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Torah Reading for Kedoshim

Torah Reading for Kedoshim

Leviticus 19:1-20:27

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Chapter 19

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָֹה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Speak to the entire congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them, You shall be holy, for I, the Lord, your God, am holy.   ב. דַּבֵּר אֶל כָּל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
Speak to the entire congregation of the children of Israel: [This] teaches us that this passage was stated in the assembly [of the entire congregation of Israel] because most of the fundamental teachings of the Torah are dependent on it [i.e., they are encapsulated in this passage]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:1; Vayikra Rabbah 24:5]   דבר אל כל עדת בני ישראל: מלמד שנאמרה פרשה זו בהקהל, מפני שרוב גופי תורה תלויין בה:
You shall be holy: Separate yourselves from sexual immorality and from sin, for wherever one finds a barrier against sexual immorality, one finds holiness, [for example:], “[They (the kohanim) shall not take in marriage] a woman who is a prostitute or one who was profaned…I, the Lord, Who sanctifies you [am holy]” (Lev. 21:7-8); and, “he shall not profane his offspring…I am the Lord, Who sanctifies him” (Lev. 21:15); and, “They shall be holy…[They shall not take in marriage] a woman who is a prostitute or one who was profaned” (Lev. 21:6-7). - [Vayikra Rabbah 24:4-6; and see also Sefer Hazikkaron]   קדשים תהיו: הוו פרושים מן העריות ומן העבירה, שכל מקום שאתה מוצא גדר ערוה אתה מוצא קדושה, אשה זונה וחללה וגו' אני ה' מקדשכם, (ויקרא כא ז - ח) ולא יחלל זרעו אני ה' מקדשו (ויקרא כא טו) קדושים יהיו אשה זונה וחללה וגו' (ויקרא כא ו - ז):
3. Every man shall fear his mother and his father, and you shall observe My Sabbaths. I am the Lord, your God.   ג. אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
Every man shall fear his mother and father: Every one of you shall fear his father and his mother. This is its simple meaning. Its Midrashic explanation, however, [is as follows]. Since the verse literally means, “Every man shall fear…,”] we know only [that this law applies to] a man; how do we know [that it applies to] a woman [as well]? When Scripture says, תִּירָאוּ [you shall fear, using the plural form], two are included [in the verse, namely, men and women]. But if this is so, why does the verse say, “Every man…?” Because a man has the ability to fulfill this [commandment without restriction, since he is independent and thus obliged to fear his parents], whereas a woman is [sometimes] under the authority of others [namely her husband. — [Kid. 30b; Torath Kohanim 19:3]   איש אמו ואביו תיראו: כל אחד מכם תיראו אביו ואמו, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו אין לי אלא איש, אשה מנין, כשהוא אומר תיראו, הרי כאן שנים אם כן למה נאמר איש, שהאיש סיפק בידו לעשות, אבל אשה רשות אחרים עליה:
[Every man] shall fear his mother and his father: Here, Scripture mentions the mother before the father, because He is privy to the fact that a child fears his father more than his mother [and therefore, by mentioning the mother first, Scripture emphasizes the duty of fearing her also. However,] in the case of honoring [one’s parents], Scripture mentions the father before the mother, because He is privy to the fact that a child honors his mother more than his father, since she wins his favor by [speaking kind and loving] words. [Therefore, by mentioning the father first in the context of honor, Scripture emphasizes the duty of honoring him also]. — [Kid. 31a]   אמו ואביו תיראו: כאן הקדים אם לאב, לפי שגלוי לפניו שהבן ירא את אביו יותר מאמו, ובכבוד הקדים אב לאם, לפי שגלוי לפניו שהבן מכבד את אמו יותר מאביו, מפני שמשדלתו בדברים:
and you shall observe My Sabbaths: Scripture juxtaposes [the commandment of] observing the Sabbath with [that] of fearing one’s father [and mother], in order to state [the following principle]: “Although I have admonished you regarding the fear of your father, nevertheless, if he tells you to desecrate the Sabbath, do not listen to him.” And this is also the case with all the [other] commandments. — [B.M. 32a] [This is indicated by:]   ואת שבתתי תשמרו: סמך שמירת שבת למורא אב, לומר אף על פי שהזהרתיך על מורא אב, אם יאמר לך חלל את השבת אל תשמע לו, וכן בשאר כל המצות:
I am the Lord, your God: [where “your” is in the plural form, meaning to say,] both you and your father are obligated to honor Me! Therefore, do not listen to him to negate My commands. — [B.M. 32a] Now, what constitutes “fear”? One must not sit in his place, speak in his stead [when it is his father’s turn to speak] or contradict him. And what constitutes “honor”? One must give [the father and mother] food and drink, clothe them and put on their shoes, and accompany them when they enter or leave. — [Torath Kohanim 19:3; Kid. 31b]   אני ה' אלהיכם: אתה ואביך חייבים בכבודי, לפיכך לא תשמע לו לבטל את דברי. איזהו מורא, לא ישב במקומו ולא ידבר במקומו ולא יסתור את דבריו. ואיזהו כבוד, מאכיל ומשקה, מלביש ומנעיל, מכניס ומוציא:
4. You shall not turn to the worthless idols, nor shall you make molten deities for yourselves. I am the Lord, your God.   ד. אַל תִּפְנוּ אֶל הָאֱלִילִם וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
You shall not turn to the worthless idols: to serve them. [The term] הָאֶלִילִם stems from אַל, naught , meaning that [these idols] are considered as naught.   אל תפנו אל האלילם: לעבדם. אלילים לשון אל, כלא הוא חשוב:
molten deities: At first, they are just worthless idols. But if you turn after them, eventually, you will make them into deities. — [Torath Kohanim 19:8]   ואלהי מסכה: תחילתן אלילים הם, ואם אתה פונה אחריהם, סופך לעשותן אלהות:
nor shall you make [molten deities] for yourselves: [This verse is to be understood as two separate admonitions, the first:] “Nor shall you make” [meaning] for other people; [the second:] “for yourselves” [meaning] nor shall others make them for you. Now, if you say that [this verse is one admonition, namely,] that you shall not make [molten deities] for yourselves, but others may make [them] for you, [this cannot be so, since] it has already been stated, “You shall not have [any other deities]” (Exod. 20:3) neither your own nor those of others. — [Torath Kohanim 19:9]   לא תעשו לכם: לא תעשו לאחרים ולא אחרים לכם. ואם תאמר לא תעשו לעצמכם אבל אחרים עושין לכם, הרי כבר נאמר (שמות כ ג) לא יהיה לך, לא שלך ולא של אחרים:
5. When you slaughter a peace offering to the Lord, you shall slaughter it for your acceptance.   ה. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָֹה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ:
When you slaughter…: This passage is stated only to teach us that the offerings must be slaughtered with the intent that they be eaten within this time, for if [you think that this passage comes to] fix a time limit for eating them, [this cannot be so, for] it has already been stated, “And if his sacrifice is a vow or a voluntary donation [it may be eaten]….” (Lev. 7:16). - [Torath Kohanim 19:10]   וכי תזבחו וגו': לא נאמרה פרשה זו אלא ללמד שלא תהא זביחתן אלא על מנת להאכל בתוך הזמן הזה, שאם לקבוע להם זמן אכילה, הרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא ז טז) ואם נדר או נדבה זבח קרבנו וגו':
you shall slaughter it for your acceptance: The very outset of your slaughtering [the offering] must be with the intent that [it is for the purpose of causing] contentment [to God, as it were,] for your acceptance [by Him]. For if you think an invalidating thought regarding it, [says God,] the sacrifice will not gain your acceptance before Me.   לרצנכם תזבחהו: תחלת זביחתו תהא על מנת נחת רוח שיהא לכם לרצון, שאם תחשבו עליו מחשבת פסול לא ירצה עליכם לפני:
for your acceptance: Heb., apaisement in French, appeasement. [Note that the spelling in Mikraoth Gedoloth matches the Italian appaciamento, more closely than the French. In Old French, it is spelled apayement according to Greenberg, or apaiemant according to Gukovitzki, and this form appears in many editions of Rashi.] This is according to its simple meaning. Our Rabbis, however, learned from here, that if someone was involved in another activity (מִתְעסֵּק) and accidentally slaughtered [e.g., if he threw a knife, and in its path it slaughtered an animal] designated for a holy sacrifice, it is invalid, because [in the context of sacrifices] one must intend to slaughter. — [Chul. 13a]   לרצנכם: אפיימנ"ט [פיוס]. זהו לפי פשוטו. ורבותינו למדו (חולין יג א), מכאן למתעסק בקדשים שפסול, שצריך שיתכוין לשחוט:
6. It may be eaten on the day you slaughter it and on the morrow, but anything left over until the third day, shall be burned in fire.   ו. בְּיוֹם זִבְחֲכֶם יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר עַד יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף:
It may be eaten on the day you slaughter it: When you slaughter it, you must slaughter it with the intent that you will eat it within this time limit, which I have already fixed for you [regarding that particular sacrifice]."   ביום זבחכם יאכל: כשתזבחוהו, תשחטוהו על מנת לאכלו בזמן שקבעתי לכם כבר:
7. And if it would be eaten on the third day, it is abominable; it shall not be accepted.   ז. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פִּגּוּל הוּא לֹא יֵרָצֶה:
And if it would be eaten…: If this [verse] does not refer to [an intention to eat the sacrifice] outside its time limit, since this has already been stated, “And if, [on the third day,] any of the flesh of his sacrifice would be eaten,” (Lev. 7:18) [explained there by Rashi to refer to someone who, while slaughtering the sacrifice, intends, to eat it outside its time limit], it must be utilized to refer to [someone who, while slaughtering the sacrifice, intends to eat it] outside its permitted location. — [Torath Kohanim 19:10] Now, one might think that if someone eats from it, he is liable to the punishment of excision [just like a sacrifice slaughtered with the intention to eat it outside its time limit]. Scripture, therefore, states, “And the person who eats from it, shall bear his sin” (Lev. 7:18)-“from it,” but not from anything like it. This excludes [from the punishment of excision, a sacrifice] slaughtered with the intention [of eating it] outside its [permitted] location. — [Zev. 29a]   ואם האכל יאכל וגו': אם אינו ענין לחוץ לזמנו, שהרי כבר נאמר (ויקרא ז יח) ואם האכל יאכל מבשר זבח שלמיו וגו', תנהו ענין לחוץ למקומו. יכול יהיו חייבין כרת על אכילתו, תלמוד לומר (שם) והנפש האוכלת ממנו עונה תשא, ממנו ולא מחבירו, יצא הנשחט במחשבת חוץ למקומו:
it is abominable: Heb. פִּגּוּל, abominable, like, “and broth of abominable things (פִּגּוּלִים) is in their vessels” (Isa. 65:4).   פגול: מתועב, כמו (ישעיה סה ד) ומרק פגולים כליהם:
8. And whoever eats it shall bear his sin, because he has profaned what is holy to the Lord, and that person shall be cut off from his people.   ח. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲו‍ֹנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי אֶת קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָֹה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ:
And whoever eats it, shall bear his sin: Scripture is referring to a sacrifice actually left over (נוֹתָר) [past its time limit]. But one is not punished by excision in the case of a sacrifice slaughtered [with the intention of eating it] outside its permitted location, for Scripture has already excluded this case [from the punishment of excision (see Rashi on verse 7 above)]. Rather, this verse is referring to actual נוֹתָר. [And how do we know this?] In Tractate Kereithoth (5a) we learn this through a gezeirah shavah [a Rabbinical tradition that links the word קֹדֶשׁ common to our verse and to Exod. 29:34, the latter dealing with actual נוֹתָר].   ואכליו עונו ישא: בנותר גמור הכתוב מדבר ואינו ענוש כרת על הנשחט חוץ למקומו שכבר מיעטו הכתוב. וזהו בנותר גמור מדבר. ובמסכת כריתות (ה א) למדוהו מגזירה שוה:
9. When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not fully reap the corner of your field, nor shall you gather the gleanings of your harvest.   ט. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט:
You shall not fully reap the corner of your field: [meaning] that one should leave the corner at the edge of his field [unharvested]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:15]   לא תכלה פאת שדך: שיניח פאה בסוף שדהו:
gleanings of your harvest: Heb. לֶקֶט. [This refers to individual] stalks that fall down at the time of harvest. [And how many stalks constitute לֶקֶט ?] One or two; three, however, do not constitute לֶקֶט [and the owner may gather them for himself]. — [Peah 6:5]   ולקט קצירך: שבלים הנושרים בשעת קצירה אחת או שתים, אבל שלש אינן לקט:
10. And you shall not glean your vineyard, nor shall you collect the [fallen] individual grapes of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger. I am the Lord, your God.   י. וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל וּפֶרֶט כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
And you shall not glean: Heb. לֹא תְעוֹלֵל, you shall not take the small clusters (עוֹלֵלוֹת) therein, and these are identifiable. “Which clusters עוֹלֵלוֹת ? Any one which has neither a כָּתֵף [a shoulder] or a נָטֵף [drippings].” [Peah 7:4. See Rashi Deut. 24:21 for explanation.]   לא תעולל: לא תטול עוללות שבה והן ניכרות. איזהו עוללות כל שאין לה לא כתף ולא נטף:
the [fallen] individual grapes: Heb. וּפֶרֶט. Individual grapes which fall off at the time of the vintage.   ופרט כרמך: גרגרי ענבים הנושרים בשעת בצירה:
I am the Lord, your God: A Judge Who exacts punishment; and [for this sin] I will exact from you nothing less than [your] souls, as it is said, “Do not rob a poor man…for the Lord will plead their cause, and rob those who rob them, of life” (Prov. 22: 2223). - [Torath Kohanim 19:22]   אני ה' אלהיכם: דיין להפרע ואיני גובה מכם אלא נפשות, שנאמר (משלי כב - כג) אל תגזל דל וגו' כי ה' יריב ריבם וגו':
11. You shall not steal. You shall not deny falsely. You shall not lie, one man to his fellow.   יא. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ:
You shall not steal: Heb. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ. This is an admonition against someone stealing money, while “You shall not steal (לֹא תִגְנֹב) ” in the Ten Commandments is an admonition against stealing people [i.e., kidnapping]. [This is] a matter derived from its context [namely, “You shall not murder,” “ You shall not commit adultery,” each of which is] a capital crime, [which is the case of kidnapping but not of stealing money]. — [see Rashi on Exod. 20:13; Sanh. 86a]   לא תגנבו: אזהרה לגונב ממון, אבל לא תגנוב (שמות כ יג) שבעשרת הדברות, אזהרה לגונב נפשות, דבר הלמד מענינו, דבר שחייבין עליו מיתת בית דין:
You shall not deny falsely: Since Scripture says, “and he denies it” (Lev. 5:22), he must pay the principal and [an additional] fifth [of its value], we know the punishment [involved]. But where do we find the admonition [against denying a rightful claim]? Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not deny falsely.”   ולא תכחשו: לפי שנאמר (ויקרא ה כב) וכחש בה, משלם קרן וחומש. למדנו עונש, אזהרה מנין, תלמוד לומר ולא תכחשו:
You shall not lie: Since Scripture says “and he…swears falsely” (Lev. 5:22), he must pay back the principal and [an additional] fifth [of its value], we know the punishment [involved]. [But] where do we find the admonition [against swearing falsely]? Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not lie.”   ולא תשקרו: לפי שנאמר (שם) ונשבע על שקר, ישלם קרן וחומש. למדנו עונש, אזהרה מנין, תלמוד לומר ולא תשקרו:
You shall not steal. You shall not deny falsely. You shall not lie,… You shall not swear [falsely]: If you steal, you will eventually come to deny falsely, and consequently, you will come to lie and then swear falsely. — [Torath Kohanim 19:26]   לא תגנבו ולא תכחשו ולא תשקרו ולא תשבעו: אם גנבת, סופך לכחש, סופך לשקר, סופך להשבע לשקר:
12. You shall not swear falsely by My Name, thereby profaning the Name of your God. I am the Lord.   יב. וְלֹא תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall not swear falsely by My Name: Why is this stated? Since Scripture says, “You shall not take the Name of the Lord (יהוה), your God in vain” (Exod. 20:7), one might think that a person is liable only regarding the special Name [of God יהוה]. How do we know that included [also in this prohibition] are the כִּנּוּיִין [i.e., all the ancillary Names that represent various attributes of God, thus adopting the status of a “Name of God”]? Because Scripture says here, “You shall not swear falsely by My Name”- [meaning,] any Name that I have. — [Torath Kohanim 19:27]   ולא תשבעו בשמי: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר (שמות כ ז) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לשוא, יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד, מנין לרבות כל הכנויין, תלמוד לומר ולא תשבעו בשמי לשקר, כל שם שיש לי:
13. You shall not oppress your fellow. You shall not rob. The hired worker's wage shall not remain with you overnight until morning.   יג. לֹא תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד בֹּקֶר:
You shall not oppress: Heb. לֹא תַעֲשֹׁק. This refers to one who withholds a hired worker’s wages. — [Torath Kohanim 19:29]   לא תעשק: זה הכובש שכר שכיר:
shall not remain… overnight: Heb. לֹא תָלִין. This [verb] is feminine in gender, referring to פְּעֻלַּת, the wages. [Although the word תָלִין, could be understood as, “You shall not keep overnight,” i.e., a command in the second person masculine, since it always appears as an intransitive verb, Rashi prefers to interpret it as the third person feminine, referring to פְּעֻלַּת.]   לא תלין: לשון נקבה מוסב על הפעולה:
until morning: The verse is speaking about a worker hired for a day, whose departure [from his work] is at sunset. Therefore, the time for him to collect his wages is the entire night [and the employer has till dawn to pay him]. But elsewhere, Scripture says, “[You shall give him his wage on his day and not let the sun set over it,” (Deut. 24:15) [which seems to contradict our verse. However, that verse] is speaking about a worker hired for the night, the completion of whose work is at the break of dawn. Therefore, the time for him to collect his wages is the entire day because the Torah gave the employer time, namely, an עוֹנָה [a twelve-hour period] to seek money [to pay his workers]. — [B.M. 110b]   עד בקר: בשכיר יום הכתוב מדבר, שיציאתו מששקעה החמה, לפיכך זמן גבוי שכרו כל הלילה. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (דברים כד טו) ולא תבוא עליו השמש, מדבר בשכיר לילה, שהשלמת פעולתו משיעלה עמוד השחר, לפיכך זמן גבוי שכרו כל היום, לפי שנתנה תורה זמן לבעל הבית עונה לבקש מעות:
14. You shall not curse a deaf person. You shall not place a stumbling block before a blind person, and you shall fear your God. I am the Lord.   יד. לֹא תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
You shall not curse a deaf person: [From this verse] I know only that [one may not curse] a deaf person. But from where do I know that this [prohibition] includes [cursing] any person [even if he is not deaf]? Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not curse…among your people.” But if this is so [that this law is not exclusive to deaf people], why does it say here, “a deaf person?” (Exod. 22:27). [The answer is that] just as a deaf person is special insofar as he is alive, likewise, [one is prohibited from cursing] anyone who is alive. This excludes [cursing] a dead person, for he is not alive. — [Torath Kohanim 19:35]   לא תקלל חרש: אין לי אלא חרש, מנין לרבות כל אדם, תלמוד לומר (שמות כב כז) בעמך לא תאר, אם כן למה נאמר חרש, מה חרש מיוחד שהוא בחיים אף כל שהוא בחיים, יצא המת שאינו בחיים:
You shall not place a stumbling block before a blind person: Before a person who is “blind” regarding a matter, you shall not give advice that is improper for him. [For instance,] do not say to someone,“ Sell your field and buy a donkey [with the proceeds], ”while [in truth,] you plan to cheat him since you yourself will take it from him [by lending him money and taking the donkey as collateral. He will not be able to take the field because a previous creditor has a lien on it.] - [Torath Kohanim 19:34]   ולפני עור לא תתן מכשל: לפני הסומא בדבר לא תתן עצה שאינה הוגנת לו, אל תאמר מכור שדך וקח לך חמור, ואתה עוקף עליו ונוטלה הימנו:
and you shall fear your God: [Why is this mentioned here?] Because this matter [of misadvising someone] is not discernible by people, whether this person had good or evil intentions, and he can avoid [being recriminated by his victim afterwards] by saying, “I meant well!” Therefore, concerning this, it says, “and you shall fear your God,” Who knows your thoughts! Likewise, concerning anything known to the one who does it, but to which no one else is privy, Scripture says, “and you shall fear your God.” - [Torath Kohanim 19:34]   ויראת מאלהיך: לפי שהדבר הזה אינו מסור לבריות לידע אם דעתו של זה לטובה או לרעה, ויכול להשמט ולומר לטובה נתכוונתי, לפיכך נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך המכיר מחשבותיך. וכן כל דבר המסור ללבו של אדם העושהו ואין שאר הבריות מכירות בו, נאמר בו ויראת מאלהיך:
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