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Torah Reading for Behar

Torah Reading for Behar

In Israel: Bechukotai

Parshat Behar
Shabbat, 20 Iyar, 5779
25 May, 2019
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1st Portion: (Leviticus 25:1-13)
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Leviticus Chapter 25

1And the Lord spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה בְּהַ֥ר סִינַ֖י לֵאמֹֽר:
on Mount Sinai: What [special relevance] does the subject of Shemittah [the “release” of fields in the seventh year] have with Mount Sinai? Were not all the commandments stated from Sinai? However, [this teaches us that] just as with Shemittah, its general principles and its finer details were all stated from Sinai, likewise, all of them were stated-their general principles [together with] their finer details-from Sinai. This is what is taught in Torath Kohanim (25:1). [And why is Shemittah used as the example to prove this rule, especially since the very fine details are not even specified here (Sefer Hazikkaron)?] It appears to me that its explanation is as follows: [At the plains of Moab, Moses reiterated the majority of the laws of the Torah to the Israelites before their entry into the land of Israel, this reiteration comprising most of the Book of Deuteronomy. Now,] since we do not find the laws of Shemittah [“release”] of land reiterated on the plains of Moab in Deuteronomy, we learn that its general principles, finer details, and explanations were all stated at Sinai. Scripture states this [phrase] here to teach us that [just as in the case of Shemittah,] every statement [i.e., every commandment] that was conveyed to Moses came from Sinai, [including] their general principles and finer details [and that the commandments delineated in Deuteronomy were merely] repeated and reviewed on the plains of Moab [not originally given there].   בהר סיני: מה ענין שמיטה אצל הר סיני, והלא כל המצות נאמרו מסיני, אלא מה שמיטה נאמרו כללותיה ופרטותיה ודקדוקיה מסיני, אף כולן נאמרו כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן מסיני, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים. ונראה לי שכך פירושה לפי שלא מצינו שמיטת קרקעות שנשנית בערבות מואב במשנה תורה, למדנו שכללותיה ופרטותיה כולן נאמרו מסיני, ובא הכתוב ולמד כאן על כל דבור שנדבר למשה שמסיני היו כולם כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן, וחזרו ונשנו בערבות מואב:
2Speak to the children of Israel and you shall say to them: When you come to the land that I am giving you, the land shall rest a Sabbath to the Lord.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּ֤י תָבֹ֨אוּ֙ אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י נֹתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֑ם וְשָֽׁבְתָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ שַׁבָּ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
a Sabbath to the Lord: For the sake of the Lord, just as is stated of the Sabbath of Creation (see Exod. 20:10) [i.e., just as every seventh day is a holy Sabbath day, acclaiming that God Himself rested on the seventh day and thus acclaiming that God is the Supreme Creator of all existence, likewise, man must rest from working the land on the seventh year, for the sake of God, not for the sake of the land, so that it should gain fertility by lying fallow for a year]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:7]   שבת לה': לשם ה', כשם שנאמר בשבת בראשית:
3You may sow your field for six years, and for six years you may prune your vineyard, and gather in its produce,   גשֵׁ֤שׁ שָׁנִים֙ תִּזְרַ֣ע שָׂדֶ֔ךָ וְשֵׁ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים תִּזְמֹ֣ר כַּרְמֶ֑ךָ וְאָֽסַפְתָּ֖ אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתָֽהּ:
4But in the seventh year, the land shall have a complete rest a Sabbath to the Lord; you shall not sow your field, nor shall you prune your vineyard.   דוּבַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗ת שַׁבַּ֤ת שַׁבָּתוֹן֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָאָ֔רֶץ שַׁבָּ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה שָֽׂדְךָ֙ לֹ֣א תִזְרָ֔ע וְכַרְמְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תִזְמֹֽר:
the land shall have [a complete rest]: for fields and vineyards [but you may dig holes in your land]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   יהיה לארץ: לשדות ולכרמים:
nor shall you prune: Heb. לֹא תִזְמֹר. [This refers to the procedure in which] they cut off the [excessive] vine-branches (זְמוֹרוֹת) [and this expression] is rendered [by Onkelos] as לָא תִכְסָח, you shall not cut off, and similar to it is “as thorns cut down (כְּסוּחִים) [that are burned in fire]” (Isa. 33:12), and "it is burned with fire, it is cut (כְּסוּחָה) down.   לא תזמר: שקוצצין זמורותיה. ותרגומו לא תכסח, ודומה לו (ישעיה לג יב) קוצים כסוחים, (תהלים פ יז) שרופה באש כסוחה:
5You shall not reap the aftergrowth of your harvest, and you shall not pick the grapes you had set aside [for yourself], [for] it shall be a year of rest for the land.   האֵ֣ת סְפִ֤יחַ קְצִֽירְךָ֙ לֹ֣א תִקְצ֔וֹר וְאֶת־עִנְּבֵ֥י נְזִירֶ֖ךָ לֹ֣א תִבְצֹ֑ר שְׁנַ֥ת שַׁבָּת֖וֹן יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָאָֽרֶץ:
the aftergrowth of your harvest: although you did not sow it, but it grew by itself from seeds that [inadvertently] had dropped on [the ground] at the time of harvesting. This is called סְפִיחַ.   את ספיח קצירך: אפילו לא זרעתה והיא צמחה מן הזרע שנפל בה בעת הקציר, הוא קרוי ספיח:
You shall not reap: to keep it like a regular harvest, but it must be rendered ownerless, [and available] for everyone [to take at will]. — [Be’er Basadeh]   לא תקצור: להיות מחזיק בו כשאר קציר, אלא הפקר יהיה לכל:
the grapes you had set aside [for yourself]: [i.e., those grapes] that you set aside (הִנְזַרְתָּ) and kept people away from them and did not declare them ownerless.   נזירך: שהנזרת והפרשת בני אדם מהם ולא הפקרתם:
you shall not pick: Those, you shall not pick, but [you may pick] from crops declared ownerless. — [Torath Kohanim 25:8]   לא תבצר: אותם אינך בוצר, אלא מן המופקר:
6And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land shall be yours to eat for you, for your male and female slaves, and for your hired worker and resident who live with you,   ווְהָֽיְתָ֠ה שַׁבַּ֨ת הָאָ֤רֶץ לָכֶם֙ לְאָכְלָ֔ה לְךָ֖ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וְלַֽאֲמָתֶ֑ךָ וְלִשְׂכִֽירְךָ֙ וּלְתוֹשָׁ֣בְךָ֔ הַגָּרִ֖ים עִמָּֽךְ:
And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land, shall be [yours to eat]: Although I have prohibited the produce [of the Shemittah year] to you, I did not prohibit you to eat it or to derive benefit from it, only that you should not treat it as if you were its owner. Rather, everyone is deemed equal [regarding the use of the Shemittah year’s produce]-you, [your slaves,] and your hired worker and resident.   והיתה שבת הארץ וגו': אף על פי שאסרתים עליך, לא באכילה ולא בהנאה אסרתים, אלא שלא תנהוג בהם כבעל הבית, אלא הכל יהיו שוים בה, אתה ושכירך ותושבך:
And the produce of the Sabbath of the land... yours to eat: שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ. You may eat from what you treated as ownerless (שָׁבוּת), [see Sifthei Chachamim], but from that [produce] which is stored away, you shall not eat. — [Torath Kohanim 25:10]   שבת הארץ לכם לאכלה: מן השבות אתה אוכל, ואי אתה אוכל מן השמור:
for you, for your male and female slaves: Since Scripture says [regarding Shemittah], “and the poor of your people shall eat [it]” (Exod. 23:11), one might think that it [the produce of the Shemittah year] is prohibited to be eaten by wealthy people. Scripture, therefore, says here, “for you, for your male and female slaves,”-we see that the [wealthy] owners and the male and female slaves are included here [to permit them also to eat of the Shemittah year produce]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:12 and see Sefer Hazikkaron]   לך ולעבדך ולאמתך: לפי שנאמר (שמות כג יא) ואכלו אביוני עמך, יכול יהיו אסורים באכילה לעשירים, תלמוד לומר לך ולעבדך ולאמתך, הרי בעלים ועבדים ושפחות אמורים כאן:
and for your hired worker and resident [who live with you]: Even non-Jews. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [Hired worker is one hired by the day. Resident is one hired by the year (Bechor Shor).]   ולשכירך ולתושבך: אף הגוים:
7And all of its produce may be eaten [also] by your domestic animals and by the beasts that are in your land.   זוְלִ֨בְהֶמְתְּךָ֔ וְלַֽחַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּאַרְצֶ֑ךָ תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה כָל־תְּבֽוּאָתָ֖הּ לֶֽאֱכֹֽל:
by your domestic animals and by the beasts: But if a beast may eat [Shemittah produce], how much more so are domestic animals [allowed to eat it], since you are obliged to feed them! So why does Scripture mention “by your domestic animals”? [The answer is that Scripture] compares the domestic animal to the beast. As long as beasts [have a particular food available for them to] eat in the field, you may feed your domestic animals from your house. However, once that [particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove what you had [stored] in your house for your domestic animals [and make that food freely available to everyone]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:15]   ולבהמתך ולחיה: אם חיה אוכלת בהמה לא כל שכן, שמזונותיה עליך, מה תלמוד לומר ולבהמתך, מקיש בהמה לחיה, כל זמן שחיה אוכלת מן השדה האכל לבהמתך מן הבית, כלה לחיה מן השדה כלה לבהמתך מן הבית:
8And you shall count for yourself seven sabbatical years, seven years seven times. And the days of these seven sabbatical years shall amount to forty nine years for you.   חוְסָֽפַרְתָּ֣ לְךָ֗ שֶׁ֚בַע שַׁבְּתֹ֣ת שָׁנִ֔ים שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים שֶׁ֣בַע פְּעָמִ֑ים וְהָי֣וּ לְךָ֗ יְמֵי֙ שֶׁ֚בַע שַׁבְּתֹ֣ת הַשָּׁנִ֔ים תֵּ֥שַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים שָׁנָֽה:
sabbatical years: Heb. שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים, sabbatical years. Now, [since our verse therefore tells us to count “seven sabbatical years,”] one might think that we should observe seven consecutive sabbatical years, and then make a Jubilee year after them. Scripture, therefore, continues here, “seven years seven times,” thus showing us that every Shemittah year occurs in its own time [namely, every seventh year]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:13]   שבתת שנים: שמטות שנים. יכול יעשה שבע שנים רצופות שמטה ויעשה יובל אחריהם, תלמוד לומר שבע שנים שבע פעמים, הוי אומר כל שמטה ושמטה בזמנה:
And the days of these seven [sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years]: [But is it not already clear that seven years seven times equals forty-nine? However, this] comes to tell us that even though you have not observed the Shemittah years [throughout that period], nevertheless, make a Jubilee at the end of forty-nine years. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [This is a Midrashic explanation, linking the end of our verse with the next, to read, “And the days of these seven sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years for you (and) Then…you shall proclaim with shofar blasts.”] The simple meaning of our verse is, however, that the calculation of the years of the Shemittah cycles will amount to the number forty-nine.   והיו לך ימי שבע וגו': מגיד לך שאף על פי שלא עשית שמטות עשה יובל לסוף מ"ט שנה. ופשוטו של מקרא יעלה לך חשבון שנות השמטות למספר מ"ט:
9You shall proclaim [with] the shofar blasts, in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement, you shall sound the shofar throughout your land.   טוְהַֽעֲבַרְתָּ֞ שׁוֹפַ֤ר תְּרוּעָה֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִ֔י בֶּֽעָשׂ֖וֹר לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ בְּיוֹם֙ הַכִּפֻּרִ֔ים תַּֽעֲבִ֥ירוּ שׁוֹפָ֖ר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶֽם:
You shall proclaim: Heb. וַהַעֲבַרְתָּ, [lit., “you shall pass” something from one place to another. But here, this term] stems from [the similar expression in the verse], “and they proclaimed (וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל) throughout the camp” (Exod. 36:6), an expression of proclamation. — [R.H. 34a]   והעברת: לשון (שמות לו ו) ויעבירו קול במחנה, לשון הכרזה:
[On the tenth of the month,] on the Day of Atonement: But since it says, “on the Day of Atonement,” do I not already know that this occurs “on the tenth of the month”? So why does Scripture need to state, “on the tenth of the month”? However, [it does so,] in order to teach you the following: [The obligation] to sound the shofar on the tenth of the month [i.e., on the Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year] overrides the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on the] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” whereas [the obligation] to sound the shofar on Rosh Hashanah does not override the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” except in the court of law [where this prohibition does not apply (see Ramban on our verse)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:16]   ביום הכפורים: ממשמע שנאמר ביום הכפורים איני יודע שהוא בעשור לחדש, אם כן למה נאמר בעשור לחדש, אלא לומר לך תקיעת עשור לחדש דוחה שבת בכל ארצכם, ואין תקיעת ראש השנה דוחה שבת בכל ארצכם, אלא בבית דין בלבד:
10And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year, and proclaim freedom [for slaves] throughout the land for all who live on it. It shall be a Jubilee for you, and you shall return, each man to his property,_ and you shall return, each man to his family.   יוְקִדַּשְׁתֶּ֗ם אֵ֣ת שְׁנַ֤ת הַֽחֲמִשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּקְרָאתֶ֥ם דְּר֛וֹר בָּאָ֖רֶץ לְכָל־יֽשְׁבֶ֑יהָ יוֹבֵ֥ל הִוא֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם וְשַׁבְתֶּ֗ם אִ֚ישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ וְאִ֥ישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ תָּשֻֽׁבוּ:
And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year]: [How?] At its commencement, [this Jubilee year] is sanctified in the court, [at which time] they declare: “This year is holy!”   וקדשתם: בכניסתה מקדשין אותה בבית דין ואומרים מקודשת השנה:
and proclaim freedom: for slaves, whether a נִרְצָע [a Jewish slave who chose to remain with his master even after his being permitted to go free at the end of six years and who therefore had to have his ear bored (see Exod. 21:16) or a slave] for whom his six-year period since having been sold has not yet elapsed. Said Rabbi Judah: What does this term דְּרוֹר mean? As one who dwells (כִּמְדַייֵר) in a dwelling (בֵּי דַייְרָא) etc., who dwells wherever he wishes, and is not under the domain of others [thus, the term דְּרוֹר denotes “freedom”]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:18, R.H. 9b and see Rashi there]   וקראתם דרור: לעבדים, בין נרצע, בין שלא כלו לו שש שנים משנמכר. אמר ר' יהודה מהו לשון דרור, כמדייר בי דיירא ומסחר בכל מדינה וכו', שדר בכל מקום שהוא רוצה ואינו ברשות אחרים:
It shall be a Jubilee: This year is distinguished from all other years, for only it has a special name. And what is that name? It is called יוֹבֵל [meaning “ram’s horn” (see Rashi on Exod. 19:13)], because of the shofar that is sounded [upon its commencement].   יובל הוא: שנה זאת מובדלת משאר שנים בנקיבת שם לה לבדה. ומה שמה, יובל שמה, על שם תקיעת שופר:
and you shall return, each man to his property: that the fields revert to their owners. [This verse does not mean that the owner must return to his field, but that the ownership of the field returns to the one who had sold it (Mesiach Illemim)].   ושבתם איש אל אחזתו: שהשדות חוזרות לבעליהן:
and you shall return, each man to his family: [This clause comes] to include the “bored one.” (See second Rashi on this verse.) - [Kid. 15a]   ואיש אל משפחתו תשבו: לרבות את הנרצע:
11This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you you shall not sow, nor shall you reap its aftergrowth or pick [its grapes] that you had set aside [for yourself].   יאיוֹבֵ֣ל הִ֗וא שְׁנַ֛ת הַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם לֹ֣א תִזְרָ֔עוּ וְלֹ֤א תִקְצְרוּ֙ אֶת־סְפִיחֶ֔יהָ וְלֹ֥א תִבְצְר֖וּ אֶת־נְזִרֶֽיהָ:
This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you: What does this come to teach us?“ Since Scripture says (preceding verse),”And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year,“ one might think that just as, at the beginning of the year, it gains sanctity progressively, so should its sanctity extend after the year, as it is with other instances of sanctification of holy times, e.g., Sabbath or a holy Festival, with which some ordinary time is added on to the holy time, here, too, some of the year following the Jubilee must be added on to it. Scripture, therefore, says, ”This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you" - only the fiftieth year, with no extensions. The above] is taught in Tractate R.H. (8b) and Torath Kohanim (25:23).   יובל הוא שנת החמשים שנה: מה תלמוד לומר, לפי שנאמר וקדשתם וגו', כדאיתא בראש השנה (ח ב) ובתורת כהנים:
its [grapes that] you had set aside: Heb. נְזִרֶיהָ, those grapes stored away, but you may harvest those that have been rendered ownerless. [For] just as with Shemittah [the term נְזִירֶךָ] is stated [specifically referring to grapes (see Rashi verse 5 above)], so with Jubilee, [this term נְזִרֶיהָ] is stated [and refers specifically to grapes, for Shemittah and Jubilee are equal in all matters. (Mesiach Illemim, Devek Tov, Sifthei Chachamim) See also Be’er Basadeh, Maskil L’David]. Thus, two holy years are found right next to each other-the forty-ninth year [in each cycle] is Shemittah and the fiftieth year is Jubilee.   את נזריה: את הענבים המשומרים. אבל בוצר אתה מן המופקרים, כשם שנאמר בשביעית כך נאמר ביובל, נמצאו שתי שנים קדושות סמוכות זו לזו, שנת מ"ט שמטה ושנת החמישים יובל:
12For it is Jubilee. It shall be holy for you; you shall eat its produce from the field.   יבכִּ֚י יוֹבֵ֣ל הִ֔וא קֹ֖דֶשׁ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם מִ֨ן־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתָֽהּ:
It shall be holy for you: [The produce of Jubilee] attaches its holiness onto the money [it is sold for] like items dedicated to the Holy Temple. However, one might think that [just like items dedicated to the Holy Temple, this produce] leaves [its holy status,] to become unholy-Scripture, therefore, says here “It shall be,” [as if to say,] they shall remain as they were. — [Suk. 40b]   קדש תהיה לכם: תופסת דמיה כהקדש. יכול תצא היא לחולין, תלמוד לומר תהיה, בהוויתה תהא:
You shall eat [its produce] from the field: You shall [gauge your] eating in the house, by way of the field. [That is to say,] once [a particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove [what you had stored of that food] from your house [and make it freely available to all]. (See Rashi on verse 7 above; Torath Kohanim 25:26). Just as was stated regarding Shemittah, so it is stated regarding the Jubilee.   מן השדה תאכלו: על ידי השדה אתה אוכל מן הבית, שאם כלה לחיה מן השדה אתה צריך לבער מן הבית, כשם שנאמר בשביעית כך נאמר ביובל:
13During this Jubilee year, you shall return, each man to his property.   יגבִּשְׁנַ֥ת הַיּוֹבֵ֖ל הַזֹּ֑את תָּשֻׁ֕בוּ אִ֖ישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
you shall return, each man to his property: But has this not already been stated, [when Scripture says], “ and you shall return, each man to his property” (verse 10 above)? However, [this clause is stated here,] to include one who sold his field, and his son arose and redeemed it, that it reverts to his father in the Jubilee. — [Torath Kohanim 25:28]   תשבו איש אל אחזתו: והרי כבר נאמר (פסוק י) ושבתם איש אל אחזתו, אלא לרבות המוכר שדהו ועמד בנו וגאלה שחוזרת לאביו ביובל:
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