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Torah Reading for Tzav

Torah Reading for Tzav

Leviticus 6:1-8:36

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Chapter 6

1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   א. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהֹוָה אֶל משֶׁה לֵּאמֹר:
2. Command Aaron and his sons, saying, This is the law of the burnt offering: That is the burnt offering which burns on the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar shall burn with it.   ב. צַו אֶת אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כָּל הַלַּיְלָה עַד הַבֹּקֶר וְאֵשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ:
Command Aaron: Heb. צַו. The expression צַו always denotes urging [to promptly and meticulously fulfill a particular commandment] for the present and also for future generations. Rabbi Simeon taught: Scripture especially needs to urge [people to fulfill commandments,] where monetary loss is involved. — [Torath Kohanim 6:1]   צו את אהרן: אין צו אלא לשון זרוז מיד ולדורות. אמר ר' שמעון ביותר צריך הכתוב לזרז במקום שיש בו חסרון כיס:
This is the law of the burnt-offering…: This passage comes to teach us that the burning of [sacrificial] fats and parts [of an animal] is valid throughout the entire night [following the day it is offered up]. — [Meg. 21a] And [this passage also] teaches us regarding invalid sacrifices: which one, if it has already been brought up [on the altar], must be taken down, and which one, if it has been brought up [on the altar], need not be taken down. [And how do we know the latter case from Scripture?] Because every [instance of] תּוֹרַת [in the Torah] comes to include. [Thus here, it comes] to say that there is one law (תּוֹרָה for all sacrifices that go up [on the altar], even invalid ones, namely, that if they have already been brought up [on the altar], they need not be taken down. [However,]   זאת תורת העלה וגו': הרי הענין הזה בא ללמד על הקטר חלבים ואיברים שיהא כשר כל הלילה, וללמד על הפסולין איזה אם עלה ירד, ואיזה אם עלה לא ירד, שכל תורה לרבות הוא בא, לומר תורה אחת לכל העולים, ואפילו פסולין, שאם עלו לא ירדו:
That is the burnt-offering: Heb. הִוא הַָעֹלָה [While the words תּוֹרַת הַָעֹלָה include invalid offerings, the words הִוא הַָעֹלָה come] to exclude the case of animals which have cohabited with a human, whether the animal was an active or a passive party to the transgression, and similar cases, in which their becoming invalid did not occur within the Holy [Temple precincts], but rather, they became invalid before they even arrived at the courtyard [of the Holy Temple]. - [Torath Kohanim 6:3]   הוא העלה: למעט את הרובע ואת הנרבע וכיוצא בהן, שלא היה פסולן בקדש, שנפסלו קודם שבאו לעזרה:
3. And the kohen shall don his linen tunic, and he shall don his linen trousers on his flesh. And he shall lift out the ashes into which the fire has consumed the burnt offering upon the altar, and put them down next to the altar.   ג. וְלָבַשׁ הַכֹּהֵן מִדּוֹ בַד וּמִכְנְסֵי בַד יִלְבַּשׁ עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְהֵרִים אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל הָאֵשׁ אֶת הָעֹלָה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשָׂמוֹ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
his linen tunic: Heb. מִדּוֹ, lit. his measure. This is כֻּתֹּנֶת, a long tunic (see Exod. 28:39:40). Now why does it say מִדּוֹ ? [To teach us] that it must be [made] according to his size [of the kohen wearing it]. — [Torath Kohanim 6:7]   מדו בד: היא הכתונת. ומה תלמוד לומר מדו, שתהא כמדתו:
on his flesh: i.e., nothing must interpose between [the trousers and his flesh]. — [Zev. 19a]   על בשרו: שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בנתיים:
and he shall lift out the ashes: He would scoop out a full pan of ashes from the innermost [mass of ashes from] burnt out sacrificial parts [on the altar] and deposit them at the east side of the ramp [that led up to the altar (see Exod. 20:23, Rashi)]. — [Torath Kohanim 6:11; Tamid 28b]   והרים את הדשן: היה חותה מלא מחתה מן המאוכלות הפנימיות ונותנן במזרחו של כבש:
the ashes into which the fire has consumed the burnt-offering: and made it into ashes, and some of these ashes the kohen should lift out and put them down next to the altar.   הדשן אשר תאכל האש את העלה: ועשאתה דשן, מאותו דשן ירים תרומה ושמו אצל המזבח:
upon the altar: If he finds any [animal] parts which were not yet consumed, he must put them back onto the altar, after raking the burning embers in all directions and scooping out some of the innermost [ashes], because it is said, “the burnt-offering upon the altar,” [i.e., while it is still in the form of a burnt-offering, and not yet ashes, it must remain “upon the altar”]. — [Yoma 45a]   על המזבח: מצא אברים שעדיין לא נתעכלו, מחזירן על המזבח, לאחר שחתה גחלים אילך ואילך ונטל מן הפנימיות, שנאמר את העולה על המזבח:
4. He shall then take off his garments and put on other garments, and he shall take out the ashes to a clean place outside the camp.   ד. וּפָשַׁט אֶת בְּגָדָיו וְלָבַשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַדֶּשֶׁן אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל מָקוֹם טָהוֹר:
He shall then take off his garments: This is not an obligation, but proper practice, that, by taking out the ashes, he should not soil the garments in which he constantly officiates. [By analogy:] The clothes worn [by a servant] while cooking a pot [of food] for his master, he should not wear when he mixes a glass [of wine] for his master. Hence, [the verse continues,] “and put on other garments,” inferior to those [garments of the kehunah he had been wearing till now]. — [Yoma 23b]   ופשט את בגדיו: אין זו חובה אלא דרך ארץ, שלא ילכלך בהוצאת הדשן בגדים שהוא משמש בהן תמיד. בגדים שבשל בהן קדרה לרבו אל ימזוג בהן כוס לרבו, לכך ולבש בגדים אחרים פחותין מהן: והוציא את הדשן - הצבור בתפוח, כשהוא רבה ואין מקום למערכה, מוציאו משם. ואין זה חובה בכל יום, אבל התרומה חובה בכל יום
and he shall take out the ashes: [By contrasting verse 3, “And he shall lift out (וְהֵריִם) the ashes,” with verse 4 here, “And he shall take out (וְהוֹצִיא) the ashes,” we see that there were two distinct obligations with regards to removing ashes from the altar: a) תּרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן, “lifting out” some of the innermost ashes from the altar and placing them next to the altar, and b) הוֹצָאַת הַדֶּשֶׁן, “taking out” the heap of ashes from atop the altar when they became overflowing, to a place “outside the camp.” Thus, our verse here, “And he shall take out the ashes,” refers to those ashes] which were heaped up in the apple-shaped pile [of ashes on top of the altar]. When this pile became so large that there was no longer any room on the wood-pile, he [the kohen] would take it out of there. Now, this was not a daily obligation (Tamid 28b), but lifting out [some innermost ashes] was a daily obligation. — [Tamid 20a]   :
5. And the fire on the altar shall burn on it; it shall not go out. The kohen shall kindle wood upon it every morning, and upon it, he shall arrange the burnt offering and cause the fats of the peace offerings to [go up in] smoke upon it.   ה. וְהָאֵשׁ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ לֹא תִכְבֶּה וּבִעֵר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן עֵצִים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר וְעָרַךְ עָלֶיהָ הָעֹלָה וְהִקְטִיר עָלֶיהָ חֶלְבֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים:
And the fire on the altar shall burn on it: Heb. תּוּקַד. [In this passage,] we have many phrases employing the term יְקִידָה, “burning: ” עַל מוֹקְדָה, וְאֵשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ (verse 2), הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ וְהָאֵשׁ עַל (verse 5), and אֵשׁ תָּמִיד תּוּקַד עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ (verse 6). All these are expounded on in Tractate Yoma (45a), where [it is discussed how] our Rabbis differ regarding the number of wood-piles [that had to be arranged on that altar].   והאש על המזבח תוקד בו: ריבה כאן יקידות הרבה על מוקדה, ואש המזבח תוקד בו, והאש על המזבח תוקד בו, אש תמיד תוקד על המזבח, כולן נדרשו במסכת יומא (מג ב) שנחלקו רבותינו במנין המערכות שהיו שם:
and upon it, he shall arrange the burnt-offering: [This teaches us that] the תָּמִיד עוֹלַת, the [morning] daily burnt-offering, must come first [in the order of sacrifices offered up on the altar]. - [Pes. 58b]   וערך עליה העלה: עולת תמיד היא תקדים:
the fats of the peace-offerings: Heb. עָלֶיהָ חֶלְבֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים, [i.e.] if they bring peace-offerings [they are to be offered up on that fire]. Our Rabbis derived from here, however, “with it (עָלֶיהָ), i.e., with the morning burnt-offering [i.e., after the morning burnt-offering, but not after the evening burnt-offering], complete (הַשְּׁלֵם) all the sacrifices [of the day].” Hence, there must be no sacrifice offered after the [evening] daily burnt-offering. - [Pes. 58b]   חלבי השלמים: אם יביאו שם שלמים. ורבותינו למדו מכאן עליה, על עולת הבוקר השלם כל הקרבנות כולם. מכאן שלא יהא דבר מאוחר לתמיד של בין הערבים:
6. A continuous fire shall burn upon the altar; it shall not go out.   ו. אֵשׁ תָּמִיד תּוּקַד עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא תִכְבֶּה:
A continuous fire: Heb. אֵשׁ תָּמִיד, the fire regarding which it says, “[to kindle the lamps] continually (תָּמִיד)” (Exod. 27:20) this fire must also be kindled from [the fire] on the outer altar. — [Yoma 45b]   אש תמיד: אש שנאמר בה תמיד, היא שמדליקין בה את הנרות, שנאמר בה (שמות כז כ) להעלות נר תמיד, אף היא מעל המזבח החיצון תוקד:
it shall not go out: [Since “it shall not go out” is stated twice, once in verse 5 and a second time here,] anyone who extinguishes the fire on top of the altar, transgresses two negative commandments.   לא תכבה: המכבה אש על המזבח עובר בשני לאוין:
7. And this is the law of the meal offering: that Aaron's sons shall bring it before the Lord, to the front of the altar.   ז. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה הַקְרֵב אֹתָהּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֶל פְּנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
And this is the law of the meal-offering: Heb. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה. [Since the תּוֹרַת (law) is always inclusive, the Torah teaches us that there is] one law for all meal-offerings, to require that they have oil and frankincense, as explained in this section. For one might think that only meal-offerings of ordinary Israelites [i.e., non- kohanim] need oil and frankincense, because their meal-offerings require scooping out (קְמִיצָה). How do we know [that] meal-offerings of kohanim, which are burned in their entirety (see verse 16 below), [also require oil and frankincense]? Scripture, therefore, תּוֹרַת [an inclusive term, in this case coming to include all meal-offerings in the requirement of oil and frankincense]. — [Torath Kohanim 6:24]   וזאת תורת המנחה: תורה אחת לכולן להטעינן שמן ולבונה האמורין בענין. שיכול אין לי טעונות שמן ולבונה אלא מנחת ישראל שהיא נקמצת, מנחת כהנים שהיא כליל מנין, תלמוד לומר תורת:
shall bring it: This refers to bringing the offering near the south-west ern corner [of the altar]. [And how do we know that it must be brought near this specific corner? Because the verse says:]   הקרב אתה: היא הגשה בקרן מערבית דרומית:
before the Lord: This refers to the west ern [side of the altar], which faced the Tent of Meeting, [and then it says:]   לפני ה': הוא מערב שהוא לצד אהל מועד אל פני המזבח - הוא הדרום, שהוא פניו של מזבח, שהכבש נתון לאותו הרוח:
to the front of the altar: This refers to the south [side of the altar], which is the front of the altar for the ramp-כֶּבֶשׂ, [leading up to it] was placed on that side [of the altar. Hence, the south-western corner of the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 6:26]   :
8. And he shall lift out of it in his fist, from the fine flour of the meal offering and from its oil and all the frankincense that is on the meal offering, and he shall cause its reminder to [go up in] smoke on the altar as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   ח. וְהֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻמְצוֹ מִסֹּלֶת הַמִּנְחָה וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ וְאֵת כָּל הַלְּבֹנָה אֲשֶׁר עַל הַמִּנְחָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אַזְכָּרָתָהּ לַיהֹוָה:
And he shall lift out of it: i.e., out of what is attached, meaning that [the amount of the mixture from where he lifts out,] should be a complete tenth [of an ephah,] at one time, namely at the time of the scooping. — [Torath Kohanim 6:27]   והרים ממנו: מהמחובר, שיהא עשרון שלם בבת אחת בשעת קמיצה:
in his fist: [This teaches us that] he may not make a measure for a fistful [but rather, he must use his fingers directly]. - [Torath Kohanim 6:27]   בקמצו: שלא יעשה מדה לקומץ:
from the fine flour of the meal-offering and from its oil: [Now, we already know that the flour to be scooped up is mixed with oil, so why does the verse specifically mention oil here?] From here, we learn that the fistful [must be taken] from a place [in the meal-offering] where there is an abundance of its oil [i.e., where the oil is mixed thoroughly with the flour]. — [Sotah 14b]   מסלת המנחה ומשמנה: מכאן שקומץ ממקום שנתרבה שמנה:
the meal-offering: [I.e., from that particular meal-offering;] it must not be mingled with another [meal-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 6:27]   המנחה: שלא תהא מעורבת באחרת:
and all the frankincense that is on the meal-offering, and he shall cause to [go up in] smoke: [meaning] that he must gather up [all] its frankincense after the scooping, and cause it to go up in smoke. And since Scripture specifically stated this law only in one case of the meal-offerings mentioned in וַיִּקְרָא (see Lev.2:2), Scripture found it necessary to repeat this section [including this law], to include all [kinds of] meal-offerings, in accordance with their law.   ואת כל הלבנה אשר על המנחה והקטיר: שמלקט את לבונתה לאחר קמיצה ומקטירו. ולפי שלא פירש כן אלא באחת מן המנחות בויקרא (ב, א - ג), הוצרך לשנות פרשה זו, לכלול כל המנחות כמשפטן:
9. And Aaron and his sons shall eat whatever is left over from it. It shall be eaten as unleavened bread in a holy place; they shall eat it in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting.   ט. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִמֶּנָּה יֹאכְלוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מַצּוֹת תֵּאָכֵל בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ בַּחֲצַר אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יֹאכְלוּהָ:
in a holy place: And which place is this? In the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting. — [Torath Kohanim 6:32]   במקום קדש: ואיזהו, בחצר אהל מועד:
10. It shall not be baked leavened. [As] their portion, I have given it to them from My fire offerings. It is a holy of holies, like the sin offering and like the guilt offering.   י. לֹא תֵאָפֶה חָמֵץ חֶלְקָם נָתַתִּי אֹתָהּ מֵאִשָּׁי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא כַּחַטָּאת וְכָאָשָׁם:
It shall not be baked leavened. [As] their portion: [literally, “It must not be baked leavened, their portion.” I.e., from the juxtaposition of these words, is derived the law that] even the leftover portions [of the meal-offering, which go to the kohanim,] are prohibited to be leavened. — [Men. 55a]   לא תאפה חמץ חלקם: אף השירים אסורים בחמץ:
like the sin-offering and like the guilt-offering: [This refers to two different cases:] “Like a sin-offering” refers to the meal-offering of a sinner. [How is this sacrifice like a sin-offering? Insofar as just as the sin-offering must be sacrificed for that specific purpose, so too, the חוֹטֵא מִנְחַת] if [the kohen] performed the scooping while having in mind that should not be for the purpose of this sacrifice, it is invalid. And “like a guilt-offering” refers to a meal- offering brought as a voluntary donation. Therefore, if [the kohen] performed the scooping while having in mind that it should not be for the purpose of this sacrifice, it is still valid. — [Torath Kohanim 6:35]   כחטאת וכאשם: מנחת חוטא הרי היא כחטאת, לפיכך קמצה שלא לשמה פסולה. מנחת נדבה הרי היא כאשם, לפיכך קמצה שלא לשמה כשרה:
11. Any male among Aaron's sons may eat it. [This is] an eternal statute for your generations from the fire offerings of the Lord. Anything that touches them shall become holy.   יא. כָּל זָכָר בִּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן יֹאכְלֶנָּה חָק עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהֹוָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בָּהֶם יִקְדָּשׁ:
Any male: Even if he has a blemish [which disqualifies him from performing the sacrificial service]. And why is this stated? If [this refers] to eating [the meal-offering, this is already stated [in Lev. 21:22, where Scripture says, referring to a kohen who has a blemish], “The offerings to his God from the holiest of the holy things [and from the holy things he may eat].” Rather, [Scripture here comes] to include blemished kohanim in the equal division [of meal-offerings, among all the kohanim [of the watch (מִשְׁמָר) , see Rashi Lev. 7:9)]   כל זכר: אפילו בעל מום. למה נאמר, אם לאכילה הרי כבר אמור לחם אלהיו מקדשי הקדשים וגו', אלא לרבות בעלי מומין למחלוקת:
Anything that touches [them, shall become holy]: Sacrifices that have a lesser degree of holiness or ordinary food that comes in contact with a meal-offering and absorbs from it,   כל אשר יגע וגו': קדשים קלים או חולין שיגעו בה ויבלעו ממנה:
shall become holy: to be like it [i.e., like the meal-offering], that if it is invalid, they will becomes invalid; and if it is valid, they will have to be eaten under the same stringency as the meal-offering [namely, within holy ground and only during the day of offering and the night following, until midnight]. — [Torath Kohanim 6:38; Zev. 97b]   יקדש: להיות כמוה, שאם פסולה יפסלו, ואם כשרה יאכלו כחומר המנחה:
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