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Torah Reading for Shoftim

Torah Reading for Shoftim

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Parshat Shoftim
Shabbat, 4 Elul, 5777
26 August, 2017
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Haftarah: (Isaiah 51:12 - 52:12)
Please note: These Haftarah texts follow Chabad custom. Other communities could possibly read more, less, or a different section of the Prophets altogether. Please consult with your rabbi.
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Isaiah Chapter 51

12I, yea I am He Who consoles you; who are you that you fear man who will die and the son of man, who shall be made [as] grass?   יבאָֽנֹכִ֧י אָֽנֹכִ֛י ה֖וּא מְנַֽחֶמְכֶ֑ם מִי־אַ֚תְּ וַתִּֽירְאִי֙ מֵֽאֱנ֣וֹשׁ יָמ֔וּת וּמִבֶּן־אָדָ֖ם חָצִ֥יר יִנָּתֵֽן:
who are you: the daughter of the righteous like you and full of merits, why should you fear man, whose end is to die?  
13And you forgot the Lord your Maker, Who spread out the heavens and founded the earth, and you fear constantly the whole day because of the wrath of the oppressor when he prepared to destroy. Now where is the wrath of the oppressor?   יגוַתִּשְׁכַּ֞ח יְהֹוָ֣ה עֹשֶׂ֗ךָ נוֹטֶ֣ה שָׁמַיִם֘ וְיֹסֵ֣ד אָרֶץ֒ וַתְּפַחֵ֨ד תָּמִ֜יד כָּל־הַיּ֗וֹם מִפְּנֵי֙ חֲמַ֣ת הַמֵּצִ֔יק כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר כּוֹנֵ֖ן לְהַשְׁחִ֑ית וְאַיֵּ֖ה חֲמַ֥ת הַמֵּצִֽיק:
And you forgot the Lord your Maker: and you did not rely on Him.  
the oppressor: The rulers of the heathens (the nations of the world [Parshandatha, K’li Paz]) who subjugate you.  
when he prepared: Prepared himself.  
Now where is the wrath of the oppressor: Tomorrow comes and he is not here.  
14What must be poured out hastened to be opened, and he shall not die of destruction, and his bread shall not be wanting.   ידמִהַ֥ר צֹעֶ֖ה לְהִפָּתֵ֑חַ וְלֹֽא־יָמ֣וּת לַשַּׁ֔חַת וְלֹ֥א יֶחְסַ֖ר לַחְמֽוֹ:
What must be poured out hastened to be opened: Heb. מִהַר צֹעֶה לְהִפָּתֵחַ. Even if his stools are hard, and he must be opened by walking in order to move the bowels in order that he not die by destruction, and once he hastens to open up, he requires much food, for, if his bread is lacking, even he will die. צֹעֶה An expression of a thing prepared to be poured, as he says concerning Moab, whom the prophet compared to wine (Jer. 48:11): “Who rests on his dregs and was not poured from vessel to vessel.” And he says there (v. 12), “And I will send pourers (צֹעִים) upon him and they shall pour him out (וְצֵעֻהוּ), and they shall empty his vessels.” [This is an illustration of the weakness of man. Consequently, there is no need to fear him.] Another explanation is: מִהַר צֹעֶה That enemy who oppresses you, who is now with girded loins, girded with strength, shall hasten to be opened up and to become weak. צֹעֶה Girded. Comp. (infra 63: 1) “Girded (צֹעֶה) with the greatness of His strength.”  
and he shall not die: i.e., the one delivered into his hand [shall not die] of destruction. But the first interpretation is a Midrash Aggadah in Pesikta Rabbathi (34:5).  
15I am the Lord your God, Who wrinkles the sea and its waves stir; the Lord of Hosts is His name.   טווְאָֽנֹכִי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ רֹגַ֣ע הַיָּ֔ם וַיֶּֽהֱמ֖וּ גַּלָּ֑יו יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ:
Who wrinkles the sea: Heb. רֹגַע, an expression similar to (Job 7:5) “My skin was wrinkled (רָגַע).” Froncir in O.F. [froncer in Modern French, to wrinkle, gather, pucker].  
to plant the heavens: to preserve the people about whom it was said that they shall be as many as the stars of the heavens [from Jonathan].  
and to found the earth: And to found the congregation about whom it is said that they shall be as many as the dust of the earth [from Jonathan].  
16And I placed My words into your mouth, and with the shadow of My hand I covered you, to plant the heavens and to found the earth and to say to Zion [that] you are My people.   טזוָֽאָשִׂ֚ים דְּבָרַי֙ בְּפִ֔יךָ וּבְצֵ֥ל יָדִ֖י כִּסִּיתִ֑יךָ לִנְטֹ֚עַ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְלִיסֹ֣ד אָ֔רֶץ וְלֵאמֹ֥ר לְצִיּ֖וֹן עַמִּי־אָֽתָּה:
17Awaken, awaken, arise, Jerusalem, for you have drunk from the hand of the Lord the cup of His wrath; the dregs of the cup of weakness you have drained.   יזהִתְעֽוֹרְרִ֣י הִֽתְעֽוֹרְרִ֗י קוּמִי יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁתִ֛ית מִיַּ֥ד יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־כּ֣וֹס חֲמָת֑וֹ אֶת־קֻבַּ֜עַת כּ֧וֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָ֛ה שָׁתִ֖ית מָצִֽית:
dregs: Heb. קֻבַּעַת. Jonathan renders: פַּיְלֵי, which is the name of a cup [phiala in Latin]. But it appears to me that קֻבַּעַת, these are the dregs fixed (קְבוּעִים) to the bottom of the vessel, and the word מָצִית, “you have drained,” indicates it, as it is said (Ps. 75:9): “… shall drain (יִמְצוּ) its dregs.”  
weakness: Heb. תַּרְעֵלָה. That is a drink that clogs and weakens the strength of a person, like one bound, tied, and enwrapped. Comp. (Nahum 2:4) “And the cypress trees were enwrapped (הָרְעָלוּ).” Also (supra 3:19), “And the bracelets and the veils (רְעָלוֹת) ,” which is an expression of enwrapping, and in Tractate Shabbath (6:6): “Median women (sic) may go out veiled (רְעוּלוֹת),” a kind of beautiful veil in which to enwrap oneself. תַּרְעֵלָה is entoumissant in O.F., (stiffening, weakening, paralyzing).  
you have drained: Heb. מָצִית, egoutter in French, [to drain, exhaust].  
18She has no guide out of all the sons she bore, and she has no one who takes her by the hand out of all the sons she raised.   יחאֵ֚ין־מְנַהֵ֣ל לָ֔הּ מִכָּל־בָּנִ֖ים יָלָ֑דָה וְאֵ֚ין מַֽחֲזִיק֙ בְּיָדָ֔הּ מִכָּל־בָּנִ֖ים גִּדֵּֽלָה:
19These two things have befallen you; who will lament for you? Plunder and destruction, and famine and sword. [With] whom will I console you?   יטשְׁתַּ֚יִם הֵ֙נָּה֙ קֹֽרְאֹתַ֔יִךְ מִ֖י יָנ֣וּד לָ֑ךְ הַשֹּׁ֧ד וְהַשֶּׁ֛בֶר וְהָֽרָעָ֥ב וְהַחֶ֖רֶב מִ֥י אֲנַֽחֲמֵֽךְ:
These two things have befallen you: Twofold calamities, two by two.  
[With] whom will I console you?: Whom will I bring to you to console you and to say that also that certain nation suffered in the same manner as you?  
20Your sons have fainted, they lie at the entrance of all streets like a wild ox in a net, full of the wrath of the Lord, the rebuke of your God.   כבָּנַ֜יִךְ עֻלְּפ֥וּ שָֽׁכְב֛וּ בְּרֹ֥אשׁ כָּל־חוּצ֖וֹת כְּת֣וֹא מִכְמָ֑ר הַֽמְלֵאִ֥ים חֲמַת־יְהֹוָ֖ה גַּֽעֲרַ֥ת אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
fainted: Heb. עֻלְּפוּ. An expression of faintness. Comp. (Amos 8:13) “The… virgins shall faint (תִּתְעַלַּפְנָה) from thirst.” Pasmer in O.F., (pamer in Modern French).  
like a wild ox in a net: Abandoned like this wild ox that falls into a net. Comp. (Deut. 14:5) “And the wild ox (וּתְאוֹ) and the giraffe.”  
21Therefore, hearken now to this, you poor one, and who is drunk but not from wine.   כאלָכֵ֛ן שִׁמְעִי־נָ֥א זֹ֖את עֲנִיָּ֑ה וּשְׁכֻרַ֖ת וְלֹ֥א מִיָּֽיִן:
and who is drunk but not from wine: Drunk from something else other than wine.  
22So said your Master, the Lord, and your God Who shall judge His people, "Behold, I took from you the cup of weakness; the dregs of the cup of My wrath-you shall no longer continue to drink it.   כבכֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנַ֣יִךְ יְהֹוָ֗ה וֵֽאלֹהַ֙יִךְ֙ יָרִ֣יב עַמּ֔וֹ הִנֵּ֥ה לָקַ֛חְתִּי מִיָּדֵ֖ךְ אֶת־כּ֣וֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָ֑ה אֶת־קֻבַּ֙עַת֙ כּ֣וֹס חֲמָתִ֔י לֹֽא־תוֹסִ֥יפִי לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֖הּ עֽוֹד:
Who shall judge His people: Who shall judge the case of His people.  
23And I will place it into the hand of those who cause you to wander, who said to your soul, 'Bend down and let us cross,' and you made your body like the earth and like the street for those who cross."   כגוְשַׂמְתִּ֙יהָ֙ בְּיַד־מוֹגַ֔יִךְ אֲשֶׁר־אָֽמְר֥וּ לְנַפְשֵׁ֖ךְ שְׁחִ֣י וְנַֽעֲבֹ֑רָה וַתָּשִׂ֚ימִי כָאָ֙רֶץ֙ גֵּוֵ֔ךְ וְכַח֖וּץ לַעֹֽבְרִֽים:
those who cause you to wander: Heb. מוֹגַיִ. Those who cause you to wander and those who cause you to move. Comp. (I Sam. 14:16) “And the multitude was wandering (נָמוֹג),” krosler in O.F.  
Bend down and let us cross: on your back.  

Isaiah Chapter 52

1Awaken, awaken, put on your strength, O Zion; put on the garments of your beauty, Jerusalem the Holy City, for no longer shall the uncircumcised or the unclean continue to enter you.   אעוּרִ֥י עוּרִ֛י לִבְשִׁ֥י עֻזֵּ֖ךְ צִיּ֑וֹן לִבְשִׁ֣י | בִּגְדֵ֣י תִפְאַרְתֵּ֗ךְ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ עִ֣יר הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ כִּ֣י לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֛יף יָבֹֽא־בָ֥ךְ ע֖וֹד עָרֵ֥ל וְטָמֵֽא:
2Shake yourselves from the dust, arise, sit down, O Jerusalem; free yourself of the bands of your neck, O captive daughter of Zion.   בהִתְנַֽעֲרִ֧י מֵֽעָפָ֛ר ק֥וּמִי שְׁבִ֖י יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הִֽתְפַּתְּחִי֙ (כתיב הִֽתְפַּתְּחִו֙) מוֹסְרֵ֣י צַוָּארֵ֔ךְ שְׁבִיָּ֖ה בַּת־צִיּֽוֹן:
Shake yourself: Heb. הִתְנַעֲרִי, escourre in O.F., to shake strongly, like one who shakes out a garment.  
arise: from the ground, from the decree (supra 3:26), “She shall sit on the ground.”  
sit down: on a throne.  
free yourself: Untie yourself [from Jonathan].  
bands of: Heb. מוֹסְרֵי, cringatro umbriah in O.F., [strap].  
captive: Heb. שְׁבִיָה, like שְׁבוּיָה, captive.  
3For so said the Lord, "You were sold for nought, and you shall not be redeemed for money."   גכִּי־כֹה֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה חִנָּ֖ם נִמְכַּרְתֶּ֑ם וְלֹ֥א בְכֶ֖סֶף תִּגָּאֵֽלוּ:
You were sold for nought: Because of worthless matters, i.e., the evil inclination, which affords you no reward.  
and you shall not be redeemed for money: but with repentance.  
4For so said the Lord God, "My people first went down to Egypt to sojourn there, but Assyria oppressed them for nothing."   דכִּ֣י כֹ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה מִצְרַ֛יִם יָֽרַד־עַמִּ֥י בָרִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה לָג֣וּר שָׁ֑ם וְאַשּׁ֖וּר בְּאֶ֥פֶס עֲשָׁקֽוֹ:
My people first went down to Egypt: The Egyptians had somewhat of a debt upon them, for they served for them as their hosts and sustained them, but Assyria oppressed them for nothing and without cause.  
5"And now, what have I here," says the Lord, "that My people has been taken for nothing. His rulers boast," says the Lord, "and constantly all day My name is blasphemed.   הוְעַתָּ֚ה מַה־לִּי־פֹה֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּֽי־לֻקַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י חִנָּ֑ם מֹֽשְׁלָ֚יו (כתיב מֹֽשְׁלָ֚ו) יְהֵילִ֙ילוּ֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְתָמִ֥יד כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם שְׁמִ֥י מִנֹּאָֽץ:
And now, what have I here: Why do I stay and detain My children here?  
boast: Heb. יְהֵילִילוּ, Boast saying, “Our hand was powerful.”  
is blasphemed: Blasphemes itself, and this is an instance similar to (Num 7:89) “And he heard the voice speaking to him.”  
6Therefore, My people shall know My name; therefore, on that day, for I am He Who speaks, here I am."   ולָכֵ֛ן יֵדַ֥ע עַמִּ֖י שְׁמִ֑י לָכֵן֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־אֲנִי־ה֥וּא הַֽמְדַבֵּ֖ר הִנֵּֽנִי:
My people shall know: When I redeem them, they will recognize that My name is master, monarch, and ruler, as is its apparent meaning.  
therefore, on that day: The day of their redemption, they will understand that I am He Who speaks, and behold, I have fulfilled the prophecy.  
7How beautiful are the feet of the herald on the mountains, announcing peace, heralding good tidings, announcing salvation, saying to Zion, "Your God has manifested His kingdom."   זמַה־נָּאו֨וּ עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֜ים רַגְלֵ֣י מְבַשֵּׂ֗ר מַשְׁמִ֧יעַ שָׁל֛וֹם מְבַשֵּׂ֥ר ט֖וֹב מַשְׁמִ֣יעַ יְשׁוּעָ֑ה אֹמֵ֥ר לְצִיּ֖וֹן מָלַ֥ךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
8The voice of your watchmen- they raised a voice, together they shall sing, for eye to eye they shall see when the Lord returns to Zion.   חק֥וֹל צֹפַ֛יִךְ נָ֥שְׂאוּ ק֖וֹל יַחְדָּ֣ו יְרַנֵּ֑נוּ כִּ֣י עַ֚יִן בְּעַ֙יִן֙ יִרְא֔וּ בְּשׁ֥וּב יְהֹוָ֖ה צִיּֽוֹן:
The voice of your watchmen: The watchmen who are stationed on the walls and the towers to report and to see (to see and to report [Parshandatha]) who comes to the city.  
9Burst out in song, sing together, O ruins of Jerusalem, for the Lord has consoled his people; He has redeemed Jerusalem.   טפִּצְח֚וּ רַנְּנוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו חָרְב֖וֹת יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כִּֽי־נִחַ֚ם יְהֹוָה֙ עַמּ֔וֹ גָּאַ֖ל יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
10The Lord has revealed His holy arm before the eyes of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.   יחָשַׂ֚ף יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־זְר֣וֹעַ קָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְרָאוּ֙ כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָ֔רֶץ אֵ֖ת יְשׁוּעַ֥ת אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ:
has revealed: Heb. חָשַׂף, has revealed.  
11Turn away, turn away, get out of there, touch no unclean one; get out of its midst, purify yourselves, you who bear the Lord's vessels.   יאס֚וּרוּ ס֙וּרוּ֙ צְא֣וּ מִשָּׁ֔ם טָמֵ֖א אַל־תִּגָּ֑עוּ צְא֣וּ מִתּוֹכָ֔הּ הִבָּ֕רוּ נֹֽשְׂאֵ֖י כְּלֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
touch no unclean one: They shall be abominable to you to touch them.  
get out of its midst: Out of the midst of the exile, for all these last consolations refer only to the last exile.  
purify yourselves: Heb. הִבָּרוּ, purify yourselves.  
you who bear the Lord’s vessels: You, the priests and the Levites, who carried the vessels of the Holy One, blessed be He, in the desert [from here is proof of the resurrection of the dead].  
12For not with haste shall you go forth and not in a flurry of flight shall you go, for the Lord goes before you, and your rear guard is the God of Israel.   יבכִּ֣י לֹ֚א בְחִפָּזוֹן֙ תֵּצֵ֔אוּ וּבִמְנוּסָ֖ה לֹ֣א תֵלֵכ֑וּן כִּֽי־הֹלֵ֚ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וּמְאַסִּפְכֶ֖ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
for… goes before you: Two things at the end of this verse explain two things in its beginning, [viz.] For not with haste shall you go forth. What is the reason? For the Lord goes before you to lead you on the way, and one whose agent advances before him to lead him on the way his departure is not in haste. And not in the flurry of flight shall you go, for your rear guard is the God of Israel. He will follow you to guard you from any pursuer. Comp. (Num. 10:25) “And the division of the camp of Dan shall travel, the rear guard of all the camps.” Whoever goes after the camp is called מְאַסֵּף, the rear guard, because he waits for the stragglers and the stumblers. Similarly, Scripture states in Joshua (6:13): “And the rear guard was going after the Ark.”  
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