Exodus Chapter 22

4If a man leads his animals into a field or a vineyard, or lets his animal loose and it eats in another's field, the best of his field or the best of his vineyard he shall pay.   דכִּ֤י יַבְעֶר־אִישׁ֙ שָׂדֶ֣ה אוֹ־כֶ֔רֶם וְשִׁלַּח֙ אֶת־בְּעִיר֔וֹ (כתיב בעירה) וּבִעֵ֖ר בִּשְׂדֵ֣ה אַחֵ֑ר מֵיטַ֥ב שָׂדֵ֛הוּ וּמֵיטַ֥ב כַּרְמ֖וֹ יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
If leads his animals: These terms denote an animal as [it says] (Numbers 20:4) "we and our cattle" אנחנו ובעירנו   כי יבער. את בעירה ובער: כולם לשון בהמה, כמו (במדבר כ ד) אנחנו ובעירנו:
If leads his animals: Heb. יַבְעֶר, [i.e.,] leads his animals into his neighbor’s field or vineyard, and it damages it [the property] in one of these two [ways]: either by sending (שִׁלּוּחַ) his animal or by eating (בִּעוּר). Our Sages explained [that] וְשִׁלַח refers to the damages [made by] the treading of the foot, and וּבִעֵר refers to the damages of the tooth, which eats and destroys [someone’s property]. -[From B.K. 2b]   כי יבער: יוליך בהמותיו בשדה וכרם של חבירו ויזיק אותו באחת משתי אלה או בשלוח בעירה, או בביעור. ופירשו רבותינו שלוח הוא נזקי מדרך כף רגל, ובער הוא נזקי השן האוכלת ומבערת:
in another’s field: Heb. בִּשְׂדֵה אַחֵר, in another person’s field. The vowelization of בִּשְׂדֵה with the sheva under the “sin” denotes the construct state. Hence, it means “in the field of another,” rather than “in another field.” Since the noun is missing, Rashi explains that it means “another person’s field.” -[Mizrachi]   בשדה אחר: בשדה של איש אחר:
the best of his field… he shall pay: They [judges] assess the damage, and if he [the owner of this animal] comes to pay him [the owner of the land] the amount of his damage with land, he must pay him from the best of his fields. If his damage was [worth] a sela, he must give him the value of a sela from the best [land] that he has. Scripture teaches you that for the injured party, they assess [the damage] with the best land. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 6b]   מיטב שדהו ישלם: שמין את הנזק, ואם בא לשלם לו קרקע דמי נזקו, ישלם לו ממיטב שדותיו אם היה נזקו סלע יתן לו שוה סלע מעידית שיש לו. למדך הכתוב, שהניזקין שמין להם בעידית:
5If a fire goes forth and finds thorns, and a stack of grain or standing grain or the field be consumed, the one who ignited the fire shall surely pay.   הכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֨א אֵ֜שׁ וּמָֽצְאָ֤ה קֹצִים֙ וְנֶֽאֱכַ֣ל גָּדִ֔ישׁ א֥וֹ הַקָּמָ֖ה א֣וֹ הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה שַׁלֵּ֣ם יְשַׁלֵּ֔ם הַמַּבְעִ֖ר אֶת־הַבְּעֵרָֽה:
If a fire goes forth: Even by itself. [From B.K. 22b]   כי תצא אש: אפילו מעצמה:
and finds thorns: Heb. קֹצִים, chardons in French, [meaning] thistles.   ומצאה קוצים: קרדונ"ש בלעז [קוצים]:
and a stack of grain… be consumed: That it [the fire] caught onto the thorns until it reached a stack of grain or standing grain still attached to the ground.   ונאכל גדיש: שליחכה בקוצים עד שהגיעה לגדיש או לקמה המחוברת לקרקע:
or the field: That it [the fire] scorched the furrow that he had plowed, and he had to plow it a second time. -[From B.K. 60a]   או השדה: שליחכה את נירו וצריך לניר אותה פעם שנייה:
the one who ignited the fire shall surely pay: Although he ignited it within his own property, and it spread by itself through thorns that it found, he is liable to pay because he did not guard his burning coal so that it would not go forth and inflict damage.   שלם ישלם המבעיר: אף על פי שהדליק בתוך שלו והיא יצאה מעצמה על ידי קוצים שמצאה, חייב לשלם, לפי שלא שמר את גחלתו שלא תצא ותזיק:
6If a man gives his neighbor money or articles for safekeeping, and it is stolen from the man's house, if the thief is found, he shall pay twofold.   וכִּֽי־יִתֵּן֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֜הוּ כֶּ֤סֶף אֽוֹ־כֵלִים֙ לִשְׁמֹ֔ר וְגֻנַּ֖ב מִבֵּ֣ית הָאִ֑ישׁ אִם־יִמָּצֵ֥א הַגַּנָּ֖ב יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם שְׁנָֽיִם:
and it is stolen from the man’s house: According to his words.   וגנב מבית האיש: לפי דבריו:
if the thief is found, he shall pay twofold: The thief shall pay twofold [the value of the object] to its [original] owners. -[From B.K. 63b]   אם ימצא הגנב: ישלם הגנב שנים לבעלים:
7If the thief is not found, the homeowner shall approach the judges, [to swear] that he has not laid his hand upon his neighbor's property.   זאִם־לֹ֤א יִמָּצֵא֙ הַגַּנָּ֔ב וְנִקְרַ֥ב בַּֽעַל־הַבַּ֖יִת אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים אִם־לֹ֥א שָׁלַ֛ח יָד֖וֹ בִּמְלֶ֥אכֶת רֵעֵֽהוּ:
If the thief is not found: And this custodian, who is the owner of the house, comes.   אם לא ימצא הגנב: ובא השומר הזה שהוא בעל הבית:
approaches -: the judges to litigate with this one [the owner] and to swear to him that he did not lay his hand upon his [property]. -[From B.K. 63b]   ונקרב: אל הדיינין לדון עם זה ולישבע לו שלא שלח ידו בשלו:
8For any sinful word, for a bull, for a donkey, for a lamb, for a garment, for any lost article, concerning which he will say that this is it, the plea[s] of both parties shall come to the judges, [and] whoever the judges declare guilty shall pay twofold to his neighbor.   חעַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּ֡שַׁע עַל־שׁ֡וֹר עַל־חֲמ֩וֹר֩ עַל־שֶׂ֨ה עַל־שַׂלְמָ֜ה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר יֹאמַר֙ כִּי־ה֣וּא זֶ֔ה עַ֚ד הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים יָבֹ֖א דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַרְשִׁיעֻן֙ אֱלֹהִ֔ים יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם שְׁנַ֖יִם לְרֵעֵֽהוּ:
For any sinful word: [i.e.,] that he is found to be lying in his oath, for witnesses testify that he himself stole it, and the judges declare him guilty because of [the testimony of] the witnesses.   על כל דבר פשע: שימצא שקרן בשבועתו, שיעידו עדים שהוא עצמו גנבו, וירשיעוהו א-להים על פי העדים:
shall pay twofold to his neighbor: The text teaches you that if one puts forth a claim concerning an item entrusted to him, saying that it was stolen from him, and it is discovered that he himself stole it, he must make twofold restitution. When [is this so]? Only if he swore [that he did not take it] and afterwards witnesses came [and testified that he had taken it for himself,] for so have our Rabbis, of blessed memory, interpreted: “and the homeowner approaches the judges” (verse 7). This approaching means [to make] an oath [that the custodian swore that the article was stolen]. You say [that he approaches] for an oath, or perhaps it means [he approaches] only for litigation. [In this case, if] he comes to litigate and he denies [any responsibility] by saying that it [the object] was stolen, then is he immediately liable for twofold restitution if witnesses come [and testify] that it is in his possession? [The answer is that since the expression] laying a hand is mentioned here (in verse 7), and below, laying a hand is [also] mentioned: “the oath of the Lord shall be between the two of them provided that he did not lay his hand upon his neighbor’s property.” (verse 10). Just as [“lay his hand” written] further denotes an oath, so does [“laid his hand” written] here denote an oath. -[From Mechilta, B. K. 63b]   ישלם שנים לרעהו: למדך הכתוב, שהטוען בפקדון לומר נגנב הימנו, ונמצא שהוא עצמו גנבו, משלם תשלומי כפל. ואימתי בזמן שנשבע ואחר כך באו עדים, שכך דרשו רבותינו ז"ל ונקרב בעל הבית אל הא-להים, קריבה זו שבועה היא. אתה אומר לשבועה, או אינו אלא לדין, שכיון שבא לדין וכפר לומר נגנבה, מיד יתחייב כפל, אם באו עדים שהוא בידו. נאמר כאן שליחות יד, ונאמר למטה שליחות יד (פסוק י) שבועת ה' תהיה בין שניהם אם לא שלח ידו, מה להלן שבועה אף כאן שבועה:
concerning which he will say that this is it: According to its [the verse’s] simple meaning, concerning which the witness will say that this is it, [i.e., the article] about which you swore [was stolen but really] is in your possession. The pleas of both parties must be brought to the judges and they [the judges] will interrogate the witnesses, and if they [the witnesses] are acceptable and they [the judges] declare this custodian guilty, he must pay twofold [to the owner]. If they declare the witnesses guilty, namely that they were found collusive, they must pay twofold to the custodian. Our Rabbis, of blessed memory, however, interpreted כִּי הוּא זֶה, that this is it, to mean that [the judges] do not demand an oath of him [the custodian] unless he admitted part [of the claim against him], saying, “I owe you this much, but the rest was stolen from me.” -[From B.K. 106b]   אשר יאמר כי הוא זה: לפי פשוטו אשר יאמר העד כי הוא זה שנשבעת עליו הרי הוא אצלך. עד הדיינין יבא דבר שניהם ויחקרו את העדים, ואם כשרים הם וירשיעוהו לשומר זה, ישלם שנים, ואם ירשיעו את העדים, שנמצאו זוממין, ישלמו הם שנים לשומר. ורבותינו ז"ל דרשו כי הוא זה, ללמד שאין מחייבין אותו שבועה אלא אם כן הודה במקצת לומר כך וכך אני חייב לך, והמותר נגנב ממני:
9If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, a bull, a lamb, or any animal for safekeeping, and it dies, breaks a limb, or is captured, and no one sees [it],   טכִּֽי־יִתֵּן֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֜הוּ חֲמ֨וֹר אוֹ־שׁ֥וֹר אוֹ־שֶׂ֛ה וְכָל־בְּהֵמָ֖ה לִשְׁמֹ֑ר וּמֵ֛ת אֽוֹ־נִשְׁבַּ֥ר אֽוֹ־נִשְׁבָּ֖ה אֵ֥ין רֹאֶֽה:
If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, a bull: The first section was stated concerning an unpaid custodian. Therefore, [the Torah] exempted him [the custodian] from theft, as it is written: “and it is stolen from the man’s house… If the thief is not found, the homeowner approaches the judges” (verses 6-7) for an oath. [Thus] you learn that he exempts himself with this oath. This section, [however,] is stated concerning a paid custodian. Therefore, he is not exempt if it [the deposit] was stolen, as it is written: “But if it is stolen from him, he shall pay” (verse 11). But in the case of an accident beyond his control, such as if it [the animal] died by itself or if it broke a limb, or if it was forcibly captured by bandits, and no one [was there to] see it [and] to testify concerning the matter [if he swears that this is the case, then he is exempt]. — [From B.M. 94b]   כי יתן איש אל רעהו חמור או שור: פרשה ראשונה נאמרה בשומר חנם, לפיכך פטר בו את הגנבה, כמו שנאמר (פסוק ו) וגונב מבית האיש, אם לא ימצא הגנב ונקרב בעל הבית לשבועה, למדת שפוטר עצמו בשבועה זו. ופרשה זו אמורה בשומר שכר, לפיכך אינו פטור אם נגנבה, כמו שכתוב (פסוק יא) אם גנוב יגנב מעמו ישלם, אבל על האונס, כגון מת מעצמו, או נשבר או נשבה בחזקה על ידי לסטים, ואין רואה שיעיד בדבר:
10the oath of the Lord shall be between the two of them provided that he did not lay his hand upon his neighbor's property, and its owner shall accept [it], and he shall not pay.   ישְׁבֻעַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֗ה תִּֽהְיֶה֙ בֵּ֣ין שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם אִם־לֹ֥א שָׁלַ֛ח יָד֖וֹ בִּמְלֶ֣אכֶת רֵעֵ֑הוּ וְלָקַ֥ח בְּעָלָ֖יו וְלֹ֥א יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
the oath of the Lord shall be: He must swear that it is so, as he says [that it was beyond his control] and that he did not lay his hand upon it to use it for himself. Because if he laid his hand upon it, and afterwards, something beyond his control happens to it, he is liable for [any damage resulting from] accidents.   שבועת ה' תהיה: ישבע שכן הוא כדבריו, והוא לא שלח בה יד להשתמש בה לעצמו, שאם שלח בה יד, ואחר כך נאנסה, חייב באונסים:
and its owner shall accept: the oath. [from B.K. 106a]   ולקח בעליו: השבועה:
and he shall not pay: The custodian [shall not pay] him anything.   ולא ישלם: לו השומר כלום:
11But if it is stolen from him, he shall pay its owner.   יאוְאִם־גָּנֹ֥ב יִגָּנֵ֖ב מֵֽעִמּ֑וֹ יְשַׁלֵּ֖ם לִבְעָלָֽיו:
12If it is torn apart, he shall bring witness for it; [for] the torn one he shall not pay.   יבאִם־טָרֹ֥ף יִטָּרֵ֖ף יְבִאֵ֣הוּ עֵ֑ד הַטְּרֵפָ֖ה לֹ֥א יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
If it is torn: By a ferocious beast.   אם טרף יטרף: על ידי חיה רעה:
he shall bring witness for it: He shall bring witnesses [to testify] that it [the animal] was torn [apart] in a way that was beyond his control, and he is exempt. -[From B.K. 10b, 11a]   יבאהו עד: יביא עדים שנטרפה באונס, ופטור:
[for] the torn one he shall not pay: [The Torah] does not say, “[for] a torn one he shall not pay,” but, “[for]   הטרפה לא ישלם: אינו אומר טרפה לא ישלם, אלא הטרפה, יש טרפה שהוא משלם ויש טרפה שאינו משלם. טרפת חתול ושועל ונמיה משלם. טרפת זאב, ארי ודוב ונחש אינו משלם. ומי לחשך לדון כן, שהרי כתיב ומת או נשבר או נשבה, מה מיתה שאין יכול להציל, אף שבר ושביה שאין יכול להציל:
the: torn one.” For one type of torn animal he pays, and for another type of torn animal he does not pay. For an animal torn [apart] by a cat, a fox, or a marten, he must pay, but for an animal torn by a wolf, a lion, a bear, or a snake, he does not pay. Now who whispered to you to reason that way? [The proof is] that it is written: “and it dies, breaks a limb, or is captured” (verse 9). Just as with death, he cannot save it, so it is with breaking a limb and captivity, that he cannot save [it. But in the case of less ferocious beasts, like a fox, since the shepherd could have saved his charge, he is liable]. -[From Mechilta]  
13And if a person borrows [an animal] from his neighbor and it breaks a limb or dies, if its owner is not with him, he shall surely pay.   יגוְכִֽי־יִשְׁאַ֥ל אִ֛ישׁ מֵעִ֥ם רֵעֵ֖הוּ וְנִשְׁבַּ֣ר אוֹ־מֵ֑ת בְּעָלָ֥יו אֵֽין־עִמּ֖וֹ שַׁלֵּ֥ם יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
And if a person borrows: This [verse] comes to teach you concerning a borrower, that he is liable for incidents beyond his control.   וכי ישאל: בא ללמדך על השואל שחייב באונסין:
if its owner is not with him: If the owner of the bull is not with the borrower doing his work. -[From B.M. 95b]   בעליו אין עמו: אם בעליו של שור אינו עם השואל במלאכתו:
14If its owner is with him, he shall not pay; if it is a hired [animal], it has come for its hire.   ידאִם־בְּעָלָ֥יו עִמּ֖וֹ לֹ֣א יְשַׁלֵּ֑ם אִם־שָׂכִ֣יר ה֔וּא בָּ֖א בִּשְׂכָרֽוֹ:
If its owner is with him: Whether he [the animal’s owner] is with him [the borrower] doing the same work, or if he was with him doing a different work. If he [the animal’s owner] was with him [the borrower] at the time of the loan, he [the owner] need not be with him at the time the limb was broken or the animal died [to make him exempt from payment]. -[From B.M. 95b]   אם בעליו עמו: בין שהוא באותה מלאכה, בין שהוא במלאכה אחרת, היה עמו בשעת שאלה, אינו צריך להיות עמו בשעת שבירה ומיתה:
if it is a hired [animal]: If the bull was not borrowed but hired, [and] it came to be hired into the hands of this hirer [for a fee] not through lending And he [the hirer] does not have complete benefit [of the animal] for he used it through its hire, and he does not have the status of a borrower to be liable for accidents beyond his control. [The Torah, however,] did not specify what his status is, whether he is judged like an unpaid custodian or like a paid custodian. Therefore, the Sages of Israel differed concerning him: How does a hirer pay [in the case of an accident]? Rabbi Meir says: Like an unpaid custodian. Rabbi Judah says: Like a paid custodian. -[From B.M. 90b]   אם שכיר הוא: אם השור אינו שאול אלא שכור, בא בשכרו ליד השוכר הזה ולא בשאלה, ואין כל הנאה שלו, שהרי על ידי שכרו נשתמש, ואין לו משפט שואל להתחייב באונסין. ולא פירש מה דינו, אם כשומר חנם או כשומר שכר, לפיכך נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל, שוכר כיצד משלם, רבי מאיר אומר כשומר חנם. רבי יהודה אומר כשומר שכר:
15If a man seduces a virgin who is not betrothed and lies with her, he shall provide her with a marriage contract as a wife.   טווְכִֽי־יְפַתֶּ֣ה אִ֗ישׁ בְּתוּלָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־אֹרָ֖שָׂה וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ מָהֹ֛ר יִמְהָרֶ֥נָּה לּ֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
If a man seduces: Heb. יְפַךְתֶּה, he speaks to her heart until she yields to him. And so is its Aramaic translation: וַאִרֵי יְשַׁדֵּל. שִׁדּוּל in Aramaic is the equivalent of פִּךְתּוּי in Hebrew [and both signify persuasion].   וכי יפתה: מדבר על לבה עד ששומעת לו, וכן תרגומו וארי ישדל. שדול בלשון ארמי כפתוי בלשון עברי:
he shall provide her with a marriage contract: He shall stipulate for her a dowry, as is the custom of a man to his wife, that he writes for her a kethubah, and he shall marry her. -[From Mechilta]   מהר ימהרנה: יפסוק לה מוהר כמשפט איש לאשתו, שכותב לה כתובה וישאנה:
16If her father refuses to give her to him [in marriage], he shall weigh out money according to the dowry of the virgins.   טזאִם־מָאֵ֧ן יְמָאֵ֛ן אָבִ֖יהָ לְתִתָּ֣הּ ל֑וֹ כֶּ֣סֶף יִשְׁקֹ֔ל כְּמֹ֖הַר הַבְּתוּלֹֽת:
according to the dowry of the virgins: which is fixed at fifty silver shekels in the case of one who seizes a virgin and forcibly lies with her, as it is said: “The man who lay with her shall give the maiden’s father fifty silver shekels” (Deut. 22:29). -[From Keth. 10a]   כמהר הבתולות: שהוא קצוב חמשים כסף אצל התופס את הבתולה ושוכב עמה באונס שנאמר (דברים כב כט) ונתן האיש השוכב עמה לאבי הנער חמשים כסף:
17You shall not allow a sorceress to live.   יזמְכַשֵּׁפָ֖ה לֹ֥א תְחַיֶּֽה:
You shall not allow a sorceress to live: But she shall be executed by the court. [This law applies equally to] both males and females, but the text speaks of the usual, and those who practice sorcery are usually women. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 67a]   מכשפה לא תחיה: אלא תומת בבית דין, ואחד זכרים ואחד נקבות, אלא שדבר הכתוב בהווה שהנשים מצויות מכשפות:
18Whoever lies [carnally] with an animal shall surely be put to death.   יחכָּל־שֹׁכֵ֥ב עִם־בְּהֵמָ֖ה מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
Whoever lies [carnally] with an animal shall surely be put to death: by stoning. A male who has carnal relations with an animal [is just as liable] as a female who has carnal relations with an animal, concerning whom it is written: “their blood is upon them [meaning they will be killed]” (Lev. 20:16). -[From Sanh. 53, 54]) See Rashi on Exod. 21:17.   כל שוכב עם בהמה מות יומת: בסקילה, רובע כנרבעת, שכתוב בהן (ויקרא כ טז) דמיהם בם:
19He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed, except to the Lord alone.   יטזֹבֵ֥חַ לָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים יָֽחֳרָ֑ם בִּלְתִּ֥י לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְבַדּֽוֹ:
to the gods: Heb. לָאֱלֹהִים, to pagan deities. If it were vowelized לֵאלֹהִים [the “lammed” with a “tzeirei”], it would have to specify [which deities] and [it would need to be explained and] written אִחֵרִים, other [gods]. Now that it says לָאֱלֹהִים, it does not have to specify [which gods are meant] because every “lammed,” “beth,” and “hey” prefixed to a word, if it is vowelized with a “chataf” (meaning a “sheva” ), such as לְמֶלֶ, to a king, לְמִדְבָּר, to a desert, לְעִיר, to a city, one must specify to which king, to which desert, to which city. Similarly, [with a “beth” or “lammed”] לִמְלָכִים, to kings, and לִרְגָלִים, to festivals, punctuated with a “chirik,” must be specified to which ones. If it is not specified all kings are meant. So too, לֵאלֹהִים means all gods, even the divine, but when it is vowelized with a “pattach,” like לַמֶּלֶ, to the king, לַמִּדְבָּר, to the desert, לָעִיר, to the city, [The “pattach” and the “kamatz” are in one category in this context. There is also another way to explain this, as is written in Dikdukei Rashi. See that source.] it is known about which king he is speaking, and so לָאֱלֹהִים, to the gods, to those concerning which you were warned elsewhere. Similarly, “There is none like You among the gods” (Ps. 86:8). Since it is not specified, it had to be vowelized with a “pattach”.   לא-להים: לעבודה זרה. אלו היה נקוד לא-להים היה צריך לפרש ולכתוב אחרים, עכשיו שאמר לא-להים, אין צריך לפרש אחרים, שכל למד ובית המשמשות בראש התיבה אם נקודה בחטף, כגון למלך, למדבר, לעיר, צריך לפרש לאיזה מלך, לאיזה מדבר, לאיזה עיר, וכן למלכים, לרגלים צריך לפרש לאיזה, ואם אינו מפרש, כל מלכים במשמע, וכן לא-להים כל א-להים משמע, אפילו קדש, אבל כשהיא נוקדה פת"ח, כמו למלך, למדבר, לעיר נודע באיזה מלך, באיזו מדבר ובאיזה עיר מדבר, וכן לא-להים, לאותן שהוזהרתם עליהם במקום אחר, כיוצא בו (תהלים פו ח) אין כמוך בא-להים, לפי שלא פירש הוצרך לנקד פתח:
shall be destroyed: Shall be put to death. Now why does it say “shall be destroyed” ? Is the death penalty not mentioned elsewhere: “And you shall take that man or that woman [and you shall stone them… so that they will die], etc.” (Deut. 17:5) ? Since [there the Torah] did not specify for which type of worship he is liable to death, so that you do not say that for all types of worship one is liable to death, [the Torah] came and specified to you here: “He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed,” to inform you that just as slaughtering is a type of worship performed inside [the Temple] to Heaven, I also include one who burns [incense or parts of an animal] or performs libations, which are types of worship performed inside [the Temple], and [people] are liable for performing them for idolatry whether or not it is customary to worship that particular deity in that manner. However, [for] other types of worship-for example, if one sweeps, sprinkles water on the sand floor before it [the idol], embraces it or kisses it-he is not liable to death, but he is warned against it [i.e., he is liable to receive lashes]. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 60b]   יחרם: יומת. ולמה נאמר יחרם, והלא כבר נאמר בו מיתה במקום אחר (דברים יז ה) והוצאת את האיש ההוא או את האשה ההיא וגו', אלא לפי שלא פירש על איזו עבודה חייב מיתה, שלא תאמר כל עבודות במיתה, בא ופירש לך כאן זובח לא-להים יחרם, לומר לך, מה זביחה עבודה הנעשית בפנים לשמים, אף אני מרבה המקטיר והמנסך והמשתחוה, שהן עבודת בפנים וחייבים עליהם לכל עבודה זרה בין שדרכה לעבדה בכך, בין שאין דרכה לעבדה בכך, אבל שאר עבודות, כגון מכבד והמרבץ והמגפף והמנשק, אינו במיתה, אלא באזהרה:
20And you shall not mistreat a stranger, nor shall you oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.   כוְגֵ֥ר לֹֽא־תוֹנֶ֖ה וְלֹ֣א תִלְחָצֶ֑נּוּ כִּֽי־גֵרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
And you shall not mistreat: By taunting with words, contralier in Old French, [meaning] to vex, like “And those who taunt you (מוֹנַיִ), I will feed their flesh” (Isa. 49:26). -[From Mechilta, Jonathan]   וגר לא תונה: אונאת דברים, קונטרליי"ר בלעז [לקנטר], כמו (ישעיה מט כו) והאכלתי את מוניך את בשרם:
nor shall you oppress him: by robbing [him of his] money. -[From Mechilta, Jonathan]   ולא תלחצנו: בגזילת ממון:
for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: If you taunt him, he can also taunt you and say to you, “You too emanate from strangers.” Do not reproach your neighbor with a fault that is also yours (Mechilta, B.M. 59b). Every expression of a stranger (גֵּר) means a person who was not born in that country but has come from another country to sojourn there.   כי גרים הייתם: אם הוניתו, אף הוא יכול להונותך ולומר לך אף אתה מגרים באת, מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך. כל לשון גר, אדם שלא נולד באותה מדינה, אלא בא ממדינה אחרת לגור שם:
21You shall not oppress any widow or orphan.   כאכָּל־אַלְמָנָ֥ה וְיָת֖וֹם לֹ֥א תְעַנּֽוּן:
You shall not oppress any widow or orphan: The same applies to all people, but the Scripture speaks of the usual situation, since they [widows and orphans] are weak and [they] are frequently oppressed. -[From Mechilta]   כל אלמנה ויתום לא תענון: הוא הדין לכל אדם, אלא שדבר הכתוב בהווה, לפי שהם תשושי כח ודבר מצוי לענותם:
22If you oppress him, [beware,] for if he cries out to Me, I will surely hear his cry.   כבאִם־עַנֵּ֥ה תְעַנֵּה אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י אִם־צָעֹ֤ק יִצְעַק֙ אֵלַ֔י שָׁמֹ֥עַ אֶשְׁמַ֖ע צַֽעֲקָתֽוֹ:
If you oppress him: This is an elliptical verse. It threatens [punishment], but does not delineate his punishment. [This is] similar to “Therefore, whoever kills Cain…!” (Gen. 4:15). It threatens, but does not delineate his punishment. Here too, “If you oppress him” is an expression of a threat: If you oppress him [the orphan], you will ultimately receive what is coming to you. Why? “For if he cries out to Me, etc.”   אם ענה תענה אתו: הרי זה מקרא קצר, גזם ולא פירש עונשו, כמו (בראשית ד טו) לכן כל הורג קין גזם ולא פירש עונשו אף כאן אם ענה תענה אותו, לשון גזום, כלומר סופך ליטול את שלך, למה, כי צעק יצעק אלי וגו':
23My wrath will be kindled, and I will slay you with the sword, and your wives will be widows and your children orphans.   כגוְחָרָ֣ה אַפִּ֔י וְהָֽרַגְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם בֶּחָ֑רֶב וְהָי֤וּ נְשֵׁיכֶם֙ אַלְמָנ֔וֹת וּבְנֵיכֶ֖ם יְתֹמִֽים:
and your wives will be widows: From the implication of what is said-“and I will slay you” -do I not know that your wives will be widows and your children orphans? Rather, this is another curse, namely that the wives will be bound in living widowhood -there will be no witnesses to their husbands’ deaths, and [thus] they will be forbidden to remarry. The children will be orphans because the court will not allow them to have their fathers’ property, since they do not know whether they died or were captured. -[From Mechilta, B.M. 38b]   והיו נשיכם אלמנות: ממשמע שנאמר והרגתי אתכם, איני יודע שנשיכם אלמנות ובניכם יתומים, אלא הרי זו קללה אחרת, שיהיו הנשים צרורות כאלמנות חיות, שלא יהיו עדים למיתת בעליהן ותהיינה אסורות להנשא והבנים יהיו יתומים, שלא יניחום בית דין לירד לנכסי אביהם לפי שאין יודעים אם מתו אם נשבו:
24When you lend money to My people, to the poor person [who is] with you, you shall not behave toward him as a lender; you shall not impose interest upon him.   כדאִם־כֶּ֣סֶף | תַּלְוֶ֣ה אֶת־עַמִּ֗י אֶת־הֶֽעָנִי֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֥ה ל֖וֹ כְּנשֶׁ֑ה לֹֽא־תְשִׂימ֥וּן עָלָ֖יו נֶֽשֶׁךְ:
When you lend money to My people: Rabbi Ishmael says: Every אִם in the Torah is optional except three, and this is one of them. -[From Mechilta. אִם usually means “if,” which refers to something optional, denoting an incident that may or may not occur. Rashi on Exod. 20:22 explains that in this case, lending money to the needy is obligatory, as in Deut. 15:8. Therefore, in this verse, אִם means “when.”]   אם כסף תלוה את עמי: רבי ישמעאל אומר כל אם ואם שבתורה רשות, חוץ משלושה וזה אחד מהן:
to My people: [If a member of] My people [i.e., an Israelite,] and a gentile [apply for a loan], [the member of] My people takes preference; [if] a poor person and a rich person [apply for a loan], the poor person takes preference; [if] the poor of your city and the poor of another city [apply for a loan], the poor of your city take preference (Mechilta, B.M. 71a), and this is its meaning: “When you lend money,” lend it to “My people” and not to a gentile, and to which of My people? “To the poor person.” And to which poor person? To the one who is “with you.” [I.e., if you have enough money to lend to only one person, lend it to a Jew rather than to a non-Jew. Even if the gentile will pay interest, and you are not allowed to take interest from the Jew, you must lend the money to the Jew (B.M. 71a).] Another meaning: to My people: That you shall not behave toward him [the borrower] in a demeaning manner when you lend to him, for he is [a member of] My people. -[From Tanchuma 15]   את עמי: עמי וגוי, עמי קודם. עני ועשיר, עני קודם. עניי עירך ועניי עיר אחרת, עניי עירך קודמין. וזה משמעו אם כסף תלוה, את עמי תלוהו, ולא לגוי ולאיזה מעמי, את העני, ולאיזה עני לאותו שעמך. דבר אחר את העני, שלא תנהג בו מנהג בזיון בהלוואה, שהוא עמי:
to the poor person [who is] with you: Look at yourself as if you were a poor person.) -[From Tanchuma 15]   את העני עמך: הוי מסתכל בעצמך כאלו אתה העני:
you shall not behave toward him as a lender: You shall not demand it of him forcibly (Tanchuma 9, Exod. Rabbah 31:6). If you know that he does not have [the money to repay you], do not appear to him as if you have lent to him, but as if you have not lent to him; i.e., do not embarrass him. -[From B.M. 75b]   לא תהיה לו כנשה: לא תתבענו בחזקה, אם אתה יודע שאין לו, אל תהי דומה עליו כאלו הלויתו, אלא כאילו לא הלויתו, כלומר לא תכלימהו:
interest: Heb. נֶשֶׁ, lit., biting. Interest, which is like the biting of a snake, which bites by making a small wound in a person’s foot, and he [the person] does not feel [the wound], and suddenly, it spreads and swells up as far as his crown. So it is with interest. He does not feel it, and it is not noticeable until the interest accumulates and it costs him a considerable sum of money. -[From Tanchuma 9, Exod. Rabbah 31:6]   נשך: רבית שהוא כנשיכת נחש, שנושך חבורה קטנה ברגלו ואינו מרגיש, ופתאום הוא מבצבץ ונופח עד קדקדו, כך רבית, אינו מרגיש ואינו ניכר עד שהרבית עולה ומחסרו ממון הרבה:
25If you take your neighbor's garment as security, until sunset you shall return it to him,   כהאִם־חָבֹ֥ל תַּחְבֹּ֖ל שַׂלְמַ֣ת רֵעֶ֑ךָ עַד־בֹּ֥א הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ תְּשִׁיבֶ֥נּוּ לֽוֹ:
If you take… as security: Heb. חָבֹל ךְתַּחְבֹּל. No expression of חִבָלָה means security given at the time of the loan, but [that which] is exacted from the debtor when the debt becomes due and he [the debtor] does not pay (B.M. 114). (חָבֹל ךְתַּחְבֹּל the Torah repeats the taking of the security [implying that one may take security] even many times. The Holy One, blessed is He, said: “How much you owe Me! Yet your soul ascends to Me every night, gives an account, is found guilty before Me, and I return it to you. You too, take and return, take and return.” ) -(Tanchuma 16.)   אם חבל תחבל: כל לשון חבלה אינו משכון בשעת הלואה, אלא שממשכנין את הלוה, כשמגיע הזמן ואינו פורע. חבול תחבול כפל לך בחבלה, עד כמה פעמים, אמר הקב"ה כמה אתה חייב לי, והרי נפשך עולה אצלי כל אמש ואמש ונותנת דין וחשבון ומתחייבת לפני, ואני מחזירה לך, אף אתה טול והשב טול והשב:
until sunset you shall return it to him: [For] the entire day you shall return it to him until the sun sets, and when the sun sets you may again take it until the next morning arrives. This verse speaks of a garment worn by day, which he does not need at night. -[From Mechilta, B.M. 114b]   עד בא השמש תשיבנו לו: כל היום תשיבנו לו עד בא השמש, וכבוא השמש תחזור ותטלנו, עד שיבא בקר של מחר, ובכסות יום הכתוב מדבר, שאין צריך לה בלילה:
26for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his skin. With what shall he lie? And it shall be [that] if he cries out to Me, I will hear because I am gracious.   כוכִּ֣י הִ֤וא כְסוּת֙וֹ (כתיב כסותה) לְבַדָּ֔הּ הִ֥וא שִׂמְלָת֖וֹ לְעֹר֑וֹ בַּמֶּ֣ה יִשְׁכָּ֔ב וְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־יִצְעַ֣ק אֵלַ֔י וְשָֽׁמַעְתִּ֖י כִּֽי־חַנּ֥וּן אָֽנִי:
for it is his only covering: This is a cloak. -[From Mechilta]   כי הוא כסותה: זו טלית:
his garment: This is a shirt. -[From Mechilta]   שמלתו: זו חלוק:
With what shall he lie?: [This comes] to include a spread. -[From Mechilta]   במה ישכב: לרבות את המצע: