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Torah Reading for Ki Teitzei

Torah Reading for Ki Teitzei

Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19

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Chapter 21

10If you go out to war against your enemies, and the Lord, your God, will deliver him into your hands, and you take his captives,   יכִּי תֵצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל אֹיְבֶיךָ וּנְתָנוֹ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיוֹ:
If you go out to war: The verse here is referring to an optional war [i.e., non-obligatory] (Sifrei 21:1), since in reference to the [obligatory] war [to conquer] the land of Israel, it would be inappropriate to say “and you take his captives” because it has already been stated [regarding the seven nations of Canaan],“[from these peoples’ cities…] you shall not allow any soul to live.” (Deut. 20: 16).   כי תצא למלחמה: במלחמת הרשות הכתוב מדבר, שבמלחמת ארץ ישראל אין לומר ושבית שביו, שהרי כבר נאמר (לעיל כ טז) לא תחיה כל נשמה:
and you take his captives: Heb. וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיוֹ. [The double language here comes] to include Canaanites in their midst, even though they are from the seven nations. — [Sifrei 21:2; Sotah 35b]   ושבית שביו: לרבות כנענים שבתוכה ואף על פי שהם משבעה אומות:
11and you see among the captives a beautiful woman and you desire her, you may take [her] for yourself as a wife.   יאוְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה:
a…woman: Heb. אֵשֶׁת, even a married woman (אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ). - [Kid. 21b]   אשת: אפילו אשת איש:
[and you desire her,] you may take [her] for yourself as a wife: [Not that you are commanded to take this woman as a wife,] but Scripture [in permitting this marriage] is speaking only against the evil inclination [, which drives him to desire her]. For if the Holy One, blessed is He, would not permit her to him, he would take her illicitly. [The Torah teaches us, however, that] if he marries her, he will ultimately come to despise her, as it says after this, “If a man has [two wives-one beloved and the other despised]” (verse 15); [moreover] he will ultimately father through her a wayward and rebellious son (see verse 18). For this reason, these passages are juxtaposed. — [Tanchuma 1]   ולקחת לך לאשה: לא דברה תורה אלא כנגד יצר הרע. שאם אין הקב"ה מתירה ישאנה באיסור. אבל אם נשאה, סופו להיות שונאה, שנאמר אחריו (פסוק טו) כי תהיין לאיש וגו' וסופו להוליד ממנה בן סורר ומורה, לכך נסמכו פרשיות הללו:
12You shall bring her into your home, and she shall shave her head and let her nails grow.   יבוַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת צִפָּרְנֶיהָ:
and let her nails grow: Heb. וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת-צִפָּרְנֶיהָ. She must let them grow, so that she should becomes repulsive [to her captor, to induce him to change his mind about marrying her]. — [Sifrei 21:7, Yev. 48a]   ועשתה את צפרניה: תגדלם כדי שתתנוול:
13And she shall remove the garment of her captivity from upon herself, and stay in your house, and weep for her father and her mother for a full month. After that, you may be intimate with her and possess her, and she will be a wife for you.   יגוְהֵסִירָה אֶת שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת אָבִיהָ וְאֶת אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה:
And she shall remove the garment of her captivity: [so that she should not be attractive to her captor,] for they are pretty [clothes], because gentile women adorn themselves during wartime, in order to seduce others [namely, the enemy] to have relations with them. — [Sifrei 21:8]   והסירה את שמלת שביה: לפי שהם נאים, שהגוים בנותיהם מתקשטות במלחמה בשביל להזנות אחרים עמהם:
and stay in your house: In the house he uses. Upon entering, he will stumble upon her, and upon leaving, he will stumble upon her, see her weeping and see her unsightly appearance-all this, so that she should become despicable to him. — [Sifrei 21: 9]   וישבה בביתך: בבית שמשתמש בו, נכנס ונתקל בה, יוצא ונתקל בה, רואה בבכייתה, רואה בנוולה, כדי שתתגנה עליו:
and weep for her father and her mother: Why is all this necessary? So that an Israelite woman [i.e., this man’s Jewish wife] should be happy, and this [gentile captive woman] should be grief-stricken, an Israelite woman should be dressed up, and this one should make herself repulsive. — [Sifrei 21:11]   ובכתה את אביה: כל כך למה, כדי שתהא בת ישראל שמחה וזו עצבה, בת ישראל מתקשטת וזו מתנוולת:
14And it will be, if you do not desire her, then you shall send her away wherever she wishes, but you shall not sell her for money. You shall not keep her as a servant, because you have afflicted her.   ידוְהָיָה אִם לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ:
And it will be, if you do not desire her: Scripture informs you that eventually you will despise her. — [Sifrei 21:14.   והיה אם לא חפצתה בה: הכתוב מבשרך שסופך לשנאותה:
You shall not keep her as a servant: Heb. לֹא-תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ. [This means:]“You must not use her [as a slave]” (Sifrei 21:16). In the Persian language, the term for slavery and servitude is עִימְרָאָה [the term used here]. I learned this from the Yesod of Rabbi Moses the Darshan.   לא תתעמר בה: לא תשתמש בה בלשון פרסי קורין לעבדות ושימוש, עימראה. מיסודו של רבי משה הדרשן למדתי כן:
15If a man has two wives-one beloved and the other despised-and they bear him sons, the beloved one and the despised one, and the firstborn son is from the despised one.   טוכִּי תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה:
16Then it will be, on the day he [the husband] bequeaths his property to his sons, that he will not be able to give the son of the beloved [wife] birthright precedence over the son of the despised [wife]-the [real] firstborn son.   טזוְהָיָה בְּיוֹם הַנְחִילוֹ אֶת בָּנָיו אֵת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לוֹ לֹא יוּכַל לְבַכֵּר אֶת בֶּן הָאֲהוּבָה עַל פְּנֵי בֶן הַשְּׂנוּאָה הַבְּכֹר:
17Rather, he must acknowledge the firstborn, the son of the despised [wife] and give him a double share in all that he possesses, because he [this firstborn son] is the first of his strength, then he has the birthright entitlement.   יזכִּי אֶת הַבְּכֹר בֶּן הַשְּׂנוּאָה יַכִּיר לָתֶת לוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִמָּצֵא לוֹ כִּי הוּא רֵאשִׁית אֹנוֹ לוֹ מִשְׁפַּט הַבְּכֹרָה:
a double share: [The firstborn son takes a share] equal to that of two brothers [together]. — [Sifrei 21:28]   פי שנים: כנגד שני אחים:
[and give him a double share] in all that he possesses: From here [we learn that] the firstborn son does not take [a double share] from that which [the father’s estate] is entitled to after the demise of the father, [e.g., from an uncollected debt,] as [he does] from what was in the father’s actual possession. — [Sifrei 21:29, Bech. 51b]   בכל אשר ימצא לו: מכאן שאין הבכור נוטל פי שנים בראוי לבא לאחר מיתת האב, כבמוחזק:
18If a man has a wayward and rebellious son, who does not obey his father or his mother, and they chasten him, and [he still] does not listen to them,   יחכִּי יִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ בֵּן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה אֵינֶנּוּ שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקוֹל אָבִיו וּבְקוֹל אִמּוֹ וְיִסְּרוּ אֹתוֹ וְלֹא יִשְׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם:
wayward: Heb. סוֹרֵר, deviating (סָר) from the [proper] path.   סורר: סר מן הדרך:
rebellious: Heb. מוֹרֶה, [meaning] one who disobeys the words of his father. [The word מוֹרֶה is] derived from [the same root as] the word מַמְרִים [meaning “to rebel”] (see Deut. 9:7).   ומורה: מסרב בדברי אביו, לשון ממרים:
they shall chasten him: They must warn him in the presence of three [people, not to steal, nor to eat a certain quantity of meat and drink a certain quantity of wine (see further in Rashi)], and then they must have him flogged [by the court] (San. 71a; see Sifrei). [The Talmud (San. 71a) emends this to read: They must warn him in the presence of two (witnesses) and have him flogged in the presence of three (judges).] The wayward and rebellious son incurs punishment only if he steals [money from his father], consumes [at one meal] a tartemar [a weight equal to half a maneh] of meat, and drinks [at the same meal] half a log of wine, as it is said [referring to him], “a glutton and a guzzler (זוֹלֵל וְסֹבֵא)” (verse 20), and [elsewhere] it says, “Do not be among wine-guzzlers (בְסֹבְאֵי-יָיִן), among gluttonous eaters of meat (בְּזֹלְלֵי-בָשָׂר)” (Prov. 23:20), [which indicates that the term “guzzler” refers to wine and “glutton” refers to meat] (San. 70a, Sifrei). The wayward and rebellious son is executed on account of [what he will become in] the end-the Torah penetrates to his ultimate intentions. Eventually, he will squander his father’s money, seek what he has become accustomed to, not find it, and stand at the crossroads and rob people [killing them, thereby incurring the death penalty. Says the Torah, “Let him die innocent [of such crimes], rather than have him die guilty [of such crimes].” - [San. 72b]   ויסרו אותו: מתרין בו בפני שלשה ומלקין אותו. בן סורר ומורה אינו חייב, עד שיגנוב ויאכל תרטימר בשר וישתה חצי לוג יין. שנאמר (פסוק כ) זולל וסובא, ונאמר (משלי כג, כ) אל תהי בסובאי יין בזוללי בשר למו. ובן סורר ומורה נהרג על שם סופו, הגיעה תורה לסוף דעתו, סוף שמכלה ממון אביו ומבקש לימודו ואינו מוצא, ועומד בפרשת דרכים ומלסטם את הבריות, אמרה תורה ימות זכאי ואל ימות חייב:
19his father and his mother shall take hold of him and bring him out to the elders of his city, and to the gate of his place.   יטוְתָפְשׂוּ בוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ וְאֶל שַׁעַר מְקֹמוֹ:
20And they shall say to the elders of his city, "This son of ours is wayward and rebellious; he does not obey us; [he is] a glutton and a guzzler."   כוְאָמְרוּ אֶל זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ בְּנֵנוּ זֶה סוֹרֵר וּמֹרֶה אֵינֶנּוּ שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקֹלֵנוּ זוֹלֵל וְסֹבֵא:
21And all the men of his city shall pelt him to death with stones, and he shall die. So shall you clear out the evil from among you, and all Israel will listen and fear.   כאוּרְגָמֻהוּ כָּל אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ בָאֲבָנִים וָמֵת וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּ:
and all Israel will listen and fear: From here, [we learn that] the court must make a public proclamation, announcing: “So-and-so has been stoned because he was a wayward and rebellious son!” - [San. 89a]   וכל ישראל ישמעו ויראו: מכאן שצריך הכרזה בבית דין, פלוני נסקל על שהיה בן סורר ומורה:
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