verse] “The strength of His works He related to His people, to give them the inheritance of the nations” (Ps. 111:6). For if the nations of the world should say to Israel, “You are robbers, for you conquered by force the lands of the seven nations [of Canaan],” they will reply, "The entire earth belongs to the Holy One, blessed be He; He created it (this we learn from the story of the Creation) and gave it to whomever He deemed proper When He wished, He gave it to them, and when He wished, He took it away from them and gave it to us.   בראשית: אמר רבי יצחק לא היה צריך להתחיל [את] התורה אלא (שמות יב ב) מהחודש הזה לכם, שהיא מצוה ראשונה שנצטוו [בה] ישראל, ומה טעם פתח בבראשית, משום (תהלים קיא ו) כח מעשיו הגיד לעמו לתת להם נחלת גוים, שאם יאמרו אומות העולם לישראל לסטים אתם, שכבשתם ארצות שבעה גוים, הם אומרים להם כל הארץ של הקב"ה היא, הוא בראה ונתנה לאשר ישר בעיניו, ברצונו נתנה להם וברצונו נטלה מהם ונתנה לנו:
In the beginning of God’s creation of: Heb. בְּרֵאשִית בָּרָא. This verse calls for a midrashic interpretation [because according to its simple interpretation, the vowelization of the word בָּרָא, should be different, as Rashi explains further]. It teaches us that the sequence of the Creation as written is impossible, as is written immediately below] as our Rabbis stated (Letters of R. Akiva , letter “beth” ; Gen. Rabbah 1:6; Lev. Rabbah 36:4): [God created the world] for the sake of the Torah, which is called (Prov. 8:22): “the beginning of His way,” and for the sake of Israel, who are called (Jer. 2:3) “the first of His grain.” But if you wish to explain it according to its simple meaning, explain it thus: “At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth, the earth was astonishing with emptiness, and darkness…and God said, ‘Let there be light.’” But Scripture did not come to teach the sequence of the Creation, to say that these came first, for if it came to teach this, it should have written:“At first (בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה) He created the heavens and the earth,” for there is no רֵאשִׁית in Scripture that is not connected to the following word, [i.e., in the construct state] like (ibid. 27:1):“In the beginning of (בְּרֵאשִית) the reign of Jehoiakim” ; (below 10:10)“the beginning of (רֵאשִׁית) his reign” ; (Deut. 18:4)“the first (רֵאשִׁית) of your corn.” Here too, you say בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אלֹהִים, like בְּרֵאשִׁית בְּרֹא, in the beginning of creating. And similar to this is,“At the beginning of the Lord’s speaking (דִּבֶּר) to Hosea,” (Hos. 1:2), i.e., at the beginning of the speaking (דִּבּוּרוֹ) of the Holy One, Blessed be He, to Hosea, “the Lord said to Hosea, etc.” Now if you say that it came to teach that these (i.e., heaven and earth) were created first, and that its meaning is: In the beginning of all, He created these-and that there are elliptical verses that omit one word, like (Job 3:10): “For [He] did not shut the doors of my [mother’s] womb,” and it does not explain who it was who shut [the womb]; and like (Isa. 8:4): “he will carry off the wealth of Damascus,” and it does not explain who will carry it off; and like (Amos 6:12): “or will one plow with cattle,” and it does not explain: “if a man will plow with cattle” ; and like (Isa. 46: 10): “telling the end from the beginning,” and it does not explain that [it means] telling the end of a matter from the beginning of a matter-if so, [if you say that Scripture indicates the order of creation] be astounded at yourself, for the water preceded, as it is written: “and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the water,” and Scripture did not yet disclose when the creation of water took place! From this you learn that the water preceded the earth. Moreover, the heavens were created from fire and water. Perforce, you must admit that Scripture did not teach us anything about the sequence of the earlier and the later [acts of creation].   בראשית ברא: אין המקרא הזה אומר אלא דרשני, כמו שדרשוהו רבותינו ז"ל בשביל התורה שנקראת (משלי ח כב) ראשית דרכו, ובשביל ישראל שנקראו (ירמיה ב ג) ראשית תבואתו. ואם באת לפרשו כפשוטו כך פרשהו בראשית בריאת שמים וארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו וחשך ויאמר א-להים יהי אור. ולא בא המקרא להורות סדר הבריאה לומר שאלו קדמו, שאם בא להורות כך, היה לו לכתוב בראשונה ברא את השמים וגו', שאין לך ראשית במקרא שאינו דבוק לתיבה של אחריו, כמו (שם כו א) בראשית ממלכות יהויקים, (בראשית י י) ראשית ממלכתו, (דברים יח ד) ראשית דגנך, אף כאן אתה אומר בראשית ברא א-להים וגו', כמו בראשית ברוא. ודומה לו (הושע א ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע, כלומר תחלת דבורו של הקב"ה בהושע, ויאמר ה' אל הושע וגו'. ואם תאמר להורות בא שאלו תחלה נבראו, ופירושו בראשית הכל ברא אלו, ויש לך מקראות שמקצרים לשונם וממעטים תיבה אחת, כמו (איוב ג י) כי לא סגר דלתי בטני, ולא פירש מי הסוגר, וכמו (ישעיה ח ד) ישא את חיל דמשק, ולא פירש מי ישאנו, וכמו (עמוס ו יב) אם יחרוש בבקרים, ולא פירש אם יחרוש אדם בבקרים, וכמו (ישעיה מו י) מגיד מראשית אחרית, ולא פירש מגיד מראשית דבר אחרית דבר. אם כן תמה על עצמך, שהרי המים קדמו, שהרי כתיב ורוח א-להים מרחפת על פני המים, ועדיין לא גלה המקרא בריית המים מתי היתה, הא למדת שקדמו המים לארץ. ועוד שהשמים מאש ומים נבראו, על כרחך לא לימד המקרא סדר המוקדמים והמאוחרים כלום:
God’s creation of the heavens and the earth: But it does not say “of the Lord’s creation of” (i.e., it should say “of the Lord God’s creation of” as below 2:4 “on the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven”) for in the beginning it was His intention to create it with the Divine Standard of Justice, but he perceived that the world would not endure; so He preceded it with the Divine Standard of Mercy, allying it with the Divine Standard of Justice, and that is the reason it is written:“on the day the Lord God made earth and heaven.”   ברא א-להים: ולא אמר ברא ה', שבתחלה עלה במחשבה לבראתו במדת הדין, ראה שאין העולם מתקיים, הקדים מדת רחמים ושתפה למדת הדין, היינו דכתיב (להלן ב ד) ביום עשות ה' א-להים ארץ ושמים:
2Now the earth was astonishingly empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the water.   בוְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָֽיְתָ֥ה תֹ֨הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְח֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם:
astonishingly empty: Heb. תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ. The word תֹהוּ is an expression of astonishment and desolation, that a person wonders and is astonished at the emptiness therein.   תהו ובהו: תהו לשון תמה ושממון שאדם תוהא ומשתומם על בהו שבה:
astonishingly empty: Astordison in Old French; [étourdissement in modern French], astonishment. בֹהוּ an expression of emptiness and desolation. (This does not appear in all editions.)   תהו: אישטורדישו"ן בלע"ז [מבוכה]:
בֹהוּ: an expression of emptiness and desolation. (This does not appear in all editions.)   בהו: לשון רקות וצדו:
on the face of the deep: on the face of the waters which were on the earth.   על פני תהום: על פני המים שעל הארץ:
and the spirit of God was hovering: The Throne of Glory was suspended in the air and hovered over the face of the water with the breath of the mouth of the Holy One, blessed be He and with His word, like a dove, which hovers over the nest, acoveter in Old French, to cover, hover over.   ורוח א-להים מרחפת: כסא הכבוד עומד באויר ומרחף על פני המים ברוח פיו של הקב"ה ובמאמרו, כיונה המרחפת על הקן אקוביטי"ר בלע"ז [לכסות]:
3And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.   גוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִי־א֑וֹר וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר:
4And God saw the light that it was good, and God separated between the light and between the darkness.   דוַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר כִּי־ט֑וֹב וַיַּבְדֵּ֣ל אֱלֹהִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֥ין הַחֽשֶׁךְ:
And God saw the light that it was good, and God separated: Here too, we need the words of the Aggadah: He saw it that it was not proper for the wicked to use it; so He separated it for the righteous in the future. According to its simple meaning, explain it as follows: He saw it that it was good, and it was unseemly that it [light] and darkness should serve in confusion; so He established for this one its boundary by day, and for that one its boundary by night.   וירא א-להים את האור כי טוב ויבדל: אף בזה אנו צריכים לדברי אגדה ראהו שאינו כדאי להשתמש בו רשעים והבדילו לצדיקים לעתיד לבא. ולפי פשוטו כך פרשהו ראהו כי טוב ואין נאה לו ולחשך שיהיו משתמשין בערבוביא, וקבע לזה תחומו ביום ולזה תחומו בלילה:
5And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night, and it was evening and it was morning, one day.   הוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַח֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
one day: According to the sequence of the language of the chapter, it should have been written, “the first day,” as it is written regarding the other days, “second, third, fourth.” Why did Scripture write“one” ? Because the Holy One, blessed be He, was the only one in His world, for the angels were not created until the second day. [i.e., יוֹם אֶחָד is understood as ‘the day of the only One’] So is it explained in Genesis Rabbah (3:8).   יום אחד: לפי סדר [לשון] הפרשה היה לו לכתוב יום ראשון, כמו שכתוב בשאר הימים שני, שלישי, רביעי. למה כתב אחד, לפי שהיה הקב"ה יחיד בעולמו שלא נבראו המלאכים עד יום שני, כך מפורש בבראשית רבה (ג ח):
6And God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, and let it be a separation between water and water."   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יְהִ֥י רָקִ֖יעַ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַמָּ֑יִם וִיהִ֣י מַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין מַ֖יִם לָמָֽיִם:
Let there be an expanse: Let the expanse be strengthened, for, although the heavens were created on the first day, they were still moist, and they solidified on the second [day] from the rebuke of the Holy One, blessed be He, when He said, “Let there be an expanse.” This is what Scripture says (Job 26:11): “The pillars of the heavens trembled” the entire first day, and on the second day: “They were astonished by His rebuke,” like a person who stands in astonishment because of the rebuke of the one who frightens him. [Genesis Rabbah 12:10]   יהי רקיע: יחזק הרקיע. שאף על פי שנבראו שמים ביום ראשון, עדיין לחים היו, וקרשו בשני מגערת הקב"ה באומרו יהי רקיע, וזהו שכתוב (איוב כו יא) עמודי שמים ירופפו כל יום ראשון. ובשני יתמהו מגערתו, כאדם שמשתומם ועומד מגערת המאיים עליו:
in the midst of the water: In the middle of the water (Targum), for there is a separation between the upper waters and the expanse, as there is between the expanse and the waters that are on the earth. Behold you have learned that they are suspended by the word of the King. — [Gen. Rabbah 4:3]   בתוך המים: באמצע המים, שיש הפרש בין מים העליונים לרקיע כמו בין הרקיע למים שעל הארץ, הא למדת שהם תלוים במאמרו של מלך:
7And God made the expanse and it separated between the water that was below the expanse and the water that was above the expanse, and it was so.   זוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִים֘ אֶת־הָֽרָקִיעַ֒ וַיַּבְדֵּ֗ל בֵּ֤ין הַמַּ֨יִם֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ מִתַּ֣חַת לָֽרָקִ֔יעַ וּבֵ֣ין הַמַּ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר מֵעַ֣ל לָֽרָקִ֑יעַ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
And God made the expanse: He fixed it upon its base, which is [what is meant by] “making” it; as [in the verse] (Deut. 21:12):“and she shall ‘do’ her nails,” וְעָשְׂתָה.   ויעש א-להים את הרקיע: תקנו על עמדו והיא עשייתו, כמו (דברים כא יב) ועשתה את צפרניה:
above the expanse: It does not say, “on the expanse,” but “above the expanse,” because they [the waters] are suspended in the air (Mid. Ps. 19:4). Now why does it not say, “that it was good” on the second day? Because the work involving the water was not completed until the third day, although He commenced it on the second day, and an unfinished thing is not in its fullness and its goodness; and on the third day, when He completed the work involving the water and He commenced and completed another work, He repeated therein“that it was good” twice (sic): once for the completion of the work of the second day and once for the completion of the work of that [third] day. — [Gen. Rabbah 4:6]   מעל לרקיע: על הרקיע לא נאמר אלא מעל לרקיע, לפי שהן תלוים באויר. ומפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב ביום שני, לפי שלא נגמרה מלאכת המים עד יום שלישי, והרי התחיל בה בשני, ודבר שלא נגמר אינו במילואו ובטובו, ובשלישי שנגמרה מלאכת המים והתחיל מלאכה אחרת וגמרה, כפל בו כי טוב שני פעמים, אחד לגמר מלאכת השני ואחד לגמר מלאכת היום:
8And God called the expanse Heaven, and it was evening, and it was morning, a second day.   חוַיִּקְרָ֧א אֱלֹהִ֛ים לָֽרָקִ֖יעַ שָׁמָ֑יִם וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם שֵׁנִֽי:
And God called the expanse heaven: Heb. שָׁמַיִם [This is a combination of the words מַיִם שָׂא, bear water (Gen. Rabbah 4:7); שָׁם מַיִם, there is water; אֵשׁ וּמַיִם, fire and water. He mingled them with one another and made the heavens from them (Chag. 12a).   ויקרא א-להים לרקיע שמים: שא מים, שם מים, אש ומים, שערבן זה בזה ועשה מהם שמים:
9And God said, "Let the water that is beneath the heavens gather into one place, and let the dry land appear," and it was so.   טוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יִקָּו֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם מִתַּ֤חַת הַשָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ אֶל־מָק֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד וְתֵֽרָאֶ֖ה הַיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the water…gather: They were spread out over the surface of the entire earth, and He gathered them in the ocean, [the Mediterranean], which is the largest of all the seas. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 5; Gen. Rabbah 5:2]   יקוו המים: [שהיו] שטוחין על פני כל הארץ והקוום באוקינוס, הוא הים הגדול שבכל הימים:
10And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas, and God saw that it was good.   יוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לַיַּבָּשָׁה֙ אֶ֔רֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵ֥ה הַמַּ֖יִם קָרָ֣א יַמִּ֑ים וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
He called seas: But is it not one sea? However, the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Acre differs from the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Spain. — [from Ekev 39]   קרא ימים: והלא ים אחד הוא, אלא אינו דומה טעם דג העולה [מן הים] בעכו לטעם דג העולה [מן הים] באספמיא:
11And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation, seed yielding herbs and fruit trees producing fruit according to its kind in which its seed is found, on the earth," and it was so.   יאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים תַּדְשֵׁ֤א הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ דֶּ֗שֶׁא עֵ֚שֶׂב מַזְרִ֣יעַ זֶ֔רַע עֵ֣ץ פְּרִ֞י עֹ֤שֶׂה פְּרִי֙ לְמִינ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the earth sprout vegetation, seed yielding herbs: דֶּשֶׁא does not have the same meaning as עֵשֶׂב, and עֵשֶׂב does not have the same meaning as דֶּשֶׁא. And it would have been inappropriate for the Scriptural text to use the expression, תַּעֲשִׂיב הָאָרֶץ (let the earth bring forth herbs), for there are various species of דֶּשֶׁא, each one by itself which is called a particular עֵשֶׂב. And it would not be the correct term for the speaker to say, “such-and-such a דֶּשֶׁא,” because the term דֶּשֶׁא applies to the earth’s covering, when it is filled with vegetation.   תדשא הארץ דשא עשב: לא דשא לשון עשב ולא עשב לשון דשא, ולא היה לשון המקרא לומר תעשיב הארץ, שמיני דשאים מחולקין, כל אחד לעצמו נקרא עשב פלוני, ואין לשון למדבר לומר דשא פלוני, שלשון דשא הוא לבישת הארץ כשהיא מתמלאת בדשאים:
Let the earth sprout: Let it be filled and covered with a mantle of herbs. In Old French, דֶשֶׁא is called erbediz, herbage, all in a mixture, whereas each root individually is called עֵשֶׂב.   תדשא הארץ: תתמלא ותתכסה לבוש עשבים. בלשון לעז נקרא דשא אירבידי"ץ [מכלול העשבים] כולן בערבוביא, וכל שורש לעצמו נקרא עשב:
seed-yielding: That its seeds should grow in it from which to sow elsewhere.   מזריע זרע: שיגדל בו זרעו לזרוע ממנו במקום אחר:
fruit trees: That the taste of the tree should be like the taste of the fruit. It [the earth] did not do so, however, but“the earth gave forth, etc., trees producing fruit,” but the trees themselves were not fruit. Therefore, when man was cursed because of his iniquity, it [the earth] too was punished for its iniquity (and was cursed-not in all editions). - [from Gen. Rabbah 5:9]   עץ פרי: שיהא טעם העץ כטעם הפרי, והיא לא עשתה כן, אלא (פסוק יב) ותוצא הארץ עץ עושה פרי, ולא העץ פרי, לפיכך כשנתקלל אדם על עונו נפקדה גם היא על עונה ונתקללה:
in which its seed is found: These are the kernels of every fruit, from which the tree grows when it is planted.   אשר זרעו בו: הן גרעיני כל פרי, שמהן האילן צומח כשנוטעין אותן:
12And the earth gave forth vegetation, seed yielding herbs according to its kind, and trees producing fruit, in which its seed is found, according to its kind, and God saw that it was good.   יבוַתּוֹצֵ֨א הָאָ֜רֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵ֣שֶׂב מַזְרִ֤יעַ זֶ֨רַע֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וְעֵ֧ץ עֹֽשֶׂה־פְּרִ֛י אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
And the earth gave forth, etc.: Even though לְמִינֵהוּ.“according to its kind,” was not said regarding the herbs when they were commanded [to grow], they heard that the trees were commanded thus, and they applied an a fortiori argument to themselves, [a קַל וָחוֹמֶר -from the minor to the major], as is explained in the Aggadah of Tractate Chullin (60a).   ותוצא הארץ וגו': אף על פי שלא נאמר למינהו בדשאין בציוייהן, שמעו שנצטוו האילנות על כך, ונשאו קל וחומר בעצמן, כמפורש באגדה בשחיטת חולין (חולין ס א):
13And it was evening, and it was morning, a third day.   יגוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם שְׁלִישִֽׁי:
14And God said, "Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens, to separate between the day and between the night, and they shall be for signs and for appointed seasons and for days and years.   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יְהִ֤י מְאֹרֹת֙ בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם לְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַיּ֖וֹם וּבֵ֣ין הַלָּ֑יְלָה וְהָי֤וּ לְאֹתֹת֙ וּלְמ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים וּלְיָמִ֖ים וְשָׁנִֽים:
Let there be luminaries, etc.: They were created on the first day, and on the fourth day, He commanded them to be suspended in the sky, and likewise, all the creations of heaven and earth were created on the first day, and each one was fixed in its proper place on the day that was decreed upon it. That is why it is written:“with the heavens (אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם) to include their products,”and with the earth (וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ)," to include its products. — [Gen. Rabbah 1:14]   יהי מארת וגו': מיום ראשון נבראו, וברביעי צוה עליהם להתלות ברקיע, וכן כל תולדות שמים וארץ נבראו מיום ראשון, וכל אחד ואחד נקבע ביום שנגזר עליו, הוא שכתוב (פסוק א) את השמים, לרבות תולדותיהם, ואת הארץ, לרבות תולדותיה:
Let there be luminaries: Heb., יְהִי מְאֹרֹת It [the word, מְאֹרֹת is written without a“vav,” [thus, the word can be מְאֵרֹת meaning curses] because it [the fourth day] is a cursed day when children become ill with croup. This is what we learned (Ta’anith 27b): “on the fourth day [of the week], they [the men of the ma’amad] would fast so that children should not become ill with croup.”   יהי מארת: חסר וי"ו כתיב, על שהוא יום מארה ליפול אסכרה בתינוקות, הוא ששנינו ברביעי היו מתענים על אסכרה שלא תפול בתינוקות:
to separate between the day and between the night: (This happened) after the first light was hidden away, but during the seven (another reading: during the three) days of Creation, the primordial light and darkness served together, both by day and by night. — [Medrah Yelammedenu , as quoted in Yalkut Shim’oni] According to the Ramban and early editions of Rashi , it appears that the reading, “during the seven days of Creation,” is the authentic reading. Ramban , however quotes the Genesis Rabbah , which states that the original primordial light served only during the first three days, until the sun and the moon were suspended in the sky. After that, the primordial light was hidden away, as in Rashi to verse 4. Note also that several early manuscripts and printed editions of Rashi read: “but in the seven days of Creation, the primordial light and darkness served, this one by day and this one by night.” This is also the reading of Mizrachi , and it appears more accurate than our reading, because, in fact, the light and the darkness did not serve together, as Rashi explains in verse 4.]   להבדיל בין היום ובין הלילה: משנגנז האור הראשון, אבל בשבעת ימי בראשית שמשו האור והחושך הראשונים יחד בין ביום ובין בלילה:
and they shall be for signs: When the luminaries are eclipsed, it is an unfavorable omen for the world, as it is said (Jer. 10:2): “and from the signs of the heaven be not dismayed, etc.” When you perform the will of the Holy One, blessed be He, you need not fear retribution. — [from Succah 29a]   והיו לאותות: כשהמאורות לוקין סימן רע הוא לעולם, שנאמר (ירמיה י ב) מאותות השמים אל תחתו, בעשותכם רצון הקב"ה אין אתם צריכין לדאג מן הפורענות:
and for appointed seasons: This refers to the future, when the Israelites are destined to be commanded concerning the festivals and they [the festivals] are reckoned from the first phase of the moon. — [from Gen. Rabbah 6:1].   ולמועדים: על שם העתיד, שעתידים ישראל להצטוות על המועדות והם נמנים למולד הלבנה:
and for days: The sun serves for half a day, and the moon for half of it, so that you have a full day.   ולימים: שמוש החמה חצי יום ושמוש הלבנה חציו, הרי יום שלם:
and years: At the end of 365 days (other editions: and a 1/4 of a day) they complete their revolution through the twelve constellations of the zodiac, which serve them, and that constitutes a year. (Other editions read: and that is 365 and 1/4 days), and they return and start a second time to revolve on the sphere like their first revolution.   ושנים: לסוף שלש מאות ששים וחמשה ימים יגמרו מהלכת בשנים עשר מזלות המשרתים אותם והיא שנה. (וחוזרים ומתחילים פעם שניה לסבב בגלגל כמהלכן הראשון):
15And they shall be for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to shed light upon the earth." And it was so.   טווְהָי֤וּ לִמְאוֹרֹת֙ בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם לְהָאִ֖יר עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
And they shall be for luminaries: In addition, they will serve in this function, viz. to shed light upon the world.   והיו למאורות: עוד זאת ישמשו שיאירו לעולם:
16And God made the two great luminaries: the great luminary to rule the day and the lesser luminary to rule the night, and the stars.   טזוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־שְׁנֵ֥י הַמְּאֹרֹ֖ת הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים אֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַגָּדֹל֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַיּ֔וֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַקָּטֹן֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַלַּ֔יְלָה וְאֵ֖ת הַכּֽוֹכָבִֽים:
the two great luminaries: They were created equal, but the moon was made smaller because it brought charges and said, “It is impossible for two kings to use the same crown.” - [from Chullin 60b] Rashi (ad loc.) explains that this derash is based on the discrepancy of the two expressions, “the two great luminaries,” which intimates that the moon was a great luminary, and“the lesser luminary,” which intimates that the moon was smaller than the sun. To reconcile this difference, the Rabbis asserted that the moon was originally created equal to the sun, but, because of its complaint that the sun wielded the same power that it wielded, it was forced to relinquish that power.   המאורות הגדולים וגו': שוים נבראו, ונתמעטה הלבנה על שקטרגה ואמרה אי אפשר לשני מלכים שישתמשו בכתר אחד:
and the stars: Because He diminished the moon, He increased its hosts, to appease it. - [from Gen. Rabbah 46:4 and Chullin 60b] i.e., The stars serve as the entourage of the moon. When it comes out, they accompany it, and when it sets, they too set. [Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   ואת הכוכבים: על ידי שמיעט את הלבנה, הרבה צבאיה להפיס דעתה: 
17And God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to shed light upon the earth.   יזוַיִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לְהָאִ֖יר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
18And to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate between the light and between the darkness, and God saw that it was good.   יחוְלִמְשֹׁל֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם וּבַלַּ֔יְלָה וּֽלֲהַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֣ין הַח֑שֶׁךְ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
19And it was evening, and it was morning, a fourth day.   יטוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם רְבִיעִֽי:
20And God said, "Let the waters swarm a swarming of living creatures, and let fowl fly over the earth, across the expanse of the heavens."   כוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יִשְׁרְצ֣וּ הַמַּ֔יִם שֶׁ֖רֶץ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֑ה וְעוֹף֙ יְעוֹפֵ֣ף עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֖י רְקִ֥יעַ הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
living creatures: That there should be life in them.   נפש חיה: שיש בה חיות:
a swarming: Heb. שֶׁרֶץ. Every living thing that is not much higher than the earth is שֶׁרֶץ; among the winged creatures, such as flies; among the insects, such as ants, beetles, and worms; and among the [larger] creatures, such as the weasel, the mouse, the lizard, and their like, and so [among] the fishes. [Note that in most early editions and mss., the reading is וְכָל הַדָּגִים, and all the fishes (and not וְכֵן הַדגָּים).]   שרץ: כל דבר חי שאינו גבוה מן הארץ קרוי שרץ, בעוף כגון זבובים, בשקצים כגון נמלים וחיפושין ותולעים, ובבריות כגון חולד ועכבר וחומט וכיוצא בהם, וכל הדגים:
21And God created the great sea monsters, and every living creature that crawls, with which the waters swarmed, according to their kind, and every winged fowl, according to its kind, and God saw that it was good.   כאוַיִּבְרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִ֖ם הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֣ה | הָֽרֹמֶ֡שֶׂת אֲשֶׁר֩ שָֽׁרְצ֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם לְמִֽינֵהֶ֗ם וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־ע֤וֹף כָּנָף֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
the…sea monsters: The great fish in the sea, and in the words of the Aggadah (B.B. 74b), this refers to the Leviathan and its mate, for He created them male and female, and He slew the female and salted her away for the righteous in the future, for if they would propagate, the world could not exist because of them. הַתַּנִינִם is written. [I.e., the final “yud,” which denotes the plural, is missing, hence the implication that the Leviathan did not remain two, but that its number was reduced to one.]- [from Gen. Rabbah 7:4, Midrash Chaseroth V’Yetheroth, Batei Midrashoth, vol 2, p. 225].   התנינים: דגים גדולים שבים. ובדברי אגדה הוא לויתן ובן זוגו שבראם זכר ונקבה והרג את הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא, שאם יפרו וירבו לא יתקיים העולם בפניהם:
living creature: a creature in which there is life.   נפש החיה: שיש בה חיות:
22And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters of the seas, and let the fowl multiply upon the earth."   כבוַיְבָ֧רֶךְ אֹתָ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֗וּ וּמִלְא֤וּ אֶת־הַמַּ֨יִם֙ בַּיַּמִּ֔ים וְהָע֖וֹף יִ֥רֶב בָּאָֽרֶץ:
And…blessed them: Because [people] decimate them and hunt them and eat them, they required a blessing; and the beasts also required a blessing, but because the serpent was destined to be cursed, He did not bless them, lest he [the serpent] be included. — [from Gen. Rabbah 11:3, Midrash Tadshe 1]   ויברך אותם: לפי שמחסרים אותן וצדין מהם ואוכלין אותם הוצרכו לברכה. ואף החיות הוצרכו לברכה, אלא מפני הנחש שעתיד לקללה, לכך לא ברכן, שלא יהא הוא בכלל:
Be fruitful: [The word פְּרוּ is derived from פְּרִי, fruit, meaning produce fruits.   פרו: לשון פרי, כלומר עשו פירות:
and multiply: If He had said only, “Be fruitful,” one would beget one and no more.“And multiply” was therefore said so that one could beget many.   ורבו: אם לא אמר אלא פרו היה אחד מוליד אחד ולא יותר, ובא ורבו שאחד מוליד הרבה:
23And it was evening, and it was morning, a fifth day.   כגוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם חֲמִישִֽׁי:
24And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kind, cattle and creeping things and the beasts of the earth according to their kind," and it was so.   כדוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים תּוֹצֵ֨א הָאָ֜רֶץ נֶ֤פֶשׁ חַיָּה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ בְּהֵמָ֥ה וָרֶ֛מֶשׂ וְחַֽיְתוֹ־אֶ֖רֶץ לְמִינָ֑הּ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the earth bring forth: That is what I explained [verse 14] that everything was created on the first [day], and they required only to be brought forth. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Bereishith 1]   תוצא הארץ: הוא שפירשתי (פסוק יד) שהכל נברא מיום ראשון ולא הוצרכו אלא להוציאם:
living creatures: which have life. (See above, verse 20.)   נפש חיה: שיש בה חיות:
and creeping things: These are the creeping things, which are low and crawl upon the earth and appear as if they are dragging along, because their movement is not discernible. Every expression of רֶמֶשׁ or שֶׁרֶץ [is translated] in our language [Old French] as conmovres , crawling creatures.   ורמש: הם שרצים שהם נמוכים ורומשים על הארץ, נראים כאלו נגררים, שאין הלוכן ניכר. כל לשון רמש ושרץ בלשוננו קונמובר"יש בלע"ז [רוחשים]:
25And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kind and the cattle according to their kind, and all the creeping things of the ground according to their kind, and God saw that it was good.   כהוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִים֩ אֶת־חַיַּ֨ת הָאָ֜רֶץ לְמִינָ֗הּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־רֶ֥מֶשׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֖ה לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
And… made: He fixed them in their complete form, and in their full stature. — [from Rosh Hashanah 11a, Chullin 60a]   ויעש: תקנם בצביונם ובקומתן:
26And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and they shall rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the heaven and over the animals and over all the earth and over all the creeping things that creep upon the earth."   כווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם בְּצַלְמֵ֖נוּ כִּדְמוּתֵ֑נוּ וְיִרְדּוּ֩ בִדְגַ֨ת הַיָּ֜ם וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבְכָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Let us make man: From here we learn the humility of the Holy One, blessed be He. Since man was created in the likeness of the angels, and they would envy him, He consulted them. And when He judges kings, He consults with His Heavenly household, for so we find regarding Ahab, that Micah said to him, (I Kings 22:19): “I saw the Lord seated on His throne, and all the host of heaven were standing by Him, on His right and on His left.” Now do “left” or “right” apply to Him ?! But rather, [the passage means that] these [angels] were standing on the right to defend, and these [angels] were standing on the left to prosecute. Likewise, (Dan. 4:14): “By the decree of the destructive angels is the matter, and by the word of the holy ones is the edict.” Here too, He took counsel with His heavenly household. He said to them, “Among the heavenly beings, there are some in My likeness. If there are none in My likeness among the earthly beings, there will be envy among the creatures of the Creation. ” - [from Tanchuma, Shemoth 18; Gen. Rabbah 8:11, 14:13]   נעשה אדם: ענותנותו של הקב"ה למדנו מכאן, לפי שהאדם בדמות המלאכים ויתקנאו בו לפיכך נמלך בהם, וכשהוא דן את המלכים הוא נמלך בפמליא שלו, שכן מצינו באחאב שאמר לו מיכה (מלכים א' כב יט) ראיתי את ה' יושב על כסאו וכל צבא השמים עומד עליו מימינו ומשמאלו, וכי יש ימין ושמאל לפניו, אלא אלו מימינים לזכות ואלו משמאילין לחובה. וכן (דניאל ד יד) בגזרת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאלתא, אף כאן בפמליא שלו נמלך ונטל רשות, אמר להם יש בעליונים כדמותי, אם אין בתחתונים כדמותי, הרי יש קנאה במעשה בראשית:
Let us make man: Even though they [the angels] did not assist Him in His creation, and there is an opportunity for the heretics to rebel (to misconstrue the plural as a basis for their heresies), Scripture did not hesitate to teach proper conduct and the trait of humility, that a great person should consult with and receive permission from a smaller one. Had it been written: “I shall make man,” we would not have learned that He was speaking with His tribunal, but to Himself. And the refutation to the heretics is written alongside it [i. e., in the following verse:]“And God created (וַיִּבְרָא) ,” and it does not say,“and they created וַיִּבְרְאוּ.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 8:9]   נעשה אדם: אף על פי שלא סייעוהו ביצירתו ויש מקום למינים לרדות, לא נמנע הכתוב מללמד דרך ארץ ומדת ענוה שיהא הגדול נמלך ונוטל רשות מן הקטן. ואם כתב אעשה אדם לא למדנו שיהא מדבר עם בית דינו אלא עם עצמו, ותשובת המינים כתב בצדו ויברא א-להים את האדם, ולא כתב ויבראו:
in our image: in our form.   בצלמנו: בדפוס שלנו:
after our likeness: to understand and to discern.   כדמותנו: להבין ולהשכיל:
and they shall rule over the fish: Heb. וְיִרְדּוּ This expression contains both the meaning of ruling and the meaning of subservience. If he merits, he rules over the beasts and over the cattle. If he does not merit, he becomes subservient to them, and the beast rules over him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 8:12]   וירדו בדגת הים: יש בלשון הזה לשון רידוי ולשון ירידה, זכה רודה בחיות ובבהמות, לא זכה נעשה ירוד לפניהם והחיה מושלת בו:
27And God created man in His image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.   כזוַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמ֔וֹ בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹת֑וֹ זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם:
And God created man in His image: In the form that was made for him, for everything [else] was created with a command, whereas he [man] was created with the hands (of God), as it is written (Ps. 139:5): “and You placed Your hand upon me.” Man was made with a die, like a coin, which is made by means of a die, which is called coin in Old French. And so Scripture states (Job 38:14): “The die changes like clay.” - [from Letters of Rabbi Akiva , second version; Mid. Ps. 139:5; Sanh. 38a]   ויברא א-להים את האדם בצלמו: בדפוס העשוי לו, שהכל נברא במאמר והוא נברא בידים, שנאמר (תהלים קלט ה) ותשת עלי כפכה, נעשה בחותם כמטבע העשויה על ידי רושם שקורין קוי"ן בלע"ז [מטבע] וכן הוא אומר (איוב לח יד) תתהפך כחומר חותם:
in the image of God He created him: It explains to you that the image that was prepared for him was the image of the likeness of his Creator. — [from B.B. 58a]   בצלם א-להים ברא אותו: פירש לך שאותו צלם המתוקן לו צלם דיוקן יצורו הוא:
male and female He created them: Yet further (2:21) Scripture states: “And He took one of his ribs, etc.” The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 8:1, Ber. 61a, Eruvin 18a) explains that He originally created him with two faces, and afterwards, He divided him. The simple meaning of the verse is that here Scripture informs you that they were both created on the sixth [day], but it does not explain to you how they were created, and it explains [that] to you elsewhere. — [from Baraitha of the Thirty Two Methods , Method 13]   זכר ונקבה ברא אותם: ולהלן הוא אומר (בראשית ב כא) ויקח אחת מצלעותיו וגו', מדרש אגדה שבראו שני פרצופין בבריאה ראשונה ואחר כך חלקו. ופשוטו של מקרא, כאן הודיעך שנבראו שניהם בששי ולא פירש לך כיצד ברייתן ופירש לך במקום אחר:
28And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the sky and over all the beasts that tread upon the earth. "   כחוַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֹתָם֘ אֱלֹהִים֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לָהֶ֜ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֛וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁ֑הָ וּרְד֞וּ בִּדְגַ֤ת הַיָּם֙ וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּ֖ה הָֽרֹמֶ֥שֶׂת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
and subdue it: The“vav” [in וְכִבְשֻׁהָ is missing, [allowing the word to be read וְכִבְשָׁה, the masculine singular imperative] to teach you that the male subdues the female that she should not be a gadabout (Gen. Rabbah 8:12), and it is also meant to teach you that the man, whose way it is to subdue, is commanded to propagate, but not the woman (Yev. Yev. 65b).   וכבשה: חסר וי"ו, ללמדך שהזכר כובש את הנקבה שלא תהא יצאנית, ועוד ללמדך שהאיש שדרכו לכבוש מצווה על פריה ורביה ולא האשה:
29And God said, "Behold, I have given you every seed bearing herb, which is upon the surface of the entire earth, and every tree that has seed bearing fruit; it will be yours for food.   כטוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים הִנֵּה֩ נָתַ֨תִּי לָכֶ֜ם אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב | זֹרֵ֣עַ זֶ֗רַע אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵ֛ץ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ פְרִי־עֵ֖ץ זֹרֵ֣עַ זָ֑רַע לָכֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאָכְלָֽה:
30And to all the beasts of the earth and to all the fowl of the heavens, and to everything that moves upon the earth, in which there is a living spirit, every green herb to eat," and it was so.   לוּלְכָל־חַיַּ֣ת הָ֠אָ֠רֶץ וּלְכָל־ע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם וּלְכֹ֣ל | רוֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֔ה אֶת־כָּל־יֶ֥רֶק עֵ֖שֶׂב לְאָכְלָ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
it will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth: He equated cattle and the beasts to them [to man] regarding the food [that they were permitted to eat]. He did not permit Adam and his wife to kill a creature and to eat its flesh; only every green herb they were all permitted to eat equally. When the sons of Noah came, He permitted them to eat flesh, as it is said (below 9:3): “Every creeping thing that is alive, etc.” Like the green herbs, which I permitted to the first man, I have given you everything. — [from Sanh. 59b]   לכם יהיה לאכלה. ולכל חית הארץ: השוה להם הכתוב בהמות וחיות למאכל, ולא הרשה לאדם ולאשתו להמית בריה ולאכול בשר, אך כל ירק עשב יאכלו יחד כלם, וכשבאו בני נח התיר להם בשר, שנאמר (להלן ט ג) כל רמש אשר הוא חי וגו' כירק עשב שהתרתי לאדם הראשון, נתתי לכם את כל:
31And God saw all that He had made, and behold it was very good, and it was evening and it was morning, the sixth day.   לאוַיַּ֤רְא אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב מְאֹ֑ד וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּֽׁי:
the sixth day: Scripture added a “hey” on the sixth [day], at the completion of the Creation, to tell us that He stipulated with them, [“you were created] on the condition that Israel accept the Five Books of the Torah.” [The numerical value of the “hey” is five.] (Tanchuma Bereishith 1). Another explanation for “the sixth day” : They [the works of creation] were all suspended until the “sixth day,” referring to the sixth day of Sivan, which was prepared for the giving of the Torah (Shab. 88a). [The“hey” is the definite article, alluding to the well-known sixth day, the sixth day of Sivan, when the Torah was given (ad loc.).]   יום הששי: הוסיף ה' בששי בגמר מעשה בראשית, לומר שהתנה עמהם על מנת שיקבלו עליהם ישראל חמשה חומשי תורה. דבר אחר יום הששי כולם תלוים ועומדים עד יום הששי, הוא ששי בסיון המוכן למתן תורה:

Genesis Chapter 2

1Now the heavens and the earth were completed and all their host.   אוַיְכֻלּ֛וּ הַשָּׁמַ֥יִם וְהָאָ֖רֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָֽם:
2And God completed on the seventh day His work that He did, and He abstained on the seventh day from all His work that He did.   בוַיְכַ֤ל אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה:
And God completed on the seventh day: Rabbi Shimon said: [A human being of] flesh and blood, who cannot [exactly] know his times and his moments, must add from the profane to the holy [i.e., he must add some time to the Sabbath.] The Holy One, blessed be He, Who knows His times and His moments [exactly], entered it [the Sabbath] within a hairbreadth, and it therefore appeared as if He completed it [His work] on that day. Another explanation: What was the world lacking? Rest. The Sabbath came, and so came rest. The work was completed and finished. — [from Gen. Rabbah 10:9]   ויכל א-להים ביום השביעי: רבי שמעון אומר בשר ודם שאינו יודע עתיו ורגעיו צריך להוסיף מחול על הקודש, הקב"ה שיודע עתיו ורגעיו נכנס בו כחוט השערה ונראה כאלו כלה בו ביום. דבר אחר מה היה העולם חסר, מנוחה, באת שבת באת מנוחה, כלתה ונגמרה המלאכה:
3And God blessed the seventh day and He hallowed it, for thereon He abstained from all His work that God created to do.   גוַיְבָ֤רֶךְ אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וַיְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י ב֤וֹ שָׁבַת֙ מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
And…blessed…and hallowed: He blessed it with manna, for on all the days of the week, it descended for them [in the amount of] an omer per person, whereas on the sixth day,[each one received] a double portion. And He hallowed it with manna, that it did not descend at all on the Sabbath. This verse is written with reference to the future. — [from Gen. Rabbah 11:2]   ויברך ויקדש: ברכו במן שכל ימות השבת היה יורד להם עומר לגלגלת ובששי לחם משנה, וקדשו במן שלא ירד בו מן כלל והמקרא כתוב על שם העתיד:
that God created to do: The work that was fit to be done on the Sabbath, He doubled up and did it on the sixth [day], as is explained in Genesis Rabbah (11:9).   אשר ברא א-להים לעשות: המלאכה שהיתה ראויה לעשות בשבת כפל ועשאה בששי, כמו שמפורש בבראשית רבה (יא ט):

Second Portion

Genesis Chapter 2

4These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created, on the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven.   דאֵ֣לֶּה תֽוֹלְד֧וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם וְהָאָ֖רֶץ בְּהִ֣בָּֽרְאָ֑ם בְּי֗וֹם עֲשׂ֛וֹת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶ֥רֶץ וְשָׁמָֽיִם:
These: mentioned above.   אלה: האמורים למעלה:
when they were created, on the day that the Lord…made: This teaches you that they were all created on the first day (Gen. Rabbah 12:4). Another explanation of the word בְּהִבָּרְאָם He created them with the letter “hey,” as it is written (Isa. 26:4): “for in Yah (יָהּ), the Lord, is the Rock of eternity.” With these two letters [“yud” and “hey”] of the Name, He fashioned two worlds, and it teaches you here that this world was created with a “hey” (Men. 29b). (Other editions: It intimates that just as the “hey” is open at the bottom, so is the world open for the repentant. The World to Come was created with a “yud,” to tell you that the righteous at that [future] time, will be few as a “yud,” which is the smallest of the letters.) This intimates that the wicked will descend below to see the netherworld, like the [letter] “hey,” which is closed on all sides and open at the bottom, for them [the wicked] to descend through there. — [from Gen. Rabbah 12:10]   תולדות השמים והארץ בהבראם ביום עשות ה': למדך שכלם נבראו ביום ראשון. דבר אחר בהבראם, בה' בראם שנאמר (ישעיה כו ד) ביה ה' צור עולמים בשני אותיות הללו של השם יצר שני עולמים, ולמדך כאן שהעולם הזה נברא בה"א (רמז כמו שה"א פתוחה למטה, כך העולם פתוח לשבים בתשובה. ועולם הבא נברא ביו"ד לומר שצדיקים שבאותו זמן מועטים כמו י' שהיא קטנה באותיות). רמז שירדו הרשעים למטה לראות שחת כה"א זאת שסתומה מכל צדדים ופתוחה למטה לרדת דרך שם:
5Now no tree of the field was yet on the earth, neither did any herb of the field yet grow, because the Lord God had not brought rain upon the earth, and there was no man to work the soil.   הוְכֹ֣ל | שִׂ֣יחַ הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה טֶ֚רֶם יִֽהְיֶ֣ה בָאָ֔רֶץ וְכָל־עֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה טֶ֣רֶם יִצְמָ֑ח כִּי֩ לֹ֨א הִמְטִ֜יר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהִים֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאָדָ֣ם אַ֔יִן לַֽעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
was yet on the earth: Every טֶרֶם in Scripture has the meaning of “not yet,” and it does not mean“before,” and it cannot be made into a verb form, to say הִטְרִים, as one says הִקְדִּים This verse proves this, as well as another verse (Exod. 9:30): “כִּי טֶרֶם תִּירְאוּן, You will not yet fear.” This verse too should be explained to mean that [no tree] was yet on the earth (Targum Onkelos) when the creation of the world was completed on the sixth day, before man was created.   טרם יהיה בארץ: כל טרם שבמקרא לשון עד לא הוא, ואינו לשון קודם, ואינו נפעל לומר הטרים כאשר יאמר הקדים, וזה מוכיח, ועוד אחר (שמות ט ל) כי טרם תיראון, עדיין לא תיראון. ואף זה תפרש עדיין לא היה בארץ כשנגמרה בריאת העולם בששי קודם שנברא אדם:
neither did any herb of the field yet grow: [I.e.,] had not yet grown. And on the third [day], where it is written: “Let the earth bring forth,” they [the plants] had not yet emerged, but they stood at the entrance of the ground until the sixth day. And why?   וכל עשב השדה טרם יצמח: עדיין לא צמח, ובשלישי שכתוב ותוצא הארץ, על פתח הקרקע עמדו עד יום ששי:
Because… not caused it to rain: Because there was no man to work the soil, and no one recognized the benefit of rain, but when man came and understood that they were essential to the world, he prayed for them, and they fell, and the trees and the herbs sprouted. — [from Chul. 60b]   כי לא המטיר: ומה טעם לא המטיר, לפי שאדם אין לעבוד את האדמה ואין מכיר בטובתם של גשמים, וכשבא אדם וידע שהם צורך לעולם התפלל עליהם וירדו, וצמחו האילנות והדשאים:
the Lord God: יהוה is His name. אֱלֹהִים [means] that He is the Ruler and Judge over the entire world, and so is this defined everywhere according to its simple meaning: the Lord (יהוה ), Who is Ruler and Judge (אֱלֹהִים).   ה' א-להים: ה' הוא שמו, א-להים שהוא שופט ושליט על כל, וכן פירוש זה בכל מקום לפי פשוטו, ה' שהוא א-להים:
6And a mist ascended from the earth and watered the entire surface of the ground.   ווְאֵ֖ד יַֽעֲלֶ֣ה מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהִשְׁקָ֖ה אֶת־כָּל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
And a mist ascended: Concerning the creation of man, He brought up the [waters of the] deep and watered the clouds to soak the earth, and man was created; like the baker, who puts water [into the flour] and afterwards kneads the dough. Here too, “He watered,” and afterwards, “He formed” [man]. — [from Exod. Rabbah 30:113; Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 5]   ואד יעלה: לענין בריאתו של אדם, העלה את התהום והשקה העננים לשרות העפר ונברא אדם, כגבל זה שנותן מים ואחר כך לש את העיסה, אף כאן והשקה ואחר כך וייצר:
7And the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and He breathed into his nostrils the soul of life, and man became a living soul.   זוַיִּ֩יצֶר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֗ם עָפָר֙ מִן־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה וַיִּפַּ֥ח בְּאַפָּ֖יו נִשְׁמַ֣ת חַיִּ֑ים וַיְהִ֥י הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְנֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּֽה:
formed: [וַיִּיצֶר, with two “yuds,” hints at] two creations, a creation for this world and a creation for the [time of the] resurrection of the dead, but in connection with the animals, which do not stand in judgment, two“yuds” are not written in [the word וַיִּצֶר describing their creation. — [from Tan. Tazria 1]   וייצר: שתי יצירות, יצירה לעולם הזה ויצירה לתחיית המתים, אבל בבהמה שאינה עומדת לדין לא נכתב ביצירה שני יודי"ן:
dust from the ground: He gathered dust from the entire earth, from the four directions, so that wherever he [man] would die, it [the earth] would accept him for burial (Tan. Pekudei 3). Another explanation: He took his dust from the place of which it is said (Exod. 20:21): “You shall make Me an altar of earth.” If only it would be an atonement for him, so that he might endure! (Gen. Rabbah 14:8)   עפר מן האדמה: צבר עפרו מכל האדמה מארבע רוחות, שכל מקום שימות שם תהא קולטתו לקבורה. דבר אחר נטל עפרו ממקום שנאמר בו (שמות כ כא) מזבח אדמה תעשה לי, אמר הלואי תהיה לו כפרה ויוכל לעמוד:
and He breathed into his nostrils: He made him of earthly matter and of heavenly matter: the body of earthly matter the soul of heavenly matter. Because on the first day, heaven and earth were created. On the second day, He created the firmament for the heavenly beings; on the third day [He commanded], “and let the dry land appear,” for the earthly beings; on the fourth day, He created luminaries for the heavenly beings; on the fifth day, [He commanded],“Let the waters swarm,” for the earthly beings; on the sixth day, it became necessary to create for both the heavenly and the earthly beings, for if not, there would be jealousy in the Creation, for these would exceed those by the creation of one day. — [from Gen. Rabbah 12:8]   ויפח באפיו: עשאו מן התחתונים ומן העליונים, גוף מן התחתונים ונשמה מן העליונים, לפי שביום ראשון נבראו שמים וארץ. בשני ברא רקיע לעליונים. בשלישי תראה היבשה לתחתונים. ברביעי ברא מאורות לעליונים. בחמישי ישרצו המים לתחתונים, הוזקק הששי לבראות בו בעליונים ובתחתונים, ואם לאו יש קנאה במעשה בראשית, שיהיו אלו רבים על אלו בבריאת יום אחד:
a living soul: Cattle and beasts were also called living souls, but this one of man is the most alive of them all, because he was additionally given intelligence and speech.   לנפש חיה: אף בהמה וחיה נקראו נפש חיה, אך זו של אדם חיה שבכולן, שנתוסף בו דעה ודבור:
8And the Lord God planted a garden in Eden from the east, and He placed there the man whom He had formed.   חוַיִּטַּ֞ע יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהִ֛ים גַּן־בְּעֵ֖דֶן מִקֶּ֑דֶם וַיָּ֣שֶׂם שָׁ֔ם אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָצָֽר:
from the east: Heb. מִקֶּדֶם. In the east of Eden, He planted the garden (Midrash Konen). Now if you ask: It has already been stated (above 1:27): “And He created man, etc.!” I saw in the Baraitha of Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Jose the Galilean concerning the thirty-two principles by which the Torah is expounded, and this is one of them [method 13]: A general statement followed by a specific act, the latter constitutes a specific [clarification] of the first [general statement]. “And He created man.” This is a general statement. It left obscure whence he was created, and it left His deeds obscure [i.e., how God created man]. The text repeats and explains: “And the Lord God formed, etc.,” and He made the Garden of Eden grow for him, and He placed him in the Garden of Eden, and He caused a deep sleep to fall upon him. The listener may think that this is another story, but it is only the detailed account of the former. Likewise, in the case of the animal, Scripture repeats and writes (below verse 19): “And the Lord God formed from the ground all the beasts of the field,” in order to explain, “and He brought [them] to man” to name them, and to teach about the fowl, that they were created from the mud.   מקדם: במזרחו של עדן נטע את הגן. ואם תאמר הרי כבר כתב (לעיל א כז) ויברא א-להים את האדם וגו'. ראיתי בברייתא של ר' אליעזר בנו של ר' יוסי הגלילי משלושים ושתים מדות שהתורה נדרשת, וזו אחת מהן כלל שלאחריו מעשה הוא פרטו של ראשון. ויברא את האדם זהו כלל, סתם בריאתו מהיכן וסתם מעשיו, חזר ופירש וייצר ה' א-להים וגו', ויצמח לו גן עדן, ויניחהו בגן עדן, ויפל עליו תרדמה, השומע סבור שהוא מעשה אחר, ואינו אלא פרטו של ראשון. וכן אצל הבהמה חזר וכתב ויצר ה' א-להים מן האדמה כל חית השדה (ב יט), כדי לפרש ויבא אל האדם לקרות שם, וללמד על העופות שנבראו מן הרקק:
9And the Lord God caused to sprout from the ground every tree pleasant to see and good to eat, and the Tree of Life in the midst of the garden, and the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil.   טוַיַּצְמַ֞ח יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהִים֙ מִן־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה כָּל־עֵ֛ץ נֶחְמָ֥ד לְמַרְאֶ֖ה וְט֣וֹב לְמַֽאֲכָ֑ל וְעֵ֤ץ הַֽחַיִּים֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַגָּ֔ן וְעֵ֕ץ הַדַּ֖עַת ט֥וֹב וָרָֽע:
And…caused to sprout: Scripture speaks about the Garden. — [from Gen. Rabbah 13:1]   ויצמח: לענין הגן הכתוב מדבר:
in the midst of the garden: i.e., in the middle of the Garden. — [from Targumim]   בתוך הגן: באמצע:
10And a river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it separated and became four heads.   יוְנָהָר֙ יֹצֵ֣א מֵעֵ֔דֶן לְהַשְׁק֖וֹת אֶת־הַגָּ֑ן וּמִשָּׁם֙ יִפָּרֵ֔ד וְהָיָ֖ה לְאַרְבָּעָ֥ה רָאשִֽׁים:
11The name of one is Pishon; that is the one that encompasses all the land of Havilah, where there is gold.   יאשֵׁ֥ם הָֽאֶחָ֖ד פִּישׁ֑וֹן ה֣וּא הַסֹּבֵ֗ב אֵ֚ת כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ הַֽחֲוִילָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם הַזָּהָֽב:
Pishon: This is the Nile, the river of Egypt, and because its waters are blessed, and they rise and water the land, it is called Pishon, like (Hab. 1:8):“and their riders shall increase (וּפָשׁוּ) .” (Unknown midrash, quoted by Zeror Hamor, below 41:1, Letters of Rabbi Akiva). Another explanation: [It is called] Pishon because it causes flax (פִשְׁתָן) to grow, as is stated in reference to Egypt (Isa. 19:9):“And those who work at flax (פִּשְׁתִּים)…shall be ashamed” (Gen. Rabbah 16:2).   פישון: הוא נילוס נהר מצרים ועל שם שמימיו מתברכין ועולין ומשקין את הארץ נקרא פישון, כמו ופשו פרשיו. דבר אחר פישון שהוא מגדל פשתן שנאמר על מצרים (ישעיה יט ט) ובושו עובדי פשתים:
12And the gold of that land is good; there is the crystal and the onyx stone.   יבוּֽזֲהַ֛ב הָאָ֥רֶץ הַהִ֖וא ט֑וֹב שָׁ֥ם הַבְּדֹ֖לַח וְאֶ֥בֶן הַשֹּֽׁהַם:
13And the name of the second river is Gihon; that is the one that encompasses all the land of Cush.   יגוְשֵֽׁם־הַנָּהָ֥ר הַשֵּׁנִ֖י גִּיח֑וֹן ה֣וּא הַסּוֹבֵ֔ב אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ כּֽוּשׁ:
Gihon: [It is named thus because] it flowed and roared, and its roaring was very great, like (Exod. 21: 28):“If an [ox] gore (יִגַח),” for he gores and goes along and roars.   גיחון: שהיה הולך והומה והמייתו גדולה מאד, כמו (שמות כא כח) כי יגח, שמנגח והולך והומה:
14And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is the one that flows to the east of Assyria, and the fourth river that is the Euphrates.   ידוְשֵֽׁם־הַנָּהָ֤ר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי֙ חִדֶּ֔קֶל ה֥וּא הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ קִדְמַ֣ת אַשּׁ֑וּר וְהַנָּהָ֥ר הָֽרְבִיעִ֖י ה֥וּא פְרָֽת:
Tigris: Heb. חִדֶּקֶל, [thus called] because its waters are sharp (חַד) and light (קַל). - [from Ber. 59b.]   חדקל: שמימיו חדין וקלין:
Euphrates: Heb. פְרָת [thus called] because its waters are fruitful (פָרִין) and increase abundantly, and make people healthy (Bech. 55b, Keth. 77b).   פרת: שמימיו פרין ורבין ומברין את האדם:
Cush and Assyria: These did not exist as yet, and Scripture wrote [their names] based on [the fact that they will exist in] the future. — [from Keth. 10b]   כוש ואשור: עדיין לא היו, וכתב המקרא על שם העתיד:
to the east of Assyria: Heb. קִדְמַת To the east of Assyria. — [from Targum Onkelos]   קדמת אשור: למזרחה של אשור:
that is the Euphrates: The most important of all [the rivers] (Gen. Rabbah 16:3), [because it is] mentioned in conjunction with the Land of Israel (Shev. 47b).   הוא פרת: החשוב על כולם, הנזכר על שם ארץ ישראל:
15Now the Lord God took the man, and He placed him in the Garden of Eden to work it and to guard it.   טווַיִּקַּ֛ח יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֑ם וַיַּנִּחֵ֣הוּ בְגַן־עֵ֔דֶן לְעָבְדָ֖הּ וּלְשָׁמְרָֽהּ:
took: He took him with pleasant words and enticed him to enter. — [Gen. Rabbah 16:5]   ויקח: לקחו בדברים נאים ופתהו ליכנס:  
16And the Lord God commanded man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat.   טזוַיְצַו֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים עַל־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר מִכֹּ֥ל עֵֽץ־הַגָּ֖ן אָכֹ֥ל תֹּאכֵֽל:
17But of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat of it, for on the day that you eat thereof, you shall surely die."   יזוּמֵעֵ֗ץ הַדַּ֨עַת֙ ט֣וֹב וָרָ֔ע לֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל מִמֶּ֑נּוּ כִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם אֲכָלְךָ֥ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּת:
18And the Lord God said, "It is not good that man is alone; I shall make him a helpmate opposite him."   יחוַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים לֹא־ט֛וֹב הֱי֥וֹת הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְבַדּ֑וֹ אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לּ֥וֹ עֵ֖זֶר כְּנֶגְדּֽוֹ:
It is not good, etc.: [Gen. Rabbah] Lest they [people] say, “There are two dominions: the Holy One, blessed be He, is alone among the heavenly beings, and He has no mate, and this one [man] among the earthly creatures, has no mate.”   לא טוב היות וגו': שלא יאמרו שתי רשויות הן הקב"ה יחיד בעליונים ואין לו זוג, וזה יחיד בתחתונים ואין לו זוג:
a helpmate opposite him: If he is worthy, she will be a helpmate. If he is not worthy, she will be against him, to fight him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 17:3, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 12. See also Yev. 63a]   עזר כנגדו: זכה עזר, לא זכה כנגדו להלחם:
19And the Lord God formed from the earth every beast of the field and every fowl of the heavens, and He brought [it] to man to see what he would call it, and whatever the man called each living thing, that was its name.   יטוַיִּ֩צֶר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֜ים מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָ֗ה כָּל־חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַיָּבֵא֙ אֶל־הָ֣אָדָ֔ם לִרְא֖וֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־ל֑וֹ וְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִקְרָא־ל֧וֹ הָֽאָדָ֛ם נֶ֥פֶשׁ חַיָּ֖ה ה֥וּא שְׁמֽוֹ:
And God formed from the earth: This “forming” is identical with the “making” mentioned above (1:25): “And God made the beasts of the earth, etc.” But it comes here to explain that the fowl were created from the mud, because it stated above that they were created from the water, and here it states that they were created from the earth (Chul. 27b). It also teaches you here that at the time of their forming, immediately on that day, He brought them to man to name them (Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan, ch. 1). And in the words of the Aggadah [Gen. Rabbah 17:4], this יְצִירה has the meaning of domination and conquest, like (Deut. 20:19):“When you besiege (תָצוּר) a city,” meaning that He subjugated them under man’s dominion.   ויצר וגו' מן האדמה: היא יצירה היא עשייה האמורה למעלה (לעיל א כה) ויעש א-להים את חית הארץ וגו', אלא בא ופירש שהעופות מן הרקק נבראו, לפי שאמר למעלה מן המים נבראו וכאן אמר מן הארץ נבראו. ועוד למדך כאן שבשעת יצירתן מיד בו ביום הביאם אל האדם לקרות להם שם. ובדברי אגדה יצירה זו לשון רידוי וכבוש, כמו (דברים כ יט) כי תצור אל עיר, שכבשן תחת ידו של אדם:
and whatever the man called each living thing.: Transpose it and explain it: Every living creature to which man would give a name-that was to be its name forever.   וכל אשר יקרא לו האדם נפש חיה וגו': סרסהו ופרשהו כל נפש חיה אשר יקרא לו האדם שם הוא שמו לעולם:

Third Portion

Genesis Chapter 2

20And man named all the cattle and the fowl of the heavens and all the beasts of the field, but for man, he did not find a helpmate opposite him.   כוַיִּקְרָ֨א הָֽאָדָ֜ם שֵׁמ֗וֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּלְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וּלְכֹ֖ל חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה וּלְאָדָ֕ם לֹֽא־מָצָ֥א עֵ֖זֶר כְּנֶגְדּֽוֹ:
21And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon man, and he slept, and He took one of his sides, and He closed the flesh in its place.   כאוַיַּפֵּל֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֧ים | תַּרְדֵּמָ֛ה עַל־הָֽאָדָ֖ם וַיִּישָׁ֑ן וַיִּקַּ֗ח אַחַת֙ מִצַּלְעֹתָ֔יו וַיִּסְגֹּ֥ר בָּשָׂ֖ר תַּחְתֶּֽנָּה:
And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall: [Gen. Rabbah 17:4] When He brought them [the animals], He brought before him of every species, male and female. He (Adam) said, “Everyone has a mate, but I have no mate.” Immediately,“And God caused to fall.”   ולאדם לא מצא עזר. ויפל ה' א-להים תרדמה: כשהביאן הביאן לפניו כל מין ומין זכר ונקבה, אמר לכלם יש בן זוג ולי אין בן זוג, מיד ויפל:
of his sides: Heb. מִצַּלְעֹתיו, of his sides, like (Exod. 26:20):“And for the side (וּלְצֶלַע) of the Tabernacle.” This coincides with what they [the Rabbis] said: They were created with two faces. — [from Gen. Rabbah 8:1] See also Eruvin 18a, Ber. 61a.   מצלעותיו: מסטריו, כמו (שמות כו כ) ולצלע המשכן, זהו שאמרו שני פרצופים נבראו:
and He closed: the place of the incision. — [from Ber. 61a, Eruv. 18a]   ויסגר: מקום החתך:
and he slept, and He took: So that he should not see the piece of flesh from which she was created, lest she be repulsive to him. — [from Sanh. 39a]   ויישן ויקח: שלא יראה חתיכת הבשר שממנו נבראת ותתבזה עליו:
22And the Lord God built the side that He had taken from man into a woman, and He brought her to man.   כבוַיִּ֩בֶן֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֧ים | אֶת־הַצֵּלָ֛ע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַ֥ח מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וַיְבִאֶ֖הָ אֶל־הָֽאָדָֽם:
[And He] built: [He made her] like a building, broad at the bottom and narrow at the top, so that she can carry a fetus, like a storehouse of wheat, which is broad at the bottom and narrow on top, so that its burden should not weigh on its walls. — [from Ber. 61a, Eruv. 18a]   ויבן: כבנין, רחבה מלמטה וקצרה מלמעלה לקבל הולד, כאוצר של חטים שהוא רחב מלמטה וקצר מלמעלה, שלא יכביד משאו על קירותיו:
[And He] built the side…into a woman: lit. to a woman, to become a woman, like (Jud. 8:27):“and Gideon made it into an ephod,” to be an ephod.   ויבן וגו' את הצלע וגו' לאשה: להיות אשה, כמו (שופטים ח כז) ויעש אותו גדעון לאפוד, להיות אפוד:
23And man said, "This time, it is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. This one shall be called ishah (woman) because this one was taken from ish (man)."   כגוַיֹּ֘אמֶר֘ הָֽאָדָם֒ זֹ֣את הַפַּ֗עַם עֶ֚צֶם מֵֽעֲצָמַ֔י וּבָשָׂ֖ר מִבְּשָׂרִ֑י לְזֹאת֙ יִקָּרֵ֣א אִשָּׁ֔ה כִּ֥י מֵאִ֖ישׁ לֻֽקֳחָה־זֹּֽאת:
This time: This teaches us that Adam came to all the animals and the beasts [in search of a mate], but he was not satisfied until he found Eve. — [from Yev. 63a]   זאת הפעם: מלמד שבא אדם על כל בהמה וחיה ולא נתקררה דעתו בהם עד שבא על חוה:
This one shall be called ishah because, from ish: One expression coincides with the other [i. e., the words אִישׁ and words אִשָּׁה have the same root]. From here is derived that the world was created with the Holy Tongue. — [from Gen. Rabbah 18:4]   לזאת יקרא אשה כי מאיש וגו': לשון נופל על לשון, מכאן שנברא העולם בלשון הקדש:
24Therefore, a man shall leave his father and his mother, and cleave to his wife, and they shall become one flesh.   כדעַל־כֵּן֙ יַֽעֲזָב־אִ֔ישׁ אֶת־אָבִ֖יו וְאֶת־אִמּ֑וֹ וְדָבַ֣ק בְּאִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וְהָי֖וּ לְבָשָׂ֥ר אֶחָֽד:
Therefore, a man shall leave: The Divine Spirit says this, to prohibit forbidden unions to the Noahides. — [from Sanh. 58a]   על כן יעזב איש: רוח הקודש אומרת כן, לאסור על בני נח את העריות:
one flesh: The fetus is formed by them both, and there [in the child] their flesh becomes one. — [from Sanh. 58a]   לבשר אחד: הולד נוצר על ידי שניהם, ושם נעשה בשרם אחד:
25Now they were both naked, the man and his wife, but they were not ashamed.   כהוַיִּֽהְי֤וּ שְׁנֵיהֶם֙ עֲרוּמִּ֔ים הָֽאָדָ֖ם וְאִשְׁתּ֑וֹ וְלֹ֖א יִתְבּשָֽׁשׁוּ:
but they were not ashamed: for they did not know the way of modesty, to distinguish between good and evil (Gen. Rabbah) (Targum Yerushalmi), and even though knowledge was granted him to call [all the creatures] names, he was not imbued with the evil inclination until he ate of the tree, and the evil inclination entered into him, and he knew the difference between good and evil (Gen. Rabbah) (Zohar, vol. 1, 36b; Mid. Tadshei 7).   ולא יתבוששו: שלא היו יודעים דרך צניעות להבחין בין טוב לרע, ואף על פי שנתנה בו דעה לקרות שמות, לא נתן בו יצר הרע עד אכלו מן העץ ונכנס בו יצר הרע וידע מה בין טוב לרע:

Genesis Chapter 3

1Now the serpent was cunning, more than all the beasts of the field that the Lord God had made, and it said to the woman, "Did God indeed say, 'You shall not eat of any of the trees of the garden?'"   אוְהַנָּחָשׁ֙ הָיָ֣ה עָר֔וּם מִכֹּל֙ חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֶל־הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה אַ֚ף כִּֽי־אָמַ֣ר אֱלֹהִ֔ים לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּ֖ל עֵ֥ץ הַגָּֽן:
Now the serpent was cunning: What is the connection of this matter here? Scripture should have juxtaposed (below verse 21): “And He made for Adam and for his wife shirts of skin, and He dressed them.” But it teaches you as a result of what plan the serpent thrust himself upon them. He saw them naked and engaging in intercourse before everyone’s eyes, and he desired her. — [from Gen. Rabbah 18:6]   והנחש היה ערום: מה ענין זה לכאן היה לו לסמוך (פסוק כא) ויעש לאדם ולאשתו כתנות עור וילבישם. אלא למדך מאיזו עילה קפץ הנחש עליהם, ראה אותם ערומים ועוסקים בתשמיש לעין כל ונתאוה לה:
cunning, more than all: Commensurate with its cunning and its greatness, was its downfall- [it was] cunning, more than all, [and it was] cursed, more than all. — [from Gen. Rabbah 19:1]   ערום מכל: לפי ערמתו וגדולתו היתה מפלתו, ערום מכל, ארור מכל:
Did…indeed say, etc.: Did He say to you, “You shall not eat of any, etc.?” Even though he saw them eating of the other fruits, he spoke to her at length in order that she answer him and come to speak of that tree. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ed. Horowitz, ch. 13; Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan , ch. 1]   אף כי אמר וגו': שמא אמר לכם לא תאכלו מכל וגו' - ואף על פי שראה אותם אוכלים משאר פירות, הרבה עליה דברים כדי שתשיבנו ויבא לדבר באותו העץ:
2And the woman said to the serpent, "Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat.   בוַתֹּ֥אמֶר הָֽאִשָּׁ֖ה אֶל־הַנָּחָ֑שׁ מִפְּרִ֥י עֵֽץ־הַגָּ֖ן נֹאכֵֽל:
3But of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, God said, "You shall not eat of it, and you shall not touch it, lest you die.'"   גוּמִפְּרִ֣י הָעֵץ֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּתֽוֹךְ־הַגָּן֒ אָמַ֣ר אֱלֹהִ֗ים לֹ֤א תֹֽאכְלוּ֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְלֹ֥א תִגְּע֖וּ בּ֑וֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתֽוּן:
and you shall not touch it: She added to the command; therefore, she came to diminish it. That is what is stated (Prov. 30:6): “Do not add to His words.” - [from Sanh. 29a]   ולא תגעו בו: הוסיפה על הצווי, לפיכך באה לידי גרעון, הוא שנאמר (משלי ל ו) אל תוסף על דבריו:
4And the serpent said to the woman, "You will surely not die.   דוַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַנָּחָ֖שׁ אֶל־הָֽאִשָּׁ֑ה לֹא־מ֖וֹת תְּמֻתֽוּן:
You will surely not die: He pushed her until she touched it. He said to her, “Just as there is no death in touching, so is there no death in eating” (Gen. Rabbah 19:3).   לא מות תמתון: דחפה עד שנגעה בו, אמר לה כשם שאין מיתה בנגיעה כך אין מיתה באכילה:
5For God knows that on the day that you eat thereof, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like angels, knowing good and evil."   הכִּ֚י יֹדֵ֣עַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים כִּ֗י בְּיוֹם֙ אֲכָלְכֶ֣ם מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְנִפְקְח֖וּ עֵֽינֵיכֶ֑ם וִֽהְיִיתֶם֙ כֵּֽאלֹהִ֔ים יֹֽדְעֵ֖י ט֥וֹב וָרָֽע:
For God knows: Every craftsman hates his fellow craftsmen. He [God] ate of the tree and created the world (Gen. Rabbah 19:4).   כי יודע: כל אומן שונא את בני אומנתו, מן העץ אכל וברא את העולם:
and you will be like angels: Creators of worlds. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 13]   והייתם כא-להים: יוצרי עולמות:
6And the woman saw that the tree was good for food and that it was a delight to the eyes, and the tree was desirable to make one wise; so she took of its fruit, and she ate, and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate.   ווַתֵּ֣רֶא הָֽאִשָּׁ֡ה כִּ֣י טוֹב֩ הָעֵ֨ץ לְמַֽאֲכָ֜ל וְכִ֧י תַֽאֲוָה־ה֣וּא לָֽעֵינַ֗יִם וְנֶחְמָ֤ד הָעֵץ֙ לְהַשְׂכִּ֔יל וַתִּקַּ֥ח מִפִּרְי֖וֹ וַתֹּאכַ֑ל וַתִּתֵּ֧ן גַּם־לְאִישָׁ֛הּ עִמָּ֖הּ וַיֹּאכַֽל:
And the woman saw: She understood the words of the serpent and they appealed to her; so she believed him (Gen. Rabbah 19:4).   ותרא האשה: ראתה דבריו של נחש והנאו לה והאמינתו:
that the tree was good: to [cause them to] be like angels.   כי טוב העץ: להיות כא-להים:
and that it was a delight to the eyes: As he had said to her, “and your eyes will be opened.”   וכי תאוה הוא לעינים: כמו שאמר לה ונפקחו עיניכם:
and that the tree was desirable to make one wise: As he said to her, “knowing good and evil.”   ונחמד להשכיל: כמו שאמר לה יודעי טוב ורע:
and she gave also to her husband: lest she die and he live and marry someone else. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer , ch. 13]   ותתן גם לאשה עמה: שלא תמות היא ויחיה הוא, וישא אשה אחרת:
also: to include the cattle and beasts - [from Gen. Rabbah 19:5].   גם: לרבות כל בהמה וחיה:
7And the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked, and they sewed fig leaves and made themselves girdles.   זוַתִּפָּקַ֨חְנָה֙ עֵינֵ֣י שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֵּ֣דְע֔וּ כִּ֥י עֵֽירֻמִּ֖ם הֵ֑ם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ֙ עֲלֵ֣ה תְאֵנָ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם חֲגֹרֹֽת:
And…were opened: Scripture is referring to wisdom, and not to actual vision, and the end of the verse proves this. — [from Gen. Rabbah 19:7]   ותפקחנה עיני שניהם: לענין החכמה דבר הכתוב ולא לענין ראיה ממש, וסוף המקרא מוכיח:
and they knew that they were naked: Even a blind man knows when he is naked! What then is the meaning of “and they knew that they were naked” ? They had one commandment in their possession, and they became denuded of it.   וידעו כי ערומים הם: אף הסומא יודע כשהוא ערום, אלא מהו וידעו כי עירומים הם, מצוה אחת היתה בידם ונתערטלו הימנה:
fig leaves: That is the tree of which they had eaten. With that which they had sinned, they were rectified, but the other trees prevented them from taking their leaves. — [from Ber. 40a, Sanh. 70b] Now why was the tree not identified? Because the Holy One, blessed be He, does not wish to grieve any creature, so that [others] should not put it to shame and say, “This is [the tree] because of which the world suffered.” (Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma, Vayera 14, Buber 32).   עלה תאנה: הוא העץ שאכלו ממנו, בדבר שנתקלקלו בו נתקנו, אבל שאר העצים מנעום מליטול עליהם. ומפני מה לא נתפרסם העץ, שאין הקב"ה חפץ להונות בריה, שלא יכלימוהו ויאמרו זהו שלקה העולם על ידו. מדרש רבי תנחומא (וירא יד):
8And they heard the voice of the Lord God going in the garden to the direction of the sun, and the man and his wife hid from before the Lord God in the midst of the trees of the garden.   חוַיִּשְׁמְע֞וּ אֶת־ק֨וֹל יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהִ֛ים מִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ בַּגָּ֖ן לְר֣וּחַ הַיּ֑וֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּ֨א הָֽאָדָ֜ם וְאִשְׁתּ֗וֹ מִפְּנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים בְּת֖וֹךְ עֵ֥ץ הַגָּֽן:
And they heard: There are many Aggadic midrashim, and our Sages already arranged them in their proper order in Genesis Rabbah and in other midrashim, but I have come only [to teach] the simple meaning of the Scripture and such Aggadah that clarifies the words of the verses, each word in its proper way.   וישמעו: יש מדרשי אגדה רבים וכבר סדרום רבותינו על מכונם בבראשית רבה (יט ו) ובשאר מדרשות ואני לא באתי אלא לפשוטו של מקרא ולאגדה המישבת דברי המקרא דבר דבור על אופניו:
And they heard: What did they hear? They heard the voice of the Holy One, blessed be He, which was going in the garden. — [from Gen. Rabbah 19:7]   וישמעו: מה שמעו, שמעו את קול הקב"ה שהיה מתהלך בגן:
to the direction of the sun: To that direction in which the sun sets, and this is the west, for toward evening, the sun is in the west, and they sinned in the tenth [hour]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 19:8, Sanh. 38b]   לרוח היום: לאותו רוח שהשמש באה משם וזו היא מערבית, שלפנות ערב חמה במערב, והם סרחו בעשירית:
9And the Lord God called to man, and He said to him, "Where are you?"   טוַיִּקְרָ֛א יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־הָֽאָדָ֑ם וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ אַיֶּֽכָּה:
Where are you: He knew where he was, but [He asked him this] in order to enter into conversation with him, lest he be frightened to answer if He should punish him suddenly (Tanchuma Tazria 9). So with Cain, He said to him (below 4:9): “Where is your brother Abel?” And so with Balaam (Num. 22:9): “Who are these men with you?” for the purpose of entering a conversation with them, and so with Hezekiah, in regard to the emissaries of Merodach Baladan (Isa. 39:3) (Gen. Rabbah 19:11).   איכה: יודע היה היכן הוא, אלא ליכנס עמו בדברים, שלא יהא נבהל להשיב אם יענישהו פתאום. וכן בקין (בראשית ד ט) אמר לו אי הבל אחיך, וכן בבלעם (במדבר כב ט) מי האנשים האלה עמך, ליכנס עמהם בדברים, וכן בחזקיה בשלוחי (אויל) מרודך בלאדן (ישעיה לט ג):
10And he said, "I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid because I am naked; so I hid."   יוַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֶת־קֹֽלְךָ֥ שָׁמַ֖עְתִּי בַּגָּ֑ן וָֽאִירָ֛א כִּֽי־עֵירֹ֥ם אָנֹ֖כִי וָאֵֽחָבֵֽא:
11And He said, "Who told you that you are naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?"   יאוַיֹּ֕אמֶר מִ֚י הִגִּ֣יד לְךָ֔ כִּ֥י עֵירֹ֖ם אָ֑תָּה הֲמִן־הָעֵ֗ץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר צִוִּיתִ֛יךָ לְבִלְתִּ֥י אֲכָל־מִמֶּ֖נּוּ אָכָֽלְתָּ:
Who told you: From where do you know what shame there is in standing naked?   מי הגיד לך: מאין לך לדעת מה בשת יש בעומד ערום:
from the tree?: Heb. הֲמִן. This is in the interrogative sense.   המן העץ: בתמיה:
12And the man said, "The woman whom You gave [to be] with me she gave me of the tree; so I ate."   יבוַיֹּ֖אמֶר הָֽאָדָ֑ם הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָתַ֣תָּה עִמָּדִ֔י הִ֛וא נָֽתְנָה־לִּ֥י מִן־הָעֵ֖ץ וָֽאֹכֵֽל:
whom You gave [to be] with me: Here he [Adam] showed his ingratitude. — [from Avodah Zarah 5b]   אשר נתת עמדי: כאן כפר בטובה:
13And the Lord God said to the woman, "What is this that you have done?" And the woman said, "The serpent enticed me, and I ate."   יגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהִ֛ים לָֽאִשָּׁ֖ה מַה־זֹּ֣את עָשִׂ֑ית וַתֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה הַנָּחָ֥שׁ הִשִּׁיאַ֖נִי וָֽאֹכֵֽל:
enticed me: Heb. הִשִּׁיאַנִי, deceived me, like (II Chron. 32:15): “Let Hezekiah not deceive (יַשִּׁיא) you.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 19:2]   השיאני: הטעני כמו (דה"י ב' לב טו) אל ישיא אתכם חזקיהו:
14And the Lord God said to the serpent, "Because you have done this, cursed be you more than all the cattle and more than all the beasts of the field; you shall walk on your belly, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life.   ידוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֥ים | אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ֘ כִּ֣י עָשִׂ֣יתָ זֹּאת֒ אָר֤וּר אַתָּה֙ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה וּמִכֹּ֖ל חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה עַל־גְּחֹֽנְךָ֣ תֵלֵ֔ךְ וְעָפָ֥ר תֹּאכַ֖ל כָּל־יְמֵ֥י חַיֶּֽיךָ:
Because you have done this: From here [we learn] that we may not intercede in favor of one who entices people [to idolatry], for had He asked him, “Why did you do this?” he could have answered, “The words of the master and the words of the pupil-whose words do we obey?” [i.e., Adam and Eve should have obeyed God rather than the serpent!]- [from Sanh. 29a]   כי עשית זאת: מכאן שאין מהפכים בזכותו של מסית, שאילו שאלו למה עשית זאת, היה לו להשיב דברי הרב ודברי התלמיד דברי מי שומעין:
more than all the cattle and more than all the beasts of the field: If he was cursed more than the cattle [whose gestation period is long], he was surely cursed more than the beasts [whose gestation period is comparatively shorter]. Our Rabbis established this midrash in Tractate Bechoroth (8a) to teach that the gestation period of a serpent is seven years.   מכל הבהמה ומכל חית השדה: אם מבהמה נתקלל מחיה לא כל שכן, העמידו רבותינו מדרש זה במסכת בכורות (דף ח א) ללמד שימי עיבורו של נחש שבע שנים:
you shall walk on your belly: It had legs, but they were cut off. — [from Gen. Rabbah 20:5]   על גחונך תלך: רגלים היו לו ונקצצו:
15And I shall place hatred between you and between the woman, and between your seed and between her seed. He will crush your head, and you will bite his heel."   טווְאֵיבָ֣ה | אָשִׁ֗ית בֵּֽינְךָ֙ וּבֵ֣ין הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וּבֵ֥ין זַֽרְעֲךָ֖ וּבֵ֣ין זַרְעָ֑הּ ה֚וּא יְשֽׁוּפְךָ֣ רֹ֔אשׁ וְאַתָּ֖ה תְּשׁוּפֶ֥נּוּ עָקֵֽב:
And I shall place hatred: You intended that the man should die when he would eat first, and you would marry Eve, and you came to Eve first only because women are easily enticed, and they know how to entice their husbands. Therefore, “I shall place hatred.”   ואיבה אשית: אתה לא נתכוונת אלא שימות אדם כשיאכל הוא תחלה ותשא את חוה, ולא באת לדבר אל חוה תחלה אלא לפי שהנשים קלות להתפתות ויודעות לפתות את בעליהן, לפיכך ואיבה אשית:
He will crush your head: יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ, lit. he will crush you the head. He will crush you, like (Deut. 9:21): “And I crushed it,” which is translated by the Targum as וְשָׁפִית יָתֵיהּ   ישופך: יכתתך, כמו (דברים ט כא) ואכות אותו, ותרגומו ושפית יתיה:
and you will bite his heel: Heb. תְּשׁוּפֶנוּ. You will not stand upright and you will bite him on the heel, and even from there you will kill him. The expression תְּשׁוּפֶנוּ is like (Isa. 40:24): “He blew (נָשַׁף) on them.” When a snake comes to bite, it blows with a sort of hiss, and since the two expressions coincide [i.e., they sound alike], Scripture used the expression of נְשִׁיפָה in both cases.   ואתה תשופנו עקב: לא יהא לך קומה ותשכנו בעקבו, ואף משם תמיתנו. ולשון תשופנו כמו (ישעיה מ כד) נשף בהם, כשהנחש בא לנשוך הוא נושף כמין שריקה, ולפי שהלשון נופל על הלשון כתב לשון נשיפה בשניהם:
16To the woman He said, "I shall surely increase your sorrow and your pregnancy; in pain you shall bear children. And to your husband will be your desire, and he will rule over you."   טזאֶל־הָֽאִשָּׁ֣ה אָמַ֗ר הַרְבָּ֤ה אַרְבֶּה֙ עִצְּבוֹנֵ֣ךְ וְהֵֽרֹנֵ֔ךְ בְּעֶ֖צֶב תֵּֽלְדִ֣י בָנִ֑ים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ֙ תְּשׁ֣וּקָתֵ֔ךְ וְה֖וּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּֽךְ:
your sorrow: This refers to the pain of child rearing. — [from Eruv. 100b]   עצבונך: זה צער גידול בנים:
and your pregnancy: This refers to the pain of pregnancy. — [from above source]   והרנך: זה צער העבור:
in pain you shall bear children: This refers to the pain of childbirth. — [from Gen. Rabbah 20:6]   בעצב תלדי בנים: זה צער הלידה:
And to your husband will be your desire: for intimacy, but, nevertheless, you will not have the audacity to demand it of him with your mouth, but he will rule over you. Everything is from him and not from you. — [from Eruv. ad loc.]   ואל אשך תשוקתך: לתשמיש ואף על פי כן אין לך מצח לתובעו בפה אלא הוא ימשול בך, הכל ממנו ולא ממך:
your desire: Heb. תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ, your desire, like: (Isa. 29:8): “a yearning (שׁוֹקֵקָה) soul.” - [after Targum Onkelos]   תשוקתך: תאותך, כמו (ישעיה כט ח) ונפשו שוקקה:
17And to man He said, "Because you listened to your wife, and you ate from the tree from which I commanded you saying, 'You shall not eat of it,' cursed be the ground for your sake; with toil shall you eat of it all the days of your life.   יזוּלְאָדָ֣ם אָמַ֗ר כִּ֣י שָׁמַ֘עְתָּ֘ לְק֣וֹל אִשְׁתֶּ֒ךָ֒ וַתֹּ֨אכַל֙ מִן־הָעֵ֔ץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר צִוִּיתִ֨יךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֲרוּרָ֤ה הָֽאֲדָמָה֙ בַּֽעֲבוּרֶ֔ךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן֙ תֹּֽאכֲלֶ֔נָּה כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י חַיֶּֽיךָ:
cursed be the ground for your sake: It will bring up cursed things for you, such as flies, fleas, and ants. This can be compared to one who falls into evil ways, and people curse the breasts from which he suckled. — [from Gen. Rabbah 20: 8]   ארורה האדמה בעבורך: מעלה לך דברים ארורים כגון זבובים ופרעושים ונמלים, משל ליוצא לתרבות רעה והבריות מקללות שדים שינק מהם:
18And it will cause thorns and thistles to grow for you, and you shall eat the herbs of the field.   יחוְק֥וֹץ וְדַרְדַּ֖ר תַּצְמִ֣יחַ לָ֑ךְ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֖ אֶת־עֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶֽה:
And it will cause thorns and thistles to grow for you: The earth-when you sow it with various species of seeds-will sprout thorns and thistles, artichokes and cardoons, which are edible only after preparation. — [from Gen. Rabbah 20:10. See also Beizah 34a]   וקוץ ודרדר תצמיח לך: הארץ כשתזרענה מיני זרעים תצמיח קוץ ודרדר קונדס ועכביות, והן נאכלים על ידי תקון:
“and you shall eat the herbs of the field”: Now what [kind of] curse is this? Was it not said to him in the blessing (above 1:29): “Behold I have given you every seed-bearing herb, etc? But what is stated here [refers to] the beginning of the section: ”Cursed be the ground for your sake; with toil shall you eat of it,“ and after the toil, ”And it will cause thorns and thistles to grow for you." When you sow it with legumes or garden vegetables, it will cause thorns and thistles and other grasses of the field, to grow for you, and you shall have no choice but to eat them.   ואכלת את עשב השדה: ומה קללה היא זו, והלא בברכה נאמר לו (לעיל א כט) הנה נתתי לכם את כל עשב זורע זרע וגו'. אלא מה אמור כאן בראש הענין (פסוק יז) ארורה האדמה בעבורך בעצבון תאכלנה, ואחר העצבון וקוץ ודרדר תצמיח לך, כשתזרענה קטניות או ירקות גנה היא תצמיח לך קוצים ודרדרים ושאר עשבי שדה, ועל כרחך תאכלם:
19With the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, until you return to the ground, for you were taken therefrom, for dust you are, and to dust you will return."   יטבְּזֵעַ֤ת אַפֶּ֨יךָ֙ תֹּ֣אכַל לֶ֔חֶם עַ֤ד שֽׁוּבְךָ֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה כִּ֥י מִמֶּ֖נָּה לֻקָּ֑חְתָּ כִּֽי־עָפָ֣ר אַ֔תָּה וְאֶל־עָפָ֖ר תָּשֽׁוּב:
With the sweat of your face: After you toil with it very much. — [Mid. Tadshei, Otzar Midrashim]   בזעת אפיך: לאחר שתטרח בו הרבה:
20And the man named his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all life.   כוַיִּקְרָ֧א הָֽאָדָ֛ם שֵׁ֥ם אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ חַוָּ֑ה כִּ֛י הִ֥וא הָֽיְתָ֖ה אֵ֥ם כָּל־חָֽי:
And the man named: Scripture returns to its previous topic (2:20): “And the man named,” and it interrupted only to teach you that through the giving of names, Eve was mated to him, as it is written (above 2:20): “but for man, he did not find a helpmate opposite him.” Therefore, (ibid. 21): “And He caused a deep sleep to fall,” and since Scripture wrote, (ibid. 25):“And they were naked,” it juxtaposed the section of the serpent, to let you know that because he saw her naked and saw them engaging in intercourse, he desired her and came upon them with a design and with guile.   ויקרא האדם: חזר הכתוב לענינו הראשון ויקרא האדם שמות, ולא הפסיק אלא ללמדך שעל ידי קריאת שמות נזדווגה לו חוה, כמו שכתוב (לעיל ב כ) ולאדם לא מצא עזר כנגדו, לפיכך ויפל תרדמה, ועל ידי שכתב (שם פסוק כה) ויהיו שניהם ערומים, סמך לו פרשת הנחש, להודיעך שמתוך שראה ערותה וראה אותם עסוקים בתשמיש נתאוה לה ובא עליהם במחשבה ובמרמה:
Eve: Heb. חַוָּה. This coincides with the expression of חַיָה, living, because she gives life to her offspring, as you say, (Ecc. 2:22):“For what does a man have (הֹוֶה) ?” with the expression“being” (הֹוֶה) . [i.e., The “vav” and the “yud” are interchangeable.]   חוה: נופל על לשון חיה, שמחיה את ולדותיה, כאשר תאמר (קהלת ב כב) מה הוה לאדם, בלשון היה:
21And the Lord God made for Adam and for his wife shirts of skin, and He dressed them.   כאוַיַּ֩עַשׂ֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֜ים לְאָדָ֧ם וּלְאִשְׁתּ֛וֹ כָּתְנ֥וֹת ע֖וֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵֽׁם:
shirts of skin: Some Aggadic works say that they were as smooth as fingernails, fastened over their skin (Gen. Rabbah 20:12), and others say that they were a material that comes from the skin, like the wool of rabbits, which is soft and warm, and He made them shirts from it (Gen. Rabbah ad loc., Sotah 14a).   כתנות עור: יש דברי אגדה אומרים חלקים כצפורן היו מדובקים על עורן. ויש אומרים דבר הבא מן העור, כגון צמר הארנבים שהוא רך וחם ועשה להם כתנות ממנו:

Fourth Portion

Genesis Chapter 3

22Now the Lord God said, "Behold man has become like one of us, having the ability of knowing good and evil, and now, lest he stretch forth his hand and take also from the Tree of Life and eat and live forever."   כבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֗ים הֵ֤ן הָֽאָדָם֙ הָיָה֙ כְּאַחַ֣ד מִמֶּ֔נּוּ לָדַ֖עַת ט֣וֹב וָרָ֑ע וְעַתָּ֣ה | פֶּן־יִשְׁלַ֣ח יָד֗וֹ וְלָקַח֙ גַּ֚ם מֵעֵ֣ץ הַֽחַיִּ֔ים וְאָכַ֖ל וָחַ֥י לְעֹלָֽם:
has become like one of us, having the ability: He is unique among the earthly beings, just as I am unique among the heavenly beings, and what is his uniqueness? To know good and evil, unlike the cattle and the beasts. — [from Targum Jonathan, Gen. Rabbah 21:5]   היה כאחד ממנו: הרי הוא יחיד בתחתונים כמו שאני יחיד בעליונים, ומה היא יחידתו, לדעת טוב ורע ומה שאין כן בבהמה ובחיה:
and now, lest he stretch forth his hand, etc.: And if he were to live forever, he would be likely to mislead people to follow him and to say that he too is a deity (Gen. Rabbah 9:5). There are also Aggadic midrashim, but they cannot be reconciled with the simple meaning.   ועתה פן ישלח ידו: ומשיחיה לעולם הרי הוא קרוב להטעות הבריות אחריו ולומר אף הוא אלוה. ויש מדרשי אגדה, אבל אין מיושבין על פשוטו:
23And the Lord God sent him out of the Garden of Eden, to till the soil, whence he had been taken.   כגוַיְשַׁלְּחֵ֛הוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים מִגַּן־עֵ֑דֶן לַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֻקַּ֖ח מִשָּֽׁם:
24And He drove the man out, and He stationed from the east of the Garden of Eden the cherubim and the blade of the revolving sword, to guard the way to the Tree of Life.   כדוַיְגָ֖רֶשׁ אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֑ם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן֩ מִקֶּ֨דֶם לְגַן־עֵ֜דֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִ֗ים וְאֵ֨ת לַ֤הַט הַחֶ֨רֶב֙ הַמִּתְהַפֶּ֔כֶת לִשְׁמֹ֕ר אֶת־דֶּ֖רֶךְ עֵ֥ץ הַֽחַיִּֽים:
east of the Garden of Eden: in the east of the Garden of Eden, outside the garden. — [from Gen. Rabbah 21:9]   מקדם לגן עדן: במזרחו של גן עדן, חוץ לגן:
the cherubim: Angels of destruction. — [from Exod. Rabbah 9:11]   את הכרובים: מלאכי חבלה:
the revolving sword: It had a blade to frighten him from re-entering the garden. The Targum of לַהַט is שְׁנַן, like,“He drew the blade (שְׁנָנָא)” in Sanhedrin (82a), and in Old French it is lame. There are Aggadic midrashim, but I have come only to interpret its simple meaning.   החרב המתהפכת: ולה להט לאיים עליו מליכנס עוד לגן. תרגום של להט שנן, והוא כמו שלף שננא, ובלשון לע"ז למ"א [להב]. ומדרש אגדה יש, ואני איני בא אלא לפשוטו:

Genesis Chapter 4

1Now the man knew his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, and she said, "I have acquired a man with the Lord."   אוְהָ֣אָדָ֔ם יָדַ֖ע אֶת־חַוָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ וַתַּ֨הַר֙ וַתֵּ֣לֶד אֶת־קַ֔יִן וַתֹּ֕אמֶר קָנִ֥יתִי אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
Now the man knew: [This took place], prior to the above episode, before he sinned and was banished from the Garden of Eden. Also the conception and the birth [took place before], for if it were written: וַיֵּדַע אָדָם it would mean that after he had been banished, he had sons. — [from Sanh. 38b]   והאדם ידע: כבר קודם הענין של מעלה, קודם שחטא ונטרד מגן עדן, וכן ההריון והלידה, שאם כתב וידע אדם נשמע שלאחר שנטרד היו לו בנים:
Cain: Heb. קַיִן, based on קָנִיתִי, I acquired.   קין: על שם קניתי איש:
with the Lord: Heb. אֶת יהוה, like עִם יהוה, with the Lord. When He created me and my husband, He alone created us, but with this one, we are partners with Him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 22:2, Mid. Tadshei, Niddah 31a]   את ה': כמו עם ה', כשברא אותי ואת אישי הוא לבדו בראנו, אבל בזה שותפים אנו עמו:
Cain… his brother Abel: Heb. אֶת קַיִן אֶת אָחִיו אֶת הָבֶל. The word אֶת is repeated three times to suggest additional things. This teaches that a twin sister was born with Cain, and with Abel were born two. Therefore, it is said: וַתֹּסֶף, and she continued, or added. — [from Gen. Rabbah 22:2, 3]   את קין, את אחיו את הבל: שלש אתים ריבוים הם, מלמד שתאומה נולדה עם קין, ועם הבל נולדו שתים, לכך נאמר ותוסף:
2And she continued to bear his brother Abel, and Abel was a shepherd of flocks, and Cain was a tiller of the soil.   בוַתֹּ֣סֶף לָלֶ֔דֶת אֶת־אָחִ֖יו אֶת־הָ֑בֶל וַֽיְהִי־הֶ֨בֶל֙ רֹ֣עֵה צֹ֔אן וְקַ֕יִן הָיָ֖ה עֹבֵ֥ד אֲדָמָֽה:
a shepherd of flocks: Since the ground was cursed, he refrained from working it.   רועה צאן: לפי שנתקללה האדמה, פירש לו מעבודתה:
3Now it came to pass at the end of days, that Cain brought of the fruit of the soil an offering to the Lord.   גוַיְהִ֖י מִקֵּ֣ץ יָמִ֑ים וַיָּבֵ֨א קַ֜יִן מִפְּרִ֧י הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה מִנְחָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of the fruit of the soil: of the most inferior (Gen. Rabbah 22:5), and there is an Aggadah that states that it was flaxseed (Mid. Tan. Bereishith 9, Targum Jonathan). (Another explanation: of the fruit From whatever came to his hand, not the best and not the choicest.)   מפרי האדמה: מן הגרוע, ויש אגדה שאומרת זרע פשתן היה. (דבר אחר, מפרי, מאיזה שבא לידו, לא טוב ולא מובחר):
4And Abel he too brought of the firstborn of his flocks and of their fattest, and the Lord turned to Abel and to his offering.   דוְהֶ֨בֶל הֵבִ֥יא גַם־ה֛וּא מִבְּכֹר֥וֹת צֹאנ֖וֹ וּמֵֽחֶלְבֵהֶ֑ן וַיִּ֣שַׁע יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־הֶ֖בֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתֽוֹ:
turned: Heb. וַיִּשַׁע, and he turned. Likewise, (verse 5): “וְאֶל מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה” means: [And to his offering] He did not turn. Similarly, (Exod. 5:9): וְאַל יִשְׁעוּ means: and let them not turn. Similarly, (Job 14:6): שְׁעֵה מֵעָלָיו means: turn away from him.   וישע: ויפן, וכן (פסוק ה) לא שעה אל מנחתו, לא פנה, וכן (שמות ה ט) ואל ישעו, אל יפנו. וכן (איוב יד ו) שעה מעליו, פנה מעליו:
and…turned: Fire descended and consumed his offering. — [from Song Zuta 6:2, Sefer Hayashar]   וישע: ירדה אש וליחכה מנחתו:  
5But to Cain and to his offering He did not turn, and it annoyed Cain exceedingly, and his countenance fell.   הוְאֶל־קַ֥יִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָת֖וֹ לֹ֣א שָׁעָ֑ה וַיִּ֤חַר לְקַ֨יִן֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַיִּפְּל֖וּ פָּנָֽיו:
6And the Lord said to Cain, "Why are you annoyed, and why has your countenance fallen?   ווַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־קָ֑יִן לָ֚מָּה חָ֣רָה לָ֔ךְ וְלָ֖מָּה נָֽפְל֥וּ פָנֶֽיךָ:
7Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you? If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it."   זהֲל֤וֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב֙ שְׂאֵ֔ת וְאִם֙ לֹ֣א תֵיטִ֔יב לַפֶּ֖תַח חַטָּ֣את רֹבֵ֑ץ וְאֵלֶ֨יךָ֙ תְּשׁ֣וּקָת֔וֹ וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּמְשָׁל־בּֽוֹ:
Is it not so that if you improve: Its explanation is as the Targum renders it [i.e., if you improve your deeds.]   הלא אם תיטיב: כתרגומו פירושו:
at the entrance sin is lying: At the entrance of your grave, your sin is preserved.   לפתח חטאת רובץ: לפתח קברך חטאך שמור:
and to you is it’s longing: [The longing] of sin- i.e., the evil inclination-which constantly longs and lusts to cause you to stumble.   ואליך תשוקתו: של חטאת, הוא יצר הרע, תמיד שוקק ומתאוה להכשילך:
but you can rule over it: If you wish, you will overpower it. — [from Sifrei Ekev 45, Kidd. 30b]   ואתה תמשול בו: אם תרצה תתגבר עליו:
8And Cain spoke to Abel his brother, and it came to pass when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and slew him.   חוַיֹּ֥אמֶר קַ֖יִן אֶל־הֶ֣בֶל אָחִ֑יו וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֣ם בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַיָּ֥קָם קַ֛יִן אֶל־הֶ֥בֶל אָחִ֖יו וַיַּֽהַרְגֵֽהוּ:
And Cain spoke: He entered with him into words of quarrel and contention, to find a pretext to kill him. There are Aggadic interpretations on this matter, but this is the plain meaning of the verse.   ויאמר קין אל הבל: נכנס עמו בדברי ריב ומצה להתגולל עליו להרגו, ויש בזה מדרשי אגדה אך זה ישובו של מקרא:
9And the Lord said to Cain, "Where is Abel your brother?" And he said, "I do not know. Am I my brother's keeper?"   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־קַ֔יִן אֵ֖י הֶ֣בֶל אָחִ֑יךָ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵ֥ר אָחִ֖י אָנֹֽכִי:
Where is Abel your brother: To enter with him into mild words, perhaps he would repent and say, “I killed him, and I sinned against You.” See above 3:9.   אי הבל אחיך: להכנס עמו בדברי נחת, אולי ישוב ויאמר אני הרגתיו וחטאתי לך:
I do not know: He acted as if he could deceive the Most High. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Bereishith 25, Gen. Rabbah 22:9]   לא ידעתי: נעשה כגונב דעת העליונה:
Am I my brother’s keeper: Heb. הֲשֹׁמֵר. This is a question asked in astonishment, as is every “hey” prefix vowelized with a “chataf pattach.”   השמר אחי: לשון תימה הוא, וכן כל ה"א הנקודה בחטף פתח:
10And He said, "What have you done? Hark! Your brother's blood cries out to Me from the earth.   יוַיֹּ֖אמֶר מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֑יתָ ק֚וֹל דְּמֵ֣י אָחִ֔יךָ צֹֽעֲקִ֥ים אֵלַ֖י מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
Your brother’s blood: Heb. דְּמֵי, the plural form. His blood and the blood of his descendants. Another explanation: He inflicted many wounds upon him because he did not know from where his soul would depart. — [from Sanh. 37]   דמי אחיך: דמו ודם זרעיותיו. דבר אחר שעשה בו פצעים הרבה שלא היה יודע מהיכן נפשו יוצאה:
11And now, you are cursed even more than the ground, which opened its mouth to take your brother's blood from your hand.   יאוְעַתָּ֖ה אָר֣וּר אָ֑תָּה מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פָּֽצְתָ֣ה אֶת־פִּ֔יהָ לָקַ֛חַת אֶת־דְּמֵ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ מִיָּדֶֽךָ:
even more than the ground: Even more than it [the earth] was already cursed for its iniquity, and also with this it continued to sin. — [from Gen. Rabbah 5:9; Mechilta Beshallach, Massechta d’Shirah , ch. 9] As stated above (1:11), the iniquity was its failure to produce trees with the taste of the fruit.   ארור אתה מן האדמה: יותר ממה שנתקללה היא כבר בעונה, וגם בזו הוסיפה לחטוא:
which opened its mouth to take your brother’s blood, etc: And behold, I am adding to it a curse concerning you, that “it will not continue to give [you] its strength.” [In some editions, this is all one paragraph from “more than the ground.”]   אשר פצתה את פיה לקחת את דמי אחיך וגו': והנני מוסיף לה קללה לא תוסף תת כחה:
12When you till the soil, it will not continue to give its strength to you; you shall be a wanderer and an exile in the land."   יבכִּ֤י תַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה לֹֽא־תֹסֵ֥ף תֵּֽת־כֹּחָ֖הּ לָ֑ךְ נָ֥ע וָנָ֖ד תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה בָאָֽרֶץ:
a wanderer and an exile: You have no permission to dwell in one place. —   נע ונד: אין לך רשות לדור במקום אחד:
13And Cain said to the Lord, "Is my iniquity too great to bear?   יגוַיֹּ֥אמֶר קַ֖יִן אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה גָּד֥וֹל עֲוֹנִ֖י מִנְּשֽׂוֹא:
Is my iniquity too great to bear: This is a question. You bear the upper worlds and the lower worlds, and my iniquity is impossible for You to bear?- [from Tanchuma Buber, Bereishith 25; Gen. Rabbah 22:11; Targum Jonathan and Yerusahlmi]   גדול עוני מנשוא: בתמיה, אתה טוען עליונים ותחתונים, ועוני אי אפשר לטעון:
14Behold You have driven me today off the face of the earth, and I shall be hidden from before You, and I will be a wanderer and an exile in the land, and it will be that whoever finds me will kill me."   ידהֵן֩ גֵּרַ֨שְׁתָּ אֹתִ֜י הַיּ֗וֹם מֵעַל֙ פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה וּמִפָּנֶ֖יךָ אֶסָּתֵ֑ר וְהָיִ֜יתִי נָ֤ע וָנָד֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וְהָיָ֥ה כָל־מֹֽצְאִ֖י יַֽהַרְגֵֽנִי:
15And the Lord said to him, "Therefore, whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be wrought upon him sevenfold," and the Lord placed a mark on Cain that no one who find him slay him.   טווַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ יְהֹוָ֗ה לָכֵן֙ כָּל־הֹרֵ֣ג קַ֔יִן שִׁבְעָתַ֖יִם יֻקָּ֑ם וַיָּ֨שֶׂם יְהֹוָ֤ה לְקַ֨יִן֙ א֔וֹת לְבִלְתִּ֥י הַכּֽוֹת־אֹת֖וֹ כָּל־מֹֽצְאֽוֹ:
Therefore, whoever kills Cain…!: This is one of the verses that speak briefly and hint but do not [fully] explain.“Therefore, whoever kills Cain” is a threat. So shall be done to him, or such-and-such shall be his punishment, but it does not delineate his punishment. — [from Gen. Rabbah 22:12]   לכן כל הורג קין: זה אחד מן המקראות שקצרו דבריהם ורמזו ולא פירשו. לכן כל הורג קין, לשון גערה, כה יעשה לו, כך וכך עונשו, ולא פירש עונשו:
vengeance will be wrought upon him sevenfold: I do not wish to wreak vengeance upon Cain now. At the end of seven generations, I will wreak My vengeance upon him, for Lemech, one of his grandchildren, will rise up and slay him. And the words שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָם at the end of the verse, (after seven generations, vengeance will be wrought upon him)-refers to the avenging of Abel from Cain (Tan. Bereishith 11). This teaches that the beginning of the verse is an expression of a threat, that no creature should harm him. Similarly, (II Sam. 5:8): “And David said: Whoever smites the Jebusites and reaches the tower,” but it does not explain what would be done for him, but the verse spoke by hinting: [meaning] “Whoever smites the Jebusites and reaches the tower,” and reaches the gate and conquers it, “and the blind, etc.,” [meaning] and he will smite them too [i.e., the blind and the lame], because the blind and the lame said, “David shall not come into the midst of the house.” He who smites these, I will make into a chief and an officer. Here (II Sam.) he spoke briefly, but in I Chronicles (11:6), he explained [at length]: “He will become a chief and an officer.”   שבעתים יקם: איני רוצה להנקם מקין עכשיו, לסוף שבעה דורות אני נוקם נקמתי ממנו שיעמוד למך מבני בניו ויהרגהו. וסוף המקרא שאמר שבעתים יוקם, והיא נקמת הבל מקין, הא למדנו שתחלת מקרא לשון גערה היא, שלא תהא בריה מזיקתו. וכיוצא בו (שמואל ב' ה ח) ויאמר דוד כל מכה יבוסי ויגע בצנור ולא פירש מה יעשה לו, אבל דבר הכתוב ברמז כל מכה יבוסי ויגע בצנור, ויקרב אל השער ויכבשנו, ואת העורים וגו', וגם אותם יכה על אשר אמרו העור והפסח לא יבא דוד אל תוך הבית, המכה את אלו אני אעשנו ראש ושר, כאן קצר דבריו ובדברי הימים (א יא ו) פירש יהיה לראש ולשר:
and the Lord placed a mark on Cain: He engraved a letter of His Name on his forehead. [Other editions (of Rashi)]: Another explanation:   וישם ה' לקין אות: חקק לו אות משמו במצחו:
whoever finds me will kill me: This refers to the cattle and the beasts, but there were yet no humans in existence whom he should fear, only his father and mother, and he did not fear that they would kill him. But he said, “Until now, my fear was upon all the beasts, as it is written (Gen. 9:2): ‘And your fear, etc.,’ but now, because of this iniquity, the beasts will not fear me, and they will kill me.” Immediately,“and the Lord gave Cain a sign.” He restored his fear upon everyone- [as in ed. Guadalajara, 1476].   כל מוצאי יהרגני: הבהמות והחיות, אבל בני אדם עדיין לא היו שיירא מהם רק אביו ואמו, ומהם לא היה ירא שיהרגוהו. אלא אמר עד עכשיו היה פחדתי על כל החיות כמו שנאמר ומוראכם וגו', ועכשיו בשביל עון זה לא ייראו ממני החיות ויהרגוני, מיד וישם ה' לקין אות, החזיר מוראו על הכל:
16And Cain went forth from before the Lord, and he dwelt in the land of the wanderers, to the east of Eden.   טזוַיֵּ֥צֵא קַ֖יִן מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בְּאֶֽרֶץ־נ֖וֹד קִדְמַת־עֵֽדֶן:
And Cain went forth: He went out with humility, as if to deceive the Most High. — [from Gen. Rabbah 22:13]   ויצא קין: יצא בהכנעה כגונב דעת העליונה:
in the land of the wanderers: Heb. בְּאֶרֶץ נוֹד, in the land where all the exiles wander.   בארץ נוד: בארץ שכל הגולים נדים שם:
to the east of Eden: There his father was exiled when he was driven out of the Garden of Eden, as it is said (3:24) “and He stationed at the east of the Garden of Eden, etc., to guard” the way of approach to the Garden, from which we can learn that Adam was there. And we find that the easterly direction always offers asylum for murderers, as it is said (Deut. 4:41): “Then Moses separated, etc. [three cities of refuge] in the direction of the sunrise” - [Mid. Devarim Rabbah, Lieberman, p.60; Tan. Buber ad loc.]. Another explanation: בְּאֶרֶץ נוֹד means that wherever he went, the earth would quake beneath him, and the people would say, “Go away from him; this is the one who killed his brother” [Mid. Tan., Bereishith 9].   קדמת עדן: שם גלה אביו כשגורש מגן עדן, שנאמר (לעיל ג כד) וישכן מקדם לגן עדן, את שמירת דרך מבוא הגן, שיש ללמוד שהיה אדם שם. ומצינו רוח מזרחית קולטת בכל מקום את הרוצחים, שנאמר (דברים ד מא) אז יבדיל משה וגו' מזרחה שמש. דבר אחר בארץ נוד, כל מקום [שהיה הולך] היתה הארץ מזדעזעה תחתיו והבריות אומרות סורו מעליו, זהו שהרג את אחיו:
17And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch, and he was building a city, and he called the city after the name of his son, Enoch.   יזוַיֵּ֤דַע קַ֨יִן֙ אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד אֶת־חֲנ֑וֹךְ וַֽיְהִי֙ בֹּ֣נֶה עִ֔יר וַיִּקְרָא֙ שֵׁ֣ם הָעִ֔יר כְּשֵׁ֖ם בְּנ֥וֹ חֲנֽוֹךְ:
and he was: [i.e.,] Cain built a city, and he named the city in memory of his son Enoch.   ויהי: קין בונה עיר ויקרא שם העיר לזכר בנו חנוך:
18And Irad was born to Enoch, and Irad begot Mehujael, and Mehijael begot Methushael, and Methushael begot Lemech.   יחוַיִּוָּלֵ֤ד לַֽחֲנוֹךְ֙ אֶת־עִירָ֔ד וְעִירָ֕ד יָלַ֖ד אֶת־מְחֽוּיָאֵ֑ל וּמְחִיָּיאֵ֗ל יָלַד֙ אֶת־מְת֣וּשָׁאֵ֔ל וּמְתֽוּשָׁאֵ֖ל יָלַ֥ד אֶת־לָֽמֶךְ:
and Irad begot: Heb. יָלַד In some places, it says regarding the male הוֹלִיד, and in some places it says יָלַד, because the verb ילד can be used to express two meanings: the giving birth by the woman, nestre in Old French (naître in modern French), and the man’s begetting, anjandrer in Old French (engendrer in modern French). When it says הוֹלִיד in the הִפְעִיל conjugation (causative), it speaks of the woman’s giving birth, i.e., so-and-so caused his wife to bear a son or a daughter. When it says יָלַד, it speaks of the man’s begetting, and that is anjandrer in Old French.   ועירד ילד: יש מקום שהוא אומר בזכר הוליד ויש מקום שהוא אומר ילד, שהלידה משמשת שתי לשונות, לידת האשה ניישטר"א בלע"ז [ללדת], וזריעת תולדות האיש איניינדרי"ר בלע"ז [להוליד] כשהוא אומר הוליד בלשון הפעיל מדבר בלידת האשה, פלוני הוליד את אשתו בן או בת, וכשהוא אומר ילד מדבר בזריעת האיש, והוא בלע"ז איניינדרי"ר:

Fifth Portion

Genesis Chapter 4

19And Lemech took himself two wives; one was named Adah, and the other was named Zillah.   יטוַיִּקַּח־ל֥וֹ לֶ֖מֶךְ שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֑ים שֵׁ֤ם הָֽאַחַת֙ עָדָ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית צִלָּֽה:
And Lemech took himself two wives: It was not necessary to elaborate on all this, but it did so to teach us from the end of the section that the Holy One, blessed be He, kept His promise when He said, “vengeance will be wrought upon Cain sevenfold,” and Lemech arose after he had begotten sons and raised the seventh generation, and he slew Cain. This is what is meant by [Lemech’s statement] “for have I slain a man by my wounding, etc.” - [from sources quoted on verse 23]   ויקח לו למך: לא היה לו לפרש כל זה, אלא ללמדנו מסוף הענין שקיים הקב"ה הבטחתו שאמר שבעתים יוקם קין, עמד למך לאחר שהוליד בנים ועשה דור שביעי והרג את קין, זהו שאמר (פסוק כג) כי איש הרגתי לפצעי וגו':
two wives: So was the custom of the generation of the Flood, one [wife] for propagation and one for marital relations. The one who was for marital relations would be given a potion of roots to drink, so that she should become sterile (in some editions, the following does not appear), and he would adorn her like a bride and feed her delicacies, but her companion was neglected and was mourning like a widow. This is what Job explained (24:21): “He feeds the barren woman who will not bear, but he does not adorn the widow.” [This is] as explained in the Aggadah of Chelek (Sanh. ch. 10) (not found in our edition, but in Gen. Rabbah 23:2).   שתי נשים: כך היה דרכן של דור המבול, אחת לפריה ורביה ואחת לתשמיש, זו שהיא לתשמיש משקה כוס של עקרין כדי שתעקר ומקושטת ככלה ומאכילה מעדנים, וחברתה נזופה ואבלה כאלמנה, וזהו שפירש איוב (איוב כד כא) רועה עקרה לא תלד ואלמנה לא ייטיב, כמו שמפורש באגדת חלק:
Adah: She was the one for propagation, called so because she was despicable to him and removed from him. עָדָה is the Aramaic translation of סוּרָה, turn away.   עדה: היא של פריה ורביה, ועל שם שמגונה עליו ומוסרת מאצלו. עדה תרגום של סורה:
Zillah: She was the one for marital relations.[so named]because she would always sit in his shadow (בְּצִלּוֹ). These are the words of Aggadah in Genesis Rabbah .   צלה: היא של תשמיש על שם שיושבת תמיד בצלו, דברי אגדה הם בבראשית רבה (כג ב):
20Now Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of those who dwell in tents and have cattle.   כוַתֵּ֥לֶד עָדָ֖ה אֶת־יָבָ֑ל ה֣וּא הָיָ֔ה אֲבִ֕י ישֵׁ֥ב אֹ֖הֶל וּמִקְנֶֽה:
the father of those who dwell in tents and have cattle: He was the first to pasture animals in uncultivated places and dwell in tents, one month here and one month here for the sake of his flocks. When the pasture in this place was depleted, he went and pitched his tent elsewhere (Targumim). According to the Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 23:3), he would build houses for idol worship, as it is said (Ezek. 8:3), "The image of jealousy that provokes (God to) jealousy (הַקִּנְאָה הַמַּקְנֶה). And so did his brother grasp the lyre and the flute to sing to pagan deities. (Bereishith Rabbathi, p. 49)   אבי יושב אהל ומקנה: הוא היה הראשון לרועי בהמות במדברות, ויושב אהלים חדש כאן וחדש כאן בשביל מרעה צאנו, וכשכלה המרעה במקום הזה הולך ותוקע אהלו במקום אחר. ומדרש אגדה בונה בתים לעבודה זרה, כמה דאת אמר (יחזקאל ח ג) סמל הקנאה המקנה, וכן (פסוק כא) אחיו תופש כנור ועוגב לזמר לעבודה זרה:
21And his brother's name was Jubal; he was the father of all who grasp a lyre and a flute.   כאוְשֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו יוּבָ֑ל ה֣וּא הָיָ֔ה אֲבִ֕י כָּל־תֹּפֵ֥שׂ כִּנּ֖וֹר וְעוּגָֽב:
22And Zillah she too bore Tubal-cain, who sharpened all tools that cut copper and iron, and Tubal-cain's sister was Na'amah.   כבוְצִלָּ֣ה גַם־הִ֗וא יָֽלְדָה֙ אֶת־תּ֣וּבַל קַ֔יִן לֹטֵ֕שׁ כָּל־חֹרֵ֥שׁ נְח֖שֶׁת וּבַרְזֶ֑ל וַֽאֲח֥וֹת תּֽוּבַל־קַ֖יִן נַֽעֲמָֽה:
Tubal-cain: He refined the craft of Cain. Tubal is related to the word תַּבְלִין (spices). He “spiced” and “refined” Cain’s craft to make weapons for murderers- [from Gen. Rabbah 23:3].   תובל קין: תובל אומנתו של קין. תובל לשון תבלין, תיבל והתקין אומנתו של קין לעשות כלי זיין לרוצחים:
who sharpened all tools that cut copper and iron: Heb. לֹטֵשׁ. He sharpened the tools [for working with] copper and iron, like (Job 16:9): “sharpens (יִלְטוֹשׁ) his eyes upon me.” חֹרֵשׁ is not an expression of פּוֹעֶל (a noun) but an expression of פּוֹעֵל (a verb), because it is vowelized with a small “kamatz” (i.e., a tzeireh) and the final syllable is accented, i.e., he sharpens and burnishes all implements of the craft of copper and iron.   לוטש כל חרש נחשת וברזל: מחדד אומנות נחשת וברזל, כמו (איוב טז ט) ילטוש עיניו לי. חורש אינו לשון פועל אלא לשון פועל שהרי נקוד קמץ קטן. וטעמו למטה, כלומר מחדד ומצחצח כל כלי אומנות נחשת וברזל:
Na’amah: She was Noah’s wife. (Genesis Rabbah 23:3)   נעמה: היא אשתו של נח:

Sixth Portion

Genesis Chapter 4

23Now Lemech said to his wives, "Adah and Zillah, hearken to my voice; wives of Lemech, incline your ears to my words, for I have slain a man by wounding (him) and a child by bruising (him).   כגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר לֶ֜מֶךְ לְנָשָׁ֗יו עָדָ֤ה וְצִלָּה֙ שְׁמַ֣עַן קוֹלִ֔י נְשֵׁ֣י לֶ֔מֶךְ הַֽאֲזֵ֖נָּה אִמְרָתִ֑י כִּ֣י אִ֤ישׁ הָרַ֨גְתִּי֙ לְפִצְעִ֔י וְיֶ֖לֶד לְחַבֻּֽרָתִֽי:
hearken to my voice: For his wives separated from being intimate with him because he had slain Cain and Tubal-cain, his (Lemech’s) son. [The story was] that Lemech was blind, and Tubal-cain was leading him. He spotted Cain, who appeared to him as an animal, and he told his father to draw the bow, and he killed him. As soon as he learned that it was his grandfather Cain, he clapped his hands together [in anguish] and clapped his son between them and killed him. So his wives separated from him, and he attempted to appease them.   שמען קולי: שהיו פורשות ממנו מתשמיש לפי שהרג את קין ואת תובל קין בנו, שהיה למך סומא ותובל קין מושכו, וראה את קין ונדמה לו כחיה ואמר לאביו למשוך בקשת, והרגו. וכיון שידע שהוא קין זקנו, הכה כף אל כף וספק את בנו ביניהם והרגו, והיו נשיו פורשות ממנו והוא מפייסן:
hearken to my voice: to hearken to me to agree to live with me, for was the man I killed, killed because of my wounding? Did I wound him intentionally, that the wound should be attributed to my name? And the child I killed, was he killed by my bruising, i.e., on account of my [intentional] bruising? This is a question. Did I not do it inadvertently and not intentionally? This is not my wound, and this is not my bruise. פֶּצַע is a wound inflicted by a sword or an arrow, machadure in Old French.   שמען קולי: להשמע לי (לתשמיש), וכי איש אשר הרגתיו לפצעי הוא נהרג, וכי אני פצעתיו מזיד שיהא הפצע קרוי על שמי, וילד אשר הרגתי לחבורתי נהרג, כלומר על ידי חבורתי, בתמיה, והלא שוגג אני ולא מזיד, לא זהו פצעי ולא זהו חבורתי. פצע, מכת חרב או חץ נברידור"א בלע"ז [פצע]:
24If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, then for Lemech it shall be seventy seven fold."   כדכִּ֥י שִׁבְעָתַ֖יִם יֻקַּם־קָ֑יִן וְלֶ֖מֶךְ שִׁבְעִ֥ים וְשִׁבְעָֽה:
If Cain be avenged sevenfold: Cain, who killed intentionally, was given an extension until seven generations. How much more should I, who have killed unintentionally, be given many times seven.   כי שבעתים יוקם קין: קין שהרג מזיד נתלה לו עד שבעה דורות, אני שהרגתי שוגג לא כל שכן שיתלה לי שביעיות הרבה:
seventy-seven fold: Heb. שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה An expression meaning many sevens is used here. So did Rabbi Tanchuma explain it. [This does not appear in extant editions of Tanchuma, but in Yalkut Shim’oni it is quoted from Tanchuma]. In Midrash Genesis Rabbah (23:4): Lemech did not kill anyone, but his wives separated from him after they had fulfilled [the commandment of] propagation, because a decree had been issued to destroy Cain’s seed after seven generations. They said, “Why should we give birth in vain? Tomorrow, the Flood will come and inundate everything!” He answered them, “Have I slain a man for whom I should be wounded? Did I slay Abel, who was a man in stature and a child in years, that my seed should be annihilated for that iniquity? If Cain, who killed, was given an extension of seven generations, I, who did not slay- how much more so should I be given an extension of many sevens!” Now this is an absurd deduction from a minor to a major case, [because] if so, the Holy One, blessed be He, could not exact His debt nor fulfill His word.   שבעים ושבעה: לשון רבוי שביעיות אחז לו. כך דרש רבי תנחומא (אות יא). ומדרש בראשית רבה (כג ד) לא הרג למך כלום ונשיו פורשות ממנו משקיימו פריה ורביה, לפי שנגזרה גזרה לכלות זרעו של קין לאחר שבעה דורות, אמרו מה אנו יולדות לבהלה, למחר המבול בא ושוטף את הכל. והוא אומר להן וכי איש הרגתי לפצעי, וכי אני הרגתי את הבל שהיה איש בקומה וילד בשנים, שיהא זרעי כלה באותו עון, ומה קין שהרג נתלה לו שבעה דורות, אני שלא הרגתי לא כל שכן שיתלו לי שביעיות הרבה. וזהו קל וחומר של שטות, אם כן אין הקב"ה גובה את חובו ומקיים את דברו:
25And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son, and she named him Seth, for God has given me other seed, instead of Abel, for Cain slew him.   כהוַיֵּ֨דַע אָדָ֥ם עוֹד֙ אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ שֵׁ֑ת כִּ֣י שָׁת־לִ֤י אֱלֹהִים֙ זֶ֣רַע אַחֵ֔ר תַּ֣חַת הֶ֔בֶל כִּ֥י הֲרָג֖וֹ קָֽיִן:
And Adam knew, etc.: Lemech came to the first man (Adam) and complained about his wives. He (Adam) said to them, “Is it for you to be so strict concerning the decree of the Omnipresent? You perform your commandments, and He will do His.” They [the wives] said to him, “Correct yourself first. Haven’t you separated from your wife already 130 years since death was decreed because of you?” Immediately,“And Adam knew, etc.” What is the meaning of עוֹד [again]? This is to say that his desire [for Eve] was increased above his previous desire [Genesis Rabbah 23:4: 5]. See also Eruvin 18b.   וידע אדם וגו': בא לו למך אצל אדם הראשון וקבל על נשיו, אמר להן וכי עליכם לדקדק על גזירתו של מקום, אתם עשו מצותכם והוא יעשה את שלו. אמרו לו קשוט עצמך תחלה, והלא פרשת מאשתך זה מאה ושלשים שנה משנקנסה מיתה על ידך, מיד וידע אדם עוד וגו'. מהו עוד, ללמדך שנתוספה לו תאוה על תאותו:
26And to Seth also to him a son was born, and he named him Enosh; then it became common to call by the name of the Lord.   כווּלְשֵׁ֤ת גַּם־הוּא֙ יֻלַּד־בֵּ֔ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ אֱנ֑וֹשׁ אָ֣ז הוּחַ֔ל לִקְרֹ֖א בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהֹוָֽה:
then it became common: Heb. הוּחַל, is an expression of חוּלִין profaneness: to name people and idols with the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, to make them idols and to call them deities. — [from Gen. Rabbah 23:7; Baraitha of 49 Methods, quoted in Yalkut Shimoni]   אז הוחל: (לשון חולין) לקרא את שמות האדם ואת שמות העצבים בשמו של הקב"ה לעשותן עבודה זרה ולקרותן אלהות:

Genesis Chapter 5

1This is the narrative of the generations of man; on the day that God created man, in the likeness of God He created him.   אזֶ֣ה סֵ֔פֶר תּֽוֹלְדֹ֖ת אָדָ֑ם בְּי֗וֹם בְּרֹ֤א אֱלֹהִים֙ אָדָ֔ם בִּדְמ֥וּת אֱלֹהִ֖ים עָשָׂ֥ה אֹתֽוֹ:
This is the narrative of the generations of man: Heb. סֵפֶר. This is the narrative of the generations of man, and there are many Aggadic midrashim.   זה ספר תולדות אדם: זו היא ספירת תולדות אדם, ומדרשי אגדה יש רבים:
on the day that God created, etc.: This tells us that on the day that he was created, he begot children. — [from Gen. Rabbah 24:7]   ביום ברא וגו': מגיד שביום שנברא הוליד:
2Male and female He created them, and He blessed them, and He named them man (Adam) on the day they were created.   בזָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בְּרָאָ֑ם וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֹתָ֗ם וַיִּקְרָ֤א אֶת־שְׁמָם֙ אָדָ֔ם בְּי֖וֹם הִבָּֽרְאָֽם:
3And Adam lived one hundred and thirty years, and he begot in his likeness after his image, and he named him Seth.   גוַיְחִ֣י אָדָ֗ם שְׁלשִׁ֤ים וּמְאַת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בִּדְמוּת֖וֹ כְּצַלְמ֑וֹ וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ שֵֽׁת:
one hundred and thirty years: Until then, he had separated from his wife. — [Tanchuma Buber, Bereishith 26].   שלשים ומאת שנה: עד כאן פירש מן האשה:          
4And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters.   דוַיִּֽהְי֣וּ יְמֵֽי־אָדָ֗ם אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־שֵׁ֔ת שְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵאֹ֖ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
5And all the days of Adam that he lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.   הוַיִּֽהְי֞וּ כָּל־יְמֵ֤י אָדָם֙ אֲשֶׁר־חַ֔י תְּשַׁ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
6And Seth lived one hundred and five years, and he begot Enosh.   ווַֽיְחִי־שֵׁ֕ת חָמֵ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים וּמְאַ֣ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־אֱנֽוֹשׁ:
7And Seth lived after he had begotten Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and he begot sons and daughters.   זוַֽיְחִי־שֵׁ֗ת אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־אֱנ֔וֹשׁ שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֔ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
8And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.   חוַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵי־שֵׁ֔ת שְׁתֵּ֤ים עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּתְשַׁ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
9And Enosh lived ninety years, and he begot Kenan.   טוַיְחִ֥י אֱנ֖וֹשׁ תִּשְׁעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־קֵינָֽן:
10And Enosh lived after he had begotten Kenan eight hundred and fifteen years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יוַיְחִ֣י אֱנ֗וֹשׁ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־קֵינָ֔ן חֲמֵ֤שׁ עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
11And all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years, and he died.   יאוַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י אֱנ֔וֹשׁ חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וּתְשַׁ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
12And Kenan lived seventy years, and he begot Mahalalel.   יבוַיְחִ֥י קֵינָ֖ן שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־מַֽהֲלַלְאֵֽל:
13And Kenan lived after he had begotten Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יגוַיְחִ֣י קֵינָ֗ן אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־מַֽהֲלַלְאֵ֔ל אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
14And all the days of Kenan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died.   ידוַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י קֵינָ֔ן עֶ֣שֶׂר שָׁנִ֔ים וּתְשַׁ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
15And Mahalalel lived sixty five years, and he begot Jared.   טווַיְחִ֣י מַֽהֲלַלְאֵ֔ל חָמֵ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים וְשִׁשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־יָֽרֶד:
16And Mahalalel lived after he had begotten Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and he begot sons and daughters.   טזוַיְחִ֣י מַֽהֲלַלְאֵ֗ל אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־יֶ֔רֶד שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
17And all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred and ninety five years, and he died.   יזוַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י מַֽהֲלַלְאֵ֔ל חָמֵ֤שׁ וְתִשְׁעִים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
18And Jared lived a hundred and sixty two years, and he begot Enoch.   יחוַֽיְחִי־יֶ֕רֶד שְׁתַּ֧יִם וְשִׁשִּׁ֛ים שָׁנָ֖ה וּמְאַ֣ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־חֲנֽוֹךְ:
19And Jared lived after he had begotten Enoch eight hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters.   יטוַֽיְחִי־יֶ֗רֶד אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־חֲנ֔וֹךְ שְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
20And all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty two years, and he died.   כוַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶ֔רֶד שְׁתַּ֤יִם וְשִׁשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּתְשַׁ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
21And Enoch lived sixty five years, and he begot Methuselah.   כאוַיְחִ֣י חֲנ֔וֹךְ חָמֵ֥שׁ וְשִׁשִּׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָֽׁלַח:
22And Enoch walked with God after he had begotten Methuselah, three hundred years, and he begot sons and daughters.   כבוַיִּתְהַלֵּ֨ךְ חֲנ֜וֹךְ אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁ֔לַח שְׁל֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
23And all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty five years.   כגוַיְהִ֖י כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חֲנ֑וֹךְ חָמֵ֤שׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁל֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָֽה:
24And Enoch walked with God, and he was no longer, for God had taken him.   כדוַיִּתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ חֲנ֖וֹךְ אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְאֵינֶ֕נּוּ כִּֽי־לָקַ֥ח אֹת֖וֹ אֱלֹהִֽים:
And Enoch walked: He was a righteous man, but he could easily be swayed to return to do evil. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, hastened and took him away and caused him to die before his time. For this reason, Scripture changed [the wording] in [the account of] his demise and wrote, “and he was no longer” in the world to complete his years. — [from Gen. Rabbah 25:1]   ויתהלך חנוך: צדיק היה וקל בדעתו לשוב להרשיע, לפיכך מיהר הקב"ה וסילקו והמיתו קודם זמנו [וזהו ששינה הכתוב במיתתו לכתוב ואיננו בעולם למלאות שנותיו:
for God had taken him: Before his time, like (Ezek. 24:16):“behold I am taking from you the desire of your eyes.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 25:1]   כי לקח אותו: לפני זמנו] כמו (יחזקאל כד טז) הנני לוקח ממך את מחמד עיניך:  

Seventh Portion

Genesis Chapter 5

25And Methuselah lived a hundred and eighty seven years, and he begot Lamech.   כהוַיְחִ֣י מְתוּשֶׁ֔לַח שֶׁ֧בַע וּשְׁמֹנִ֛ים שָׁנָ֖ה וּמְאַ֣ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד אֶת־לָֽמֶךְ:
26And Methuselah lived after he had begotten Lamech, seven hundred and eighty two years, and he begot sons and daughters.   כווַיְחִ֣י מְתוּשֶׁ֗לַח אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־לֶ֔מֶךְ שְׁתַּ֤יִם וּשְׁמוֹנִים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁבַ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
27And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred and sixty nine years, and he died.   כזוַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י מְתוּשֶׁ֔לַח תֵּ֤שַׁע וְשִׁשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּתְשַׁ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
28And Lamech lived a hundred and eighty two years, and he begot a son.   כחוַֽיְחִי־לֶ֕מֶךְ שְׁתַּ֧יִם וּשְׁמֹנִ֛ים שָׁנָ֖ה וּמְאַ֣ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֖וֹלֶד בֵּֽן:
and he begot a son: Heb. בֵּן, from whom the world was built (נִבְנָה). - [from Tanchuma Bereishith 11]   ויולד בן: שממנו נבנה העולם:
29And he named him Noah, saying, "This one will give us rest from our work and from the toil of our hands from the ground, which the Lord has cursed."   כטוַיִּקְרָ֧א אֶת־שְׁמ֛וֹ נֹ֖חַ לֵאמֹ֑ר זֶ֞ה יְנַֽחֲמֵ֤נוּ מִמַּֽעֲשֵׂ֨נוּ֙ וּמֵֽעִצְּב֣וֹן יָדֵ֔ינוּ מִן־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽרֲרָ֖הּ יְהֹוָֽה:
This one will give us rest: Heb. יְנַחֲמֵנוּ. He will give us rest (יָנַח מִמֶּנּוּ) from the toil of our hands. Before Noah came, they did not have plowshares, and he prepared [these tools] for them. And the land was producing thorns and thistles when they sowed wheat, because of the curse of the first man (Adam), but in Noah’s time, it [the curse] subsided. This is the meaning of יְנַחֲמֵנוּ. If you do not explain it that way, however (but from the root (נחם), the sense of the word does not fit the name, [נֹחַ], and you would have to name him Menachem. — [See Gen. Rabbah 25:2] [i.e., If we explain the word according to its apparent meaning, “this one will console us,” the child should have been called Menachem, the consoler.]   זה ינחמנו: ינח ממנו את עצבון ידינו, עד שלא בא נח לא היה להם כלי מחרישה והוא הכין להם, והיתה הארץ מוציאה קוצים ודרדרים כשזורעים חטים, מקללתו של אדם הראשון, ובימי נח נחה, וזהו ינחמנו, ינח ממנו. ואם לא תפרשהו כך, אין טעם הלשון נופל על השם, ואתה צריך לקרות שמו מנחם:  
30And Lamech lived after he had begotten Noah, five hundred and ninety five years, and he begot sons and daughters.   לוַֽיְחִי־לֶ֗מֶךְ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הֽוֹלִיד֣וֹ אֶת־נֹ֔חַ חָמֵ֤שׁ וְתִשְׁעִים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֹ֖ת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֥וֹלֶד בָּנִ֖ים וּבָנֽוֹת:
31And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred and seventy seven years, and he died.   לאוַֽיְהִי֙ כָּל־יְמֵי־לֶ֔מֶךְ שֶׁ֤בַע וְשִׁבְעִים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּשְׁבַ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
32And Noah was five hundred years old, and Noah begot Shem, Ham, and Japheth.   לבוַֽיְהִי־נֹ֕חַ בֶּן־חֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיּ֣וֹלֶד נֹ֔חַ אֶת־שֵׁ֖ם אֶת־חָ֥ם וְאֶת־יָֽפֶת:
five hundred years old: Said Rabbi Judan: What is the reason that all the generations begot children at [the age of approximately] one hundred years and this one [Noah, had children] at [the age of] five hundred years? Said the Holy One, blessed be He, “If they [his children] are wicked, they will perish in the [flood] water, and it will be bad for this righteous man, and if they are righteous, I will have to burden him with making many arks.” He closed his fountain, and he did not beget [children] until the age of five hundred years, so that Japheth, his eldest son, should not be liable for punishment before the Flood, as it is written (Isa. 65:20):“For the youth who is one hundred years old shall die.” [This means: at the age when he] will be liable for punishment in the future, and so it was before the giving of the Torah. — [from Gen. Rabbah 26:2]   בן חמש מאות שנה: אמר רבי יודן מה טעם כל הדורות הולידו למאה שנה וזה לחמש מאות, אמר הקב"ה אם רשעים הם יאבדו במים ורע לצדיק זה, ואם צדיקים הם אטריח עליו לעשות תיבות הרבה, כבש את מעיינו ולא הוליד עד שהיה בן חמש מאות שנה, כדי שלא יהא יפת הגדול שבבניו ראוי לעונשין לפני המבול דכתיב (ישעיה סה כ) כי הנער בן מאה שנה ימות, וראוי לעונש לעתיד, וכן לפני מתן תורה:
Shem, Ham, and Japheth: Now was not Japheth the eldest? [i.e., Why is he mentioned last?] But first you talk about the one who was righteous, born circumcised, and from whom Abraham was descended, etc. — [from Gen. Rabbah 26:3]   את שם ואת חם ואת יפת: והלא יפת הוא הגדול, אלא בתחלה אתה דורש את שם שהוא צדיק, ונולד כשהוא מהול, ושאברהם יצא ממנו וכו':

Genesis Chapter 6

1And it came to pass when man commenced to multiply upon the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them.   אוַֽיְהִי֙ כִּֽי־הֵחֵ֣ל הָֽאָדָ֔ם לָרֹ֖ב עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וּבָנ֖וֹת יֻלְּד֥וּ לָהֶֽם:
2That the sons of the nobles saw the daughters of man when they were beautifying themselves, and they took for themselves wives from whomever they chose.   בוַיִּרְא֤וּ בְנֵי־הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־בְּנ֣וֹת הָֽאָדָ֔ם כִּ֥י טֹבֹ֖ת הֵ֑נָּה וַיִּקְח֤וּ לָהֶם֙ נָשִׁ֔ים מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּחָֽרוּ:
the sons of the nobles: Heb. בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים, the sons of the princes (Targumim) and the judges (Gen. Rabbah 26:5). Another explanation: בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים are the princes who go as messengers of the Omnipresent. They too mingled with them (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 22). Every אֱלֹהִים in Scripture is an expression of authority, and the following proves it (Exod. 4:16): “And you shall be to him as a lord (לֵאלֹהִים)”; (ibid. 7:1): “See, I have made you a lord (אֶלֹהִים).”   בני הא-להים: בני השרים והשופטים. (דבר אחר בני הא-להים הם השרים ההולכים בשליחותו של מקום, אף הם היו מתערבים בהם). כל א-להים שבמקרא לשון מרות, וזה יוכיח (שמות ד טז) ואתה תהיה לו לא-להים, (שם ז א) ראה נתתיך א-להים:
when they were beautifying themselves: Heb., טֹבֹת. Said Rabbi Judan: It is written טבת [i.e., instead of טובות. Thus it can be read טָבַת, meaning to beautify.] When they would beautify her, adorned to enter the nuptial canopy, a noble would enter and have relations with her first (Gen. Rabbah 26:5).   כי טבת הנה: אמר רבי יודן טבת כתיב, כשהיו מטיבין אותה מקושטת ליכנס לחופה, היה גדול נכנס ובועלה תחלה:
from whomever they chose: Even a married woman, even males and animals (Gen. Rabbah ad loc.).   מכל אשר בחרו: אף בעולת בעל, אף הזכר והבהמה:
3And the Lord said, "Let My spirit not quarrel forever concerning man, because he is also flesh, and his days shall be a hundred and twenty years."   גוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֗ה לֹֽא־יָד֨וֹן רוּחִ֤י בָֽאָדָם֙ לְעֹלָ֔ם בְּשַׁגָּ֖ם ה֣וּא בָשָׂ֑ר וְהָי֣וּ יָמָ֔יו מֵאָ֥ה וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים שָׁנָֽה:
Let My spirit not quarrel forever: Let My spirit not complain and quarrel because of man.   לא ידון רוחי באדם: לא יתרעם ויריב רוחי עלי בשביל האדם:
forever: for a long time. Behold My spirit is quarreling within Me whether to destroy or to have mercy. Let this quarrel in My spirit not endure forever, i.e., for a long time.   לעולם: לאורך ימים, הנה רוחי נדון בקרבי אם להשחית ואם לרחם, לא יהיה מדון זה ברוחי לעולם, כלומר לאורך ימים:
because he is also flesh: Heb. בְּשַׁגָּם, like בְּשֶׁגַּם, i.e., because this is also in him that he is [only] flesh, and nevertheless, he does not subordinate himself before Me. What if he were fire or a hard substance? [i.e., How much greater would his insubordination be!] Similar to this, (Jud. 5:7): “Until I Deborah arose (שַׁקַּמְתִּי)”, as if it were written שֶׁקַּמְתִּי, and similarly, (ibid. 6:17): “that You (שָׁאַתָּה) are speaking with me,” as if it were written שֶׁאַתָּה. So too, בְּשַׁגָּם is like בְּשֶׁגַּם.   בשגם הוא בשר: כמו בשגם, כלומר בשביל שגם זאת בו שהוא בשר, ואף על פי כן אינו נכנע לפני, ומה אם יהיה אש או דבר קשה, כיוצא בו (שופטים ה ז) עד שקמתי דבורה, כמו שקמתי. וכן (שם ו יז) שאתה מדבר עמי, כמו שאתה, אף בשגם כמו בשגם:
and his days shall be: Until a hundred and twenty years I will delay My wrath towards them, but if they do not repent, I will bring a flood upon them. Now if you ask: from the time that Japheth was born until the Flood are only a hundred years, [I will answer that] there is no [sequence of] earlier and later events in the Torah. This decree had already been issued twenty years before Noah begot children, and so we find in Seder Olam (ch. 28). There are many Aggadic midrashim on the words לֹא יָדוֹן, but this is its clear, simple explanation.   והיו ימיו וגו': עד מאה ועשרים שנה אאריך להם אפי ואם לא ישובו אביא עליהם מבול. ואם תאמר משנולד יפת עד המבול אינו אלא מאה שנה, אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה, כבר היתה הגזירה גזורה עשרים שנה קודם שהוליד נח תולדות, וכן מצינו בסדר עולם (פרק כח). יש מדרשי אגדה רבים בלא ידון, אבל זה הוא צחצוח פשוטו:
4The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of the nobles would come to the daughters of man, and they would bear for them; they are the mighty men, who were of old, the men of renown.   דהַנְּפִלִ֞ים הָי֣וּ בָאָ֘רֶץ֘ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵם֒ וְגַ֣ם אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָבֹ֜אוּ בְּנֵ֤י הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־בְּנ֣וֹת הָֽאָדָ֔ם וְיָֽלְד֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם הֵ֧מָּה הַגִּבֹּרִ֛ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר מֵֽעוֹלָ֖ם אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַשֵּֽׁם:
The Nephilim: [They were called נְפִילִים because they fell (נָפְלוּ) and caused the world to fall (הִפִּילוּ) (Gen. Rabbah 26:7), and in the Hebrew language it means giants (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 22 and Targum Jonathan).   הנפלים: על שם שנפלו והפילו את העולם, ובלשון עברית לשון ענקים הוא:
in those days: in the days of the generation of Enosh and the children of Cain.   בימים ההם: בימי דור אנוש ובני קין:
and also afterward: Although they had seen the destruction of the generation of Enosh, when the ocean rose up and inundated a third of the world, the generation of the Flood did not humble themselves to learn from them. — [from Mechilta Yithro, Massechta Bachodesh 6; Sifrei Ekev 743]   וגם אחרי כן: אף על פי שראו באבדן של דור אנוש שעלה אוקיינוס והציף שליש העולם, לא נכנע דור המבול ללמוד מהם:
when…would come: They [the mothers] would bear giants like them [the fathers]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 26:7]   אשר יבאו: היו יולדות ענקים כמותם:
mighty men: to rebel against the Omnipresent. — [Yelammednu, Batei Midrashoth, p. 148]   הגבורים: למרוד במקום:
the men of renown: Heb. אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם Those who were called by name: Irad, Mechujael, Methushael, who were so named because of their destruction, for they were wiped out (מְחוּיָאֵל from נִמּוֹחוּ) and uprooted; (מְתוּשָׁאֵל from הֻתָּשׁוּ). Another explanation: men of desolation (שִׁמָּמוֹן), who made the world desolate. — [from Gen. Rabbah 26:7]   אנשי השם: אותן שנקבו בשמות עירד, מחויאל, מתושאל, שנקראו על שם אבדן שנמוחו והותשו. דבר אחר אנשי שממון, ששממו את העולם:
5And the Lord saw that the evil of man was great in the earth, and every imagination of his heart was only evil all the time.   הוַיַּ֣רְא יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּ֥י רַבָּ֛ה רָעַ֥ת הָֽאָדָ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְכָל־יֵ֨צֶר֙ מַחְשְׁבֹ֣ת לִבּ֔וֹ רַ֥ק רַ֖ע כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם:
6And the Lord regretted that He had made man upon the earth, and He became grieved in His heart.   ווַיִּנָּ֣חֶם יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּֽי־עָשָׂ֥ה אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּ֖ב אֶל־לִבּֽוֹ:
And the Lord regretted that He had made: Heb. וַיִנָּחֶם. It was a consolation to Him that He had created him [man] of the earthly beings, for had he been one of the heavenly beings, he would have caused them to rebel. [This appears in Genesis Rabbah (27:40).   וינחם ה' כי עשה: נחמה היתה לפניו שבראו בתחתונים, שאלו היה מן העליונים היה ממרידן:
and He became grieved: [I.e.,] man [became grieved],   ויתעצב: האדם:
in His heart: [the heart] of the Omnipresent. It entered the thought of God to cause him [man] grief. This is the translation of Onkelos [i.e., Onkelos supports the view that וַיִּתְעַצֵּב refers to man]. Another explanation of וַיִּנָּחֶם: The thought of the Omnipresent turned from the standard of clemency to the standard of justice. It entered His thoughts to reconsider what to do with man, whom He had made upon the earth. And similarly, every expression of נִחוּם in Scripture is an expression of reconsidering what to do. [For example] (Num. 23:19): “Nor the son of man that He should change His mind (וְיִתְנֶחָם)”; (Deut. 32:36): “And concerning His servants He will change His mind (יִתְנֶחָם)”; (Exod. 32:14): “And the Lord changed His intent concerning the evil (וַיִּנָּחֶם)”; (I Sam. 15:11): “I regret (נִחַמְתִּי) that I made [Saul] king.” These are all an expression of having second thoughts.   אל לבו: של מקום, עלה במחשבתו של מקום להעציבו, זהו תרגום אונקלוס. דבר אחר וינחם, נהפכה מחשבתו של מקום ממדת רחמים למדת הדין, עלה במחשבה לפניו מה לעשות באדם שעשה בארץ, וכן כל לשון ניחום שבמקרא לשון נמלך מה לעשות (במדבר כג יט) ובן אדם ויתנחם, (דברים לב לו) ועל עבדיו יתנחם, (שמות לב יד) וינחם ה' על הרעה, (שמואל א' טו יא) נחמתי כי המלכתי, כולם לשון מחשבה אחרת הם:
and He became grieved: Heb. וַיִּתְעַצֵּב, He mourned over the destruction of His handiwork [i.e., according to this second view, וַיִּתְעַצֵּב refers to God], like (II Sam. 19:3): “The king is saddened (נֶעֱצַב) over his son.” This I wrote to refute the heretics: A gentile asked Rabbi Joshua ben Korchah, “Do you not admit that the Holy One, blessed be He, foresees the future?” He [Rabbi Joshua] replied to him, “Yes.” He retorted, “But it is written: and He became grieved in His heart!” He [Rabbi Joshua] replied, “Was a son ever born to you?” “Yes,” he [the gentile] replied. “And what did you do?” he [Rabbi Joshua] asked. He replied, “I rejoiced and made everyone rejoice.” “But did you not know that he was destined to die?” he asked. He [the gentile] replied, “At the time of joy, joy; at the time of mourning, mourning.” He [Rabbi Joshua] said to him, “So is it with the work of the Holy One, blessed be He; even though it was revealed before Him that they would ultimately sin, and He would destroy them, He did not refrain from creating them, for the sake of the righteous men who were destined to arise from them.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 27:4]   ויתעצב אל לבו: נתאבל על אבדן מעשה ידיו, כמו (ש"ב יט ג) נעצב המלך על בנו. וזו כתבתי לתשובת המינים, גוי אחד שאל את רבי יהושע בן קרחה, אמר לו אין אתם מודים שהקב"ה רואה את הנולד, אמר לו הן. אמר לו והא כתיב ויתעצב אל לבו, אמר לו נולד לך בן זכר מימיך, אמר לו הן. אמר לו ומה עשית, אמר לו שמחתי ושימחתי את הכל. אמר לו ולא היית יודע שסופו למות, אמר לו בשעת חדותא חדותא, בשעת אבלא אבלא. אמר לו כך מעשה הקב"ה, אף על פי שגלוי לפניו שסופן לחטוא ולאבדן לא נמנע מלבראן בשביל הצדיקים העתידים לעמוד מהם:
7And the Lord said, "I will blot out man, whom I created, from upon the face of the earth, from man to cattle to creeping thing, to the fowl of the heavens, for I regret that I made them."   זוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶמְחֶ֨ה אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֤ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֨אתִי֙ מֵעַל֨ פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה מֵֽאָדָם֙ עַד־בְּהֵמָ֔ה עַד־רֶ֖מֶשׂ וְעַד־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם כִּ֥י נִחַ֖מְתִּי כִּ֥י עֲשִׂיתִֽם:
And the Lord said,"I will blot out man: He is dust, and I will bring water upon him, and I will blot him out. Therefore, the expression מִחוּי is used. — [from Tan. Buber, Noah 4]   ויאמר ה' אמחה את האדם: הוא עפר ואביא עליו מים ואמחה אותו, לכך נאמר לשון מחוי:
from man to cattle: They too corrupted their way (Gen. Rabbah 28:8). Another explanation: Everything was created for man’s sake, and since he will be annihilated, what need is there for these [the animals]? (Sanh. 108a).   מאדם עד בהמה: אף הם השחיתו דרכם. דבר אחר הכל נברא בשביל אדם, וכיון שהוא כלה מה צורך באלו:
for I regret that I made them: I am thinking what to do about having made them.   כי נחמתי כי עשיתים: חשבתי מה לעשות להם על אשר עשיתים:
8But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord.   חוְנֹ֕חַ מָ֥צָא חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:

Maftir Portion

Genesis Chapter 6

5And the Lord saw that the evil of man was great in the earth, and every imagination of his heart was only evil all the time.   הוַיַּ֣רְא יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּ֥י רַבָּ֛ה רָעַ֥ת הָֽאָדָ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְכָל־יֵ֨צֶר֙ מַחְשְׁבֹ֣ת לִבּ֔וֹ רַ֥ק רַ֖ע כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם:
6And the Lord regretted that He had made man upon the earth, and He became grieved in His heart.   ווַיִּנָּ֣חֶם יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּֽי־עָשָׂ֥ה אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּ֖ב אֶל־לִבּֽוֹ:
And the Lord regretted that He had made: Heb. וַיִנָּחֶם. It was a consolation to Him that He had created him [man] of the earthly beings, for had he been one of the heavenly beings, he would have caused them to rebel. [This appears in Genesis Rabbah (27:40).   וינחם ה' כי עשה: נחמה היתה לפניו שבראו בתחתונים, שאלו היה מן העליונים היה ממרידן:
and He became grieved: [I.e.,] man [became grieved],   ויתעצב: האדם:
in His heart: [the heart] of the Omnipresent. It entered the thought of God to cause him [man] grief. This is the translation of Onkelos [i.e., Onkelos supports the view that וַיִּתְעַצֵּב refers to man]. Another explanation of וַיִּנָּחֶם: The thought of the Omnipresent turned from the standard of clemency to the standard of justice. It entered His thoughts to reconsider what to do with man, whom He had made upon the earth. And similarly, every expression of נִחוּם in Scripture is an expression of reconsidering what to do. [For example] (Num. 23:19): “Nor the son of man that He should change His mind (וְיִתְנֶחָם)”; (Deut. 32:36): “And concerning His servants He will change His mind (יִתְנֶחָם)”; (Exod. 32:14): “And the Lord changed His intent concerning the evil (וַיִּנָּחֶם)”; (I Sam. 15:11): “I regret (נִחַמְתִּי) that I made [Saul] king.” These are all an expression of having second thoughts.   אל לבו: של מקום, עלה במחשבתו של מקום להעציבו, זהו תרגום אונקלוס. דבר אחר וינחם, נהפכה מחשבתו של מקום ממדת רחמים למדת הדין, עלה במחשבה לפניו מה לעשות באדם שעשה בארץ, וכן כל לשון ניחום שבמקרא לשון נמלך מה לעשות (במדבר כג יט) ובן אדם ויתנחם, (דברים לב לו) ועל עבדיו יתנחם, (שמות לב יד) וינחם ה' על הרעה, (שמואל א' טו יא) נחמתי כי המלכתי, כולם לשון מחשבה אחרת הם:
and He became grieved: Heb. וַיִּתְעַצֵּב, He mourned over the destruction of His handiwork [i.e., according to this second view, וַיִּתְעַצֵּב refers to God], like (II Sam. 19:3): “The king is saddened (נֶעֱצַב) over his son.” This I wrote to refute the heretics: A gentile asked Rabbi Joshua ben Korchah, “Do you not admit that the Holy One, blessed be He, foresees the future?” He [Rabbi Joshua] replied to him, “Yes.” He retorted, “But it is written: and He became grieved in His heart!” He [Rabbi Joshua] replied, “Was a son ever born to you?” “Yes,” he [the gentile] replied. “And what did you do?” he [Rabbi Joshua] asked. He replied, “I rejoiced and made everyone rejoice.” “But did you not know that he was destined to die?” he asked. He [the gentile] replied, “At the time of joy, joy; at the time of mourning, mourning.” He [Rabbi Joshua] said to him, “So is it with the work of the Holy One, blessed be He; even though it was revealed before Him that they would ultimately sin, and He would destroy them, He did not refrain from creating them, for the sake of the righteous men who were destined to arise from them.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 27:4]   ויתעצב אל לבו: נתאבל על אבדן מעשה ידיו, כמו (ש"ב יט ג) נעצב המלך על בנו. וזו כתבתי לתשובת המינים, גוי אחד שאל את רבי יהושע בן קרחה, אמר לו אין אתם מודים שהקב"ה רואה את הנולד, אמר לו הן. אמר לו והא כתיב ויתעצב אל לבו, אמר לו נולד לך בן זכר מימיך, אמר לו הן. אמר לו ומה עשית, אמר לו שמחתי ושימחתי את הכל. אמר לו ולא היית יודע שסופו למות, אמר לו בשעת חדותא חדותא, בשעת אבלא אבלא. אמר לו כך מעשה הקב"ה, אף על פי שגלוי לפניו שסופן לחטוא ולאבדן לא נמנע מלבראן בשביל הצדיקים העתידים לעמוד מהם:
7And the Lord said, "I will blot out man, whom I created, from upon the face of the earth, from man to cattle to creeping thing, to the fowl of the heavens, for I regret that I made them."   זוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶמְחֶ֨ה אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֤ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֨אתִי֙ מֵעַל֨ פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה מֵֽאָדָם֙ עַד־בְּהֵמָ֔ה עַד־רֶ֖מֶשׂ וְעַד־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם כִּ֥י נִחַ֖מְתִּי כִּ֥י עֲשִׂיתִֽם:
And the Lord said,"I will blot out man: He is dust, and I will bring water upon him, and I will blot him out. Therefore, the expression מִחוּי is used. — [from Tan. Buber, Noah 4]   ויאמר ה' אמחה את האדם: הוא עפר ואביא עליו מים ואמחה אותו, לכך נאמר לשון מחוי:
from man to cattle: They too corrupted their way (Gen. Rabbah 28:8). Another explanation: Everything was created for man’s sake, and since he will be annihilated, what need is there for these [the animals]? (Sanh. 108a).   מאדם עד בהמה: אף הם השחיתו דרכם. דבר אחר הכל נברא בשביל אדם, וכיון שהוא כלה מה צורך באלו:
for I regret that I made them: I am thinking what to do about having made them.   כי נחמתי כי עשיתים: חשבתי מה לעשות להם על אשר עשיתים:
8But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord.   חוְנֹ֕חַ מָ֥צָא חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:

Haftarah

Isaiah Chapter 66

1So says the Lord, "The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool; which is the house that you will build for Me, and which is the place of My rest?   אכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם כִּסְאִ֔י וְהָאָ֖רֶץ הֲדֹ֣ם רַגְלָ֑י אֵי־זֶ֥ה בַ֙יִת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּבְנוּ־לִ֔י וְאֵי־זֶ֥ה מָק֖וֹם מְנֽוּחָתִֽי:
The heavens are My throne: I do not need your Temple.  
which is the house: that is fitting for My Shechinah.  
2And all these My hand made, and all these have become," says the Lord. "But to this one will I look, to one poor and of crushed spirit, who hastens to do My bidding.   בוְאֶת־כָּל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ יָדִ֣י עָשָׂ֔תָה וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ כָל־אֵ֖לֶּה נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֶל־זֶ֣ה אַבִּ֔יט אֶל־עָנִי֙ וּנְכֵה־ר֔וּחַ וְחָרֵ֖ד עַל־דְּבָרִֽי:
And all these: The heavens and the earth, and for this reason I confined My Shechinah among you when you obeyed Me, for so is My wont, to look at one poor and of crushed spirit, who hastens to do My bidding. But now, I have no desire for you, for whoever slaughters an ox, has smitten its owner and robbed him of it. Therefore, whoever slaughters a lamb seems to Me as one who beheads a dog, and whoever offers up a meal offering is before Me like swine blood, and מַזְכִּיר, he who burns incense. Comp. (Lev. 5:12) “its memorial part (אַזְכָּרָתָהּ).” Also (ibid. 24:7), “and it shall be for the bread as a memorial (לְאַזְכָּרָה).”  
3Whoever slaughters an ox has slain a man; he who slaughters a lamb is as though he beheads a dog; he who offers up a meal-offering is [like] swine blood; he who burns frankincense brings a gift of violence; they, too, chose their ways, and their soul desired their abominations.   גשׁוֹחֵ֨ט הַשּׁ֜וֹר מַכֵּה־אִ֗ישׁ זוֹבֵ֚חַ הַשֶּׂה֙ ע֣וֹרֵֽף כֶּ֔לֶב מַֽעֲלֵ֚ה מִנְחָה֙ דַּם־חֲזִ֔יר מַזְכִּ֥יר לְבֹנָ֖ה מְבָ֣רֵֽךְ אָ֑וֶן גַּם־הֵ֗מָּה בָּֽחֲרוּ֙ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶ֔ם וּבְשִׁקּֽוּצֵיהֶ֖ם נַפְשָׁ֥ם חָפֵֽצָה:
brings a gift of violence: Heb. מְבָרֵ, blesses Me with a gift of violence, brings a gift of violence. This is its explanation, and the expression of בְּרָכָה applies to a gift that is for a reception. Comp. (Gen. 33:11) “Please take my gift (בִּרְכָתִי).” Also (supra 36: 16), “Make peace (בְרָכָה) with me and come out to me.”  
they, too, chose their ways: They desire these evil ways, and I, too, will choose and desire their mockeries. Now if you ask the meaning of גַּם, too, so is the style of the Hebrew language to say twice גַּם one next to the other. Comp. (Deut. 32:25) “Both a young man and a virgin (גַּם בָּחוּר גַּם בְּתוּלָה) ” ; (I Kings 3:26) “neither mine nor yours (גַּם לִי גַּם לָ) ” ; (Ecc. 9:1) “neither love nor hate גַּם שִׂנְאָה) (גַּם אַהֲבָה ” ; (Num. 18:3) “and neither they nor you shall die הֵם גַּם אַתֶּם) (גַּם.” Here, too, both they chose and I will choose.  
4I, too, will choose their mockeries, and their fears I will bring to them, since I called and no one answered, I spoke and they did not hearken, and they did what was evil in My eyes, and what I did not wish they chose.   דגַּם־אֲנִ֞י אֶבְחַ֣ר בְּתַֽעֲלֻֽלֵיהֶ֗ם וּמְגֽוּרֹתָם֙ אָבִ֣יא לָהֶ֔ם יַ֚עַן קָרָ֙אתִי֙ וְאֵ֣ין עוֹנֶ֔ה דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי וְלֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֑עוּ וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֚וּ הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינַ֔י וּבַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־חָפַ֖צְתִּי בָּחָֽרוּ:
their mockeries: Heb. בְּתַעֲלוּלֵיהֶם, to mock them, an expression like (ibid. 22:29) “For you mocked (הִתְעַלַּלְתְּ) me.”  
and their fears: What they fear.  
since I called: Hearken and return to Me.  
and no one answered: saying, “I heard.”  
5Hearken to the word of the Lord, who quake at His word, "Your brethren who hate you, who cast you out, said, "For the sake of my name, the Lord shall be glorified," but we will see your joy, and they shall be ashamed.   השִׁמְעוּ֙ דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה הַֽחֲרֵדִ֖ים אֶל־דְּבָר֑וֹ אָֽמְרוּ֩ אֲחֵיכֶ֨ם שֹֽׂנְאֵיכֶ֜ם מְנַדֵּיכֶ֗ם לְמַ֚עַן שְׁמִי֙ יִכְבַּ֣ד יְהֹוָ֔ה וְנִרְאֶ֥ה בְשִׂמְחַתְכֶ֖ם וְהֵ֥ם יֵבֹֽשׁוּ:
who quake at His word: The righteous who hasten with quaking to draw near to His words.  
Your brethren… said: The transgressors of Israel mentioned above. Another explanation:  
Your brethren… who cast you out, said: Who said to you (Lam. 4:15), “Turn away, unclean one.”  
who hate you, who cast you out: Who say (supra 65:5), “Keep to yourself, do not come near me.” [Because of the confusion, we quote other readings. Some manuscripts, as well as K’li Paz, read:]  
Your brethren… said: The transgressors of Israel mentioned above.  
who hate you, who cast you out: who say (supra 65:5), “Keep to yourself, do not come near me.” Another explanation:  
Your brethren… said: The children of Esau.  
who cast you out: Who said to you (Lam. 4:15), “Turn away, unclean one.”  
For the sake of my name, the Lord shall be glorified: With our greatness, the Holy One, blessed be He, is glorified, for we are closer to Him than you are.  
but we will see your joy: The prophet says, But it is not so as their words, for “we will see your joy, and they shall be ashamed.” Why? For sound a sound of their stirring has come before the Holy One, blessed be He, from what they did in His city, and a sound emanates from His Temple and accuses those who destroyed it, and then the voice of the Lord, recompensing His enemies.  
6There is a sound of stirring from the city, a sound from the Temple, the voice of the Lord, recompensing His enemies.   וק֚וֹל שָׁאוֹן֙ מֵעִ֔יר ק֖וֹל מֵֽהֵיכָ֑ל ק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֔ה מְשַׁלֵּ֥ם גְּמ֖וּל לְאֹֽיְבָֽיו:
7When she has not yet travailed, she has given birth; when the pang has not yet come to her, she has been delivered of a male child.   זבְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּחִ֖יל יָלָ֑דָה בְּטֶ֨רֶם יָב֥וֹא חֵ֛בֶל לָ֖הּ וְהִמְלִ֥יטָה זָכָֽר:
When she has not yet travailed: When Zion has not yet travailed with birth pangs, she has borne her children; that is to say that her children will gather into her midst, which was desolate and bereft of them, and it is as though she bore them now without birth pangs, for all the nations will bring them into her midst.  
she has been delivered of a male child: Heb. וְהִמְלִיטָה. Any emerging of an embedded thing is called הַמְלָטָה. And הַמְלָטָה is esmoucer, or eschamocier in O.F., to allow to escape.  
8Who heard [anything] like this? Who saw [anything] like these? Is a land born in one day? Is a nation born at once, that Zion both experienced birth pangs and bore her children?   חמִֽי־שָׁמַ֣ע כָּזֹ֗את מִ֚י רָאָה֙ כָּאֵ֔לֶּה הֲי֚וּחַל אֶ֙רֶץ֙ בְּי֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד אִם־יִוָּ֥לֵֽד גּ֖וֹי פַּ֣עַם אֶחָ֑ת כִּי־חָ֛לָה גַּם־יָֽלְדָ֥ה צִיּ֖וֹן אֶת־בָּנֶֽיהָ:
Is a land born in one day?: Can a pain come to a woman in confinement to bear a land full of sons in one day?  
9"Will I bring to the birth stool and not cause to give birth?" says the Lord. "Am I not He who causes to give birth, now should I shut the womb?" says your God.   טהַֽאֲנִ֥י אַשְׁבִּ֛יר וְלֹ֥א אוֹלִ֖יד יֹאמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה אִם־אֲנִ֧י הַמּוֹלִ֛יד וְעָצַ֖רְתִּי אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
Will I bring to the birth stool and not cause to give birth: Will I bring a woman to the birth stool and not open her womb to bring out her fetus? That is to say, Shall I commence a thing and not be able to complete it? Am I not the One Who causes every woman in confinement to give birth, and now will I shut the womb? This is a question.  
10Rejoice with Jerusalem and exult in her all those who love her: rejoice with her a rejoicing, all who mourn over her.   ישִׂמְח֧וּ אֶת־יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֛ם וְגִ֥ילוּ בָ֖הּ כָּל־אֹֽהֲבֶ֑יהָ שִׂ֚ישׂוּ אִתָּהּ֙ מָשׂ֔וֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּֽתְאַבְּלִ֖ים עָלֶֽיהָ:
11In order that you suck and become sated from the breast of her consolations in order that you drink deeply and delight from her approaching glory.   יאלְמַ֚עַן תִּֽינְקוּ֙ וּשְׂבַעְתֶּ֔ם מִשֹּׁ֖ד תַּנְחֻמֶ֑יהָ לְמַ֧עַן תָּמֹ֛צּוּ וְהִתְעַנַּגְתֶּ֖ם מִזִּ֥יז כְּבוֹדָֽהּ:
from the breast: Heb. מִשֹּׁד, an expression of breasts (שָׁדַיִם).  
you drink deeply: Heb. תָּמֹצּוּ, sucer in French, to suck.  
from her approaching glory: Heb. מִזִּיז. From the great glory that is moving and coming nearer to her. זִיז means esmoviment in O.F., movement.  
12For so says the Lord, "Behold, I will extend peace to you like a river, and like a flooding stream the wealth of the nations, and you shall suck thereof; on the side you shall be borne, and on knees you shall be dandled.   יבכִּֽי־כֹ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה הִנְנִ֣י נֹטֶֽה־אֵ֠לֶיהָ כְּנָהָ֨ר שָׁל֜וֹם וּכְנַ֧חַל שׁוֹטֵ֛ף כְּב֥וֹד גּוֹיִ֖ם וִֽינַקְתֶּ֑ם עַל־צַד֙ תִּנָּשֵׂ֔אוּ וְעַל־בִּרְכַּ֖יִם תְּשָֽׁעֳשָֽׁעוּ:
and like a flooding stream: I extend to her the wealth of the nations.  
on the side: On the sides of your nurses, [in Aramaic,] גִּסְסִין.  
you shall be dandled: You shall be dandled as they dandle an infant. Esbanier in O.F.  
13Like a man whose mother consoles him, so will I console you, and in Jerusalem, you shall be consoled.   יגכְּאִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִמּ֖וֹ תְּנַֽחֲמֶ֑נּוּ כֵּ֚ן אָֽנֹכִי֙ אֲנַ֣חֶמְכֶ֔ם וּבִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם תְּנֻחָֽמוּ:
14And you shall see, and your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall bloom like grass, and the hand of the Lord shall be known to His servants, and He shall be wroth with His enemies.   ידוּרְאִיתֶם֙ וְשָׂ֣שׂ לִבְּכֶ֔ם וְעַצְמֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם כַּדֶּ֣שֶׁא תִפְרַ֑חְנָה וְנֽוֹדְעָ֚ה יַד־יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־עֲבָדָ֔יו וְזָעַ֖ם אֶת־אֹֽיְבָֽיו:
and the hand of the Lord shall be known: When He wreaks His vengeance and His awesome acts, His servants shall know the strength of the might of His hand.  
15For behold, the Lord shall come with fire, and like a tempest, His chariots, to render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames of fire.   טוכִּֽי־הִנֵּ֚ה יְהֹוָה֙ בָּאֵ֣שׁ יָב֔וֹא וְכַסּוּפָ֖ה מַרְכְּבֹתָ֑יו לְהָשִׁ֚יב בְּחֵמָה֙ אַפּ֔וֹ וְגַֽעֲרָת֖וֹ בְּלַֽהֲבֵי־אֵֽשׁ:
shall come with fire: With the fury of fire He shall come upon the wicked.  
to render: Heb. לְהָשִׁיב, [lit. to return] to His adversaries with fury His anger.  
16For with fire, will the Lord contend, and with His sword with all flesh, and those slain by the Lord shall be many.   טזכִּ֚י בָאֵשׁ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה נִשְׁפָּ֔ט וּבְחַרְבּ֖וֹ אֶת־כָּל־בָּשָׂ֑ר וְרַבּ֖וּ חַלְלֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
For with fire: of Gehinnom will the Lord contend with His adversaries, and since He is the plaintiff and the judge, the expression of contending is appropriate for Him, for He, too, presents His claim to find their iniquity and their transgression. Comp. (Ezekiel 38:22) “And I will contend with him (וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי) ” ; (Jer. 2:35) “Behold, I contend with you.” It is an expression of debate. Derajjsner in O.F. [And its simple meaning is: For with the fire of the Lord and with His sword, all flesh shall be judged. Similarly, there are many inverted verses in Scriptures.]  
17"Those who prepare themselves and purify themselves to the gardens, [one] after another in the middle, those who eat the flesh of the swine and the detestable thing and the rodent, shall perish together," says the Lord.   יזהַמִּתְקַדְּשִׁ֨ים וְהַמִּֽטַּהֲרִ֜ים אֶל־הַגַּנּ֗וֹת אַחַ֚ר אַחַת֙ (כתיב אַחַד֙) בַּתָּ֔וֶךְ אֹֽכְלֵי֙ בְּשַׂ֣ר הַֽחֲזִ֔יר וְהַשֶּׁ֖קֶץ וְהָֽעַכְבָּ֑ר יַחְדָּ֥ו יָסֻ֖פוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
Those who prepare themselves: Heb. הַמִּתְקַדְּשִׁים. Those who prepare themselves, “Let you and me go on such-and-such a day to worship such-and-such an idol.”  
to the gardens: where they plant vegetables, and there they would erect idols.  
[one] after one: As Jonathan renders: a company after a company. They prepare themselves and purify themselves to worship, one company after its fellow has completed its worship.  
in the middle: In the middle of the garden. Such was their custom to erect it.  
18And I-their deeds and their thoughts have come to gather all the nations and the tongues, and they shall come and they shall see My glory.   יחוְאָֽנֹכִ֗י מַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶם֙ וּמַחְשְׁבֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם בָּאָ֕ה לְקַבֵּ֥ץ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם וְהַלְּשֹׁנ֑וֹת וּבָ֖אוּ וְרָא֥וּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִֽי:
And I - their deeds and their thoughts have come etc.: And I What am I to do? Their deeds and their thoughts have come to Me. And that forces Me to gather all the heathens (nations [Mss. and K’li Paz]), and to let them know that their deeds are vanity and the thoughts they are thinking, “For the sake of my name, the Lord shall be glorified,” let them understand that it is false. And where is the gathering? It is the gathering that Zechariah prophesied (14:2): “And I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem.”  
and they shall see My glory: When I wage war with them with the plague of the following description (ibid. 14: 12): “Their flesh shall disintegrate… and their eyes… and their tongue.”  
19And I will place a sign upon them, and I will send from them refugees to the nations, Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, the distant islands, who did not hear of My fame and did not see My glory, and they shall recount My glory among the nations.   יטוְשַׂמְתִּ֨י בָהֶ֜ם א֗וֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֣י מֵהֶ֣ם | פְּ֠לֵיטִים אֶל־הַגּוֹיִ֞ם תַּרְשִׁ֨ישׁ פּ֥וּל וְל֛וּד מֹ֥שְׁכֵי קֶ֖שֶׁת תֻּבַ֣ל וְיָוָ֑ן הָֽאִיִּ֣ים הָֽרְחֹקִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־שָֽׁמְע֚וּ אֶת־שִׁמְעִי֙ וְלֹֽא־רָא֣וּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִ֔י וְהִגִּ֥ידוּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִ֖י בַּגּוֹיִֽם:
And I will place a sign upon them etc.: Refugees will survive the war, and I will allow them to remain in order to go to report to the distant islands My glory that they saw in the war, and also upon those refugees I will place one of the signs with which their colleagues were punished, in order to let the distant ones know that with this plague, those who gathered about Jerusalem were smitten.  
20And they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a tribute to the Lord, with horses and with chariots, and with covered wagons and with mules and with joyous songs upon My holy mount, Jerusalem," says the Lord, "as the children of Israel bring the offering in a pure vessel to the house of the Lord.   כוְהֵבִ֣יאוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֲחֵיכֶ֣ם מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֣ם | מִנְחָ֣ה לַֽיהֹוָ֡ה בַּסּוּסִ֡ים וּ֠בָרֶכֶב וּבַצַּבִּ֨ים וּבַפְּרָדִ֜ים וּבַכִּרְכָּר֗וֹת עַ֣ל הַ֥ר קָדְשִׁ֛י יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יָבִיאוּ֩ בְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֛ה בִּכְלִ֥י טָה֖וֹר בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
and with covered wagons: Heb. וּבַצַּבִּים. These are wagons equipped with partitions and a tent. Comp. (Num. 7: 3) “Six covered wagons (עֶגְלוֹתצָב).”  
and with joyous songs: Heb. וּבַכִּרְכָּרוֹת. With a song of players and dancers. Comp. (II Sam. 6: 14) “And David danced (מְכַרְכֵּר) ,” treper in O.F. [Menahem (p. 109) explains it as an expression meaning a lamb. Comp. (supra 16:1) “Send lambs (כַּר) of the ruler of the land.”]  
as… bring: an offering in a pure vessel for acceptance, so will they bring your brethren as an acceptable offering.  
21And from them too will I take for priests and for Levites," says the Lord.   כאוְגַם־מֵהֶ֥ם אֶקַּ֛ח לַכֹּֽהֲנִ֥ים לַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
And from them too: From the peoples bringing them and from those brought, I will take priests and Levites, for they are now assimilated among the heathens (nations [Mss. and K’li Paz]) under coercion, and before Me the priests and the Levites among them are revealed, and I will select them from among them, and they shall minister before Me, said the Lord. Now where did He say it? (Deut. 29:28) “The hidden things are for the Lord our God.” In this manner it is explained in the Aggadah of Psalms (87:6).  
22"For, as the new heavens and the new earth that I am making, stand before Me," says the Lord, "so shall your seed and your name stand.   כבכִּ֣י כַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם הַֽ֠חֳדָשִׁים וְהָאָ֨רֶץ הַֽחֲדָשָׁ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶׂ֛ה עֹֽמְדִ֥ים לְפָנַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה כֵּ֛ן יַֽעֲמֹ֥ד זַרְעֲכֶ֖ם וְשִׁמְכֶֽם:
23And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh shall come to prostrate themselves before Me," says the Lord.   כגוְהָיָ֗ה מִֽדֵּי־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ וּמִדֵּ֥י שַׁבָּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ יָב֧וֹא כָל־בָּשָֹ֛ר לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו‍ֹ֥ת לְפָנַ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
24"And they shall go out and see the corpses of the people who rebelled against Me, for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring for all flesh."   כדוְיָצְאוּ֨ וְרָא֔וּ בְּפִגְרֵי֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים הַפֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים בִּ֑י כִּ֣י תֽוֹלַעְתָּ֞ם לֹ֣א תָמ֗וּת וְאִשָּׁם֙ לֹ֣א תִכְבֶּ֔ה וְהָי֥וּ דֵֽרָא֖וֹן לְכָל־בָּשָֽׂר:
their worm: The worm that consumes their flesh.  
and their fire: in Gehinnom.  
and abhorring: Heb. דֵרָאוֹן, an expression of contempt. Jonathan, however, renders it as two words: enough (דֵּי) seeing (רְאִיָה), until the righteous say about them, We have seen enough.  
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