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Tuesday, 13 Iyar 5773 / April 23, 2013

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Emor, 3rd Portion (Leviticus 22:17-22:33)

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Chapter 22

17. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יז. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
18. Speak to Aaron and to his sons and to all the children of Israel and say to them: Any man whatsoever from the house of Israel or from the strangers among Israel who offers up his sacrifice for any of their vows or for any of their donations that they may offer up to the Lord as a burnt offering   יח. דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל בָּנָיו וְאֶל כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן הַגֵּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ לְכָל נִדְרֵיהֶם וּלְכָל נִדְבוֹתָם אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהֹוָה לְעֹלָה:
their vows: [when a person declares:] “It is incumbent upon me” [i.e., a personal commitment to bring a burnt offering," and therefore, if the animal he set aside is lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, whereas];   נדריהם: הרי עלי:
their donations: [when a person declares:] “Behold, [I hereby consecrate] this [animal for a burnt offering,” since the declaration falls on the animal rather than on the person, if the consecrated animal is lost or blemished, the person is not responsible]. — [Meg. 8a]   נדבותם: הרי זו:
19. to be favorable for you, [it shall be] an unblemished, male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats.   יט. לִרְצֹנְכֶם תָּמִים זָכָר בַּבָּקָר בַּכְּשָׂבִים וּבָעִזִּים:
to be favorable for you: [God is saying here:] “Bring Me something that is worthy to appease (לִרְצוֹת) for you before Me, that will make you favorable (רָצוֹן) before Me.” [This word לִרְצֹנְכֶם has the meaning of] apaisement in French [like “appeasement” in English]. And what [animal] is worthy of attaining God’s appeasement?   לרצנכם: הביאו דבר הראוי לרצות אתכם לפני, שיהא לכם לרצון אפיימני"ט בלע"ז [פיוס]. ואיזהו הראוי לרצון:
an unblemished, male, from cattle, from sheep, or from goats: But with burnt-offerings of birds, no unblemished or male [birds] are required, and it is not rendered invalid if it has a defect unless a limb is missing. — [Torath Kohanim 22:106]   תמים זכר בבקר בכשבים ובעזים: אבל בעולת העוף אין צריך תמות וזכרות, ואינו נפסל במום אלא בחסרון אבר:
20. Any [animal] that has a blemish, you shall not offer up, for it will not be favorable for you.   כ. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ מוּם לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ כִּי לֹא לְרָצוֹן יִהְיֶה לָכֶם:
21. And if a man offers up a peace offering to the Lord for declaring a vow or as a donation from cattle or from the flock to be accepted, it shall be unblemished. It shall not have any defect in it.   כא. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַקְרִיב זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהֹוָה לְפַלֵּא נֶדֶר אוֹ לִנְדָבָה בַּבָּקָר אוֹ בַצֹּאן תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן כָּל מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ:
for declaring a vow: For verbally designating [a particular animal. If he designated it merely in his mind, this does not obligate him as a vow]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   לפלא נדר: להפריש בדיבורו:
22. [An animal that has] blindness, or [a] broken [bone], or [a] split [eyelid or lip], or [one that has] warts, or dry lesions or weeping sores you shall not offer up [any of] these to the Lord, nor shall you place [any] of these as a fire offering upon the altar to the Lord.   כב. עַוֶּרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ חָרוּץ אוֹ יַבֶּלֶת אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֵלֶּה לַיהֹוָה וְאִשֶּׁה לֹא תִתְּנוּ מֵהֶם עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לַיהֹוָה:
[An animal that has] blindness: עַוֶּרֶת. [This is] a noun, the feminine equivalent of עִוָּרוֹן, that the animal shall not have the defect of blindness.   עורת: שם דבר של מום עורון בלשון נקבה, שלא יהא בו מום של עורת:
or [a] broken [bone]: [lit., “or broken,” i.e., the animal] shall not be [broken].   או שבור: לא יהיה:
or [a] split [eyelid or lip]: חָרוּץ [lit. cut], an eyelid that was split or notched, and similarly, its lip which was split or notched. — [Torath Kohanim 22:113]   חרוץ: ריס של עין שנסדק או שנפגם, וכן שפתו שנסדקה או נפגמה:
or [one that has] warts: Verrue [wart] in French.   יבלת: ורוא"ה בלע"ז [יבלת]:
or dry lesions: Heb. גָרָב, a type of lichen, as יַלֶּפֶת (see Rashi on 21:20). The יַלֶּפֶת is similar to “And Samson grasped (וַיִּלְפֹּת)” (Jud. 16:29) for it bonds (מְלַפֶּפֶת) itself to him until the day of [his] death, for it has no cure. — [Bech. 41a]   גרב: מין חזזית וכן ילפת. ולשון ילפת, כמו (שופטים טז כט) וילפת שמשון, שאחוזה בו עד יום מיתה, שאין לה רפואה:
you shall not offer up [(any of) these]: [This prohibition is stated] three times [here and in verses 20 and 25], as an admonition against (a) consecrating them, (b) slaughtering them and (c) dashing their blood. — [Temurah 6b]   לא תקריבו: שלש פעמים, להזהיר על הקדשן ועל שחיטתן ועל זריקת דמן:
nor shall you place [(any) of these] as a fire-offering: [This is] an admonition against the burning them [on the altar]. — [Temurah 6b; Torath Kohanim 22:116]   ואשה לא תתנו: אזהרת הקטרתן:
23. As for an ox or sheep that has mismatching limbs or uncloven hooves you may make it into a donation, but as a vow, it will not be accepted.   כג. וְשׁוֹר וָשֶׂה שָׂרוּעַ וְקָלוּט נְדָבָה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ וּלְנֵדֶר לֹא יֵרָצֶה:
mismatching limbs: i.e., one limb bigger than its [normal] counterpart. — [see Rashi on verse 21:18 above and Sifthei Chachamim there; Bech. 40a]   שרוע: אבר גדול מחבירו:
uncloven hooves: its hooves are uncloven [i.e., resembling those of a horse or donkey]. — [Bech. 40a]   וקלוט: פרסותיו קלוטות:
you may make it into a donation: [i.e., it may be sold and its money donated] to the maintenance of the Holy Temple.   נדבה תעשה אתו: לבדק הבית:
but as a vow: for the altar. — [Torath Kohanim 22:118]   ולנדר: למזבח:
it will not be accepted: What consecration comes to grant acceptance (לִרְצוֹת) ? I must say the consecration for the altar. - [Torath Kohanim 22:118][See Sifthei Chachamim, Mizrachi, and Nachalath Yaakov]   לא ירצה: איזהו הקדש בא לרצות, הוי אומר זה הקדש המזבח:
24. [Any animal whose testicles were] squashed, crushed, pulled out, or severed, you shall not offer up to the Lord, and in your land, you shall not do [it].   כד. וּמָעוּךְ וְכָתוּת וְנָתוּק וְכָרוּת לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ לַיהֹוָה וּבְאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ:
[Any animal] whose testicles were squashed, crushed, pulled out, or severed: [These terms refer to damage] to the testicles or the membrum. — [Bech. 39b]   ומעוך וכתות ונתוק וכרות: בביצים או בגיד:
squashed: Heb. וּמָעוּךְ, its testicles were squashed by hand.   מעוך: ביציו מעוכין ביד:
crushed: וְכָתוּת, more severely crushed than מָעוּךְ.   כתות: כתושים יותר ממעוך:
pulled out: Heb. נָתוּק, torn off by hand, until the threads upon which they are suspended snapped, but they are still contained within the scrotum, and the scrotum was not torn off.   נתוק: תלושין ביד עד שנפסקו חוטים שתלויים בהן, אבל נתונים הם בתוך הכיס, והכיס לא נתלש:
or severed: Heb., וְכָרוּת, severed with an instrument, but still contained within the scrotum.   וכרות: כרותין בכלי ועודן בכיס:
squashed: Heb. וּמָעוּךְ [Onkelos] renders this as וְדִימְרִיס, which is its equivalent in Aramaic, an expression of crushing.   ומעוך: תרגומו ודימריס, זה לשונו בארמית, לשון כתישה:
crushed: וְכָתוּת, [Onkelos] renders this as וְדִירְסִיס, like, “[and he will smite] the great house into splinters (רְסִיסִים)” (Amos 6:11), little pieces; likewise, קָנֶה הַמְרֻסָּס, meaning “a reed that is broken into pieces” (Shab. 80b).   וכתות: תרגומו ודירסיס, כמו (עמוס ו יא) הבית הגדול רסיסים, בקיעות דקות, וכן (שבת פ ב) קנה המרוסס:
and in your land, you shall not do: this thing, to castrate any livestock or wild animal, even of an unclean species. This is why [our verse] says here “in your land” -to include any species found in your land. — [Torath Kohanim 22:121] for it is impossible to say that castration is prohibited only in Eretz Israel [“your land,”] because [the prohibition of] castration is an obligation [associated with] the body [of a person], and every commandment associated with the body [of a person] applies both in the Land [of Israel] and outside the Land [of Israel]. - [Kid. 36b]   ובארצכם לא תעשו: דבר זה, לסרס שום בהמה וחיה ואפילו טמאה, לכך נאמר בארצכם, לרבות כל אשר בארצכם, שאי אפשר לומר לא נצטוו על הסרוס אלא בארץ, שהרי סרוס חובת הגוף הוא, וכל חובת הגוף נוהגת בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ:
25. And from the hand of a gentile you shall not offer up as food for your God any of these [blemished animals], for their injury is upon them, there is a defect on them; they will not be accepted for you.   כה. וּמִיַּד בֶּן נֵכָר לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֶת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִכָּל אֵלֶּה כִּי מָשְׁחָתָם בָּהֶם מוּם בָּם לֹא יֵרָצוּ לָכֶם:
from the hand of a gentile: [lit., “and from the hand of a foreigner,” i.e.,] if a non-Jew brought a sacrifice and handed it over to the kohen to offer it up to Heaven, you shall not offer up on his behalf any blemished animal. And even though blemished animals are not deemed invalid as sacrifices from the children of Noah [i.e., by all non-Jews] unless they have a limb missing-that [rule] applies [only] to private altars in the fields. However, on the altar in the Mishkan, you shall not offer them up (Temurah 7b). You shall, however, accept an unblemished animal from them. That is why Scripture states earlier in this passage (verse 18 above), אִישׁ אִישׁ, “Any man whatsoever,” [where this double expression comes] to include non-Jews, who make vows and donations like Israelites. — [Temurah 2b]   ומיד בן נכר: נכרי שהביא קרבן ביד כהן להקריבו לשמים לא תקריבו לו בעל מום. ואף על פי שלא נאסרו בעלי מומין לקרבן בני נח אלא אם כן מחוסרי אבר, זאת נוהגת בבמה שבשדות, אבל על המזבח שבמשכן לא תקריבוה, אבל תמימה תקבלו מהם, לכך נאמר למעלה איש איש (לעיל פסוק יח), לרבות את הנכרים שנודרים נדרים ונדבות כישראל:
their injury: Heb. מָשְׁחָתָם, [as Onkelos renders it:] חִבּוּלְהוֹן, “their injury.”   משחתם: חבולהון:
they will not be accepted for you: to atone for you.   לא ירצו לכם: לכפר עליכם:
26. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כו. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
27. When an ox or a sheep or a goat is born, it shall remain under its mother for seven days, and from the eighth day onwards, it shall be accepted as a sacrifice for a fire offering to the Lord.   כז. שׁוֹר אוֹ כֶשֶׂב אוֹ עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד וְהָיָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּחַת אִמּוֹ וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה יֵרָצֶה לְקָרְבַּן אִשֶּׁה לַיהֹוָה:
When [an ox or a sheep or a goat] is born: [The expression “is born” comes] to exclude [from sacrifice an animal] delivered by Caesarean section. - [Chul. 38b]   כי יולד: פרט ליוצא דופן:
28. An ox or sheep you shall not slaughter it and its offspring in one day._   כח. וְשׁוֹר אוֹ שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד:
it and its offspring: [This prohibition] applies to the female [i.e., the mother] animal, namely, that it is prohibited to slaughter a mother animal and its male or female offspring [on the same day]. The prohibition does not apply, however, to males [i.e., to the father animals], and it is permissible to slaughter the father animal along with its male or female offspring [on the same day]. — [Chul. 78b]   אתו ואת בנו: נוהג בנקבה, שאסור לשחוט האם והבן או הבת, ואינו נוהג בזכרים, ומותר לשחוט האב והבן [או האב והבת]:
[you shall not slaughter] it and its offspring: Also included [in this prohibition is slaughtering] its offspring and [then] it. — [Chul. 82a]   אתו ואת בנו: אף בנו ואותו במשמע:
29. And when you slaughter a thanksgiving offering to the Lord, you shall slaughter it so that it should be acceptable for you.   כט. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח תּוֹדָה לַיהֹוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחוּ:
you shall slaughter it so that it should be acceptable for you: From the very beginning of your slaughtering, take care that it should be “acceptable for you.” And what makes it acceptable?"   לרצנכם תזבחו: תחלת זביחתכם הזהרו שתהא לרצון לכם. ומהו הרצון:
It shall be eaten on that day: [Now, although it has already been stated that thanksgiving-offerings must be eaten on the day of sacrificing (Lev. 7:15), the Torah repeats this here] exclusively to warn us that the slaughtering must be performed on this condition. Do not slaughter it with the intention of eating it on the next day, for if you have this invalidating intention in mind, the sacrifice will not be “acceptable for you” (Torath Kohanim 22:135) [Indeed, it will be rejected (פִּגּוּל; see Rashi Lev. 7:18)]. Another explanation of לִרְצֹנְכֶם is: “knowingly.” From here, [we learn that] if someone slaughtered an animal in an incidental manner [i.e., according to Rashi , without intending to slaughter, just to pick up the knife or to throw it. According to Tosafoth, if he did not intend to slaughter, but only to sever the organs, or if he thought that it was an ordinary animal, and did not realize that it was to be slaughtered as a holy sacrifice], then [even though the animal is fit to be eaten as ordinary non-consecrated meat, nevertheless,] regarding being slaughtered as a holy sacrifice, it is deemed unfit. — [Chul. 13a] Now, although Scripture has already stated [that a sacrifice is “not acceptable” if, while slaughtering, one intended to eat it after its permissible time] in the case of sacrifices that may be eaten for two days (see Lev. 7:18), it specifies it again regarding those sacrifices that must be eaten on the same day (see Rashi Lev. 7:15), namely, that they [too] must be slaughtered with the intention of eating them within their permissible time.   ביום ההוא יאכל: לא בא להזהיר אלא שתהא שחיטה על מנת כן, אל תשחטוהו על מנת לאכלו למחר, שאם תחשבו בו מחשבת פסול לא יהא לכם לרצון. דבר אחר לרצונכם, לדעתכם, מכאן למתעסק שפסול בשחיטת קדשים. ואף על פי שפרט בנאכלים לשני ימים, חזר ופרט בנאכלין ליום אחד שתהא זביחתן על מנת לאכלן בזמנן:
30. It shall be eaten on that day; do not leave it over until morning. I am the Lord.   ל. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
It shall be eaten on that day: [As explained above (see preceding Rashi)], Scripture states this here only to warn us that the slaughtering must be performed with this intention. For if it meant to fix the time limit for eating it, this has already been stated, “And the flesh of his thanksgiving peace-offering [shall be eaten on the day that it is offered…]” (Lev. 7:15). - [Torath Kohanim 7:113]   ביום ההוא יאכל: לא בא להזהיר אלא שתהא שחיטה על מנת כן, שאם לקבוע לו זמן אכילה, כבר כתוב (ויקרא ז טו) ובשר זבח תודת שלמיו וגו':
I am the Lord: Know Who decreed this matter, and do not perceive it as unimportant.   אני ה': דע מי גזר על הדבר ואל יקל בעיניך:
31. You shall keep My commandments and perform them. I am the Lord.   לא. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם מִצְו‍ֹתַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
You shall keep [My commandments]: This refers to learning [God’s commandments and “keeping” them organized and memorized in one’s heart]   ושמרתם: זו המשנה:
and perform them: meaning [putting them into] action. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 22:136]   ועשיתם: זה המעשה:
32. You shall not desecrate My Holy Name. I shall be sanctified amidst the children of Israel. I am the Lord Who sanctifies you,   לב. וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהֹוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם:
You shall not desecrate [My Holy Name]: By transgressing My commandments intentionally. Now, is it not already implied by the verse “ You shall not desecrate [My Holy Name,” that if you do not transgress, God’s Name will be sanctified? So] what do we learn by Scripture adding “I shall be sanctified [amidst the children of Israel]?” [It teaches us:] Surrender your life [and do not transgress God’s commandments], and [thus] sanctify My Name. Now, one might think [that this commandment applies even] in private [i.e., if he is not in the presence of ten or more Jews]. Scripture, therefore, says here “[I shall be sanctified] amidst the children of Israel” [i.e., one is obliged to sacrifice one’s life to avoid transgressing God’s commandments only in the presence of ten or more Jews]. And when one sacrifices oneself, one shall do so with the willingness to die, anyone who [submits to] sacrifices himself while assuming [that God will surely perform] a miracle [for him and save his life], for this person, God does not perform a miracle, for so we find in [the case of] Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, that [when the evil Nebuchadnezzar threatened to throw them into a fiery furnace], they did not submit themselves on the condition [that God would perform] a miracle, as Scripture says, “[Behold, there is our God Whom we worship; He can save us from the burning, fiery furnace and from your hands, O king!] But if not, let it be known to you, O king [that we will not worship your god, neither will we prostrate ourselves to the golden image that you have set up]!” (Dan. 3:1718). [We see here that whatever the outcome,] whether [God would] rescue [them] or not- [they declared, regardless] “Let it be known to you, O king [that we will not prostrate ourselves…]!” - [Torath Kohanim 22:137]   ולא תחללו: לעבור על דברי מזידין. ממשמע שנאמר ולא תחללו, מה תלמוד לומר ונקדשתי, מסור עצמך וקדש שמי. יכול ביחיד, תלמוד לומר בתוך בני ישראל, וכשהוא מוסר עצמו, ימסור עצמו על מנת למות, שכל המוסר עצמו על מנת הנס, אין עושין לו נס, שכן מצינו בחנניה מישאל ועזריה שלא מסרו עצמן על מנת הנס, שנאמר (דניאל ג יח) והן לא, ידיע להוא לך מלכא די לאלהך לא איתנא פלחין וגו', מציל ולא מציל, ידיע להוא לך וגו':
33. Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to be a God to you. I am the Lord.   לג. הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
Who took you out [of the land of Egypt]: on this very condition [i.e., to be willing to sacrifice your lives in sanctification of My Holy Name. — [Torath Kohanim 22:138] [And do not think that since it is an obligation, you will not receive reward for sacrificing yourselves, for]   המוציא אתכם: על מנת כן:
I am the Lord: faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah. — [Torath Kohanim 22:138]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
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