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Torah Reading for Va'eira

Torah Reading for Va'eira

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Parshat Va'eira
Shabbat, 26 Tevet, 5778
13 January, 2018
Select a portion:
Complete: (Exodus 6:2 - 9:35; Ezekiel 28:25 - 29:21)
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First Portion

Exodus Chapter 6

2God spoke to Moses, and He said to him, "I am the Lord.   בוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
God spoke to Moses: He called him to account since he [Moses] had spoken harshly by saying, “Why have You harmed this people?” (Exod. 5:22)-[from Tanchuma Buber, Va’era 4]   וידבר א-להים אל משה: דבר אתו משפט על שהקשה לדבר ולומר (לעיל ה כב) למה הרעותה לעם הזה:
and He said to him, I am the Lord: [Meaning: I am] faithful to recompense all those who walk before Me. I did not send you [to Pharaoh] except to fulfill My words, which I spoke to the early fathers. In this sense, we find that it אִנִי ה is interpreted in many places [in Scripture] as “I am the Lord,” [meaning that I am] faithful to exact retribution. [It has this meaning] when it is stated in conjunction with [an act warranting] punishment, e.g., “or you will profane the name of your God; I am the Lord” (Lev. 19:12). When it is stated in conjunction with the fulfillment of commandments, e.g., “And you shall keep My commandments and perform them; I am the Lord” (Lev. 22:31), [it means: I am] faithful to give reward.   ויאמר אליו אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר טוב למתהלכים לפני. ולא לחנם שלחתיך כי אם לקיים דברי שדברתי לאבות הראשונים. ובלשון הזה מצינו שהוא נדרש בכמה מקומות אני ה' נאמן ליפרע, כשהוא אמור אצל עונש, כגון (ויקרא יט יב) וחללת את שם אלהיך אני ה', וכשהוא אמור אצל קיום מצות, כגון (ויקרא כב לא) ושמרתם מצותי ועשיתם אותם אני ה', נאמן ליתן שכר:
3I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob with [the name] Almighty God, but [with] My name YHWH, I did not become known to them.   גוָֽאֵרָ֗א אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶל־יִצְחָ֥ק וְאֶל־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב בְּאֵ֣ל שַׁדָּ֑י וּשְׁמִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לֹ֥א נוֹדַ֖עְתִּי לָהֶֽם:
I appeared: to the fathers.   וארא: אל האבות:
with [the name] Almighty God: I made promises to them, in all of which I said to them, “I am the Almighty God.”   באל שדי: הבטחתים הבטחות ובכולן אמרתי להם אני אל שדי:
but [with] My name YHWH, I did not become known to them: It is not written here לֹא הוֹדַעְתִּי, “but My Name YHWH I did not make known to them,” but לֹא נוֹדַעְתִּי, “I did not become known.” [I.e.,] I was not recognized by them with My attribute of keeping faith, by dint of which My name is called YHWH, [which means that I am] faithful to verify My words, for I made promises to them, but I did not fulfill [them while they were alive].   ושמי ה' לא נודעתי להם: לא הודעתי אין כתיב כאן אלא לא נודעתי לא נכרתי להם במדת אמתות שלי שעליה נקרא שמי ה' נאמן לאמת דברי, שהרי הבטחתים ולא קיימתי:
4And also, I established My covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their sojournings in which they sojourned.   דוְגַ֨ם הֲקִמֹ֤תִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי֙ אִתָּ֔ם לָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן אֵ֛ת אֶ֥רֶץ מְגֻֽרֵיהֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־גָּ֥רוּ בָֽהּ:
And also, I established My covenant, etc.: And also, when I appeared to them as the Almighty God, I established and set up a covenant between Myself and them.   וגם הקמתי את בריתי וגו': וגם כשנראיתי להם באל שדי הצבתי והעמדתי בריתי ביני וביניהם:
to give them the land of Canaan: To Abraham in the section dealing with [the commandment of] circumcision (Gen. 17), it is said: “I am the Almighty God… And I will give you and your seed after you the land of your sojournings” (Gen. 17:1, 8). To Isaac [it is stated], “for to you and to your seed I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath that I swore to Abraham” (Gen. 26:3), and that oath which I swore to Abraham was spoken with the [name] “Almighty God.” To Jacob [it is said], “I am the Almighty God; be fruitful and multiply, etc. And the land that, etc.” (Gen. 35:11, 12). So you see that I vowed to them [many vows], but I did not fulfill [My vows yet].   לתת להם את ארץ כנען: לאברהם בפרשת מילה נאמר (בראשית יז א) אני אל שדי וגו', (בראשית יז ח) ונתתי לך ולזרעך אחריך את ארץ מגוריך, ליצחק (בראשית כו ג) כי לך ולזרעך אתן את כל הארצות האל והקימותי את השבועה אשר נשבעתי לאברהם, ואותה שבועה שנשבעתי לאברהם באל שדי, אמרתי ליעקב (בראשית לה יא - יב) אני אל שדי פרה ורבה וגו' ואת הארץ אשר וגו', הרי שנדרתי להם ולא קיימתי:
5And also, I heard the moans of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians are holding in bondage, and I remembered My covenant.   הוְגַ֣ם | אֲנִ֣י שָׁמַ֗עְתִּי אֶת־נַֽאֲקַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִצְרַ֖יִם מַֽעֲבִדִ֣ים אֹתָ֑ם וָֽאֶזְכֹּ֖ר אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי:
And also, I heard: Just as I established and set up the covenant, it is incumbent upon Me to fulfill [it]. Therefore, I heard the moans [complaints] of the children of Israel, who are moaning.   וגם אני: כמו שהצבתי והעמדתי הברית יש עלי לקיים, לפיכך שמעתי את נאקת בני ישראל הנואקים:
whom the Egyptians are holding in bondage. I remembered: that covenant [which I made with Abraham], for in the Covenant between the Parts, I said to him, “And also the nation that they will serve will I judge” (Gen. 15:14).   אשר מצרים מעבדים אתם ואזכר: אותו הברית. כי בברית בין הבתרים אמרתי לו (בראשית טו יד) וגם את הגוי אשר יעבודו דן אנכי:
6Therefore, say to the children of Israel, 'I am the Lord, and I will take you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will save you from their labor, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.   ולָכֵ֞ן אֱמֹ֥ר לִבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָה֒ וְהֽוֹצֵאתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֗ם מִתַּ֨חַת֙ סִבְלֹ֣ת מִצְרַ֔יִם וְהִצַּלְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵֽעֲבֹֽדָתָ֑ם וְגָֽאַלְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ בִּזְר֣וֹעַ נְטוּיָ֔ה וּבִשְׁפָטִ֖ים גְּדֹלִֽים:
Therefore: according to that oath.   לכן: על פי אותה השבועה:
say to the children of Israel, I am the Lord: [I am] faithful to My promise.   אמר לבני ישראל אני ה': הנאמן בהבטחתי:
and I will take you out: for so did I promise him [Abraham], “and afterwards they will go forth with great possessions” (Gen. 15:14).   והוצאתי אתכם: כי כן הבטחתיו (שם שם) ואחרי כן יצאו ברכוש גדול:
the burdens of the Egyptians: The toil of the burden of the Egyptians.   סבלת מצרים: טורח משא מצרים:
7And I will take you to Me as a people, and I will be a God to you, and you will know that I am the Lord your God, Who has brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.   זוְלָֽקַחְתִּ֨י אֶתְכֶ֥ם לִי֙ לְעָ֔ם וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וִֽידַעְתֶּ֗ם כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם הַמּוֹצִ֣יא אֶתְכֶ֔ם מִתַּ֖חַת סִבְל֥וֹת מִצְרָֽיִם:
8I will bring you to the land, concerning which I raised My hand to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and I will give it to you as a heritage; I am the Lord.' "   חוְהֵֽבֵאתִ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָשָׂ֨אתִי֙ אֶת־יָדִ֔י לָתֵ֣ת אֹתָ֔הּ לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְנָֽתַתִּ֨י אֹתָ֥הּ לָכֶ֛ם מֽוֹרָשָׁ֖ה אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
I raised My hand: I raised it to swear by My throne. [following Onkelos]   נשאתי את ידי: הרימותיה להשבע בכסאי:
9Moses spoke thus to the children of Israel, but they did not hearken to Moses because of [their] shortness of breath and because of [their] hard labor.   טוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר משֶׁ֛ה כֵּ֖ן אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹ֤א שָֽׁמְעוּ֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה מִקֹּ֣צֶר ר֔וּחַ וּמֵֽעֲבֹדָ֖ה קָשָֽׁה:
but they did not hearken to Moses: They did not accept consolation. I.e., they despaired completely of ever being redeemed.   ולא שמעו אל משה: לא קבלו תנחומין:
because of [their] shortness of breath: Whoever is under stress, his wind and his breath are short, and he cannot take a deep breath. Similar to this [interpretation, namely that what is meant by I am the Lord is: I am faithful to fulfill My word] I heard from Rabbi Baruch the son of Rabbi Eliezer, and he brought me proof [of this explanation] from this [following] verse: “at this time I will let them know My power and My might, and they shall know that My name is the Lord” (Jer. 16:21). [Rabbi Baruch said,] We learn from this that when the Holy One, blessed be He, fulfills His words-even [when it is] for retribution-He makes it known that His name is the Lord. How much more so [does this expression apply] when he fulfills [His word] for good [because the Tetragrammaton represents the Divine Standard of Mercy]. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it (Sanh. 111a) as related to the preceding topic, [namely] that Moses said [verse 22], “Why have You harmed…?” (Exod. 5:22). The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “We suffer a great loss for those [the Patriarchs] who are lost and [whose replacement] cannot be found. I must lament the death of the Patriarchs. Many times I revealed Myself to them as the Almighty God and they did not ask Me, ‘What is Your name?’ But you asked, What is His name? What shall I say to them?’” (Exod. 3:13). [4]   מקצר רוח: כל מי שהוא מיצר, רוחו ונשימתו קצרה ואינו יכול להאריך בנשימתו. קרוב לענין זה שמעתי פרשה זו מרבי ברוך ברבי אליעזר, והביא לי ראיה ממקרא זה (ירמיהו טז כא) (כי) בפעם הזאת אודיעם את ידי ואת גבורתי וידעו כי שמי ה', למדנו כשהקב"ה מאמן את דבריו אפילו לפורענות מודיע ששמו ה', וכל שכן האמנה לטובה. ורבותינו דרשוהו לענין של מעלה, שאמר משה (לעיל ה כב) למה הרעותה, אמר לו הקב"ה חבל על דאבדין ולא משתכחין. יש לי להתאונן על מיתת האבות, הרבה פעמים נגליתי אליהם באל שדי ולא אמרו לי מה שמך, ואתה אמרת (לעיל ג יג) מה שמו מה אומר אליהם:
And also, I established, etc.: And when Abraham sought to bury Sarah, he could not find a grave until he bought [one] for a very high price. Similarly, [with] Isaac, [the Philistines] contested the wells he had dug. And so [with] Jacob, “And he bought the part of the field where he had pitched his tent” (Gen. 33:19), yet they did not question My actions! But you said, “Why have You harmed [the Israelites]?” This midrash, however, does not fit the text, for many reasons: First, because it does not say, “And My Name, ה they did not ask me.” And if you say [in response to this] that He did not let them [the Patriarchs] know that this is His name, [and nevertheless they did not ask Him, (and we will explain לֹא נוֹדַעְךְתִּי like לֹא הוֹדַעְךְתִּי, I did not make known,) I will answer you that] indeed, at the beginning, when He revealed Himself to Abraham “between the parts” (Gen. 15:10), it says: “I am the Lord (אֲנִי ה), Who brought you forth from Ur of the Chaldees” (Gen. 15:7). Moreover, how does the context continue with the matters that follow this [verse]: “And also, I heard, etc. Therefore, say to the children of Israel” ? Therefore, I say that the text should be interpreted according to its simple meaning, [with] each statement fitting its context, and the midrashic explanation may be expounded upon, as it is said: “‘Is not My word so like fire,’ says the Lord, ‘and like a hammer which shatters a rock?’” (Jer. 23:29). [The rock it strikes] is divided into many splinters.   וגם הקמתי וגו': וכשבקש אברהם לקבור את שרה לא מצא קבר עד שקנה בדמים מרובים, וכן ביצחק ערערו עליו על הבארות אשר חפר, וכן ביעקב (בראשית לג יט) ויקן את חלקת השדה, לנטות אהלו, ולא הרהרו אחר מדותי, ואתה אמרת (ה כב) למה הרעותה. ואין המדרש מתיישב אחר המקרא מפני כמה דברים אחת, שלא נאמר, ושמי ה' לא שאלו לי. ואם תאמר לא הודיעם שכך שמו, הרי תחלה כשנגלה לאברהם בין הבתרים נאמר (בראשית טו ז) אני ה' אשר הוצאתיך מאור כשדים. ועוד, היאך הסמיכה נמשכת בדברים שהוא סומך לכאן (פסוק ה) וגם אני שמעתי וגו' (פסוק ו) לכן אמור לבני ישראל. לכך אני אומר יתיישב המקרא על פשוטו דבר דבור על אופניו, והדרשה תדרש, שנאמר (ירמיה כג כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע, מתחלק לכמה ניצוצות:
10The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
11"Come, speak to Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and he will let the children of Israel out of his land."   יאבֹּ֣א דַבֵּ֔ר אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרָ֑יִם וִֽישַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵֽאַרְצֽוֹ:
12But Moses spoke before the Lord, saying, "Behold, the children of Israel did not hearken to me. How then will Pharaoh hearken to me, seeing that I am of closed lips?"   יבוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁ֔ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר הֵ֤ן בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֹא־שָֽׁמְע֣וּ אֵלַ֔י וְאֵיךְ֙ יִשְׁמָעֵ֣נִי פַרְעֹ֔ה וַֽאֲנִ֖י עֲרַ֥ל שְׂפָתָֽיִם:
closed lips: Heb. עִרַל שְׂפָתָיִם, Literally, of “closed” lips. Similarly, every expression of (עָרְלָה) I say, denotes a closure: e.g., “their ear is clogged (עִרֵלָה) ” (Jer. 6:10), [meaning] clogged to prevent hearing; “of uncircumcised (עַרְלֵי) hearts” (Jer. 9:25), [meaning] clogged to prevent understanding; “You too drink and become clogged up (וְהֵעָרֵל) ” (Hab. 2:16), [which means] and become clogged up from the intoxication of the cup of the curse; עָרְלַתבָּשָָׂר, the foreskin of the flesh, by which the male membrum is closed up and covered; “and you shall treat its fruit as forbidden (וְעִרַלְךְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ) ” (Lev. 19:23), [i. e.,] make for it a closure and a covering of prohibition, which will create a barrier that will prevent you from eating it. “For three years, it shall be closed up [forbidden] (עִרֵלִים) for you” (Lev. 19:23), [i.e.,] closed up, covered, and separated from eating it.   ערל שפתים: אטום שפתים. וכן כל לשון ערלה אני אומר שהוא אטום (ירמיה ו י) ערלה אזנם, אטומה משמוע, (ירמיה ט כה) ערלי לב, אטומים מהבין, (חבקוק ב טז) שתה גם אתה והערל, והאטם משכרות כוס הקללה. ערלת בשר, שהגיד אטום ומכוסה בה. (ויקרא יט כג) וערלתם ערלתו, עשו לו אוטם וכיסוי איסור, שיבדיל בפני אכילתו, (שם) שלש שנים יהיה לכם ערלים, אטום ומכוסה ומובדל מלאכלו:
How then will Pharaoh hearken to me: This is one of the ten kal vachomer inferences mentioned in the Torah. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:7] [I.e., inferences from major to minor, such as in this case. I.e., if, because of my speech impediment, the children of Israel, who have everything to gain by listening to me, did not listen to me, Pharaoh, who has everything to lose by listening to me, will surely not listen to me.]   ואיך ישמעני פרעה: זה אחד מעשרה קל וחומר שבתורה:
13So the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, and He commanded them concerning the children of Israel and concerning Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, to let the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.   יגוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָה֘ אֶל־משֶׁ֣ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן֒ וַיְצַוֵּם֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרָ֑יִם לְהוֹצִ֥יא אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
So the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron: Because Moses had said, “I am of closed lips,” the Holy One, blessed be He, combined Aaron with him to be for him as a “mouth” [i.e., speaker] and an interpreter.   וידבר ה' אל משה ואל אהרן: לפי שאמר משה (פסוק יב) ואני ערל שפתים, צירף לו הקב"ה את אהרן להיות לו לפה ולמליץ:
and He commanded them concerning the children of Israel: He commanded regarding them [the Israelites] to lead them gently and to be patient with them. — [from Sifrei Beha’alothecha 91]   ויצום אל בני ישראל: צום עליהם להנהיגם בנחת ולסבול אותם:
and concerning Pharaoh, the king of Egypt: He commanded them concerning him [Pharaoh], to speak to him respectfully. This is its midrashic interpretation (Mechilta, Bo, ch. 13; Exod. Rabbah 7:2). Its simple meaning is that He commanded them [Moses and Aaron] concerning Israel and concerning His mission to Pharaoh. What the content of the command was is delineated in the second section [verses 29-31], after the order of the genealogy [that follows this passage]. [This second section should be here] but since [Scripture] mentioned Moses and Aaron, it interrupts the narrative with “These are the heads of the fathers’ houses” (verse 14) to inform us how Moses and Aaron were born and after whom they traced their lineage..   ואל פרעה מלך מצרים: צום עליו לחלוק לו כבוד בדבריהם, זהו מדרשו. ופשוטו צום על דבר ישראל ועל שליחותו אל פרעה. ודבר הצווי מהו, מפורש בפרשה שניה לאחר סדר היחס, אלא מתוך שהזכיר משה ואהרן הפסיק הענין באלה ראשי בית אבותם (פסוק יד) ללמדנו היאך נולדו משה ואהרן ובמי נתיחסו:

Second Portion

Exodus Chapter 6

14These [following] are the heads of the fathers' houses: The sons of Reuben, Israel's firstborn: Enoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Karmi, these are the families of Reuben.   ידאֵ֖לֶּה רָאשֵׁ֣י בֵֽית־אֲבֹתָ֑ם בְּנֵ֨י רְאוּבֵ֜ן בְּכֹ֣ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל חֲנ֤וֹךְ וּפַלּוּא֙ חֶצְרֹ֣ן וְכַרְמִ֔י אֵ֖לֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת רְאוּבֵֽן:
These [following] are the heads of the fathers’ houses: Since [Scripture] had to trace the lineage of the tribe of Levi as far as Moses and Aaron-because of Moses and Aaron-it commenced to trace their [the Israelites’] lineage in the order of their births, starting with Reuben. (In the Great Pesikta [Rabbathi] (7:7) I saw [the following statement]: Because Jacob rebuked [the progenitors of] these three tribes at the time of his death (Gen. 49:4-7), Scripture again traces their lineage here by themselves, to infer that [even though Jacob rebuked them] they are of high esteem.)   אלה ראשי בית אבתם: מתוך שהוזקק ליחס שבטו של לוי עד משה ואהרן, בשביל משה ואהרן התחיל ליחסם דרך תולדותם מראובן. [ובפסיקתא רבתי ראיתי לפי שקנטרם יעקב אביהם לשלשה שבטים הללו בשעת מותו, חזר הכתוב ויחסם כאן לבדם לומר שחשובים הם]:
15And the sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin and Ohad and Jachin and Zohar and Saul, the son of the Canaanitess, these are the families of Simeon.   טווּבְנֵ֣י שִׁמְע֗וֹן יְמוּאֵ֨ל וְיָמִ֤ין וְאֹ֨הַד֙ וְיָכִ֣ין וְצֹ֔חַר וְשָׁא֖וּל בֶּן־הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֑ית אֵ֖לֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת שִׁמְעֽוֹן:
16And these are the names of Levi's sons after their generations: Gershon, Kehath, and Merari, and the years of Levi's life were one hundred thirty seven years.   טזוְאֵ֨לֶּה שְׁמ֤וֹת בְּנֵֽי־לֵוִי֙ לְתֹ֣לְדֹתָ֔ם גֵּֽרְשׁ֕וֹן וּקְהָ֖ת וּמְרָרִ֑י וּשְׁנֵי֙ חַיֵּ֣י לֵוִ֔י שֶׁ֧בַע וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָֽה:
and the years of Levi’s life: Why were Levi’s years counted? To let us know how many were the years of bondage. For as long as one of the tribes was alive, there was no bondage, as it is said: “Now Joseph died, as well as all his brothers,” and afterwards, “A new king arose” (Exod. 1:6, 8), and Levi outlived them all. — [from Seder Olam, ch. 3]   ושני חיי לוי וגו': למה נמנו שנותיו של לוי, להודיע כמה ימי השעבוד, שכל זמן שאחד מן השבטים קיים לא היה שעבוד, שנאמר (שמות א ו) וימת יוסף וכל אחיו, ואחר כך (שם ח) ויקם מלך חדש, ולוי האריך ימים על כולם:
17The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei to their families.   יזבְּנֵ֥י גֵֽרְשׁ֛וֹן לִבְנִ֥י וְשִׁמְעִ֖י לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָֽם:
18And the sons of Kehath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, and the years of Kehath's life were one hundred thirty three years.   יחוּבְנֵ֣י קְהָ֔ת עַמְרָ֣ם וְיִצְהָ֔ר וְחֶבְר֖וֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵ֑ל וּשְׁנֵי֙ חַיֵּ֣י קְהָ֔ת שָׁל֧שׁ וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָֽה:
And the years of Kehath's life and the years of Amram's life etc: From this calculation we learn that the 400 year sojourn of the B'nei Yisrael which Scriptures talks about, it was not [spent] in Egypt alone but, rather [was calculated] from the day Yitzchok was born. [This can be calculated thus:] For Kehath was among those who went down to Egypt, [Now] calculate all his years and the years of Amram, [his son] and the eighty years of Moshe, you will find that they do not total 400 years, many of the [sons'] years are included in the fathers' years   ושני חיי קהת ושני חיי עמרם וגו': מחשבון זה אנו למדים על מושב בני ישראל ארבע מאות שנה שאמר הכתוב, שלא בארץ מצרים לבדה היו, אלא מיום שנולד יצחק, שהרי קהת מיורדי מצרים היה, חשוב כל שנותיו ושנות עמרם ושמונים של משה לא תמצאם ארבע מאות שנה, והרבה שנים נבלעים לבנים בשני האבות:
19And the sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi; these are the families of the Levites according to their generations.   יטוּבְנֵ֥י מְרָרִ֖י מַחְלִ֣י וּמוּשִׁ֑י אֵ֛לֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הַלֵּוִ֖י לְתֹֽלְדֹתָֽם:
20Amram took Jochebed, his aunt, as his wife, and she bore him Aaron and Moses, and the years of Amram's life were one hundred thirty seven years.   כוַיִּקַּ֨ח עַמְרָ֜ם אֶת־יוֹכֶ֤בֶד דֹּֽדָתוֹ֙ ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה וַתֵּ֣לֶד ל֔וֹ אֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וְאֶת־משֶׁ֑ה וּשְׁנֵי֙ חַיֵּ֣י עַמְרָ֔ם שֶׁ֧בַע וּשְׁלשִׁ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָֽה:
Jochebed, his aunt: Heb. דֹדָתוֹ [Onkelos renders:] his father’s sister, the daughter of Levi, the sister of Kehath.   יוכבד דדתו: אחת אבוהי בת לוי אחות קהת:
21And the sons of Izhar were Korah and Nepheg and Zichri.   כאוּבְנֵ֖י יִצְהָ֑ר קֹ֥רַח וָנֶ֖פֶג וְזִכְרִֽי:
22And the sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.   כבוּבְנֵ֖י עֻזִּיאֵ֑ל מִֽישָׁאֵ֥ל וְאֶלְצָפָ֖ן וְסִתְרִֽי:
23Aaron took to himself for a wife, Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.   כגוַיִּקַּ֨ח אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־אֱלִישֶׁ֧בַע בַּת־עַמִּֽינָדָ֛ב אֲח֥וֹת נַחְשׁ֖וֹן ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וַתֵּ֣לֶד ל֗וֹ אֶת־נָדָב֙ וְאֶת־אֲבִיה֔וּא אֶת־אֶלְעָזָ֖ר וְאֶת־אִֽיתָמָֽר:
the sister of Nahshon: From here we learn that one who contemplates taking a wife must [first] investigate her brothers. — [from B.B. 110a, Exod. Rabbah 7:5]   אחות נחשון: מכאן למדנו הנושא אשה צריך לבדוק באחיה:
24And the sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah and Abiasaph; these are the families of the Korahites.   כדוּבְנֵ֣י קֹ֔רַח אַסִּ֥יר וְאֶלְקָנָ֖ה וַֽאֲבִֽיאָסָ֑ף אֵ֖לֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הַקָּרְחִֽי:
25Eleazar, the son of Aaron, took himself [one] of the daughters of Putiel to himself as a wife, and she bore him Phinehas; these are the heads of the fathers' [houses] of the Levites according to their families.   כהוְאֶלְעָזָ֨ר בֶּן־אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן לָֽקַח־ל֨וֹ מִבְּנ֤וֹת פּֽוּטִיאֵל֙ ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה וַתֵּ֥לֶד ל֖וֹ אֶת־פִּֽינְחָ֑ס אֵ֗לֶּה רָאשֵׁ֛י אֲב֥וֹת הַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָֽם:
[one] of the daughters of Putiel-: Of the seed of Jethro, who fattened (פִּטֵּ ם) calves for idolatry (see Rashi on Exod. 2:16) and [who was also] of the seed of Joseph, who defied and fought (פִּטְפֵּט) against his passion [when he was tempted by Potiphar’s wife]. — [from B.B. 109b]   מבנות פוטיאל: מזרע יתרו שפטם עגלים לעבודה זרה. ומזרע יוסף שפטפט ביצרו:
26That is Aaron and Moses, to whom the Lord said, "Take the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt with their legions."   כוה֥וּא אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּמשֶׁ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָמַ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ לָהֶ֔ם הוֹצִ֜יאוּ אֶת־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם עַל־צִבְאֹתָֽם:
That is Aaron and Moses: Who are mentioned above [verse 20], whom Jochebed bore to Amram, [these two] are [the same] Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, etc. In some places, [Scripture] places Aaron before Moses, and in other places it places Moses before Aaron, to tell us that they were equal. — [from Mechilta, 7:1]   הוא אהרן ומשה: אלו שהוזכרו למעלה, שילדה יוכבד לעמרם, הוא אהרן ומשה. יש מקומות שמקדים אהרן למשה ויש מקומות שמקדים משה לאהרן, לומר לך ששקולין כאחד:
with their legions: Heb. ע ַל-צִבְאֹתָם [equivalent to בְּ צִ בְאֹתָם], with their legions. [I.e.,] all their legions according to their tribes. There are [examples] of עַל when it is used instead of one letter, [e.g.,] “you shall live by your sword (עַל-חַרְבְּ) ” (Gen. 27:40), [which is] the same as בְּחַרְבְּ [by your own sword]; You stood by your sword (עַל-חַרְבְּכֶם) (Ezek. 33:26), [which is the same as] בְּחַרְבְּכֶם   על צבאתם: בצבאותם, כל צבאם לשבטיהם. יש על שאינו אלא במקום אות אחת (בראשית כז מ) ועל חרבך תחיה, כמו בחרבך, (יחזקאל לג כו) עמדתם על חרבכם, כמו בחרבכם:
27They are the ones who spoke to Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, to let the children of Israel out of Egypt; they are Moses and Aaron.   כזהֵ֗ם הַֽמְדַבְּרִים֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֔יִם לְהוֹצִ֥יא אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם ה֥וּא משֶׁ֖ה וְאַֽהֲרֹֽן:
They are the ones who spoke, etc: [It was] they [who] are the ones who were commanded, and they are the ones who fulfilled [what they had been commanded to do, i.e., speak to Pharaoh].   הם המדברים וגו': הם שנצטוו הם שקיימו:
they are Moses and Aaron: They remained in their mission and in their righteousness from beginning to end. — [from Meg. 11a]   הוא משה ואהרן: הם בשליחותם ובצדקתם מתחלה ועד סוף:
28Now it came to pass on the day that the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt,   כחוַיְהִ֗י בְּי֨וֹם דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־משֶׁ֖ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Now it came to pass on the day that the Lord spoke, etc.: [This is] connected with the following verse: [“That the Lord spoke to Moses”].   ויהי ביום דבר וגו': מחובר למקרא שלאחריו:

Third Portion

Exodus Chapter 6

29that the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "I am the Lord. Speak to Pharaoh everything that I speak to you."   כטוַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹ֖ר אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה דַּבֵּ֗ר אֶל־פַּרְעֹה֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י דֹּבֵ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ:
that the Lord spoke: This is the very same speech stated above, “Come, speak to Pharaoh, the king of Egypt” (verse 11), but since [Scripture] interrupted the topic in order to trace their [Moses’ and Aaron’s] lineage, it returned to it [the statement, in order] to resume with it.   וידבר ה': הוא הדבור עצמו האמור למעלה (פסוק יא) בא דבר אל פרעה מלך מצרים, אלא מתוך שהפסיק הענין כדי ליחסם, חזר הענין עליו להתחיל בו:
I am the Lord: I have the power to send you and [also] to fulfill the words of My mission.   אני ה': כדאי אני לשלחך ולקיים דברי שליחותי:
30But Moses said before the Lord, "Behold, I am of closed lips; so how will Pharaoh hearken to me?"   לוַיֹּ֥אמֶר משֶׁ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה הֵ֤ן אֲנִי֙ עֲרַ֣ל שְׂפָתַ֔יִם וְאֵ֕יךְ יִשְׁמַ֥ע אֵלַ֖י פַּרְעֹֽה:
But Moses said before the Lord: This is the statement [that Moses] stated above: “Behold, the children of Israel did not hearken to me” (verse 12). Scripture repeats it here because it had interrupted the topic [for the reasons given above], and this is customary, similar to a person who says, “Let us return to the earlier [topic].”   ויאמר משה לפני ה': היא האמירה שאמר למעלה (פסוק יב) הן בני ישראל לא שמעו אלי, ושנה הכתוב כאן כיון שהפסיק הענין, וכך היא השיטה כאדם האומר נחזור על הראשונות:

Exodus Chapter 7

1The Lord said to Moses, "See! I have made you a lord over Pharaoh, and Aaron, your brother, will be your speaker.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה רְאֵ֛ה נְתַתִּ֥יךָ אֱלֹהִ֖ים לְפַרְעֹ֑ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֥ן אָחִ֖יךָ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה נְבִיאֶֽךָ:
I have made you a lord over Pharaoh: Heb. אֱלֹהִים, a judge and a chastiser, to chastise him with plagues and torments. — [from Onkelos and Tanchuma, Va’era 9]   נתתיך א-להים לפרעה: שופט ורודה לרדותו במכות ויסורין:
will be your speaker: Heb. נְבִיאֶ, as the Targum renders: מְתוּרְגְמָנָ, your interpreter. Every expression of נְבוּאָה (prophecy) denotes a man who publicly announces to the people words of reproof. It is derived from the root of “I create the speech (נִיב) of the lips” (Isa. 57:19); “speaks (יָנוּב) wisdom” (Prov. 10:31); “And he (Samuel) finished prophesying (מֵהִתְנַבוּת) ” (I Sam. 10:13). In Old French this is called predi(je) ir, advocate. — [based on Onkelos]   יהיה נביאך: כתרגומו מתורגמנך, וכן כל לשון נבואה אדם המכריז ומשמיע לעם דברי תוכחות, והוא מגזרת (ישעיה נז יט) ניב שפתים, (משלי י לא) ינוב חכמה, ויכל מהתנבות דשמואל (א' י יג). ובלעז קוראין לו פרקייר"א [מליץ ומטיף]:
2You shall speak all that I command you, and Aaron, your brother, shall speak to Pharaoh, that he let the children of Israel out of his land.   באַתָּ֣ה תְדַבֵּ֔ר אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲצַוֶּ֑ךָּ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֤ן אָחִ֨יךָ֙ יְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְשִׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵֽאַרְצֽוֹ:
You shall speak: once every message, as you have heard it from My mouth, and Aaron, your brother, will interpret it and explain it in Pharaoh’s ears. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 10]   אתה תדבר: פעם אחת כל שליחות ושליחות כפי ששמעתו מפי, ואהרן אחיך ימליצנו ויטעימנו באזני פרעה:
3But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and I will increase My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.   גוַֽאֲנִ֥י אַקְשֶׁ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֧י אֶת־אֹֽתֹתַ֛י וְאֶת־מֽוֹפְתַ֖י בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
But I will harden: Since he [Pharaoh] behaved wickedly and defied Me, and I know full well that there is no delight among the nations to make a wholehearted attempt to repent, it is better for Me that his heart be hardened, so that [I can] increase My signs and My wonders in him, and you will recognize My mighty deeds, and so is the custom of the Holy One, blessed be He. He brings retribution on the nations so that Israel should hear and fear, as it is said: “I have cut off nations; their towers have become desolate… I said, ‘Surely you will fear Me, you will accept reproof’” (Zeph. 3:6, 7). Nevertheless, in the first five plagues, it does not say, “And the Lord strengthened Pharaoh’s heart,” but “Pharaoh’s heart remained steadfast.” -[from Exod. Rabbah 13:3, 11:6; Tanchuma Buber, Va’era 22; Yeb. 63a]   ואני אקשה: מאחר שהרשיע והתריס כנגדי, וגלוי לפני שאין נחת רוח באומות עובדי עבודה זרה לתת לב שלם לשוב, טוב לי שיתקשה לבו למען הרבות בו אותותי ותכירו אתם את גבורותי. וכן מדתו של הקב"ה מביא פורענות על האומות עובדי עבודה זרה כדי שישמעו ישראל וייראו, שנאמר (צפניה ג ו) הכרתי גוים נשמו פנותם וגו', (שם ז) אמרתי אך תיראי אותי תקחי מוסר, ואף על פי כן בחמש מכות הראשונות לא נאמר ויחזק ה' את לב פרעה, אלא ויחזק לב פרעה:
4But Pharaoh will not hearken to you, and I will lay My hand upon the Egyptians, and I will take My legions, My people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt with great judgments.   דוְלֹא־יִשְׁמַ֤ע אֲלֵכֶם֙ פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְנָֽתַתִּ֥י אֶת־יָדִ֖י בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וְהֽוֹצֵאתִ֨י אֶת־צִבְאֹתַ֜י אֶת־עַמִּ֤י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בִּשְׁפָטִ֖ים גְּדֹלִֽים:
5And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord when I stretch forth My hand over Egypt, and I will take the children of Israel out of their midst."   הוְיָֽדְע֤וּ מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה בִּנְטֹתִ֥י אֶת־יָדִ֖י עַל־מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהֽוֹצֵאתִ֥י אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִתּוֹכָֽם:
My hand: A real hand, to strike them.   את ידי: יד ממש להכות בהם:
6Moses and Aaron did; as the Lord commanded them, so they did.   ווַיַּ֥עַשׂ משֶׁ֖ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֑ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֹתָ֖ם כֵּ֥ן עָשֽׂוּ:
7And Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron was eighty three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.   זוּמשֶׁה֙ בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַ֣הֲרֹ֔ן בֶּן־שָׁל֥שׁ וּשְׁמֹנִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה בְּדַבְּרָ֖ם אֶל־פַּרְעֹֽה:

Fourth Portion

Exodus Chapter 7

8The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,   חוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
9"When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, 'Provide a sign for yourselves,' you shall say to Aaron, 'Take your staff, [and] cast [it] before Pharaoh; it will become a serpent.' "   טכִּי֩ יְדַבֵּ֨ר אֲלֵכֶ֤ם פַּרְעֹה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר תְּנ֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם מוֹפֵ֑ת וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן קַ֧ח אֶת־מַטְּךָ֛ וְהַשְׁלֵ֥ךְ לִפְנֵֽי־פַרְעֹ֖ה יְהִ֥י לְתַנִּֽין:
a sign: Heb. מוֹפֵת, a sign to make [it] known that there is power in the One who is sending you. — [from Onkelos]   מופת: אות להודיע שיש צרוך במי ששולח אתכם:
a serpent: Heb. תלְתַנִין, a serpent.   לתנין: נחש:
10[Thereupon,] Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and they did so, as the Lord had commanded; Aaron cast his staff before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent.   יוַיָּבֹ֨א משֶׁ֤ה וְאַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיַּ֣עֲשׂוּ כֵ֔ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּשְׁלֵ֨ךְ אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־מַטֵּ֗הוּ לִפְנֵ֥י פַרְעֹ֛ה וְלִפְנֵ֥י עֲבָדָ֖יו וַיְהִ֥י לְתַנִּֽין:
11[Then,] Pharaoh too summoned the wise men and the magicians, and the necromancers of Egypt also did likewise with their magic.   יאוַיִּקְרָא֙ גַּם־פַּרְעֹ֔ה לַֽחֲכָמִ֖ים וְלַֽמְכַשְּׁפִ֑ים וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֨וּ גַם־הֵ֜ם חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י מִצְרַ֛יִם בְּלַֽהֲטֵיהֶ֖ם כֵּֽן:
with their magic: Heb. בְּלַהִטֵיהֶם [Onkelos renders בְּלַחֲשֵהון], [meaning] with their incantations. It [the word בְּלַהִטֵיהֶם has no similarity in the [rest of] Scripture. It may, however, be compared to “the blade of (לַהַט) the revolving sword” (Gen. 3:24), which seemed to be revolving because of a magic spell.   בלהטיהם: בלחשיהון ואין לו דמיון במקרא, ויש לדמות לו (בראשית ג כב) להט החרב המתהפכת, דומה שהיא מתהפכת על ידי לחש:
12Each one of them cast down his staff, and they became serpents; but Aaron's staff swallowed their staffs.   יבוַיַּשְׁלִ֨יכוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ מַטֵּ֔הוּ וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ לְתַנִּינִ֑ם וַיִּבְלַ֥ע מַטֵּה־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן אֶת־מַטֹּתָֽם:
but Aaron’s staff swallowed their staffs: After it had again become a staff, it swallowed them all. — [from Shab. 97a]   ויבלע מטה אהרן: מאחר שחזר ונעשה מטה בלע את כולן:
13But Pharaoh's heart remained steadfast, and he did not hearken to them, as the Lord had spoken.   יגוַֽיֶּֽחֱזַק֙ לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
14The Lord said to Moses, "Pharaoh's heart is heavy; he has refused to let the people out.   ידוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה כָּבֵ֖ד לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה מֵאֵ֖ן לְשַׁלַּ֥ח הָעָֽם:
is heavy: Heb. כָּבֵד. Its Aramaic translation is יַקִיר [heavy], and not אִתְיַקַר [has become heavy], because it is the name of a thing [an adjective and not a verb], as in for the matter is too heavy (כָבֵד) for you (Exod. 18:18).   כבד: תרגומו יקיר, ולא אתיקר, מפני שהוא שם דבר, כמו (שמות יח יח) כי כבד ממך הדבר:
15Go to Pharaoh in the morning; behold, he is going forth to the water, and you shall stand opposite him on the bank of the Nile, and the staff that was turned into a serpent you shall take in your hand.   טולֵ֣ךְ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֞ה בַּבֹּ֗קֶר הִנֵּה֙ יֹצֵ֣א הַמַּ֔יְמָה וְנִצַּבְתָּ֥ לִקְרָאת֖וֹ עַל־שְׂפַ֣ת הַיְאֹ֑ר וְהַמַּטֶּ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־נֶהְפַּ֥ךְ לְנָחָ֖שׁ תִּקַּ֥ח בְּיָדֶֽךָ:
behold, he is going forth to the water: to relieve himself, for he had deified himself and said that he did not need to relieve himself; so, early in the morning he went out to the Nile and there he would perform his needs. — [from Mid. Tanchuma, Va’era 14; Exod. Rabbah 9:8]   הנה יצא המימה: לנקביו, שהיה עושה עצמו אלוה ואומר שאינו צריך לנקביו ומשכים ויוצא לנילוס ועושה שם צרכיו:
16And you shall say to him, 'The Lord God of the Hebrews sent me to you, saying, "Send forth My people, so that they may serve Me in the desert," but behold, until now, you have not hearkened.   טזוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו יְהֹוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י הָֽעִבְרִים֙ שְׁלָחַ֤נִי אֵלֶ֨יךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר שַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֔י וְיַֽעַבְדֻ֖נִי בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְהִנֵּ֥ה לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ עַד־כֹּֽה:
until now: Heb. עַד-כֹּה, [meaning] until now [Onkelos]. Its midrashic interpretation is: Until you hear from me [the announcement of] the plague of the firstborn, which I will introduce with “So (כֹּה said the Lord, ‘When the night divides…’” (Exod. 11: 4). — [from an unknown midrashic source]   עד כה: עד הנה ומדרשו עד שתשמע ממני מכת בכורות, שאפתח בה בכה (יא ד) כה אמר ה' כחצות הלילה:
17So said the Lord, "With this you will know that I am the Lord." Behold, I will smite with the staff that is in my hand upon the water that is in the Nile, and it will turn to blood.   יזכֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּזֹ֣את תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֖י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה הִנֵּ֨ה אָֽנֹכִ֜י מַכֶּ֣ה | בַּמַּטֶּ֣ה אֲשֶׁר־בְּיָדִ֗י עַל־הַמַּ֛יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּיְאֹ֖ר וְנֶֽהֶפְכ֥וּ לְדָֽם:
and it will turn to blood: Since there is no rainfall in Egypt, and the Nile ascends and waters the land, so the Egyptians worship the Nile. He therefore smote their deity and afterwards He smote them. — [from Sifrei, Devarim 38; Exod. Rabbah 9:9; Tanchuma, Va’era 13]   ונהפכו לדם: לפי שאין גשמים יורדים במצרים, ונילוס עולה ומשקה את הארץ, ומצרים עובדים לנילוס, לפיכך הלקה את יראתם ואחר כך הלקה אותם:
18And the fish that are in the Nile will die, and the Nile will become putrid, and the Egyptians will weary [in their efforts] to drink water from the Nile.' "   יחוְהַדָּגָ֧ה אֲשֶׁר־בַּיְאֹ֛ר תָּמ֖וּת וּבָאַ֣שׁ הַיְאֹ֑ר וְנִלְא֣וּ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִשְׁתּ֥וֹת מַ֖יִם מִן־הַיְאֹֽר:
and the Egyptians will weary: Heb. וְנִלְאוּ [I.e., the Egyptians will become weary trying] to seek a remedy for the waters of the Nile so that it would be fit to drink. — [from Jonathan]   ונלאו מצרים: לבקש רפואה למי היאור שיהיו ראוין לשתות:
19The Lord said to Moses, "Say to Aaron, 'Take your staff and stretch forth your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their canals, over their ponds, and over all their bodies of water, and they will become blood, and there will be blood throughout the entire land of Egypt, even in wood and in stone.' "   יטוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה אֱמֹ֣ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֡ן קַ֣ח מַטְּךָ֣ וּנְטֵה־יָֽדְךָ֩ עַל־מֵימֵ֨י מִצְרַ֜יִם עַל־נַֽהֲרֹתָ֣ם | עַל־יְאֹֽרֵיהֶ֣ם וְעַל־אַגְמֵיהֶ֗ם וְעַ֛ל כָּל־מִקְוֵ֥ה מֵֽימֵיהֶ֖ם וְיִֽהְיוּ־דָ֑ם וְהָ֤יָה דָם֙ בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּבָֽעֵצִ֖ים וּבָֽאֲבָנִֽים:
Say to Aaron: Since the Nile protected Moses when he was cast into it, it therefore was not smitten by him, neither with blood nor with frogs, but was smitten by Aaron. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 14]   אמר אל אהרן: לפי שהגין היאור על משה כשנשלך לתוכו, לפיכך לא לקה על ידו לא בדם ולא בצפרדעים, ולקה על ידי אהרן:
their rivers: They are the rivers that flow, like our rivers.   נהרתם: הם נהרות המושכים כעין נהרות שלנו:
their canals: Heb. יְאֹרֵיהֶם. These are man-made pools and ditches, [extending] from the riverbank to the fields. [When] the waters of the Nile increase, it [the Nile] rises through the canals and irrigates the fields. — [from Othioth d’Rabbi Akiva   יאריהם: הם בריכות ונגרים העשויות בידי אדם משפת הנהר לשדות, ונילוס מימיו מתברכים ועולה דרך היאורים ומשקה השדות:
their ponds: Water that does not spring [from beneath the ground] and does not flow [to any other place] but stands in one place. It is called estanc [in Old French], pond.   אגמיהם: קבוצת מים שאינן נובעין ואינן מושכין, אלא עומדין במקום אחד, וקורין לו אישטנ"ק [אגם]:
throughout the entire land of Egypt: Even in the bathhouses, and in the bathtubs in the houses.   בכל ארץ מצרים: אף במרחצאות ובאמבטאות שבבתים:
even in wood and in stone: Water in wooden vessels and in stone vessels. — [from Onkelos, Jonathan, Exod. Rabbah 9:11]   ובעצים ובאבנים: מים שבכלי עץ ובכלי אבן:
20Moses and Aaron did so, as the Lord had commanded, and he raised the staff and struck the water that was in the Nile before the eyes of Pharaoh and before the eyes of his servants, and all the water that was in the Nile turned to blood.   כוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵן֩ משֶׁ֨ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֜ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר | צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה וַיָּ֤רֶם בַּמַּטֶּה֙ וַיַּ֤ךְ אֶת־הַמַּ֨יִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּיְאֹ֔ר לְעֵינֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וּלְעֵינֵ֖י עֲבָדָ֑יו וַיֵּהָֽפְכ֛וּ כָּל־הַמַּ֥יִם אֲשֶׁר־בַּיְאֹ֖ר לְדָֽם:
21And the fish that were in the Nile died, and the Nile became putrid; the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile, and there was blood throughout the entire land of Egypt.   כאוְהַדָּגָ֨ה אֲשֶׁר־בַּיְאֹ֥ר מֵ֨תָה֙ וַיִּבְאַ֣שׁ הַיְאֹ֔ר וְלֹא־יָכְל֣וּ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִשְׁתּ֥וֹת מַ֖יִם מִן־הַיְאֹ֑ר וַיְהִ֥י הַדָּ֖ם בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
22And the necromancers of Egypt did likewise with their secret rites, and Pharaoh's heart was steadfast, and he did not heed them, as the Lord had spoken.   כבוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֛ן חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י מִצְרַ֖יִם בְּלָֽטֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֶּֽחֱזַ֤ק לֵֽב־פַּרְעֹה֙ וְלֹֽא־שָׁמַ֣ע אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
with their secret rites: Heb. בְּלָטֵיהֶם, an incantation which they uttered silently and in secret (בְּלָּט). [This follows Onkelos.] Our Rabbis, however, said: בְּלָטֵיהֶם means acts of demons. בְּלַהִטֵיהֶם means acts of magic. — [from Sanh. 67b] [See above commentary on verse 11.]   בלטיהם: לחש שאומרין אותו בלט ובחשאי. ורבותינו אמרו בלטיהם מעשה שדים, בלהטיהם מעשה כשפים:
and Pharaoh’s heart was steadfast: saying, “You are doing this through sorcery. ‘You are bringing straw to Aphraim,’ a city that is full of straw. So too you bring magic to Egypt, which is [already] full of magic.” - from Exod. Rabbah 9:11, Men. 85a]   ויחזק לב פרעה: לומר על ידי מכשפות אתם עושים כן, תבן אתם מכניסין לעפריים, עיר שכולה תבן, אף אתם מביאין מכשפות למצרים שכולה כשפים:
23Pharaoh turned and went home, and he paid no heed even to this.   כגוַיִּ֣פֶן פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖א אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ וְלֹא־שָׁ֥ת לִבּ֖וֹ גַּם־לָזֹֽאת:
even to this: Neither to the sign of the staff that had turned into a serpent nor to this one of blood.   גם לזאת: למופת המטה, שנהפך לתנין ולא לזה של דם:
24All the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink because they could not drink from the water of the Nile.   כדוַיַּחְפְּר֧וּ כָל־מִצְרַ֛יִם סְבִיבֹ֥ת הַיְאֹ֖ר מַ֣יִם לִשְׁתּ֑וֹת כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָֽכְלוּ֙ לִשְׁתֹּ֔ת מִמֵּימֵ֖י הַיְאֹֽר:
25Seven full days passed after the Lord had smitten the Nile.   כהוַיִּמָּלֵ֖א שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים אַֽחֲרֵ֥י הַכּֽוֹת־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־הַיְאֹֽר:
Seven full days passed: Heb. וַיְּמָּלֵא, literally, seven days were filled. Since the word וַיְּמָּלֵא is singular, Rashi explains: The number of seven days that the Nile did not return to its original state [was filled], for the plague would be in effect for a quarter of a month, and for three quarters [of the month], he [Moses] would exhort and warn them. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 13, Exod. Rabbah 9:12, as explained by Mizrachi and Gur Aryeh].   וימלא: מנין שבעת ימים, שלא שב היאור לקדמותו, שהיתה המכה משמשת רביע חדש ושלשה חלקים היה מעיד ומתרה בהם:
26The Lord said to Moses, "Come to Pharaoh and say to him, 'So said the Lord, "Let My people go, so that they may serve Me.   כווַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה בֹּ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה שַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי:
27But if you refuse to let [them] go, behold, I will smite all your borders with frogs.   כזוְאִם־מָאֵ֥ן אַתָּ֖ה לְשַׁלֵּ֑חַ הִנֵּ֣ה אָֽנֹכִ֗י נֹגֵ֛ף אֶת־כָּל־גְּבֽוּלְךָ֖ בַּֽצְפַרְדְּעִֽים:
But if you refuse: Heb. מָאֵן, [which means] and if you are a refuser. מָאֵן is like מְמָאֵן, refuses, but Scripture calls the person by his action, like “tranquil (שָׁלֵו) and still (וְשָׁקֵט) ” (see Job 16:12) 4; “sad and upset (וְזָעֵף)” (I Kings 20:43).   ואם מאן אתה: ואם סרבן אתה. מאן כמו ממאן, מסרב, אלא כינה האדם על שם המפעל, כמו (איוב טז יב) שלו, (ירמיהו מח יא) ושקט, (מלכים א' כ מג) סר וזעף:
smite all your borders: Heb. נֹגֵף, [means] smite. Similarly every expression of מַגֵּפָה, plague, [also means a smiting,] “and they strike (וְנָגְפוּ) a pregnant woman” (Exod. 21:22), does not mean [striking to] death. Similarly “before your feet are dashed (יִתְנַגְּפוּ) ” (Jer. 13:16); “lest your foot be dashed (ךְתִּגֹּף) on a stone” (Ps. 91:12); “a stone upon which to dash oneself (נֶגֶף) ” (Isa. 8:14).   נגף את כל גבולך: מכה, וכן כל לשון מגפה אינו לשון מיתה אלא לשון מכה, וכן (שמות כא כב) ונגפו אשה הרה, אינו לשון מיתה. וכן (ירמיהו יג טז) ובטרם יתנגפו רגליכם, (תהילים צא יב) פן תגוף באבן רגליך, (ישעיהו ח יד) ולאבן נגף:
28And the Nile will swarm with frogs, and they will go up and come into your house and into your bedroom and upon your bed and into the house of your servants and into your people, and into your ovens and into your kneading troughs;   כחוְשָׁרַ֣ץ הַיְאֹר֘ צְפַרְדְּעִים֒ וְעָלוּ֙ וּבָ֣אוּ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ וּבַֽחֲדַ֥ר מִשְׁכָּֽבְךָ֖ וְעַל־מִטָּתֶ֑ךָ וּבְבֵ֤ית עֲבָדֶ֨יךָ֙ וּבְעַמֶּ֔ךָ וּבְתַנּוּרֶ֖יךָ וּבְמִשְׁאֲרוֹתֶֽיךָ:
and they will go up: from the Nile.   ועלו: מן היאור:
into your house: and afterwards, into the house of your servants. He [Pharaoh] introduced the plan first, [as it is written:] “He said to his people…” (Exod. 1:9), and with him the retribution started. — [from Sotah 11a]   בביתך: ואחר כך בבתי עבדיך. הוא התחיל בעצה תחלה (שמות א ט) ויאמר אל עמו, וממנו התחילה הפורענות:
29and into you and into your people and into all your servants, the frogs will ascend." ' "   כטוּבְכָ֥ה וּבְעַמְּךָ֖ וּבְכָל־עֲבָדֶ֑יךָ יַֽעֲל֖וּ הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִֽים:
and into you and into your people and into all your servants: They [the frogs] would go into their intestines and croak. — [from Tanna d’vei Eliyahu, Seder Eliyahu Rabbah, ch. 7]   ובכה ובעמך: בתוך מעיהם נכנסין ומקרקרין:

Exodus Chapter 8

1The Lord said to Moses, "Say to Aaron, stretch forth your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring up the frogs on the land of Egypt."   אוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָה֘ אֶל־משֶׁה֒ אֱמֹ֣ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן נְטֵ֤ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֙ בְּמַטֶּ֔ךָ עַל־הַ֙נְּהָרֹ֔ת עַל־הַיְאֹרִ֖ים וְעַל־הָֽאֲגַמִּ֑ים וְהַ֥עַל אֶת־הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֖ים עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
2And Aaron stretched forth his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.   בוַיֵּ֤ט אַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל מֵימֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם וַתַּ֨עַל֙ הַצּפַרְדֵּ֔עַ וַתְּכַ֖ס אֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
and the frogs came up: Heb. וַתַּעַל הַצְפַרְדֵעַ, literally, and the frog came up. It was one frog, and they [the Egyptians] hit it, and it split into many swarms of frogs. This is its midrashic interpretation (Tanchuma, Va’era 14); for its simple meaning, it can be said that the swarming of the frogs is referred to as singular, and likewise, “and the lice were (וַתְּהִי הַכִּנָם) ” (verse 13), the swarming, pedoiliyere in Old French, swarming of lice, and also וַתַּעַל הַצְּפַרְדֵּע, grenoylede in Old French, swarming of frogs.   ותעל הצפרדע: צפרדע אחת היתה והיו מכין אותה והיא מתזת נחילים נחילים זהו מדרשו. ופשוטו יש לומר שרוץ הצפרדעים קורא לשון יחידות. וכן (להלן יד) ותהי הכנם, הרחישה דוילייר"א בלעז [רחישת כנים] ואף ותעל הצפרדע גרינוילייר"א בלעז [רחישת צפרדעים]:
3And the necromancers did likewise with their secret rites, and they brought up the frogs on the land of Egypt.   גוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֥ן הַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֖ים בְּלָֽטֵיהֶ֑ם וַיַּֽעֲל֥וּ אֶת־הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֖ים עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
4Thereupon, Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron, and said, "Entreat the Lord that He remove the frogs from me and from my people, and I will let out the people [of Israel] so that they may sacrifice to the Lord."   דוַיִּקְרָ֨א פַרְעֹ֜ה לְמשֶׁ֣ה וּלְאַֽהֲרֹ֗ן וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הַעְתִּ֣ירוּ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְיָסֵר֙ הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֔ים מִמֶּ֖נִּי וּמֵֽעַמִּ֑י וַֽאֲשַׁלְּחָה֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וְיִזְבְּח֖וּ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
5And Moses said to Pharaoh, "Boast [of your superiority] over me. For when shall I entreat for you, for your servants, and for your people, to destroy the frogs from you and from your houses, [that] they should remain only in the Nile? "   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֣ה לְפַרְעֹה֘ הִתְפָּאֵ֣ר עָלַי֒ לְמָתַ֣י | אַעְתִּ֣יר לְךָ֗ וְלַֽעֲבָדֶ֨יךָ֙ וּלְעַמְּךָ֔ לְהַכְרִית֙ הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֔ים מִמְּךָ֖ וּמִבָּתֶּ֑יךָ רַ֥ק בַּיְאֹ֖ר תִּשָּׁאַֽרְנָה:
Boast [of your superiority] over me: Heb. הִתְפָּאֵר עָלַי, similar to “Shall the axe boast (הִיִתְפָּאֵר) over the one who hews with it” (Isa. 10:15). It praises itself, saying, “I am greater than you,” vanter in Old French. Similarly, הִתְפָּאֵר עָלַי, [Moses says to Pharaoh,] “you praise yourself by acting cleverly and asking a difficult thing and saying that I will be unable to do it.”   התפאר עלי: כמו (ישעיהו י טו) היתפאר הגרזן על החוצב בו, משתבח לומר אני גדול ממך ונט"ר בלעז [להתפאר]. וכן התפאר עלי, השתבח להתחכם ולשאול דבר גדול ולומר שלא אוכל לעשותו:
For when shall I entreat for you: Heb. לְמָתַי. That which I will entreat for you today regarding the extermination of the frogs [tell me,] when do you wish them to be exterminated? And you will see whether I fulfill my words for the time that you set for me. If it were stated, מָתַי אַעְתִּיר it would mean “When shall I pray?” Now that it says, לְמָתַי [and thus it means:] Today I will pray for you that the frogs will be exterminated at the time that you set for me. Tell me, on which day do you want them to be exterminated? [The Torah uses three words:] אַעְתִּיר, I will entreat; הַעְתִּירוּ ((verse 4), entreat (command form); וְהַעְתַּרְתִּי (verse 25), and I will entreat [all in the “hiph’il,” causative conjugation], and it does not say, אֶעְתַּר, עִתְרוּ, and וְעָתַרְתִּי [in the “kal,” simple conjugation], because every expression of עתר means to pray very much, and just as one says אַרְבֶּה, I will increase, הַרְבּוּ, increase [command form], וְהִרְבֵּיתִי, and I will increase, in the “hiph’il” conjugation, so does one say: אַעְתִּיר, I will increase, הַעְךְתִּירוּ (verse 4), increase [command form] וְהַעְתַּרְתִּי (verse 25), and I will increase words, and the “father” [i.e., the main proof] of them all is: “ הַעְתַּרְתֶּם your words” (Ezek. 35:13), you have multiplied.   למתי אעתיר לך: את אשר אעתיר לך היום על הכרתת הצפרדעים, למתי תרצה שיכרתו, ותראה אם אשלים דברי למועד שתקבע לי. אלו נאמר מתי אעתיר, היה משמע מתי אתפלל, עכשיו שנאמר למתי משמע אני היום אתפלל עליך שיכרתו הצפרדעים לזמן שתקבע עלי, אמור לאיזה יום תרצה שיכרתו. אעתיר, העתירו, והעתרתי, ולא נאמר אעתר עתרו ועתרתי, מפני שכל לשון עתר הרבות פלל הוא, וכאשר יאמר הרבו, ארבה, והרביתי לשון מפעיל, כך יאמר, אעתיר, העתירו, והעתרתי דברים, ואב לכולם העתרתם עלי דבריכם (יחזקאל לה יג), הרביתם:
6And he [Pharaoh] said, "For tomorrow." And he [Moses] said, "As you say, in order that you should know that there is none like the Lord, our God.   ווַיֹּ֖אמֶר לְמָחָ֑ר וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ כִּדְבָ֣רְךָ֔ לְמַ֣עַן תֵּדַ֔ע כִּי־אֵ֖ין כַּֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ:
And he [Pharaoh] said, “For tomorrow”: Pray today that they should be exterminated tomorrow.   ויאמר למחר: התפלל היום שיכרתו למחר:

Fifth Portion

Exodus Chapter 8

7And the frogs will depart from you and from your houses and from your servants and from your people; only in the Nile will they remain."   זוְסָר֣וּ הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֗ים מִמְּךָ֙ וּמִבָּ֣תֶּ֔יךָ וּמֵֽעֲבָדֶ֖יךָ וּמֵֽעַמֶּ֑ךָ רַ֥ק בַּיְאֹ֖ר תִּשָּׁאַֽרְנָה:
8And Moses and Aaron went away from Pharaoh, and Moses cried out to the Lord concerning the frogs that He had brought upon Pharaoh.   חוַיֵּצֵ֥א משֶׁ֛ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן מֵעִ֣ם פַּרְעֹ֑ה וַיִּצְעַ֤ק משֶׁה֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־דְּבַ֥ר הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֖ים אֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֥ם לְפַרְעֹֽה:
And Moses and Aaron went away from Pharaoh, and Moses cried out: immediately that they be destroyed on the morrow.   ויצא ויצעק: מיד שיכרתו למחר:
9And the Lord did according to Moses' word, and the frogs died from the houses, from the courtyards, and from the fields.   טוַיַּ֥עַשׂ יְהֹוָ֖ה כִּדְבַ֣ר משֶׁ֑ה וַיָּמֻ֨תוּ֙ הַֽצְפַרְדְּעִ֔ים מִן־הַבָּתִּ֥ים מִן־הַֽחֲצֵרֹ֖ת וּמִן־הַשָּׂדֹֽת:
10They gathered them into many heaps, and the land stank.   יוַיִּצְבְּר֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם חֳמָרִ֣ם חֳמָרִ֑ם וַתִּבְאַ֖שׁ הָאָֽרֶץ:
many heaps: Heb. חֳמָרִם חֳמָרִם, many piles, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: דְּגוֹרִין, heaps.   חמרם חמרם: צבורים צבורים כתרגומו דגורין גלין:
11When Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart, and he did not hearken to them, as the Lord had spoken.   יאוַיַּ֣רְא פַּרְעֹ֗ה כִּ֤י הָֽיְתָה֙ הָֽרְוָחָ֔ה וְהַכְבֵּד֙ אֶת־לִבּ֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
he hardened his heart: Heb. וְהַכְבֵּד. It is the infinitive form, like “continually traveling” (הָלוֹ וְנָסוֹעַ) (Gen. 12:9); “and similarly, and slew (וְהַכּוֹת) the Moabites” (II Kings 3:24); “and by inquiring (וְשָׁאוֹל) of God on his behalf” (I Sam. 22:13); “striking and wounding (הכֵּה וּפָצֹעַ)” (I Kings 20:37).   והכבד את לבו: לשון פעול הוא, כמו (בראשית יב ט) הלוך ונסוע, וכן (מלכים ב' ג כד) והכות את מואב, (שמואל א' כב יג) ושאול לו בא-להים, (מלכים א' כ לז) הכה ופצוע:
as the Lord had spoken: Now at what point did He speak? “But Pharaoh will not hearken to you” (Exod. 7:4).   כאשר דבר ה': והיכן דבר (שמות ז ד) ולא ישמע אליכם פרעה:
12The Lord said to Moses, "Say to Aaron, 'Stretch forth your staff and strike the dust of the earth, and it shall become lice throughout the entire land of Egypt.' "   יבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָה֘ אֶל־משֶׁה֒ אֱמֹר֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן נְטֵ֣ה אֶת־מַטְּךָ֔ וְהַ֖ךְ אֶת־עֲפַ֣ר הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהָיָ֥ה לְכִנִּ֖ם בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Say to Aaron: It was inappropriate for the dust to be smitten through Moses since it had protected him when he slew the Egyptian and had hidden him in the sand. [Therefore,] it was smitten through Aaron [instead]. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 14, Exod. Rabbah 10:7]   אמר אל אהרן: לא היה העפר כדאי ללקות על ידי משה לפי שהגין עליו כשהרג את המצרי ויטמנהו בחול ולקה על ידי אהרן:
13They did so, and Aaron stretched forth his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, and the lice were upon man and beast; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout the entire land of Egypt.   יגוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֗ן וַיֵּט֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן אֶת־יָד֤וֹ בְמַטֵּ֨הוּ֙ וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־עֲפַ֣ר הָאָ֔רֶץ וַתְּהִי֙ הַכִּנָּ֔ם בָּֽאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָ֑ה כָּל־עֲפַ֥ר הָאָ֛רֶץ הָיָ֥ה כִנִּ֖ים בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
and the lice were: The swarming, pedoiliee in Old French, the swarming of lice. [This accounts for the singular verb form.]   ותהי הכנם: הרחישה דולייר"א בלעז [רחישת כינים]:
14And the necromancers did likewise with their secret rites to bring out the lice, but they could not, and the lice were upon man and beast.   ידוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֨ן הַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֧ים בְּלָֽטֵיהֶ֛ם לְהוֹצִ֥יא אֶת־הַכִּנִּ֖ים וְלֹ֣א יָכֹ֑לוּ וַתְּהִי֙ הַכִּנָּ֔ם בָּֽאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָֽה:
to bring out the lice: To create them (another version: to bring them out) from someplace else.   להוציא את הכנים: לבראותם ממקום אחר:
but they could not: Because a demon has no power over a creature smaller than a barleycorn. — [from Sanh. 67b, Tanchuma, Va’era 14, Exod. Rabbah 10:7]   ולא יכלו: שאין השד שולט על בריה פחותה מכשעורה:
15So the necromancers said to Pharaoh, "It is the finger of God," but Pharaoh's heart remained steadfast, and he did not hearken to them, as the Lord had spoken.   טווַיֹּֽאמְר֤וּ הַֽחַרְטֻמִּם֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה אֶצְבַּ֥ע אֱלֹהִ֖ים הִ֑וא וַיֶּֽחֱזַ֤ק לֵֽב־פַּרְעֹה֙ וְלֹא־שָׁמַ֣ע אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
It is the finger of God: This plague is not through sorcery; it is from the Omnipresent. — [from Exod. Rabbah 10:7]   אצבע א-להים הוא: מכה זו אינה על ידי כשפים, מאת המקום :
as the Lord had spoken: “But Pharaoh will not hearken to you” (Exod. 7:4).   כאשר דבר ה': . (ולא ישמע אליכם פרעה (ז ד
16And the Lord said to Moses, "Arise early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh, behold, he is going out to the water, and you shall say to him, 'So said the Lord, "Let My people go out and serve Me.   טזוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה הַשְׁכֵּ֤ם בַּבֹּ֨קֶר֙ וְהִתְיַצֵּב֙ לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה הִנֵּ֖ה יוֹצֵ֣א הַמָּ֑יְמָה וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה שַׁלַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי:
17For if you do not let My people go, behold, I will incite against you and against your servants and against your people and in your houses a mixture of noxious creatures, and the houses of Egypt will be filled with the mixture of noxious creatures, as well as the land upon which they are.   יזכִּ֣י אִם־אֵֽינְךָ֘ מְשַׁלֵּ֣חַ אֶת־עַמִּי֒ הִנְנִי֩ מַשְׁלִ֨יחַ בְּךָ֜ וּבַֽעֲבָדֶ֧יךָ וּבְעַמְּךָ֛ וּבְבָתֶּ֖יךָ אֶת־הֶֽעָרֹ֑ב וּמָ֨לְא֜וּ בָּתֵּ֤י מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ אֶת־הֶ֣עָרֹ֔ב וְגַ֥ם הָֽאֲדָמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־הֵ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ:
incite against you: Heb. מַשְׁלִיחַ בְּ, incite against you. Similarly, “and the tooth of beasts I will incite (אִשַׁלַּח) against them” (Deut. 32:24), an expression of inciting, antiziyer in Old French, to incite, to set upon. — [from Jonathan]   משליח בך: מגרה בך, וכן (דברים לב כד) ושן בהמות אשלח בם, לשון שסוי אינציטי"ר בלעז [לשסות]:
a mixture of noxious creatures: [which includes] all species of wild beasts, snakes, and scorpions in a mixture, and they were destroying among them [i.e., among the Egyptians]. There is a reason [given] for this matter in the Aggadah, [i.e.,] for each plague, why this one and why that one. Following a king’s war strategy did He come upon them [the Egyptians], according to the order of a kingdom when it besieges a city. First they [the King’s army] destroy its [the city’s] springs, and then they blow and sound rams’ horns to frighten them and confuse them; thus did the frogs croak and make noise, etc., as is stated in the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma (Bo 4).   את הערב: כל מיני חיות רעות ונחשים ועקרבים בערבוביא והיו משחיתים בהם. ויש טעם בדבר באגדה בכל מכה ומכה למה זו ולמה זו. בטכסיסי מלחמות מלכים בא עליהם, כסדר מלכות כשצרה על עיר, בתחלה מקלקל מעיינותיה, ואחר כך תוקעין עליהם ומריעין בשופרות ליראם ולבהלם, וכן הצפרדעים מקרקרים והומים וכו'. כדאיתא במדרש רבי תנחומא:
18And I will separate on that day the land of Goshen, upon which My people stand, that there will be no mixture of noxious creatures there, in order that you know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth.   יחוְהִפְלֵיתִי֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ גּ֗שֶׁן אֲשֶׁ֤ר עַמִּי֙ עֹמֵ֣ד עָלֶ֔יהָ לְבִלְתִּ֥י הֱיֽוֹת־שָׁ֖ם עָרֹ֑ב לְמַ֣עַן תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ:
And I will separate: Heb. וְהִפְלֵיתִי, and I will set apart. Similarly, “And the Lord will set apart (וְהִפְלָה) ” (Exod. 9:4), and similarly, “it is not separated (נִפְלֵאת) from you” (Deut. 30:11); it is [not] set apart and separated from you. — [from Onkelos]   והפליתי: והפרשתי, וכן (שמות ט ד) והפלה ה', וכן (דברים ל יא) לא נפלאת היא ממך. לא מובדלת ומופרשת היא ממך:
in order that you know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth: Although My Shechinah is in heaven, My decree is fulfilled in the lower worlds. — [from Onkelos]   למען תדע כי אני ה' בקרב הארץ: אף על פי ששכינתי בשמים גזרתי מתקיימת בתחתונים:

Sixth Portion

Exodus Chapter 8

19And I will make a redemption between My people and your people; this sign will come about tomorrow." ' "   יטוְשַׂמְתִּ֣י פְדֻ֔ת בֵּ֥ין עַמִּ֖י וּבֵ֣ין עַמֶּ֑ךָ לְמָחָ֥ר יִֽהְיֶ֖ה הָאֹ֥ת הַזֶּֽה:
And I will make a redemption: which will set apart My people from your people.   ושמתי פדת: שיבדיל בין עמי ובין עמך:
20The Lord did so, and a heavy mixture of noxious creatures came to Pharaoh's house and his servants' house, and throughout the entire land of Egypt, the land was destroyed because of the mixture of noxious creatures.   כוַיַּ֤עַשׂ יְהֹוָה֙ כֵּ֔ן וַיָּבֹא֙ עָרֹ֣ב כָּבֵ֔ד בֵּ֥יתָה פַרְעֹ֖ה וּבֵ֣ית עֲבָדָ֑יו וּבְכָל־אֶ֧רֶץ מִצְרַ֛יִם תִּשָּׁחֵ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ מִפְּנֵ֥י הֶעָרֹֽב:
The land was destroyed: the land was destroyed [as Onkelos translates] the land was destroyed   תשחת הארץ: נשחתה הארץ אתחבלת ארעא:
21Thereupon, Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron, and he said, "Go, sacrifice to your God in the land."   כאוַיִּקְרָ֣א פַרְעֹ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֖ה וּלְאַֽהֲרֹ֑ן וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לְכ֛וּ זִבְח֥וּ לֵאלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם בָּאָֽרֶץ:
Go, sacrifice… in the land: in your place, and do not go into the desert.   זבחו לאלהיכם בארץ: במקומכם, ולא תלכו במדבר:
22But Moses said, "It is improper to do that, for we will sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to God our Lord. Will we sacrifice the deity of the Egyptians before their eyes, and they will not stone us?   כבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה לֹ֤א נָכוֹן֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת כֵּ֔ן כִּ֚י תּֽוֹעֲבַ֣ת מִצְרַ֔יִם נִזְבַּ֖ח לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ הֵ֣ן נִזְבַּ֞ח אֶת־תּֽוֹעֲבַ֥ת מִצְרַ֛יִם לְעֵֽינֵיהֶ֖ם וְלֹ֥א יִסְקְלֻֽנוּ:
the abomination of the Egyptians: Heb. ךְתּוֹעִבַתמִצְרַיִם, the deity of the Egyptians, like “and for Milcom, the abomination of the children of Ammon” (II Kings 23:13), but for the Jews, [Scripture] calls it an abomination. It may also be explained in another manner:   תועבת מצרים: יראת מצרים, כמו (מלכים ב' כג יג) ולמלכום תועבת בני עמון, ואצל ישראל קורא אותה תועבה. ועוד יש לומר בלשון אחר תועבת מצרים, דבר שנאוי הוא למצרים זביחה שאנו זובחים, שהרי יראתם אנו זובחים:
the abomination of the Egyptians: Our slaughtering is a hateful thing to the Egyptians, for we are slaughtering their deity.   ולא יסקלנו: בתמיה:
and they will not stone us: This is a question.  
23Let us go [for] a three day journey in the desert and sacrifice to the Lord, our God, as He will say to us."   כגדֶּ֚רֶךְ שְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים נֵלֵ֖ךְ בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְזָבַ֨חְנוּ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר יֹאמַ֥ר אֵלֵֽינוּ:
24Pharaoh said, "I will let you go out, and you will sacrifice to the Lord, your God, in the desert, but do not go far away; entreat [Him] on my behalf."   כדוַיֹּ֣אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֗ה אָֽנֹכִ֞י אֲשַׁלַּ֤ח אֶתְכֶם֙ וּזְבַחְתֶּ֞ם לַֽיהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר רַ֛ק הַרְחֵ֥ק לֹֽא־תַרְחִ֖יקוּ לָלֶ֑כֶת הַעְתִּ֖ירוּ בַּֽעֲדִֽי:
25Moses said, "Behold, I am going away from you, and I will entreat the Lord, and the mixture of noxious creatures will depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only let Pharaoh not tease anymore, by not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord."   כהוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה הִנֵּ֨ה אָֽנֹכִ֜י יוֹצֵ֤א מֵֽעִמָּךְ֙ וְהַעְתַּרְתִּ֣י אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְסָ֣ר הֶֽעָרֹ֗ב מִפַּרְעֹ֛ה מֵֽעֲבָדָ֥יו וּמֵֽעַמּ֖וֹ מָחָ֑ר רַ֗ק אַל־יֹסֵ֤ף פַּרְעֹה֙ הָתֵ֔ל לְבִלְתִּי֙ שַׁלַּ֣ח אֶת־הָעָ֔ם לִזְבֹּ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
tease: Heb. הָתֵל, [like] לְהָתֵל, to tease. [The literal translation is: let Pharaoh stop teasing.]   התל: כמו להתל:
26So Moses went away from Pharaoh and entreated the Lord.   כווַיֵּצֵ֥א משֶׁ֖ה מֵעִ֣ם פַּרְעֹ֑ה וַיֶּעְתַּ֖ר אֶל־יְהֹוָֽה:
and entreated the Lord: Heb. וַיֶעְתַּר, he exerted himself in prayer. Similarly, if [Scripture] meant to say וַיַעְתִּיר, it could have said it, and that would mean that he increased [words] in prayer. Now, however, because it uses the וַיִפְעַל form, it means that he exerted himself to pray [devoutly].   ויעתר אל ה': נתאמץ בתפלה, וכן אם בא לומר, ויעתיר היה יכול לומר ומשמע וירבה בתפלה, וכשהוא אומר בלשון ויפעל משמע וירבה להתפלל:
27And the Lord did according to Moses' word, and He removed the mixture of noxious creatures from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; not one was left.   כזוַיַּ֤עַשׂ יְהֹוָה֙ כִּדְבַ֣ר משֶׁ֔ה וַיָּ֨סַר֙ הֶֽעָרֹ֔ב מִפַּרְעֹ֖ה מֵֽעֲבָדָ֣יו וּמֵֽעַמּ֑וֹ לֹ֥א נִשְׁאַ֖ר אֶחָֽד:
and He removed the mixture of noxious creatures: But they did not die as the frogs had died, for had they [the creatures] died, they [the Egyptians] would have derived benefit from the [animals’] hides. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 14]   ויסר הערב: ולא מתו כמו שמתו הצפרדעים, שאם מתו היה להם הנאה בעורות:
28But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also, and he did not let the people go.   כחוַיַּכְבֵּ֤ד פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־לִבּ֔וֹ גַּ֖ם בַּפַּ֣עַם הַזֹּ֑את וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָעָֽם:
this time also: Although he said, “I will let you go out,” he did not keep his promise.   גם בפעם הזאת: אף על פי שאמר (פסוק כד) אנכי אשלח אתכם, לא קיים הבטחתו:

Exodus Chapter 9

1The Lord said to Moses, "Come to Pharaoh and speak to him, 'So said the Lord, God of the Hebrews, "Let My people go, that they may serve Me.   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה בֹּ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים שַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי:
2For if you refuse to let them go, and you still hold on to them,   בכִּ֛י אִם־מָאֵ֥ן אַתָּ֖ה לְשַׁלֵּ֑חַ וְעֽוֹדְךָ֖ מַֽחֲזִ֥יק בָּֽם:
hold on to them: Heb. מַחִזִיק בָּם, hold on to them, similar to “and take hold (וְהֶחֱזִיקָה) of his private parts” (Deut. 25:11).   מחזיק בם: אוחז בם, כמו (דברים כה יא) והחזיקה במבושיו:
3behold, the hand of the Lord will be upon your livestock that is in the field, upon the horses, upon the donkeys, upon the camels, upon the cattle, and upon the sheep, a very severe pestilence.   גהִנֵּ֨ה יַד־יְהֹוָ֜ה הוֹיָ֗ה בְּמִקְנְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה בַּסּוּסִ֤ים בַּֽחֲמֹרִים֙ בַּגְּמַלִּ֔ים בַּבָּקָ֖ר וּבַצֹּ֑אן דֶּ֖בֶר כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד:
behold, the hand of the Lord will be: Heb. הוֹיָה. This is the present tense, for so it is said in the feminine gender: in the past הָיְתָה, in the future ךְתִּהְיֶה, and in the present הוֹיָה, like עוֹשָֹה (does), רוֹצָה (wants), רוֹעָה (pastures).   הנה יד ה' הויה: לשון הוה, כי כן יאמר בלשון נקבה על שעבר היתה ועל העתיד תהיה ועל העומד הויה, כמו עושה, רוצה, רועה:
4And the Lord will make a separation between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing of the children of Israel will die. " ' "   דוְהִפְלָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה בֵּ֚ין מִקְנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּבֵ֖ין מִקְנֵ֣ה מִצְרָ֑יִם וְלֹ֥א יָמ֛וּת מִכָּל־לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל דָּבָֽר:
will make a separation: Heb. וְהִפְלָה, will set apart.   והפלה: והבדיל:
5The Lord set an appointed time, saying, "Tomorrow, God will do this thing in the land."   הוַיָּ֥שֶׂם יְהֹוָ֖ה מוֹעֵ֣ד לֵאמֹ֑ר מָחָ֗ר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה בָּאָֽרֶץ:
6God did this thing on the morrow, and all the livestock of the Egyptians died, but of the livestock of the children of Israel not one died.   ווַיַּ֨עַשׂ יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶת־הַדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ מִמָּ֣חֳרָ֔ת וַיָּ֕מָת כֹּ֖ל מִקְנֵ֣ה מִצְרָ֑יִם וּמִמִּקְנֵ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹא־מֵ֥ת אֶחָֽד:
7And Pharaoh sent, and behold, not even one of the livestock of Israel died, but Pharaoh's heart became hardened, and he did not let the people out.   זוַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֗ה לֹא־מֵ֛ת מִמִּקְנֵ֥ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַד־אֶחָ֑ד וַיִּכְבַּד֙ לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָעָֽם:
8The Lord said to Moses and to Aaron, "Take yourselves handfuls of furnace soot, and Moses shall cast it heavenward before Pharaoh's eyes.   חוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָה֘ אֶל־משֶׁ֣ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן֒ קְח֤וּ לָכֶם֙ מְלֹ֣א חָפְנֵיכֶ֔ם פִּ֖יחַ כִּבְשָׁ֑ן וּזְרָק֥וֹ משֶׁ֛ה הַשָּׁמַ֖יְמָה לְעֵינֵ֥י פַרְעֹֽה:
handfuls-: Jaloynes in Old French, double handfuls.   מלא חפניכם: ילויני"ש בלעז [גלונים]:
furnace soot: Heb. פִּיחַ, a substance blown (נִפָּח) from dying embers that were burned in a furnace, and in Old French [it is called] olbes, cinders from a furnace. פִּיחַ is an expression of blowing (הֲפָחָה), that the wind blows them (מְפִיחָן) and makes them fly.   פיח כבשן: דבר הנפח מן הגחלים עמומים הנשרפים בכבשן, ובלעז אולבי"ש [אפר]. פיח לשון הפחה, שהרוח מפיחן ומפריחן:
and Moses shall cast it: And anything cast with strength can be cast only with one hand. Hence there are many miracles [here], one that Moses [single] handful held his own double handfuls and those of Aaron, and [another miracle was] that the dust went over the entire land of Egypt. — [from Tanchuma Va’era 14]   וזרקו משה: כל דבר הנזרק בכח אינו נזרק אלא ביד אחת. הרי נסים הרבה, אחד שהחזיק קומצו של משה מלא חפנים שלו ושל אהרן. ואחד שהלך האבק על כל ארץ מצרים:
9And it will become dust upon the entire land of Egypt, and it will become boils, breaking out into blisters upon man and upon beast throughout the entire land of Egypt."   טוְהָיָ֣ה לְאָבָ֔ק עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהָיָ֨ה עַל־הָֽאָדָ֜ם וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה לִשְׁחִ֥ין פֹּרֵ֛חַ אֲבַעְבֻּעֹ֖ת בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
boils, breaking out into blisters: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: שִׁיחִנָא סַגִי אִבַעְבּוּעִין, through which blisters break out.   לשחין פרח אבעבעת: כתרגומו לשחין סגי אבעבועין, שעל ידו צומחין בהן בועות:
boils: Heb. שְׁחִין, an expression of heat. There are many [examples of this word] in the language of the Mishnah: “a hot (שְחוּנַה) year” (Yoma 53b, Ta’anith 24b).   שחין: לשון חמימות. והרבה יש בלשון משנה (יומא נג ב) שנה שחונה:
10So they took furnace soot, and they stood before Pharaoh, and Moses cast it heavenward, and it became boils breaking out into blisters upon man and upon beast.   יוַיִּקְח֞וּ אֶת־פִּ֣יחַ הַכִּבְשָׁ֗ן וַיַּֽעַמְדוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיִּזְרֹ֥ק אֹת֛וֹ משֶׁ֖ה הַשָּׁמָ֑יְמָה וַיְהִ֗י שְׁחִין֙ אֲבַעְבֻּעֹ֔ת פֹּרֵ֕חַ בָּֽאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָֽה:
upon man and upon beast: Now if you ask, “From where did they have beasts? Does it not say already, ‘and all the livestock of the Egyptians died’ (above, verse 6) ?” [I will answer that] the decree was leveled only upon those in the field, as it is said: “upon your livestock that is in the field” (above, verse 3), but he who feared the word of the Lord brought all his livestock into the houses, and so it is taught in the Mechilta (Beshallach 1) regarding “He took six hundred chosen chariots” (Exod. 14:7). — [See Rashi on that verse.]   באדם ובבהמה: ואם תאמר מאין היו להם הבהמות והלא כבר נאמר (פסוק ו) וימת כל מקנה מצרים, אלא לא נגזרה גזרה אלא על אותן שבשדות בלבד, שנאמר (פסוק ג) במקנך אשר בשדה והירא את דבר ה' הניס את מקנהו אל הבתים. וכן שנויה במכילתא אצל (יד ז) ויקח שש מאות רכב בחור:
11And the necromancers could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils were upon the necromancers and upon all Egypt.   יאוְלֹא־יָֽכְל֣וּ הַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֗ים לַֽעֲמֹ֛ד לִפְנֵ֥י משֶׁ֖ה מִפְּנֵ֣י הַשְּׁחִ֑ין כִּֽי־הָיָ֣ה הַשְּׁחִ֔ין בַּֽחַרְטֻמִּ֖ם וּבְכָל־מִצְרָֽיִם:
12But the Lord strengthened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not hearken to them, as the Lord spoke to Moses.   יבוַיְחַזֵּ֤ק יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶֽׁה:
13The Lord said to Moses, "Rise early in the morning and stand erect before Pharaoh, and say to him, 'So said the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, "Let My people go so that they may worship Me.   יגוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה הַשְׁכֵּ֣ם בַּבֹּ֔קֶר וְהִתְיַצֵּ֖ב לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים שַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי:
14Because this time, I am sending all My plagues into your heart and into your servants and into your people, in order that you know that there is none like Me in the entire earth.   ידכִּ֣י | בַּפַּ֣עַם הַזֹּ֗את אֲנִ֨י שֹׁלֵ֜חַ אֶת־כָּל־מַגֵּֽפֹתַי֙ אֶל־לִבְּ֔ךָ וּבַֽעֲבָדֶ֖יךָ וּבְעַמֶּ֑ךָ בַּֽעֲב֣וּר תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין כָּמֹ֖נִי בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
all My plagues: We learn from here that the plague of the firstborn (מַכַּתבְּכוֹרוֹת) is equivalent to all the plagues.   את כל מגפתי: למדנו מכאן שמכת בכורות שקולה כנגד כל המכות:
15For if now I had stretched forth My hand, and I had smitten you and your people with pestilence, you would have been annihilated from the earth.   טוכִּ֤י עַתָּה֙ שָׁלַ֣חְתִּי אֶת־יָדִ֔י וָאַ֥ךְ אֽוֹתְךָ֛ וְאֶת־עַמְּךָ֖ בַּדָּ֑בֶר וַתִּכָּחֵ֖ד מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ:
For if now I had stretched forth My hand, etc.: For if I had so desired, when My hand was upon your livestock, when I smote them with pestilence, I could have stretched it forth and smitten you and your people along with the beasts, and you would have been annihilated from the earth; “but for this [reason] I have allowed you to stand, etc.”   כי עתה שלחתי את ידי וגו': כי אלו רציתי כשהיתה ידי במקנך שהכיתים בדבר שלחתיה והכיתי אותך ואת עמך עם הבהמות ותכחד מן הארץ, אבל בעבור זאת העמדתיך וגו':
16But, for this [reason] I have allowed you to stand, in order to show you My strength and in order to declare My name all over the earth.   טזוְאוּלָ֗ם בַּֽעֲב֥וּר זֹאת֙ הֶֽעֱמַדְתִּ֔יךָ בַּֽעֲב֖וּר הַרְאֹֽתְךָ֣ אֶת־כֹּחִ֑י וּלְמַ֛עַן סַפֵּ֥ר שְׁמִ֖י בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:

Seventh Portion

Exodus Chapter 9

17If you still tread upon My people, not letting them out,   יזעֽוֹדְךָ֖ מִסְתּוֹלֵ֣ל בְּעַמִּ֑י לְבִלְתִּ֖י שַׁלְּחָֽם:
If you still tread upon My people: Heb. מִסְתּוֹלֵל, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כְּבִישַׁתבֵּיהּ בְּעַמִי. This is an expression of a highway (מְסִלָה) (Num. 20:19), rendered by the Targum אֹרַח כְּבִישָׁא, a trodden road, and in Old French, calcher, to trample underfoot. I already explained at the end of [the section entitled] וַיְהִי מִקֵץ (Gen. 44:16) that in every word of which the first root letter is “sammech,” when used in the “hithpa’el” form, the “tav” of the prefix is placed in the middle of the root letters, such as here, and such as “and the grasshopper will drag itself along (וְיִסְךְתַּבֵל) ” (Eccl. 12:5) from the root סבל “that you rule (תִשְךְתָּרֵר) over us” (Num. 16:13), an expression of a prince (שַֹר) and a ruler; “I looked (מִסְךְתַּכַּל)” (Dan. 7:8). [Actually, the word is מִשְֹתַּכַּל, but the same rule applies for a “sin” as for a “sammech.”]   עודך מסתולל בעמי: כתרגומו כבישת ביה בעמי, והוא מגזרת (ישעיהו יא טז) מסלה, דמתרגמינן אורח כבישא, ובלעז קלקיי"ר [לכבוש]. וכבר פירשתי בסוף ויהי מקץ כל תיבה שתחלת יסודה סמ"ך והיא באה לדבר בלשון מתפעל, נותן התי"ו של שמוש באמצע אותיות של עיקר, כגון זו וכגון (קהלת יב ה) ויסתבל החגב, מגזרת סבל, (במדבר טז יג) כי תשתרר עלינו, מגזרת שר ונגיד, (דניאל ז ח) משתכל הוית:
18behold, I am going to rain down at this time tomorrow a very heavy hail, the likes of which has never been in Egypt from the day of its being founded until now.   יחהִנְנִ֤י מַמְטִיר֙ כָּעֵ֣ת מָחָ֔ר בָּרָ֖ד כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־הָיָ֤ה כָמֹ֨הוּ֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם לְמִן־הַיּ֥וֹם הִוָּֽסְדָ֖ה וְעַד־עָֽתָּה:
at this time tomorrow: [Heb. כָּעֵתמָחָר lit., at the time tomorrow, meaning] at this time tomorrow. He made a scratch on the wall [to demonstrate that] “Tomorrow, when the sun reaches here, the hail will come down.” -[from Tanchuma, Va’era 16]   כעת מחר: כעת הזאת למחר, שרט לו שריטה בכותל למחר כשתגיע חמה לכאן ירד הברד:
its being founded: Heb. הִוָּסְדָה, when it was founded (נִסְיַסְּדָה). Every word whose first root letter is “yud,” like יסד to found, ילד, to bear, ידע, to know, [and] יסר, to chastise, when it is used in the passive voice, a “vav” replaces the yud, like “its being founded הִוָסְדָה ” ; “she was born (הִוָלְדָה) ” (Hos. 2:5); “And… became known (וַיִוָדַע) ” (Esther 2: 22); “And to Joseph were born (וַיִוָלֵד) ” (Gen. 46:20); “A slave cannot be chastised ((יִוָּסֶר with words” (Prov. 29: 19).   הוסדה: שנתיסדה וכל תיבה שתחלת יסודה יו"ד כגון יסד, ילד, ידע, יסר, כשהיא מתפעלת תבא הוי"ו במקום היו"ד, כמו הוסדה (הושע ב ה) הולדה (אסתר ב כה) ויודע (בראשית מו כ) ויולד ליוסף, בדברים לא יוסר עבד (משלי כט יט):
19And now, send, gather in your livestock and all that you have in the field, any man or beast that is found in the field and not brought into the house the hail shall fall on them, and they will die." ' "   יטוְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁלַ֤ח הָעֵז֙ אֶת־מִקְנְךָ֔ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְךָ֖ בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה כָּל־הָֽאָדָ֨ם וְהַבְּהֵמָ֜ה אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵ֣א בַשָּׂדֶ֗ה וְלֹ֤א יֵֽאָסֵף֙ הַבַּ֔יְתָה וְיָרַ֧ד עֲלֵהֶ֛ם הַבָּרָ֖ד וָמֵֽתוּ:
send, gather in: Heb. הָעֵז, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: שְׁלַח כְּנוֹֹש send, gather in. Likewise, “the inhabitants gathered הֵעִיזוּ ” (Isa. 10:31); “Gather (הָעִזוּ) the sons of Benjamin” (Jer. 6:1).   שלח העז: כתרגומו שלח כנוש. וכן (ישעיהו י לא) יושבי הגבים העיזו, (ירמיהו ו א) העיזו בני בנימן:
and not brought into the house: Heb. יֵאָסֵף, an expression of bringing in.   ולא יאסף הביתה: לשון הכנסה הוא:
20He who feared the word of the Lord of Pharaoh's servants drove his servants and his livestock into the houses.   כהַיָּרֵא֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה מֵֽעַבְדֵ֖י פַּרְעֹ֑ה הֵנִ֛יס אֶת־עֲבָדָ֥יו וְאֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ אֶל־הַבָּתִּֽים:
drove: Heb. הֵנִיס, caused to flee, an expression derived from “and fled (וַיָנָס) ” (Exod. 4:3).   הניס: הבריח לשון (שמות ד ג) וינס משה:
21But he who did not pay attention to the word of the Lord left his servants and his livestock in the field.   כאוַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־שָׂ֛ם לִבּ֖וֹ אֶל־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲזֹ֛ב אֶת־עֲבָדָ֥יו וְאֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
22The Lord said to Moses, "Stretch forth your hand heavenward, and hail will be upon the entire land of Egypt, upon man and upon beast and upon all the vegetation of the field in the land of Egypt."   כבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֤ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֙ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וִיהִ֥י בָרָ֖ד בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־הָֽאָדָ֣ם וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה וְעַ֛ל כָּל־עֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
heavenward: Heb. עַל-הַֹשָמַיִם, lit., over the heavens. Toward the heavens. According to the Midrash Aggadah (Tanchuma, Va’era 15), however, [it means that] the Holy One, blessed be He, raised Moses above the heavens.   על השמים: לצד השמים, ומדרש אגדה הגביהו הקב"ה למשה למעלה מן השמים:
23So Moses stretched forth his staff heavenward, and the Lord gave forth thunder and hail, and fire came down to the earth, and the Lord rained down hail upon the land of Egypt.   כגוַיֵּ֨ט משֶׁ֣ה אֶת־מַטֵּ֘הוּ֘ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֒יִם֒ וַֽיהֹוָ֗ה נָתַ֤ן קֹלֹת֙ וּבָרָ֔ד וַתִּֽהֲלַךְ־אֵ֖שׁ אָ֑רְצָה וַיַּמְטֵ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּרָ֖ד עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
24And there was hail, and fire flaming within the hail, very heavy, the likes of which had never been throughout the entire land of Egypt since it had become a nation.   כדוַיְהִ֣י בָרָ֔ד וְאֵ֕שׁ מִתְלַקַּ֖חַת בְּת֣וֹךְ הַבָּרָ֑ד כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹֽא־הָיָ֤ה כָמֹ֨הוּ֙ בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵאָ֖ז הָֽיְתָ֥ה לְגֽוֹי:
flaming within the hail: [This was] a miracle within a miracle. The fire and hail intermingled. Although hail is water, to perform the will of their Maker they made peace between themselves [that the hail did not extinguish the fire nor did the fire melt the hail]. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 14]   מתלקחת בתוך הברד: נס בתוך נס, האש והברד מעורבין, והברד מים הוא, ולעשות רצון קונם עשו שלום ביניהם:
25The hail struck throughout the entire land of Egypt, all that was in the field, both man and beast, and the hail struck all the vegetation of the field, and it broke all the trees of the field.   כהוַיַּ֨ךְ הַבָּרָ֜ד בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם אֵ֚ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה מֵֽאָדָ֖ם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־עֵ֤שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה֙ הִכָּ֣ה הַבָּרָ֔ד וְאֶת־כָּל־עֵ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה שִׁבֵּֽר:
26Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no hail.   כורַ֚ק בְּאֶ֣רֶץ גּ֔שֶׁן אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לֹ֥א הָיָ֖ה בָּרָֽד:
27So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, "I have sinned this time. The Lord is the righteous One, and I and my people are the guilty ones.   כזוַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח פַּרְעֹ֗ה וַיִּקְרָא֙ לְמשֶׁ֣ה וּלְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֖ם חָטָ֣אתִי הַפָּ֑עַם יְהֹוָה֙ הַצַּדִּ֔יק וַֽאֲנִ֥י וְעַמִּ֖י הָֽרְשָׁעִֽים:
28Entreat the Lord, and let it be enough of God's thunder and hail, and I will let you go, and you shall not continue to stand."   כחהַעְתִּ֨ירוּ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְרַ֕ב מִֽהְיֹ֛ת קֹלֹ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים וּבָרָ֑ד וַֽאֲשַׁלְּחָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תֹֽסִפ֖וּן לַֽעֲמֹֽד:
and let it be enough: It is enough for Him what He has already brought down. — [after Jonathan ben Uzziel]   ורב: די לו במה שהוריד כבר:
29And Moses said to him, "When I leave the city, I will spread my hands to the Lord. The thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, in order that you know that the land is the Lord's.   כטוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ משֶׁ֔ה כְּצֵאתִי֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר אֶפְרֹ֥שׂ אֶת־כַּפַּ֖י אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה הַקֹּל֣וֹת יֶחְדָּל֗וּן וְהַבָּרָד֙ לֹ֣א יִֽהְיֶה־ע֔וֹד לְמַ֣עַן תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֥י לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הָאָֽרֶץ:
When I leave the city: Heb. כְּצֵאתִי אֶת-הָעִיר, [equivalent to] מִן-הָעִיר, [lit., when I go out] from the city, but within the city he did not pray, because it was full of idols. — [from Exod. Rabbah 12:5]   כצאתי את העיר: מן העיר, אבל בתוך העיר לא התפלל, לפי שהיתה מלאה גלולים:
30But you and your servants I know that you still do not fear the Lord God,   לוְאַתָּ֖ה וַֽעֲבָדֶ֑יךָ יָדַ֕עְתִּי כִּ֚י טֶ֣רֶם תִּֽירְא֔וּן מִפְּנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִֽים:
you still do not fear: Heb. טֶרֶם ךְתִּירְאוּן, you do not yet fear, and so every [instance of] טֶרֶם in the Scriptures means “not yet,” and it is not a term meaning “before.” [This is] like טֶרֶם יִֹשְכָּבוּ, [which Onkelos renders:] עַד לֹא שְׁכִיבוּ, “They had not yet retired” (Gen. 19:4); טֶרֶם יִצְמָח, [which Onkelos renders:] עַד לֹא צְמָח, “neither did…yet grow” (Gen. 2:5). This too means the same. [I.e.,] I know that you still do not fear [God], and as soon as relief comes, you will continue in your corruption. — [from Onkelos]   טרם תיראון: עדין לא תיראון. וכן כל טרם שבמקרא עדיין לא הוא, ואינו לשון קודם, כמו (בראשית יט ד) טרם ישכבו, עד לא שכיבו (שם ב ה) טרם יצמח, עד לא צמח, אף זה כן הוא ידעתי כי עדיין אינכם יראים ומשתהיה הרוחה תעמדו בקלקולכם:
31though the flax and the barley have been broken, for the barley is in the ear, and the flax is in the stalk.   לאוְהַפִּשְׁתָּ֥ה וְהַשְּׂעֹרָ֖ה נֻכָּ֑תָה כִּ֤י הַשְּׂעֹרָה֙ אָבִ֔יב וְהַפִּשְׁתָּ֖ה גִּבְעֹֽל:
though the flax and the barley have been broken: Heb. נֻכָּתָה, has been broken, an expression similar to “Pharaoh-Neco (פַּרְעֹה נְכֹה) ” [the lame Pharaoh] (II Kings 23: 29); “broken-hearted (נְכָאִים) ” (Isa. 16:7); and likewise, “have not been broken (נֵכּוּ)” (below, verse 32). It is incorrect to interpret it as an expression of smiting (הַכָּאָה), because a “nun” does not come in place of a “hey,” that נֻכָּתָה should be explained like הֻכָּתָה, smitten, and נֻכּוּ like הֻכּוּ, smitten. The “nun” is, however, a root letter in the word, and it is of the same form as “and his bones are dislocated (ֹשֻפּוּ) ” (Job 33:21).   והפשתה והשערה נכתה: נשברה לשון (מלכים ב כג כט) פרעה נכה, (ישעיהו טז ז) נכאים, וכן (פסוק לב) לא נכו. ולא יתכן לפרשו לשון הכאה, שאין נו"ן במקום ה"א לפרש נכתה כמו הוכתה, נכו כמו הכו, אלא הנו"ן שורש בתיבה והרי הוא מגזרת (איוב לג כא) ושפו עצמותיו:
for the barley is in the ear: It has already ripened and is standing in its stalks, and they have been broken and have fallen. Likewise, the flax has already grown and has become hardened [enough] to stand in its stalks.   כי השערה אביב: כבר ביכרה ועומדת בקשיה ונשתברו ונפלו. וכן הפשתה גדלה כבר והוקשה לעמוד בגבעוליה:
the barley is in the ear: Heb. אָבִיב, it has stood in its stalks, an expression like “the green plants of (בְּאִבֵּי) the valley ” (Song of Songs 6:11).   השעורה אביב: עמדה באביה, לשון (שיר השירים ו יא) באבי הנחל:
32The wheat and the spelt, however, have not been broken because they ripen late."   לבוְהַֽחִטָּ֥ה וְהַכֻּסֶּ֖מֶת לֹ֣א נֻכּ֑וּ כִּ֥י אֲפִילֹ֖ת הֵֽנָּה:
because they ripen late: Heb. אִפִילֹת, late, and they were still tender and were able to withstand the hard [hail]. Although it says: “and the hail struck all the vegetation of the field” (verse 25), the simple meaning of the verse may be explained as referring to the herbs that were standing in their stalks, which could be smitten by the hail. In the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma (Va’era 16), some of our Rabbis differed with this and interpreted כִּי אִפִילֹת to mean that “wonders of wonders (פִּלְאֵי פְלָאוֹת) ” were wrought for them, that they were not smitten.   כי אפילת הנה: מאוחרות, ועדיין היו רכות ויכולות לעמוד בפני קשה. ואף על פי שנאמר (פסוק כה) ואת כל עשב השדה הכה הברד יש לפרש פשוטו של מקרא בעשבים העומדים בקלחם הראויים ללקות בברד. ובמדרש רבי תנחומא יש מרבותינו שנחלקו על זאת ודרשו כי אפילות פלאי פלאות נעשו להם, שלא לקו:
33Moses went away from Pharaoh, out of the city, and he spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and rain did not come down to earth.   לגוַיֵּצֵ֨א משֶׁ֜ה מֵעִ֤ם פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וַיִּפְרֹ֥שׂ כַּפָּ֖יו אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּחְדְּל֤וּ הַקֹּלוֹת֙ וְהַבָּרָ֔ד וּמָטָ֖ר לֹֽא־נִתַּ֥ךְ אָֽרְצָה:
did not come down: Heb. לא נתך, did not reach. Even those [hailstones] that were in the air did not reach the ground. Similarly: ותתך עלינו, “the curse and the oath” of Ezra (sic) (Dan. 9:11), [which means they] have befallen us. Menachem (Machbereth Menachem, p. 184), however, classified it (נִךְתַּ) in the group headed by “As silver is melted (כְּהִךְתּוּ) ” (Ezek. 22:22), an expression of pouring [molten] metal, and I approve of his words, as the Targum renders וַיִצֹק (Exod. 38:5) as וְאַךְתִּי, “And he cast,” [and], לָדֶקֶת (Exod. 38:27) as לְאַךְתָּכָא, “to cast.” This too, לֹא נִךְתַּ אָרְצָה, means: was not poured to earth.   לא נתך: לא הגיע, ואף אותן שהיו באויר לא הגיעו לארץ, ודומה לו (דניאל ט יא) ותתך עלינו האלה והשבועה, דעזרא, ותגיע עלינו. ומנחם בן סרוק חברו בחלק (יחזקאל כב כב) כהתוך כסף, לשון יציקת מתכת, ורואה אני את דבריו, כתרגומו ויצק (שמות לח ה) ואתיך, (שם כז) לצקת לאתכא, אף זה לא נתך לארץ לא הוצק לארץ:
34And Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had ceased; so he continued to sin, and he strengthened his heart, he and his servants.   לדוַיַּ֣רְא פַּרְעֹ֗ה כִּֽי־חָדַ֨ל הַמָּטָ֧ר וְהַבָּרָ֛ד וְהַקֹּלֹ֖ת וַיֹּ֣סֶף לַֽחֲטֹ֑א וַיַּכְבֵּ֥ד לִבּ֖וֹ ה֥וּא וַֽעֲבָדָֽיו:
35And Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he did not let the children of Israel go out, as the Lord had spoken through the hand of Moses.   להוַיֶּֽחֱזַק֙ לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּיַד־משֶֽׁה:

Maftir Portion

Exodus Chapter 9

33Moses went away from Pharaoh, out of the city, and he spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and rain did not come down to earth.   לגוַיֵּצֵ֨א משֶׁ֜ה מֵעִ֤ם פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וַיִּפְרֹ֥שׂ כַּפָּ֖יו אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּחְדְּל֤וּ הַקֹּלוֹת֙ וְהַבָּרָ֔ד וּמָטָ֖ר לֹֽא־נִתַּ֥ךְ אָֽרְצָה:
did not come down: Heb. לא נתך, did not reach. Even those [hailstones] that were in the air did not reach the ground. Similarly: ותתך עלינו, “the curse and the oath” of Ezra (sic) (Dan. 9:11), [which means they] have befallen us. Menachem (Machbereth Menachem, p. 184), however, classified it (נִךְתַּ) in the group headed by “As silver is melted (כְּהִךְתּוּ) ” (Ezek. 22:22), an expression of pouring [molten] metal, and I approve of his words, as the Targum renders וַיִצֹק (Exod. 38:5) as וְאַךְתִּי, “And he cast,” [and], לָדֶקֶת (Exod. 38:27) as לְאַךְתָּכָא, “to cast.” This too, לֹא נִךְתַּ אָרְצָה, means: was not poured to earth.   לא נתך: לא הגיע, ואף אותן שהיו באויר לא הגיעו לארץ, ודומה לו (דניאל ט יא) ותתך עלינו האלה והשבועה, דעזרא, ותגיע עלינו. ומנחם בן סרוק חברו בחלק (יחזקאל כב כב) כהתוך כסף, לשון יציקת מתכת, ורואה אני את דבריו, כתרגומו ויצק (שמות לח ה) ואתיך, (שם כז) לצקת לאתכא, אף זה לא נתך לארץ לא הוצק לארץ:
34And Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had ceased; so he continued to sin, and he strengthened his heart, he and his servants.   לדוַיַּ֣רְא פַּרְעֹ֗ה כִּֽי־חָדַ֨ל הַמָּטָ֧ר וְהַבָּרָ֛ד וְהַקֹּלֹ֖ת וַיֹּ֣סֶף לַֽחֲטֹ֑א וַיַּכְבֵּ֥ד לִבּ֖וֹ ה֥וּא וַֽעֲבָדָֽיו:
35And Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he did not let the children of Israel go out, as the Lord had spoken through the hand of Moses.   להוַיֶּֽחֱזַק֙ לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּיַד־משֶֽׁה:

Haftarah

Ezekiel Chapter 28

25So says the Lord God: When I gather in the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they have been scattered, and I have been sanctified through them in the eyes of the nations, then shall they dwell on their land that I gave to My servant, to Jacob.   כהכֹּֽה־אָמַר֘ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִה֒ בְּקַבְּצִ֣י | אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מִן־הָֽעַמִּים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָפֹ֣צוּ בָ֔ם וְנִקְדַּ֥שְׁתִּי בָ֖ם לְעֵינֵ֣י הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְיָֽשְׁבוּ֙ עַל־אַדְמָתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לְעַבְדִּ֥י לְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
to My servant, to Jacob: As it was given to Jacob, an inheritance without boundaries (Gen. 28:14): “and you will spread out toward the west and the east, toward the north and the south.”  
26And they shall dwell upon it securely, and they shall build houses and plant vineyards and dwell securely when I execute judgments against all those who plunder them from all around them, and they shall know that I am the Lord their God."   כווְיָֽשְׁב֣וּ עָלֶיהָ֘ לָבֶטַח֒ וּבָנ֚וּ בָתִּים֙ וְנָֽטְע֣וּ כְרָמִ֔ים וְיָֽשְׁב֖וּ לָבֶ֑טַח בַּֽעֲשׂוֹתִ֣י שְׁפָטִ֗ים בְּכֹ֨ל הַשָּׁאטִ֚ים אֹתָם֙ מִסְּבִ֣יבֹתָ֔ם וְיָ֣דְע֔וּ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:

Ezekiel Chapter 29

1In the tenth year, in the tenth [month], on the twelfth of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   אבַּשָּׁנָה֙ הָֽעֲשִׂרִ֔ית בָּֽעֲשִׂרִ֕י בִּשְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
2"Son of man! Set your face against Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and prophesy against him and against all Egypt.   בבֶּן־אָדָ֕ם שִׂ֣ים פָּנֶ֔יךָ עַל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהִנָּבֵ֣א עָלָ֔יו וְעַל־מִצְרַ֖יִם כֻּלָּֽהּ:
3Speak and you shall say; So says the Lord God: Behold I am upon you, O Pharaoh, king of Egypt, the great crocodile that lies down in the midst of its rivers, who said, "My river is my own, and I made myself."   גדַּבֵּ֨ר וְאָמַרְתָּ֜ כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר | אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה הִֽנְנִ֚י עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֔יִם הַתַּנִּים֙ הַגָּד֔וֹל הָֽרֹבֵ֖ץ בְּת֣וֹךְ יְאֹרָ֑יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָמַ֛ר לִ֥י יְאֹרִ֖י וַֽאֲנִ֥י עֲשִׂיתִֽנִי:
the great crocodile: Since all the greatness of Egypt and all its plenty comes though the Nile River, the prophet compares its king to a crocodile and its people to the fish of the river.  
My river is my own: I do not need the heavenly powers, for my river provides all my necessities  
and I made myself: With my might and with my wisdom, I enhanced my greatness and my dominion.  
4And I will put hooks in your jaws and I will cause the fish of your rivers to fasten onto your scales, and I will drag you up out of the midst of your rivers and all the fish of your rivers shall stick to your scales.   דוְנָתַתִּ֚י חַחִים֙ (כתיב חַחִיים֙) בִּלְחָיֶ֔יךָ וְהִדְבַּקְתִּ֥י דְגַת־יְאֹרֶ֖יךָ בְּקַשְׂקְשֹׂתֶ֑יךָ וְהַֽעֲלִיתִ֙יךָ֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ יְאֹרֶ֔יךָ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־דְּגַ֣ת יְאֹרֶ֔יךָ בְּקַשְׂקְשֹׂתֶֽיךָ תִּדְבָּֽק:
hooks: [Heb. חַתִים,] type of iron rings, ens in Old French.  
the fish of your rivers to fasten onto your scales: [Heb. בְּקַשְּׂקְשּׂתֶי,] en tes e(s)chardes in Old French, to your scales. That is to say, I shall inspire all your mighty men to go forth with you to war so that they will all fall.  
5And I will scatter you in the desert, you and all the fish of your rivers; upon the open fields shall you fall-you shall not be brought home, nor gathered together; to the beasts of the earth and to the birds of the air have I given you to be devoured.   הוּנְטַשְׁתִּ֣יךָ הַמִּדְבָּ֗רָה אֽוֹתְךָ֙ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־דְּגַ֣ת יְאֹרֶ֔יךָ עַל־פְּנֵ֚י הַשָּׂדֶה֙ תִּפּ֔וֹל לֹ֥א תֵֽאָסֵ֖ף וְלֹ֣א תִקָּבֵ֑ץ לְחַיַּ֥ת הָאָ֛רֶץ וּלְע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם נְתַתִּ֥יךָ לְאָכְלָֽה:
And I will scatter you in the desert: [Heb. וּנְטַשְּׁתִּי,] e etandre toy in Old French, and I shall spread you out. This is the perishing of fish: once they are spread out on the surface of the dry land, they die.  
6And all the inhabitants of Egypt shall know that I am the Lord, because they have been a prop of reeds to the house of Israel.   ווְיָֽדְעוּ֙ כָּל־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֣י מִצְרַ֔יִם כִּ֖י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה יַ֧עַן הֱיוֹתָ֛ם מִשְׁעֶ֥נֶת קָנֶ֖ה לְבֵ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
a prop of reeds: Many times they relied on them: in the days of Sennacherib and in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, but it did not avail them, just like this reed, which is soft and does not support the one who leans on it.  
7When they took hold of you with the hand, you splintered and pierced the whole of their shoulders, and when they learned upon you, you broke, and you made all their loins stand upright.   זבְּתָפְשָׂ֨ם בְּךָ֚ בַכַּף֙ (כתיב בַכַּפ֙ך) תֵּר֔וֹץ וּבָֽקַעְתָּ֥ לָהֶ֖ם כָּל־כָּתֵ֑ף וּבְהִשָּֽׁעֲנָ֚ם עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּשָּׁבֵ֔ר וְהַֽעֲמַדְתָּ֥ לָהֶ֖ם כָּל־מָתְנָֽיִם:
When they took hold of you with the hand: [Heb. בְּכַפְּ, lit. with your hand,] to be read בַּכַּף, with the hand, like a man who walks and supports himself on his staff.  
you splintered: [Heb. תֵּרוֹף] [like] תֵּרָצֵף.  
and pierced the whole of their shoulders: [lit. the whole of a shoulder,] i.e., their shoulders, like a man who leans on a reed, which breaks, and the man falls on it, and the shreds enter his shoulders.  
and you made their loins stand upright: [Heb. וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ.] Since you will break, they will be required to strengthen their loins and stand on them. You are like a man upon whom his friend was leaning, but he is weak and he says to him, “Strengthen yourself on your loins, for you can no longer lean on me.” So did Jonathan render: “and you will no longer be a support for them.” Some transpose וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ to וְהַמְעַדְתָּ, and you make all loins totter, but I do not care for their words. Moreover, Menachem (p. 134) associated it with the standing of the feet, just as I do.  
8Therefore, so says the Lord God: Behold I will bring the sword over you, and I will cut off from you man and beast.   חלָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה הִנְנִ֛י מֵבִ֥יא עָלַ֖יִךְ חָ֑רֶב וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י מִמֵּ֖ךְ אָדָ֥ם וּבְהֵמָֽה:
9And the land of Egypt shall be desolate and in ruins, and they shall know that I am the Lord! Because he said, "The river is mine, and I have made it."   טוְהָֽיְתָ֚ה אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לִשְׁמָמָ֣ה וְחָרְבָּ֔ה וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה יַ֧עַן אָמַ֛ר יְאֹ֥ר לִ֖י וַֽאֲנִ֥י עָשִֽׂיתִי:
10Therefore, behold I am against you and against your rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt into ruins, ruins of desolation from Migdol till Syene and until the border of Ethiopia.   ילָכֵ֛ן הִֽנְנִ֥י אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְאֶל־יְאֹרֶ֑יךָ וְנָֽתַתִּ֞י אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם לְחָרְבוֹת֙ חֹ֣רֶב שְׁמָמָ֔ה מִמִּגְדֹּ֥ל סְוֵנֵ֖ה וְעַד־גְּב֥וּל כּֽוּשׁ:
11No foot of man shall pass through it, nor foot of beast shall pass through it, neither shall it be inhabited for forty years.   יאלֹ֚א תַֽעֲבָר־בָּהּ֙ רֶ֣גֶל אָדָ֔ם וְרֶ֥גֶל בְּהֵמָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲבָר־בָּ֑הּ וְלֹ֥א תֵשֵׁ֖ב אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה:
neither shall it be inhabited for forty years: Forty-two years of famine were decreed in Pharaoh’s dream, corresponding to the three times the dream is written. He saw seven bad cows and seven bad ears of grain (Gen. 41) and he told it to Joseph; hence we have [it mentioned] twice, and Joseph said to him, “The seven thin and bad cows and the seven empty ears,” totaling forty-two for the famine. But they had only two, as it is stated (ibid. 45:6): “For it is two years now that the famine has been on earth,” and when Jacob came down to Egypt, the famine ceased, for behold in the third year they sowed, as it is stated (ibid. 47:19): “and then you give us seed that we may live etc.,” and the forty years were paid to them now: “neither shall it be inhabited for forty years.” תֵּשֵּׁב means sera asijiee in Old French. will be settled, peopled.  
12And I will make the land of Egypt desolate even amongst the desolate lands, and its cities, a desolation even amongst cities in ruins, forty years.   יבוְנָתַתִּ֣י אֶת־אֶרֶץ֩ מִצְרַ֨יִם שְׁמָמָ֜ה בְּת֣וֹךְ | אֲרָצ֣וֹת נְשַׁמּ֗וֹת וְעָרֶ֙יהָ֙ בְּת֨וֹךְ עָרִ֚ים מָֽחֳרָבוֹת֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣יןָ שְׁמָמָ֔ה אַרְבָּעִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַֽהֲפִֽצֹתִ֚י אֶת־מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם וְזֵֽרִיתִ֖ים בָּֽאֲרָצֽוֹת:
13Yet thus has the Lord God said: At the end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians from the peoples where they have been scattered.   יגכִּ֛י כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה מִקֵּ֞ץ אַרְבָּעִ֚ים שָׁנָה֙ אֲקַבֵּ֣ץ אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם מִן־הָֽעַמִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁר־נָפֹ֥צוּ שָֽׁמָּה:
14And I will return the captives of Egypt and will lead them to the land of Pathros, to the land of their habitation, and they shall be there an unimportant kingdom.   ידוְשַׁבְתִּי֙ אֶת־שְׁב֣וּת מִצְרַ֔יִם וַֽהֲשִֽׁבֹתִ֚י אֹתָם֙ אֶ֣רֶץ פַּתְר֔וֹס עַל־אֶ֖רֶץ מְכֽוּרָתָ֑ם וְהָ֥יוּ שָׁ֖ם מַמְלָכָ֥ה שְׁפָלָֽה:
their habitation: [Heb. מְכוּרָתָם] [like] מְגוּרָתָם, their habitation. Another interpretation: like תוֹלדוֹתָם, their birth, and this is how Menachem (p. 110) associated it.  
15It shall be the lowest of the kingdoms and shall no longer exalt itself above the nations, for I will diminish their numbers so that they shall not domineer over the nations.   טומִן־הַמַּמְלָכוֹת֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה שְׁפָלָ֔ה וְלֹֽא־תִתְנַשֵּׂ֥א ע֖וֹד עַל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְהִ֨מְעַטְתִּ֔ים לְבִלְתִּ֖י רְד֥וֹת בַּגּוֹיִֽם:
So that they shall not domineer over the nations: [Heb. רְדוֹת,] an expression of ruling, like (Gen. 1: 28): “and rule (וּרְדוּ) over the fish of the sea.”  
16And it will no longer be confidence of the House of Israel, bringing iniquity into remembrance when they turn after them, and they shall know that I am the Lord God.   טזוְלֹ֣א יִֽהְיֶה־עוֹד֩ לְבֵ֨ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֚ל לְמִבְטָח֙ מַזְכִּ֣יר עָו‍ֹ֔ן בִּפְנוֹתָ֖ם אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם וְיָ֣דְע֔וּ כִּ֥י אֲנִ֖י אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
And it will no longer be: [i.e.,] Egypt [will no longer be] a source of confidence for the House of Israel, bringing iniquity into remembrance for them, since the Holy One, blessed be he, said to them (Exod. 14: 13): “You shall no longer continue to see them.”  
17And it came to pass in the twenty-seventh year in the first [month], on the first of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   יזוַיְהִ֗י בְּעֶשְׂרִ֚ים וָשֶׁ֙בַע֙ שָׁנָ֔ה בָּֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
And it came to pass in the twenty-seventh year: of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. That year Egypt was delivered into his hand. This is what we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 26). In this book, there are many prophecies written in a non chronological order.  
18"Son of man! Nebuchadrezzar, the king of Babylon, made his army serve a great work against Tyre; every head became bald and every shoulder sore, yet he had no reward nor did his army out of Tyre for the service he had served against it.   יחבֶּן־אָדָ֗ם נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֣ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּ֠בֶל הֶֽעֱבִ֨יד אֶת־חֵיל֜וֹ עֲבֹדָ֚ה גְדֹלָה֙ אֶל־צֹ֔ר כָּל־רֹ֣אשׁ מֻקְרָ֔ח וְכָל־כָּתֵ֖ף מְרוּטָ֑ה וְ֠שָׂכָר לֹא־הָ֨יָה ל֚וֹ וּלְחֵילוֹ֙ מִצֹּ֔ר עַל־הָֽעֲבֹדָ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־עָבַ֥ד עָלֶֽיהָ:
made his army serve [a great work against Tyre]: [Heb. צוּר אֵל, usually to here means] against Tyre, [in] a great work.  
every head: the men of his forces  
became bald and every shoulder, etc.: As is the custom with those who besiege a city many days and toil and weary themselves with carrying burdens of wood and stones. He captured Tyre in the twenty third [year] of his reign, as we find in Seder Olam (ad loc.). מֻקְרָח means calvo in Italian, bald.  
sore: [Heb. מְרוּטָה,] pelee in Old French, peeled.  
yet he had no reward: After they had plundered its booty, the sea rose and washed it away from them, because it was decreed on it and on its booty to be lost in the sea.  
19Therefore, thus says the Lord God: Behold I will give Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, the land of Egypt, and he shall carry away its multitude, pillage its spoils, and plunder its booty, and that shall be the reward for his army.   יטלָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה הִנְנִ֥י נֹתֵ֛ן לִנְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְנָשָׂ֨א הֲמֹנָ֜הּ וְשָׁלַ֚ל שְׁלָלָהּ֙ וּבָזַ֣ז בִּזָּ֔הּ וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה שָׂכָ֖ר לְחֵילֽוֹ:
20For his labor wherewith he worked against it I have given him the land of Egypt, because of what they did to Me, says the Lord God.   כפְּעֻלָּתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁר־עָ֣בַד בָּ֔הּ נָתַ֥תִּי ל֖וֹ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁר֙ עָ֣שׂוּ לִ֔י נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
For his labor that he undertook against it: [As] reward for the labor that he undertook against Tyre by My command, I shall give him the land of Egypt.  
because of what they did to Me: [Because of] the evil that Egypt [did to Me] with their prop, that they assured My people with their futile aid.  
21On that day will I cause the horn of the House of Israel to blossom out, and I will give you free speech in their midst, and they shall know that I am the Lord."   כאבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא אַצְמִ֚יחַ קֶ֙רֶן֙ לְבֵ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּלְךָ֛ אֶתֵּ֥ן פִּתְחֽוֹן־פֶּ֖ה בְּתוֹכָ֑ם וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּי־אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
On that day will I cause the horn of the House of Israel to blossom out: I have neither heard nor found the explanation of this verse. What is the blossoming of the horn of Israel in the downfall of Egypt? Was not Israel exiled eight years before the downfall of Egypt? [Therefore,] I say that “On that day” refers back to the above section, (verse 13): “At the end of forty years, I will gather the Egyptians.” That count ends in the year that Belshazzar assumed the throne, and we find in Daniel that in that year the kings of Persia began to gain strength, and downfall was decreed upon Babylon, as it is said (Dan. 7:1): “In the first year of Belshazzar,… Daniel saw a dream, etc.” ; (verse 4) “The first one was like a lion” - that is Babylon. And it is written (ad loc.): “I saw until its wings were plucked off, etc. (verse 5) And behold another, second beast, resembling a bear” that is Persia. And it is written (ad loc.) “And thus it was said to it, ‘Devour much flesh.’” i.e., seize the kingdom. And the kingdom of Persia was the blossoming of the horn of Israel, as it is said regarding Cyrus (Isa. 45:13): “He shall build My city and free My exiles.” Now, how do we know that the forty years of Egypt ended at that time? [The proof is that] Egypt was given into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar in the twenty-seventh [year] of Nebuchadnezzar, in the year that this prophecy was said to Ezekiel. Add forty years, and you have sixty-seven. Deduct from them forty-five for Nebuchadnezzar and twenty-three for Evil-Merodach, as we say in Megillah (11b), one of these years counting for both [kings], as we say there: “they were incomplete years.”  
and I will give you free speech in their midst: You, Ezekiel, will have free speech when they see your prophecy being fulfilled.  
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