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Torah Reading for Nitzavim-Vayelech

Torah Reading for Nitzavim-Vayelech

Deuteronomy 29:9-31:30

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Chapter 29

9. You are all standing this day before the Lord, your God the leaders of your tribes, your elders and your officers, every man of Israel,   ט. אַתֶּם נִצָּבִים הַיּוֹם כֻּלְּכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם רָאשֵׁיכֶם שִׁבְטֵיכֶם זִקְנֵיכֶם וְשֹׁטְרֵיכֶם כֹּל אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל:
You are all standing: [The verse says “this day,” which] teaches us that on the day of his death, Moses assembled Israel in the presence of the Holy One, Blessed is He, to bring them into [His] covenant.   אתם נצבים: מלמד שכנסם משה לפני הקב"ה ביום מותו להכניסם בברית:
the leaders of your tribes: Heb. רָאשֵׁיכֶם שִׁבְטֵיכֶם, [lit., “your leaders, your tribes,” referring to two separate entities, which does not make sense here because “your tribes” includes the leaders. Rather, this means here:] “The leaders of your tribes.”   ראשיכם שבטיכם: ראשיכם לשבטיכם:
your elders and your officers: [We learn from the order in this verse that] the more distinguished ones were mentioned first, and after this: “every man of Israel.”   זקניכם ושטריכם: החשוב חשוב קודם ואחר כך כל איש ישראל:
10. your young children, your women, and your convert who is within your camp both your woodcutters and your water drawers,   י. טַפְּכֶם נְשֵׁיכֶם וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶיךָ מֵחֹטֵב עֵצֶיךָ עַד שֹׁאֵב מֵימֶיךָ:
both your woodcutters [and your water drawers]: [The mention of these people separate to the main community of Israel] teaches us that in the days of Moses, Canaanites came to convert [to Judaism], just as the Gibeonites came [to convert] in the days of Joshua. This is the meaning of the verse regarding the Gibeonites,“And they also acted cunningly…” (Josh. 9:4), [i. e., pretending that they had come from a far away country. When they were discovered, Joshua made them woodcutters and water drawers for Israel (see Josh. 9:3-27). Likewise here, the Canaanites attempted to deceive Moses,. but they did not succeed, and Moses did not accept them to be Jews. Rather,] Moses made them woodcutters and water drawers [i.e., slaves for Israel]. — [Tanchuma 2; Yev. 79a; see Rashi Gittin 23b]   מחטב עציך: מלמד שבאו כנענים להתגייר בימי משה, כדרך שבאו גבעונים בימי יהושע. וזהו האמור בגבעונים (יהושע ט, ד) ויעשו גם המה בערמה, ונתנם משה חוטבי עצים ושואבי מים:
11. that you may enter the covenant of the Lord, your God, and His oath, which the Lord, your God, is making with you this day,   יא. לְעָבְרְךָ בִּבְרִית יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּבְאָלָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כֹּרֵת עִמְּךָ הַיּוֹם:
that you may enter: Heb. לְעָבְרְךָ‏. [Meaning,] “That you may pass through [i.e., enter] the covenant.” One should not understand this verb [to be in the causative conjugation,] to mean “to cause you to pass through,” [but rather, the verb is in the simple conjugation, and means that you yourselves will pass through]. This is similar to the expression, לַעֲשׂתְכֶם, “that you [yourselves] should do them” (Deut. 4:14).   לעברך: להיותך עובר בברית. ולא יתכן לפרשו כמו להעבירך, אלא כמו (לעיל ד, יד) לעשותכם אותם:
that you may enter into the covenant: [lit.] “that you may pass through the covenant.” This was the method of those who made covenants: They would set up a demarcation on one side and a demarcation on the other, and [the respective parties of the covenant] “passed through” between [these partitions], as the verse says, “[when] they cut the calf in two and passed between its parts” (Jer. 34:18).   לעברך בברית: דרך העברה, כך היו כורתים ברית, עושין מחיצה מכאן ומחיצה מכאן ועוברים בינתים, כמו שנאמר (ירמיה לד, יח) העגל אשר כרתו לשנים ויעברו בין בתריו:
12. in order to establish you this day as His people, and that He will be your God, as He spoke to you, and as He swore to your forefathers to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.   יב. לְמַעַן הָקִים אֹתְךָ הַיּוֹם | לוֹ לְעָם וְהוּא יִהְיֶה לְּךָ לֵאלֹהִים כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב:
in order to establish you this day as His people: [Why does God here warn Israel against idolatry by making such grave oaths and severe curses, unlike other commandments where He would simply make a warning and attach a punishment if the commandment was transgressed?] He goes to so much trouble here, for the purpose of keeping you as His people. [Since He promised not to exchange you for another people (see the following Rashi), He must ensure your faithfulness to Him.   למען הקים אותך היום לו לעם: כל כך הוא נכנס לטרוח למען קיים אותך לפניו לעם:
and that He will be your God: Since God has given you His word and [also] sworn to your forefathers not to exchange their offspring for another nation, therefore, He [ensures your faithfulness to Him by] binding you through these oaths, so as not to provoke Him to anger, because He cannot separate Himself from you. Until here, I have explained this passage according to its simple sense. The homiletic explanation is as follows: Why is parashath Nitzavim juxtaposed to the curses [in parashath Ki Tavo]? Because when Israel heard these ninety-eight curses [delineated in Ki Tavo], besides the forty-nine [curses] stated in Leviticus (26:14-38), they turned pale, and said, “Who can possibly endure these?” [Thereupon,] Moses began to appease them [as follows]:   והוא יהיה לך לאלהים: לפי שדבר לך ונשבע לאבותיך שלא להחליף את זרעם באומה אחרת, לכך הוא אוסר אתכם בשבועות הללו, שלא תקניטוהו אחר שהוא אינו יכול להבדל מכם. עד כאן פירשתי לפי פשוטו של פרשה. ומדרש אגדה למה נסמכה פרשת אתם נצבים לקללות, לפי ששמעו ישראל מאה קללות חסר שתים, חוץ ממ"ט שבתורת כהנים, הוריקו פניהם ואמרו מי יוכל לעמוד באלו, התחיל משה לפייסם:
You are… standing this day: You have provoked the Omnipresent to anger many times, yet He has not made an end to you. Indeed, you still exist before Him [“standing… before the Lord”]. — [Tanchuma 1]   אתם נצבים היום: הרבה הכעסתם למקום ולא עשה אתכם כלייה והרי אתם קיימים לפניו
this day: [You exist now] Just as this day exists. For [although] it becomes dark [for a period, nevertheless] it shines [again]. So too, here, God has made light for you, and He will again make light for you in the future. And the curses and sufferings preserve you and enable you to stand before Him [the curses, by preventing you to stray from serving Him, and the sufferings, by cleansing you of your sins]. Similarly, in the previous parashah [of Ki Tavo, Moses spoke] words of conciliation, [e.g.,] “You have seen all that the Lord did…” (Deut. 29:1). Another explanation of…   היום: כיום הזה שהוא קיים והוא מאפיל ומאיר, כך האיר לכם וכך עתיד להאיר לכם, והקללות והיסורין מקיימין אתכם ומציבין אתכם לפניו. ואף הפרשה שלמעלה מזו פיוסין הם, אתם ראיתם את כל אשר עשה. דבר אחר,:
You are… standing: Because the Israelites were now passing from one leader to the next-i.e., from [the leadership of] Moses to [that of] Joshua. Therefore, Moses made them stand [in assembled ranks], in order to encourage them. Joshua did the same [when he was about to die (Josh. 24:1)]. Also, Samuel [did likewise], when Israel passed from his leadership to that of Saul, [as the verse says,] “Stand now, and I will reason with you before the Lord…” (I Sam. 12:7). - [Tanchuma 1]   אתם נצבים: לפי שהיו ישראל יוצאין מפרנס לפרנס ממשה ליהושע, לפיכך עשה אותם מצבה כדי לזרזם וכן עשה יהושע וכן שמואל (שמואל א' יב, ז) התיצבו ואשפטה אתכם, כשיצאו מידו ונכנסו לידו של שאול:
13. But not only with you am I making this covenant and this oath,   יג. וְלֹא אִתְּכֶם לְבַדְּכֶם אָנֹכִי כֹּרֵת אֶת הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת וְאֶת הָאָלָה הַזֹּאת:
14. but with those standing here with us today before the Lord, our God, and [also] with those who are not here with us, this day.   יד. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶשְׁנוֹ פֹּה עִמָּנוּ עֹמֵד הַיּוֹם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנּוּ פֹּה עִמָּנוּ הַיּוֹם:
and [also] with those who are not here: also with future generations. — [Tanchuma 3]   ואת אשר איננו פה: ואף עם דורות העתידים להיות:
15. For you know how we dwelled in the land of Egypt, and how we passed among the nations through which you passed.   טו. כִּי אַתֶּם יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר יָשַׁבְנוּ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר עָבַרְנוּ בְּקֶרֶב הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר עֲבַרְתֶּם:
For you know: [Verses 15-17 are understood as follows:] Since you saw the idolatrous nations, perhaps one of you was enticed to follow their ways, and“perhaps there is among you…” (verse 17), therefore, I must place you under an oath [because you are in this position of extra susceptibility].   כי אתם ידעתם וגו' ותראו את שקוציהם: לפי שראיתם האומות עובדי עבודה זרה ושמא השיא לב אחד מכם אותו ללכת אחריהם פן יש בכם וגו' (פסוק יז) לפיכך אני צריך להשביעכם:
16. And you saw their abominations and their repugnant idols [of] wood and stone, silver and gold which were with them.   טז. וַתִּרְאוּ אֶת שִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם וְאֵת גִּלֻּלֵיהֶם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב אֲשֶׁר עִמָּהֶם:
you saw their abominations: Heb. שִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם. [Their idols are so termed] because they are disgusting, like creeping, crawling insects (שְׁקָצִים).   ותראו את שקוציהם: על שם שהם מאוסים כשקצים:
their repugnant idols: Heb. גִּלֻּלֵיהֶם. - [Their idols, thus termed] because they are putrid and disgusting like dung (גָּלָל) .   גלליהם: שמוסרחים ומאוסין כגלל:
wood and stone: You saw those [idols] made of wood and stone out in the open, because the heathen [who owned them, did not mind leaving them outside, since he] did not fear that they would be stolen. [Thus, regarding these idols, the verse says, “And you saw their… idols… (of) wood and stone.”] However, [regarding the idols made] of “silver and gold,” they“were with them,” in the [confines of their private] treasure chambers, because [their heathen owners] were afraid that these [expensive idols] might be stolen. — [Tanchuma 3]   עץ ואבן: אותן של עצים ושל אבנים ראיתם בגלוי, לפי שאין הגוים יראים שמא יגנבו, אבל של כסף וזהב עמהם בחדרי משכיתם הם, לפי שהם יראים שמא יגנבו:
17. Perhaps there is among you a man, woman, family, or tribe, whose heart strays this day from the Lord, our God, to go and worship the deities of those nations. Perhaps there is among you a root that produces hemlock and wormwood.   יז. פֶּן יֵשׁ בָּכֶם אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה אוֹ מִשְׁפָּחָה אוֹ שֵׁבֶט אֲשֶׁר לְבָבוֹ פֹנֶה הַיּוֹם מֵעִם יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָלֶכֶת לַעֲבֹד אֶת אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם פֶּן יֵשׁ בָּכֶם שֹׁרֶשׁ פֹּרֶה רֹאשׁ וְלַעֲנָה:
Perhaps there is among you: פֶּן-יֵשׁ בָּכֶם [This phrase, meaning,] “Perhaps there is among you,” [is repeated twice in this verse. Rashi explains here that there might be two levels of disobeying God. A person might serve other deities, or he is one…]   פן יש בכם: שמא יש בכם:
whose heart strays this day: from accepting upon himself the covenant.   אשר לבבו פנה היום: מלקבל עליו הברית:
a root that produces hemlock and wormwood: [This refers to] a root that produces a bitter herb, like giddin , which are bitter [see Targum Jonathan on Lam. 3:19]. Here, then, the verse means:“[Someone who] produces and increases evil among you.”   שרש פרה ראש ולענה: שרש מגדל עשב מר כגידין, שהם מרים, כלומר מפרה ומרבה רשע בקרבכם:
18. And it will be, when he [such a person] hears the words of this oath, that he will bless himself in his heart, saying, "I will have peace, even if I follow my heart's desires," in order to add the [punishment for the] unintentional sins [of this man] to that of [his] intentional sins.   יח. וְהָיָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָאָלָה הַזֹּאת וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ בִּלְבָבוֹ לֵאמֹר שָׁלוֹם יִהְיֶה לִּי כִּי בִּשְׁרִרוּת לִבִּי אֵלֵךְ לְמַעַן סְפוֹת הָרָוָה אֶת הַצְּמֵאָה:
that he will bless himself in his heart: Heb. וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ בִּלְבָבוֹ [the word וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ stems from] the word for “blessing” (בָּרֵךְ). [The verse means:] “In his heart, [this man] will imagine a blessing of peace for himself, saying: These curses will not come upon me. I will have only peace!”   והתברך בלבבו: לשון ברכה, יחשוב בלבו ברכת שלום לעצמו לאמר, לא יבואוני קללות הללו, אך שלום יהיה לי:
he will bless himself: Heb. וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ, bendira soy in Old French [i.e., the verb is in the reflexive conjugation], like “וְהִתְגַּלָּח, And he shall shave himself” (Lev. 13:33), “וְהִתְפַּלֵּל, and he will pray” (I Kings 8:42), [which employs the reflexive form of the root פלל].   והתברך: בינדיר"א שי"י בלע"ז [יברך את עצמו], כמו והתגלח והתפלל:
I follow my heart’s desires: Heb. בִּשְׁרִירוּת לִבִּי אֵלֵךְ [Meaning, “If I follow] what my heart beholds,” as in [the verse], “I behold it (אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ) , but it is not near” (Num. 24:17). That is to say [the verse means]: “[Even if I go in the way] that my heart sees [fit] to do.”   בשררות לבי אלך: במראית לבי, כמו (במדבר כד, יז) אשורנו ולא קרוב, כלומר מה שלבי רואה לעשות:
in order to add the [punishment for the] unintentional sins [of this man]: לְמַעַן סְפוֹת הָרָוָה - Because I will add to him the punishment for what he heretofore committed unintentionally, which I would have overlooked, but now, he has caused that I combine them with the intentional sins and punish him for everything. Similarly, Onkelos renders [the verse here as]: בְּדִיל לְאוֹסָפָא לֵיהּ חֶטְאֵי שָׁלוּתָא עַל זְדָנוּתָא, [meaning,] That I shall add for him the [punishment incurred for the] unintentional sins to [that of] the intentional sins.   למען ספות הרוה: לפי שאוסיף לו פורענות על מה שעשה עד הנה בשוגג והייתי מעביר עליהם, וגורם עתה שאצרפם עם המזיד ואפרע ממנו הכל. וכן תרגם אונקלוס בדיל לאוספא ליה חטאי שלותא על זדנותא, שאוסיף לו אני השגגות על הזדונות:
the [punishment for the] unintentional sins: Heb. הָרָוָה [lit., “drunk.” Here, as explained, the word] refers to unintentional [sins], which [a man] commits as if in a drunken state, that is, unknowingly.   הרוה: שוגג שהוא עושה כאדם שכור שלא מדעת:
to [his] intentional sins: Heb. הַצְּמֵאָה [lit., “thirsty.” Here, as explained, the word refers to intentional sins, that is] when [a man] commits [a sin] knowingly and out of lust.   הצמאה: שהוא עושה מדעת ובתאוה:
19. The Lord will not be willing to forgive him; rather, then, the Lord's fury and His zeal will fume against that man, and the entire curse written in this book will rest upon him, and the Lord will obliterate his name from beneath the heavens.   יט. לֹא יֹאבֶה יְהֹוָה סְלֹחַ לוֹ כִּי אָז יֶעְשַׁן אַף יְהֹוָה וְקִנְאָתוֹ בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְרָבְצָה בּוֹ כָּל הָאָלָה הַכְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וּמָחָה יְהֹוָה אֶת שְׁמוֹ מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם:
The Lord’s fury… will fume: [The image is as follows:] Through anger, the body [of a person] becomes heated up, and fumes are emitted from the nose. Similarly, [referring to God,] the verse says,“Smoke rose up in His nose” (II Sam. 22:9). Now, although this is inappropriate for the Omnipresent [since He has no physical form; nevertheless], Scripture describes [this concept] to the human ear in the manner to which it is accustomed and able to understand, according to the [natural] ways of the world. [Thus, the verse here is figuratively denoting God’s fuming anger.]   יעשן אף ה': על ידי כעס הגוף מתחמם והעשן יוצא מן האף, וכן (ש"ב כב, ט) עלה עשן באפו ואף על פי שאין זו לפני המקום, הכתוב משמיע את האוזן כדרך שהיא רגילה ויכולה לשמוע, כפי דרך הארץ:
and His zeal: Heb. וְקִנְאָתוֹ [This is] a term denoting [burning] fury, enprenemant [in Old French, zealous anger], firmly keeping hold of the trait of vengeance, without giving in whatsoever.   וקנאתו: לשון חמה אנפרטמינ"ט [חמה] אחיזת לבישת נקמה, ואינו מעביר על המדה:
20. And the Lord will separate him for evil, out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covenant, written in this Torah scroll.   כ. וְהִבְדִּילוֹ יְהֹוָה לְרָעָה מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּכֹל אָלוֹת הַבְּרִית הַכְּתוּבָה בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה:
that is written in this book: Heb. בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה, “written in this Torah scroll.” [Here, the word for“this” (הַזֶּה) is in the masculine form. However,] earlier, the verse says, “And also every sickness and plague… in this Torah scroll בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזּאֹת” (Deut. 28:61), [where the word for“this” (הַזּאֹת), appearing in the identical phrase, is in the feminine form. How do we explain the difference of gender for the same word, appearing in an identical phrase in Scripture? The answer is that there in Deut. 28:61,] the הַזּאֹת, which is in the feminine form, qualifies the word הַתּוֹרָה, “Torah” [which is in the feminine form]. And [here in our verse,] the word הַזֶּה, which is in the masculine form, qualifies the word סֵפֶר, “scroll” [which is in the masculine form. How do we know that each respective mention of the word “this” is qualifying the particular word described, and not otherwise? Because in these two verses,] the cantillation symbols punctuate the words [of the phrase“this Torah scroll”] in two different ways, [as follows]: In the passage [describing] the curses [i.e., in Deut. 28:61], the [cantillation symbol called] tipcha is placed under the word בְּסֵפֶר, [thus separating it from the next words הַתּוֹרָה הַזּאֹת,] while [the words], הַתּוֹרָה הַזּאֹת are attached to each other [also by virtue of the cantillation symbols]. Hence, [the verse] employs the הַזּאֹת [for the word “this,” because it clearly is qualifying the word “Torah,” which is in the feminine form]. However, here [in our verse], the tipcha is placed under the word הַתּוֹרָה. [Thus, together with its previous conjunctive symbol, the meircha placed under the word בְּסֵפֶר, it] joins these two words, בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה, into one attached [expression]. Accordingly, the word [“this”] qualifies the [first word in the expression, namely,] “scroll,” [the direct object in the expression “Torah scroll,” and since the word“scroll”] is in the masculine form [thus, the qualifying word הַזֶּה takes on the masculine form here].   הכתובה בספר התורה הזה: ולמעלה הוא אומר (לעיל כח, סא) בספר התורה הזאת גם כל חלי וכל מכה וגו', הזאת לשון נקבה מוסב על התורה. הזה לשון זכר מוסב על הספר, ועל ידי פסוק הטעמים הן נחלקין לשתי לשונות, בפרשת הקללות הטפחא נתונה תחת בספר, והתורה הזאת דבוקים זה לזה, לכך אמר הזאת וכאן הטפחה נתונה תחת התורה, נמצא ספר התורה דבוקים זה לזה לפיכך לשון זכר נופל אחריו, שהלשון נופל על הספר:
21. And a later generation, your descendants, who will rise after you, along with the foreigner who comes from a distant land, will say, upon seeing the plagues of that land and the diseases with which the Lord struck it:   כא. וְאָמַר הַדּוֹר הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּנֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר יָקוּמוּ מֵאַחֲרֵיכֶם וְהַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה וְרָאוּ אֶת מַכּוֹת הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא וְאֶת תַּחֲלֻאֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר חִלָּה יְהֹוָה בָּהּ:
22. Sulfur and salt have burned up its entire land! It cannot be sown, nor can it grow [anything], not [even] any grass will sprout upon it. It is like the overturning of Sodom, Gemorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, which the Lord overturned in His fury and in His rage.   כב. גָּפְרִית וָמֶלַח שְׂרֵפָה כָל אַרְצָהּ לֹא תִזָּרַע וְלֹא תַצְמִחַ וְלֹא יַעֲלֶה בָהּ כָּל עֵשֶׂב כְּמַהְפֵּכַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה אַדְמָה וּצְבוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הָפַךְ יְהֹוָה בְּאַפּוֹ וּבַחֲמָתוֹ:
23. And all the nations will say, Why did the Lord do so to this land? What [is the reason] for this great rage of fury?   כג. וְאָמְרוּ כָּל הַגּוֹיִם עַל מֶה עָשָׂה יְהֹוָה כָּכָה לָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת מֶה חֳרִי הָאַף הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה:
24. Then they will say, It is because they abandoned the covenant of the Lord, God of their fathers, [the covenant] which He made with them when He took them out of the land of Egypt,   כד. וְאָמְרוּ עַל אֲשֶׁר עָזְבוּ אֶת בְּרִית יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתָם אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת עִמָּם בְּהוֹצִיאוֹ אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם:
25. For they went and served other deities, prostrating themselves to them deities which they had not known, and which He had not apportioned to them.   כה. וַיֵּלְכוּ וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְדָעוּם וְלֹא חָלַק לָהֶם:
which they had not known: In which they had never recognized any divine power.   לא ידעום: לא ידעו בהם גבורת אלהות:
and which He had not apportioned to them: Heb. וְלֹא חָלַק לָהֶם [Meaning, “God] had not allotted them” [these deities] to be their [Israel’s] portion. Onkelos , however, renders:“and which did not grant them any good.” [Here,] the expression וְלֹא חָלַק is [understood to mean]:“that deity which they would choose for themselves did not apportion to them any inheritance or any portion.”   ולא חלק להם: לא נתנם לחלקם. ואונקלוס תרגם ולא אוטיבא להון, לא הטיבו להם שום טובה, ולשון לא חלק אותו אלוה שבחרו להם לא חלק להם שום נחלה ושום חלק:
26. And the Lord's fury raged against that land, bringing upon it the entire curse written in this book.   כו. וַיִּחַר אַף יְהֹוָה בָּאָרֶץ הַהִוא לְהָבִיא עָלֶיהָ אֶת כָּל הַקְּלָלָה הַכְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה:
27. And the Lord uprooted them from upon their land, with fury, anger and great wrath, and He cast them to another land, as it is this day.   כז. וַיִּתְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה מֵעַל אַדְמָתָם בְּאַף וּבְחֵמָה וּבְקֶצֶף גָּדוֹל וַיַּשְׁלִכֵם אֶל אֶרֶץ אֲחֶרֶת כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
And the Lord uprooted them: Heb. וַיִּתְּשֵׁם ה׳, as rendered by the Targum: וְטַלְטְלִינוּן, “and He drove them out.” Similarly, “Behold, I uproot them (נוֹתְשָׁם) from upon their land” (Jer. 12:14).   ויתשם ה': כתרגומו וטלטלינון, וכן (ירמיה יב יד) הנני נותשם מעל אדמתם:
28. The hidden things belong to the Lord, our God, but the revealed things apply to us and to our children forever: that we must fulfill all the words of this Torah.   כח. הַנִּסְתָּרֹת לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ נקודות וְהַנִּגְלֹת ֹלָֹנוֹּ ֹוֹּלְֹבָֹנֵֹיֹנֹוּ עַד עוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת כָּל דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת:
The hidden things belong to the Lord, our God: Now, you might object [to God, saying]: “But what can we do? You punish the entire community because of the sinful thoughts of an individual, as Scripture says, ‘Perhaps there is among you a man…’ (verse 17 above), and after this, Scripture continues, ‘Seeing the plagues of that land [and the diseases with which the Lord struck it]’ (verse 21) [which seems to indicate that for the sinful thought of even one individual, the whole land would be struck down with plagues and diseases]. But surely no man can know the secret thoughts of his fellow [that we could somehow prevent this collective punishment!” In answer to this, God says:] “I will not punish you for the hidden things!” [I.e.,] because “[The hidden things] belong to the Lord, our God,” and He will exact punishment upon that particular individual [who sins in secret]. However, “the revealed things apply to us and to our children” [that is, we are responsible for detecting the sins committed openly in our community, and] to eradicate any evil among us. And if we do not execute judgment upon these [open transgressions, over which we do have control,], then the whole community will be punished [because they would be remiss in their responsibility]. There is a dot placed over [each letter of] the words לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ here, to teach us homiletically that even for open sins [which were not brought to judgment, God] did not punish the whole community-until Israel crossed the Jordan. For then, they accepted upon themselves the oath at Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, and thereby [formally] became responsible for one another (Sanh. 43b). [When dots are placed over letters of the Torah, this denotes an exclusion of some sort. In our context, our Rabbis teach us that the exclusion refers to the period prior to the crossing of the Jordan.]   הנסתרת לה' אלהינו: ואם תאמרו מה בידינו לעשות, אתה מעניש את הרבים על הרהורי היחיד, שנאמר (פסוק יז) פן יש בכם איש וגו', ואחר כך (פסוק כא) וראו את מכות הארץ ההיא, והלא אין אדם יודע טמונותיו של חבירו, אין אני מעניש אתכם על הנסתרות, שהן לה' אלהינו והוא יפרע מאותו יחיד, אבל הנגלות, לנו ולבנינו לבער הרע מקרבנו, ואם לא נעשה דין בהם יענשו את הרבים. נקוד על לנו ולבנינו, לדרוש, שאף על הנגלות לא ענש את הרבים עד שעברו את הירדן משקבלו עליהם את השבועה בהר גרזים ובהר עיבל ונעשו ערבים זה לזה:
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