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Torah Reading for Shemot

Torah Reading for Shemot

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Parshat Shemot
Shabbat, 19 Tevet, 5778
6 January, 2018
Select a portion:
Complete: (Exodus 1:1 - 6:1; Isaiah 27:6 - 28:13; Isaiah 29:22-23)
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First Portion

Exodus Chapter 1

1And these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt; with Jacob, each man and his household came:   אוְאֵ֗לֶּה שְׁמוֹת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַבָּאִ֖ים מִצְרָ֑יְמָה אֵ֣ת יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אִ֥ישׁ וּבֵית֖וֹ בָּֽאוּ:
And these are the names of the sons of Israel: Although [God] counted them in their lifetime by their names (Gen. 46:8-27), He counted them again after their death, to let us know how precious they are [to Him], because they were likened to the stars, which He takes out [From beyond the horizon] and brings in by number and by name, as it is said: who takes out their host by number; all of them He calls by name (Isa. 40:26). [From Tanchuma Buber, Shemot 2; Exod. Rabbah 1:3]   ואלה שמות בני ישראל: אף על פי שמנאן בחייהן בשמותן, חזר ומנאן במיתתן [אחר מיתתן], להודיע חבתן שנמשלו לכוכבים, שמוציאן ומכניסן במספר ובשמותם, שנאמר (ישעיהו מ כו) המוציא במספר צבאם לכולם בשם יקרא:
2Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah.   ברְאוּבֵ֣ן שִׁמְע֔וֹן לֵוִ֖י וִֽיהוּדָֽה:
3Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin.   גיִשָּׂשכָ֥ר זְבוּלֻ֖ן וּבִנְיָמִֽן:
4Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher.   דדָּ֥ן וְנַפְתָּלִ֖י גָּ֥ד וְאָשֵֽׁר:
5Now all those descended from Jacob were seventy souls, and Joseph, [who] was in Egypt.   הוַיְהִ֗י כָּל־נֶ֛פֶשׁ יֹֽצְאֵ֥י יֶֽרֶךְ־יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב שִׁבְעִ֣ים נָ֑פֶשׁ וְיוֹסֵ֖ף הָיָ֥ה בְמִצְרָֽיִם:
and Joseph, [who] was in Egypt: Now were not he and his sons included in the seventy? What then does this teach us? Did we not know that he was in Egypt? But [this clause comes] to inform you of Joseph’s righteousness. He, the Joseph who tended his father’s flocks, is the same Joseph who was in Egypt and became a king, and he retained his righteousness. [From Sifrei, Ha’azinu 334]   ויוסף היה במצרים: והלא הוא ובניו היו בכלל שבעים, ומה בא ללמדנו, וכי לא היינו יודעים שהוא היה במצרים, אלא להודיעך צדקתו של יוסף, הוא יוסף הרועה את צאן אביו, הוא יוסף שהיה במצרים ונעשה מלך ועומד בצדקו:
6Now Joseph died, as well as all his brothers and all that generation.   ווַיָּ֤מָת יוֹסֵף֙ וְכָל־אֶחָ֔יו וְכֹ֖ל הַדּ֥וֹר הַהֽוּא:
7The children of Israel were fruitful and swarmed and increased and became very very strong, and the land became filled with them.   זוּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל פָּר֧וּ וַיִּשְׁרְצ֛וּ וַיִּרְבּ֥וּ וַיַּֽעַצְמ֖וּ בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ אֹתָֽם:
and swarmed: They bore six children at each birth.   וישרצו: שהיו יולדות ששה בכרס אחד:
8A new king arose over Egypt, who did not know about Joseph.   חוַיָּ֥קָם מֶֽלֶךְ־חָדָ֖שׁ עַל־מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יָדַ֖ע אֶת־יוֹסֵֽף:
A new king arose: [There is a controversy between] Rav and Samuel. One says: He was really new, and the other one says: His decrees were new. [From Sotah 11a, Exod. Rabbah 1:8] Since the Torah does not say: The king of Egypt died, and a new king arose, it implies that the old king was still alive, only that his policies had changed, and he acted like a new king. [Rashi on Sotah 11a]   ויקם מלך חדש: רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש. וחד אמר, שנתחדשו גזרותיו:
and who did not know: [means that] he acted as if he did not know about him.   אשר לא ידע: עשה עצמו כאלו לא ידע:
9He said to his people, "Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more numerous and stronger than we are.   טוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֶל־עַמּ֑וֹ הִנֵּ֗ה עַ֚ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל רַ֥ב וְעָצ֖וּם מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
10Get ready, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they increase, and a war befall us, and they join our enemies and wage war against us and depart from the land."   יהָ֥בָה נִתְחַכְּמָ֖ה ל֑וֹ פֶּן־יִרְבֶּ֗ה וְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־תִקְרֶ֤אנָה מִלְחָמָה֙ וְנוֹסַ֤ף גַּם־הוּא֙ עַל־שׂ֣נְאֵ֔ינוּ וְנִלְחַם־בָּ֖נוּ וְעָלָ֥ה מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Get ready, let us deal shrewdly with them: Heb. הָבָה. Every הָבָה [found in the Torah] is an expression of preparation and readiness. That is to say: Prepare yourselves for this.   הבה נתחכמה לו: כל הבה לשון הכנה והזמנה לדבר הוא, כלומר הזמינו עצמכם לכך:
let us deal shrewdly with them: With the people [of Israel]. Let us act shrewdly regarding what to do to them. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted [that Pharaoh said], Let us deal shrewdly with the Savior of Israel [thus interpreting לוֹ as to him] by afflicting them [to die] with water, for He has already sworn that He would not bring a flood to the world. (But they [the Egyptians] did not understand that upon the whole world He would not bring [a flood] but He would bring it upon one nation In an old Rashi manuscript.) from Sotah 11a]   נתחכמה לו: לעם. נתחכמה מה לעשות לו. ורבותינו דרשו נתחכם למושיען של ישראל לדונם במים, שכבר נשבע שלא יביא מבול לעולם (והם לא הבינו שעל כל העולם אינו מביא, אבל הוא מביא על אומה אחת):
and depart from the land: against our will. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted [i. e., depicted Pharaoh] as a person who curses himself but ascribes his curse to others. And it is as if it were written: and we will depart from the land, and they will take possession of it. [From Sotah 11a]   ועלה מן הארץ: על כרחנו. ורבותינו דרשו כאדם שמקלל עצמו ותולה קללתו באחרים, והרי הוא כאלו כתב ועלינו מן הארץ והם יירשוה:
11So they appointed over them tax collectors to afflict them with their burdens, and they built store cities for Pharaoh, namely Pithom and Raamses.   יאוַיָּשִׂ֤ימוּ עָלָיו֙ שָׂרֵ֣י מִסִּ֔ים לְמַ֥עַן עַנֹּת֖וֹ בְּסִבְלֹתָ֑ם וַיִּ֜בֶן עָרֵ֤י מִסְכְּנוֹת֙ לְפַרְעֹ֔ה אֶת־פִּתֹ֖ם וְאֶת־רַֽעַמְסֵֽס:
over them: Over the people.   עליו: על העם:
tax collectors: Heb. שָׂרֵי מִסִּים, lit., tax officers. מִסִּים denotes an expression of a tax (מַס), [so מִסִּים denotes] officers who collect the tax from them. Now what was the tax? That they build store cities for Pharaoh.   מסים: לשון מס, שרים שגובין מהם המס. ומהו המס, שיבנו ערי מסכנות לפרעה:
to afflict them with their burdens: [I.e., with the burdens] of the Egyptians.   למען ענתו בסבלתם: של מצרים:
store cities: Heb. מִסְכְּנֹתעָרֵי. As the Targum renders: קִרְוֵי בֵיתאוֹצָרָא, cities of storehouses], and similarly, Go, come to this treasurer (הַסּוֹכֵן) (Isa. 22:15), to the treasurer appointed over the storehouses. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:10]   ערי מסכנות: כתרגומו. וכן (ישעיהו כב טו) לך בא אל הסוכן הזה, גזבר הממונה על האוצרות:
Pithom and Raamses: which were originally unfit for this, and they strengthened them and fortified them for storage.   את פתם ואת רעמסס: שלא היו ראויות מתחלה לכך ועשאום חזקות ובצורות לאוצר:
12But as much as they would afflict them, so did they multiply and so did they gain strength, and they were disgusted because of the children of Israel.   יבוְכַֽאֲשֶׁר֙ יְעַנּ֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ כֵּ֥ן יִרְבֶּ֖ה וְכֵ֣ן יִפְרֹ֑ץ וַיָּקֻ֕צוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
But as much as they would afflict them: In whatever [way] they set their heart to afflict [them], so was the heart of the Holy One, blessed be He, to multiply [them] and to strengthen [them].   וכאשר יענו אתו: בכל מה שהם נותנין לב לענות, כן לב הקב"ה להרבות ולהפריץ:
so did they multiply and so did they gain strength: Heb. כֵּן יִרְבֶּה וְכֵן יִפְרֹץ, lit., so will they multiply and so will they gain strength. [It means, however,] so did they multiply and so did they gain strength. Its midrashic interpretation is, however: The Holy Spirit says this: You [Pharaoh] say, Lest they multiply, but I say, So will they multiply. [From Sotah 11a]   כן ירבה: כן רבה וכן פרץ. ומדרשו רוח הקודש אומרת כן אתם אומרים פן ירבה, ואני אומר כן ירבה:
and they were disgusted: They were disgusted with their lives. (Others explain: And the Egyptians were disgusted with themselves, and it is easy to understand why.) Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it to mean that they [the Israelites] were like thorns (כקוצים) in their eyes -[from Sotah 11a].   ויקצו: קצו בחייהם. ורבותינו דרשו כקוצים היו בעיניהם:
13So the Egyptians enslaved the children of Israel with back breaking labor.   יגוַיַּֽעֲבִ֧דוּ מִצְרַ֛יִם אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּפָֽרֶךְ:
with back-breaking labor: Heb. בְּפָרֶ. With hard labor that crushes the body and breaks it.   בפרך: בעבודה קשה המפרכת את הגוף ומשברתו:
14And they embittered their lives with hard labor, with clay and with bricks and with all kinds of labor in the fields, all their work that they worked with them with back breaking labor.   ידוַיְמָֽרֲר֨וּ אֶת־חַיֵּיהֶ֜ם בַּֽעֲבֹדָ֣ה קָשָׁ֗ה בְּחֹ֨מֶר֙ וּבִלְבֵנִ֔ים וּבְכָל־עֲבֹדָ֖ה בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה אֵ֚ת כָּל־עֲבֹ֣דָתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־עָֽבְד֥וּ בָהֶ֖ם בְּפָֽרֶךְ:
15Now the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, one who was named Shifrah, and the second, who was named Puah.   טווַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֖ת הָֽעִבְרִיֹּ֑ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר שֵׁ֤ם הָֽאַחַת֙ שִׁפְרָ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית פּוּעָֽה:
to the midwives: Heb. לַמְיַלְּדֹת. This is an expression similar מוֹלִידוֹת, [meaning] causing to give birth, but there is a light form and there is a heavy form, similar to שׁוֹבֵר, breaks, and מְשַׁבֵּר, shatters, דּוֹבֵר, says, and מְדַבֵּר, speaks. So are מוֹלִיד and מְיַלֵּד. Rashi classifies the Hebrew conjugations, those that have a dagesh in the second root letter, and those that do not. Of the seven conjugations, three have a dagesh, and four do not. Since it is more difficult to pronounce the letters with the dagesh, those conjugations are referred to as the heavy form, and those without the dagesh are referred to as the light (קַלִּים) [Sefer Hazikkaron]   למילדת: הוא לשון מולידות, אלא שיש לשון קל ויש לשון כבד, כמו שובר ומשבר, דובר ומדבר, כך מוליד ומילד:
Shifrah: This was Jochebed, [called Shifrah] because she beautified [מְשַׁפֶּרֶת] the newborn infant. [From Sotah 11b]   שפרה: זו יוכבד על שם שמשפרת את הולד:
Puah: This was Miriam, [called Puah] because she cried (פּוֹעָה) and talked and cooed to the newborn infant in the manner of women who soothe a crying infant. פּוֹעָה is an expression of crying out, similar to “Like a travailing woman will I cry (אֶפְעֶה) " (Isa. 42:14). Rashi on Sotah 11b explains that she played with the infant to soothe and amuse him.   פועה: זו מרים שפועה ומדברת והוגה לולד כדרך הנשים המפייסות תינוק הבוכה. פועה לשון צעקה, כמו (ישעיהו מב יד) כיולדה אפעה:
16And he said, "When you deliver the Hebrew women, and you see on the birthstool, if it is a son, you shall put him to death, but if it is a daughter, she may live."   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר בְּיַלֶּדְכֶן֙ אֶת־הָ֣עִבְרִיּ֔וֹת וּרְאִיתֶ֖ן עַל־הָֽאָבְנָ֑יִם אִם־בֵּ֥ן הוּא֙ וַֽהֲמִתֶּ֣ן אֹת֔וֹ וְאִם־בַּ֥ת הִ֖וא וָחָֽיָה:
When you deliver: Heb. בְּיַלְדְכֶן, like בְּהוֹלִידְכֶן. See Rashi on preceding verse.   בילדכן: כמו בהולידכן:
on the birthstool: Heb. הָאָבְנָיִם, the seat of the woman in childbirth, but elsewhere (Isa. 37:3) it is called מַשְׁבֵּר Similar to this, [we find] who does work on the אָבְנָיִם (Jer. 18:3), the seat [i.e., place] of the tools of a potter. (Compare commentary digest in Judaica Press Jer. 18.3.)   על האבנים: מושב האשה היולדת, ובמקום אחר קוראו משבר, וכמוהו (ירמיהו יח ג) עושה מלאכה על האבנים, מושב כלי אומנות יוצר חרס:
if it is a son, etc: Pharaoh cared only about the males, because his astrologers told him that a son was destined to be born who would save them. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:18]   אם בן הוא וגו': לא היה מקפיד אלא על הזכרים, שאמרו לו אצטגניניו שעתיד להוולד בן המושיע אותם:
she may live: Heb. וָחָיָה, וְתִחְיֶה, she may live.   וחיה: ותחיה:
17The midwives, however, feared God; so they did not do as the king of Egypt had spoken to them, but they enabled the boys to live.   יזוַתִּירֶ֤אןָ הַֽמְיַלְּדֹת֙ אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וְלֹ֣א עָשׂ֔וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר אֲלֵיהֶ֖ן מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרָ֑יִם וַתְּחַיֶּ֖יןָ אֶת־הַיְלָדִֽים:
but they enabled the boys to live: They provided water and food for them. [From Sotah 11b] [The word וַתְּחַיֶּיןָ is found in verse 17 and again in verse 18.] The first is translated וְקַיָּמָא, and they enabled to live, and the second וְקַיֵּמְתִּין, and you enabled to live, because in Hebrew, for the feminine plural, this word and others like it are used as the third person past tense and the second person past tense, e.g. “And they said (וַתֹּאמַרְןָ), ‘An Egyptian man מִצְרִי) (אִישׁ ’” (Exod. 2:19), the past tense, like וַיֹּאמְרוּ for the masculine plural; you have spoken (וַתְּדַבֵּרְנָה) with your בְּפִיכֶם (Jer. 44:25), an expression like וַתְּדַבֵּרְנָה, the equivalent of דִבַּרְךְתֶּם for the masculine plural. Similarly, You have profaned (וַתְּחַלֶּלְנָה) Me before My people (Ezek. 13:19), the past tense, an expression like חִלַּלְךְתֶּם, the equivalent of וַתְּחַלּלוּ for the masculine plural. If it was necessary to supply the infants with food, Ohr Hachayim asks why the midwives did not do it prior to Pharaoh’s decree. He answers that the Torah means that despite Pharaoh’s decree, the midwives continued their previous practice, that is, supplying needy children with nourishment. He suggests further that they particularly sustained the male children lest one die and they be suspected of being responsible for his death. Rashi explains that in the Hebrew, there is a conversive vav, (turning past into future and future into past). Therefore, since the future forms of the feminine plural, both in the second person and in the third person, are identical, the same is true for the past forms with the conversive vav. [Mizrachi] In Aramaic, however, since there is no conversive vav, the two past forms are different. [Divrei David]   ותחיין את הילדים: מספקות להם מים ומזון. תרגום הראשון וקיימא והשני וקיימתין, לפי שלשון עברית לנקבות רבות, תיבה זו וכיוצא בה, משמשת לשון פעלו ולשון פעלתן, כגון (שמות ב יט) ותאמרנה איש מצרי, לשון עבר, כמו ויאמרו לזכרים, ותדברנה בפיכם (ירמיהו מד כה) לשון דברתן, כמו ותדברו לזכרים. וכן (יחזקאל יג יט) ותחללנה אותי אל עמי, לשון עבר חללתן, כמו ותחללו לזכרים:

Second Portion

Exodus Chapter 1

18So the king of Egypt summoned the midwives and said to them, "Why have you done this thing, that you have enabled the boys to live?"   יחוַיִּקְרָ֤א מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֔ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֔ן מַדּ֥וּעַ עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ן הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַתְּחַיֶּ֖יןָ אֶת־הַיְלָדִֽים:
19And the midwives said to Pharaoh, "Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are skilled as midwives; when the midwife has not yet come to them, they have [already] given birth."   יטוַתֹּאמַ֤רְןָ הַֽמְיַלְּדֹת֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה כִּ֣י לֹ֧א כַנָּשִׁ֛ים הַמִּצְרִיֹּ֖ת הָֽעִבְרִיֹּ֑ת כִּֽי־חָי֣וֹת הֵ֔נָּה בְּטֶ֨רֶם תָּב֧וֹא אֲלֵהֶ֛ן הַֽמְיַלֶּ֖דֶת וְיָלָֽדוּ:
for they are skilled as midwives: Heb. חָיוֹת, as skillful as midwives. The Targum מְיַלְּדֹת is חַייָתָא Our Rabbis (Sotah 11b), however, interpreted it to mean that they [the Israelite women] are compared to beasts (חַיּוֹת) of the field, which do not require midwives. Now where are they compared to beasts? A cub [and] a grown lion (Gen. 49:9), a wolf, he will prey (Gen. 49:27), His firstborn bull (Deut. 33:17), a swift gazelle (Gen. 49:21). Whoever [was not compared to a beast as above] was included by Scriptures in [the expression] and blessed them (Gen. 49:18). Scripture states further: How was your mother a lioness? (Ezek. 19:2). [From Sotah 11b]   כי חיות הנה: בקיאות כמילדות. תרגום מילדות חיתא. ורבותינו דרשו הרי הן משולות לחיות השדה שאינן צריכות מילדות. והיכן משולות לחיות, גור אריה (בראשית מט ט), זאב יטרף (שם כז), בכור שורו (דברים לג יז), אילה שלוחה (בראשית מט כא), ומי שלא נכתב בו הרי הכתוב כללן (בראשית מט כח) ויברך אותם, ועוד כתיב (יחזקאל יט ב) מה אמך לביא:
20God benefited the midwives, and the people multiplied and became very strong.   כוַיֵּ֥יטֶב אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֑ת וַיִּ֧רֶב הָעָ֛ם וַיַּֽעַצְמ֖וּ מְאֹֽד:
God benefited: Heb. וַיֵּיטֶב, bestowed goodness upon them. This is the difference in a word whose root is two letters and is prefixed by “vav yud” : When it is used in the causative sense, the “yud” is vowelized with a “tzeirei,” which is a “kamatz katan” (or with a “segol,” which is a “pattach katan” ), e.g., God benefited (וַיֵּיטֶב) the midwives ; and He increased (וַיֶרֶב) in the daughter of Judah (Lam. 2:5), He increased pain; And he exiled (וַַיֶּגֶל) the survivors (II Chron. 36:20), referring to Nebuzaradan, he exiled the survivors; and turned (וַיֶּפֶן) tail to tail (Jud. 15:4), he turned the tails one to another. All these are the causative conjugation [lit., causing others to do]. When it is used in the simple, kal conjugation, however, the “yud” is vowelized with a “chirik,” e.g., and it was pleasing (וַיִּיטַב) in his eyes (Lev. 10:20), an expression meaning that it was good; and similarly, and the people multiplied (וַיִּרֶב) (Exod. 1:20), the people increased; And Judah went into exile (וַיִּגֶל) (II Kings 25:21), Judah was exiled; He turned (וַיִּפֶן) this way and that way (Exod. 2:12), he turned here and there. Do not refute me from וַיֵּלֶ, וַיֵּשֶׁב, וַיֵּרֶד, and וַיֵּצֵא, because these are not of the grammatical form of those, for the “yud” is the third radical in them, יָלֹך, יָשׁב, יָרֹד, and יָצֹא, in which the “yud” is the third letter.   וייטב: הטיב להם. וזה חלוק בתיבה שיסודה שתי אותיות ונתן לה וי"ו יו"ד בראשה, כשהיא באה לדבר בלשון ויפעיל הוא נקוד היו"ד בציר"י שהוא קמ"ץ קטן, כגון וייטב א-להים למילדות, וירב בבת יהודה (איכה ב ה), הרבה תאניה, וכן ויגל השארית (דברי הימים ב' לו כ), דנבוזראדן הגלה את השארית, ויפן זנב אל זנב (שופטים טו ד), הפנה הזנבות זו לזו, כל אלו לשון הפעיל את אחרים. וכשהוא מדבר בלשון ויפעל, הוא נקוד היו"ד בחיר"ק, כגון (ויקרא י כ) וייטב בעיניו, לשון הוטב, וכן וירב העם (פסוק כ), נתרבה העם, ויגל יהודה (מלכים ב' כה כא) הגלה יהודה, ויפן כה וכה (ב יב), פנה לכאן ולכאן. ואל תשיבני וילך, וישב, וירד, ויצא, לפי שאינן מגזרתן של אלו, שהרי היו"ד יסוד בהן, ירד, יצא, ישב, ילך, היו"ד אות שלישית בו:
God benefited the midwives: What was this benefit?   וייטב א-להים למילדת: מהו הטובה:
21Now it took place when the midwives feared God, that He made houses for them.   כאוַיְהִ֕י כִּי־יָֽרְא֥וּ הַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֖ת אֶת־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיַּ֥עַשׂ לָהֶ֖ם בָּתִּֽים:
He made houses for them: The houses of the priesthood, the Levitic family, and the royal family, which are called houses, as it is written: And he built the house of the Lord and the house of the king, (I Kings 9:1) [sic] 5, the priesthood and the Levitic family from Jochebed and the royal family from Miriam, as is stated in tractate Sotah (11b).   ויעש להם בתים: - בתי כהונה ולויה ומלכות שקרויין בתים. (ויבן) [הבתים] את בית ה' ואת בית המלך (מלכים א' ט א) (לקוטי שיחות חלק כ"א, ע' 2 הערה 29). כהונה ולויה מיוכבד, ומלכות ממרים, כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (סוטה יא ב):
22And Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, "Every son who is born you shall cast into the Nile, and every daughter you shall allow to live."   כבוַיְצַ֣ו פַּרְעֹ֔ה לְכָל־עַמּ֖וֹ לֵאמֹ֑ר כָּל־הַבֵּ֣ן הַיִּלּ֗וֹד הַיְאֹ֨רָה֙ תַּשְׁלִיכֻ֔הוּ וְכָל־הַבַּ֖ת תְּחַיּֽוּן:
all his people: He issued this decree upon them as well. On the day Moses was born, his astrologers told him [Pharaoh], Today the one who will save them has been born, but we do not know whether from the Egyptians or from the Israelites, but we see that he will ultimately be smitten through water. Therefore, on that day he issued a decree also upon the Egyptians, as it is said: Every son who is born, and it does not say: who is born to the Hebrews. They did not know, however, that he [Moses] would ultimately suffer because of the water of Meribah (Num. 20:7-13) [i.e., that he would not be permitted to enter the Holy Land]. [From Sotah 12a, Exod. Rabbah 1:18, Sanh. 101b]   לכל עמו: אף עליהם גזר. יום שנולד משה אמרו לו אצטגניניו היום נולד מושיען, ואין אנו יודעין אם ממצרים אם מישראל, ורואין אנו שסופו ללקות במים, לפיכך גזר אותו היום אף על המצרים, שנאמר כל הבן הילוד, ולא נאמר הילוד לעברים, והם לא היו יודעים שסופו ללקות על מי מריבה:

Exodus Chapter 2

1A man of the house of Levi went and married a daughter of Levi.   אוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אִ֖ישׁ מִבֵּ֣ית לֵוִ֑י וַיִּקַּ֖ח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִֽי:
and married a daughter of Levi: He was separated from her because of Pharaoh’s decree (and he remarried her. This is the meaning of went, that he followed [lit., he went after] his daughter’s advice that she said to him, Your decree is harsher than פַּרְעֹה. Whereas Pharaoh issued a decree [only] against the males, you [issued a decree] against the females as well [for none will be born]. This [comment] is found in an old Rashi ), and he took her back and married her a second time. She too was transformed to become like a young woman [physically], but she was [actually] 130 years old. For she was born when they came to Egypt between the חוֹמוֹת and they stayed there 210 years. When they left, Moses was 80 years old. If so, when she conceived him, she was 130 years old, yet [Scripture] calls her a daughter of Levi. [From Sotah 12a, Exod. Rabbah 1:19] [   ויקח את בת לוי: פרוש היה ממנה מפני גזירת פרעה (וחזר ולקחה. וזהו וילך, שהלך בעצת בתו שאמרה לו גזרתך קשה משל פרעה, אם פרעה גזר על הזכרים, ואתה ג"כ על הנקבות). והחזירה ועשה בה לקוחין שניים. ואף היא נהפכה להיות נערה. ובת מאה שלושים שנה היתה שנולדה בבואה למצרים בין החומות, ומאתים ועשר שנה נשתהו שם, וכשיצאו היה משה בן שמונים שנה. אם כן כשנתעברה ממנו היתה בת מאה שלושים וקורא אותה בת לוי:
2The woman conceived and bore a son, and [when] she saw him that he was good, she hid him for three months.   בוַתַּ֥הַר הָֽאִשָּׁ֖ה וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַתֵּ֤רֶא אֹתוֹ֙ כִּי־ט֣וֹב ה֔וּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵ֖הוּ שְׁלשָׁ֥ה יְרָחִֽים:
that he was good: When he was born, the entire house was filled with light. [From Sotah 12a, Exod. Rabbah 1:20]   כי טוב הוא: כשנולד נתמלא הבית כולו אורה:
3[When] she could no longer hide him, she took [for] him a reed basket, smeared it with clay and pitch, placed the child into it, and put [it] into the marsh at the Nile's edge.   גוְלֹא־יָֽכְלָ֣ה עוֹד֘ הַצְּפִינוֹ֒ וַתִּקַח־לוֹ֙ תֵּ֣בַת גֹּ֔מֶא וַתַּחְמְרָ֥ה בַֽחֵמָ֖ר וּבַזָּ֑פֶת וַתָּ֤שֶׂם בָּהּ֙ אֶת־הַיֶּ֔לֶד וַתָּ֥שֶׂם בַּסּ֖וּף עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיְאֹֽר:
[When] she could no longer hide him: because the Egyptians counted her [pregnancy] from the day that he [Amram] took her back. She bore him after [only] six months and one day (Sotah 12a), for a woman who gives birth to a seven-month child may give birth after incomplete [months] (Niddah 38b, R.H. 11a). And they searched after her at the end of nine [months].   ולא יכלה עוד הצפינו: שמנו לה המצריים מיום שהחזירה, והיא ילדתו לששה חדשים ויום אחד, שהיולדת לשבעה יולדת למקוטעין, והם בדקו אחריה לסוף תשעה:
reed: Heb. גֹּמֶא, גִמִי in the language of the Mishnah, and in French jonc, reed grass. This is a pliable substance, which withstands both soft [things] and hard [things]. [From Sotah 12a]   גמא: גמי בלשון משנה ובלעז יונ"ק [גומא]. ודבר רך הוא, ועומד בפני רך ובפני קשה:
with clay and pitch: Pitch on the outside and clay on the inside so that the righteous person [Moses] should not smell the foul odor of pitch. [From Sotah 12a]   בחמר ובזפת: זפת מבחוץ וטיט מבפנים, כדי שלא יריח אותו צדיק ריח רע של זפת:
and put [it] into the marsh: Heb. וַתָּשֶׂם בָּסוּף. This is an expression meaning a marsh, rosei(y)l, in Old French [roseau in modern French], reed. Similar to it is reeds and rushes (קָנֶה וָסוּף) shall be cut off (Isa. 19:6). [From Sotah 12b]   ותשם בסוף: הוא לשון אגם רושי"ל בלעז [סוף], ודומה לו (ישעיה יט ו) קנה וסוף קמלו:
4His sister stood from afar, to know what would be done to him.   דוַתֵּֽתַצַּ֥ב אֲחֹת֖וֹ מֵֽרָחֹ֑ק לְדֵעָ֕ה מַה־יֵּֽעָשֶׂ֖ה לֽוֹ:
5Pharaoh's daughter went down to bathe, to the Nile, and her maidens were walking along the Nile, and she saw the basket in the midst of the marsh, and she sent her maidservant, and she took it.   הוַתֵּ֤רֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה֙ לִרְחֹ֣ץ עַל־הַיְאֹ֔ר וְנַֽעֲרֹתֶ֥יהָ הֹֽלְכֹ֖ת עַל־יַ֣ד הַיְאֹ֑ר וַתֵּ֤רֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַסּ֔וּף וַתִּשְׁלַ֥ח אֶת־אֲמָתָ֖הּ וַתִּקָּחֶֽהָ:
to bathe, to the Nile: Heb. עַל הַיְאֹר. Transpose the verse and explain it: Pharaoh’s daughter went down to the Nile to bathe in it.   לרחץ על היאר: סרס המקרא ופרשהו ותרד בת פרעה על היאור לרחוץ בו:
along the Nile: Heb. עַל יַד הַיְאֹר, next to the Nile, similar to: See, Joab’s field is near mine (רְאוּ חֶלְקַת יוֹאָב אֶל יָדִי) (II Sam. 14:30). יָדִי is a literal expression for hand, because a person s hand is near himself. [Thus, the word יָד denotes proximity.] Our Sages said (Sotah 12b): הֹלְכֹת is an expression of death, similar to: Behold, I am going (הוֹלֵ) to die (Gen. 25:32). They [her maidens] were going to die because they protested against her [when she wanted to take the basket]. The text supports them [the Sages], because [otherwise] why was it necessary to write: and her maidens were walking?   על יד היאר: אצל היאור, כמו (שמואל ב יד ל) ראו חלקת יואב על ידי, והוא לשון יד ממש, שיד האדם סמוכה לו. ורבותינו דרשו הולכות לשון מיתה, כמו (בראשית כה לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות, הולכות למות לפי שמיחו בה. והכתוב מסייען, כי למה לנו לכתוב ונערותיה הולכות:
her maidservant: Heb. אֲמָתָהּ, her maidservant. Our Sages (Sotah 12b), however, interpreted it as an expression meaning a hand. [The joint from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger is known as אַמָּה, hence the cubit measure bearing the name, אַמָּה, which is the length of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger.] Following [the rules of] Hebrew grammar, however, it should have been vowelized אַמָּתָהּ, with a dagesh in the mem. They, however, interpreted אֶתאֲמָתָהּ to mean her hand, [that she stretched out her hand,] and her arm grew many cubits (אַמוֹת) [so that she could reach the basket]. [From Sotah 12b, Exod. Rabbah 1:23]   את אמתה: את שפחתה. ורבותינו דרשו לשון יד. אבל לפי דקדוק לשון הקודש היה לו להנקד אמתה מ"ם דגושה. והם דרשו את אמתה את ידה, שנשתרבבה אמתה אמות הרבה:
6She opened [it], and she saw him the child, and behold, he was a weeping lad, and she had compassion on him, and she said, "This is [one] of the children of the Hebrews."   ווַתִּפְתַּח֙ וַתִּרְאֵ֣הוּ אֶת־הַיֶּ֔לֶד וְהִנֵּה־נַ֖עַר בֹּכֶ֑ה וַתַּחְמֹ֣ל עָלָ֔יו וַתֹּ֕אמֶר מִיַּלְדֵ֥י הָֽעִבְרִ֖ים זֶֽה:
She opened [it], and she saw him: Whom did she see? The child. Its midrashic interpretation is that she saw the Shechinah with him. [From Sotah 12b, Exod. Rabbah 1:23]   ותפתח ותראהו: את מי ראתה, את הילד, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו שראתה עמו שכינה:
and behold, he was a weeping lad: [Even though he was an infant] his voice was like that of a lad. [From Sotah 12b]   והנה נער בכה: קולו כנער:
7His sister said to Pharaoh's daughter, "Shall I go and call for you a wet nurse from the Hebrew women, so that she shall nurse the child for you?"   זוַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֲחֹתוֹ֘ אֶל־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה֒ הַֽאֵלֵ֗ךְ וְקָרָ֤אתִי לָךְ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה מֵינֶ֔קֶת מִ֖ן הָֽעִבְרִיֹּ֑ת וְתֵינִ֥ק לָ֖ךְ אֶת־הַיָּֽלֶד:
from the Hebrew women: This teaches [us] that she had taken him around to many Egyptian women to nurse, but he did not nurse because he was destined to speak with the Shechinah. [From Sotah 12b, Exod. Rabbah 1:25].   מן העברית: מלמד שהחזירתו על מצריות הרבה לינק ולא ינק, לפי שהיה עתיד לדבר עם השכינה:
8Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Go!" So the girl went and called the child's mother.   חוַתֹּֽאמֶר־לָ֥הּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵ֑כִי וַתֵּ֨לֶךְ֙ הָֽעַלְמָ֔ה וַתִּקְרָ֖א אֶת־אֵ֥ם הַיָּֽלֶד:
So the girl went: Heb. הָעַלְמָה. She went with alacrity and vigor like a youth. [From Sotah 12b]   ותלך העלמה: הלכה בזריזות ועלמות כעלם:
9Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Take this child and nurse him for me, and I will give [you] your wages." So the woman took the child and nursed him.   טוַתֹּ֧אמֶר לָ֣הּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹ֗ה הֵילִ֜יכִי אֶת־הַיֶּ֤לֶד הַזֶּה֙ וְהֵֽינִקִ֣הוּ לִ֔י וַֽאֲנִ֖י אֶתֵּ֣ן אֶת־שְׂכָרֵ֑ךְ וַתִּקַּ֧ח הָֽאִשָּׁ֛ה הַיֶּ֖לֶד וַתְּנִיקֵֽהוּ:
Take: Heb. הֵילִיכִי. She prophesied but did not know what she prophesied. [She said,] This one is yours. [From Sotah 12b, Exod. Rabbah 1:25]   היליכי: נתנבאה ולא ידעה מה נתנבאה הי שליכי:
10The child grew up, and she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became like her son. She named him Moses, and she said, "For I drew him from the water."   יוַיִּגְדַּ֣ל הַיֶּ֗לֶד וַתְּבִאֵ֨הוּ֙ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַֽיְהִי־לָ֖הּ לְבֵ֑ן וַתִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמוֹ֙ משֶׁ֔ה וַתֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י מִן־הַמַּ֖יִם מְשִׁיתִֽהוּ:
For I drew him from the water: Heb. מְשִׁיתִהוּ. The Targum renders: שְׁחַלְךְתֵּי, which is an Aramaic expression of drawing out, similar to [the expression] שֵׂינֵיתָא מֵחִלָבָא ְמַשְׁחֵל, like one who draws a hair out of milk (Ber. 8a). And in Hebrew, מְשִׁיתִהוּ is an expression meaning I have removed (משׁ), like shall not move away (לֹא יָמוּשׁ) (Josh. 1:8), did not move away (לֹא מָשׁוּ) (Num. 14:44). Menachem classified in this way [i.e., under the root משׁ in Machbereth Menachem, p. 120]. I say, however, that it (מְשִׁיתִהוּ) does not belong in the classification of מָשׁ and לֹא יָמוּשׁ, but [it is derived] from the root מָשֹׁה, and it means taking out and similarly, He drew me out (יַמְשֵׁנִי) of many waters (II Sam. 22:17). For if it were of the classification of [the word] מָשׁ, it would be inappropriate to say מְשִׁיתִהוּ, but הֲמִישׁוֹתִיהוּ, as one says from קָם (to rise), הֲקִימוֹתִי (I set up), and from שָׁב (to return), הֲשִׁיבוֹתִי (I brought back), and from בָּא (to come), הֲבִיאוֹתִי (I brought). Or מַשְׁךְתִּיהוּ, like and I will remove וּמַשְׁךְתִּי ) the iniquity of that land (Zech. 3:9). But מָשִׁיתִי is only from the root of a word whose verb form is formed with a “hey” at the end of the word, like מָשָׁה, to take out בָּנָה, to build; עָשָׂה, to do; צִוָּה, to command; פָּנָה, to turn. When one comes to say in any of these [verbs] פָּעַלְךְתִּי, I did, [i.e., first person past-tense], a “yud” replaces the “hey” : עָשִׂיתִי, I did; בָּנִיתִי, I built; פָּנִיתִי, I turned; צִוִּיתִי, I commanded.   משיתהו: שחילתה והוא לשון הוצאה בלשון ארמי, כמשחל ביניתא מחלבא. ובלשון עברי משיתהו לשון הסירותיו, כמו (יהושע א ח) לא ימוש, לא משו (במדבר יד מד), כך חברו מנחם. ואני אומר שאינו ממחברת מש, וימוש, אלא מגזרת משה ולשון הוצאה הוא, וכן (שמואל ב כב יז) ימשני ממים רבים, שאילו היה ממחברת מש, לא יתכן לומר משיתהו, אלא המישותיהו, כאשר יאמר מן קם הקימותי, ומן שב השיבותי, ומן בא הביאותי, או משתיהו, כמו (זכריה ג ט) ומשתי את עון הארץ, אבל משיתי אינו אלא מגזרת תיבה שפעל שלה מיוסד בה"א בסוף התיבה. כגון משה, בנה, עשה, צוה, פנה, כשיבא לומר בהם פעלתי, תבא היו"ד במקום ה"א, כמו עשיתי, בניתי, פניתי, צויתי:

Third Portion

Exodus Chapter 2

11Now it came to pass in those days that Moses grew up and went out to his brothers and looked at their burdens, and he saw an Egyptian man striking a Hebrew man of his brothers.   יאוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיִּגְדַּ֤ל משֶׁה֙ וַיֵּצֵ֣א אֶל־אֶחָ֔יו וַיַּ֖רְא בְּסִבְלֹתָ֑ם וַיַּרְא֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י מַכֶּ֥ה אִֽישׁ־עִבְרִ֖י מֵֽאֶחָֽיו:
Moses grew up: Was it not already written: The child grew up ? Rabbi Judah the son of Rabbi Ilai said: The first one (וַיִּגְדַּל) [was Moses growth] in height, and the second one [was his growth] in greatness, because Pharaoh appointed him over his house. [From Tanchuma Buber, Va’era 17]   ויגדל משה: והלא כבר כתיב ויגדל הילד (פסוק י) אמר רבי יהודה ברבי אלעאי הראשון לקומה והשני לגדולה, שמינהו פרעה על ביתו:
and looked at their burdens: He directed his eyes and his heart to be distressed over them. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:27]   וירא בסבלתם: נתן עיניו ולבו להיות מיצר עליהם:
an Egyptian man: He was a taskmaster appointed over the Israelite officers. He would wake them when the rooster crowed, [to call them] to their work. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:28]   איש מצרי: נוגש היה, ממונה על שוטרי ישראל והיה מעמידם מקרות הגבר למלאכתם:
striking a Hebrew man: He was lashing and driving him, and he [the Hebrew man] was the husband of Shelomith the daughter of Dibri [who was mentioned in Lev. 24:10], and he [the taskmaster] laid his eyes on her. So he woke him [the Hebrew] at night and took him out of his house, and he [the taskmaster] returned and entered the house and was intimate with his wife while she thought that he was her husband. The man returned home and became aware of the matter. When that Egyptian saw that he had become aware of the matter, he struck [him] and drove him all day [From Exod. Rabbah 1:28]   מכה איש עברי: מלקהו ורודהו. ובעלה של שלומית בת דברי היה, ונתן בה עיניו, ובלילה העמידו והוציאו מביתו, והוא חזר ונכנס לבית ובא על אשתו, כסבורה שהוא בעלה, וחזר האיש לביתו והרגיש בדבר, וכשראה אותו מצרי שהרגיש בדבר, היה מכהו ורודהו כל היום:
12He turned this way and that way, and he saw that there was no man; so he struck the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.   יבוַיִּ֤פֶן כֹּה֙ וָכֹ֔ה וַיַּ֖רְא כִּ֣י אֵ֣ין אִ֑ישׁ וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִ֔י וַיִּטְמְנֵ֖הוּ בַּחֽוֹל:
He turned this way and that way: He saw what he [the Egyptian] had done to him [the Hebrew] in the house and what he had done to him in the field (Exod. Rabbah 1:28). But according to its simple meaning, it is to be interpreted according to its apparent meaning, i.e., he looked in all directions and saw that no one had seen him slay the Egyptian. [   ויפן כה וכה: ראה מה עשה לו בבית ומה עשה לו בשדה. ולפי פשוטו כמשמעו:
and he saw that there was no man: [I.e., he saw that] there was no man destined to be descended from him [the Egyptian] who would become a proselyte [i.e., a convert]. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:29]   וירא כי אין איש: עתיד לצאת ממנו שיתגייר:
13He went out on the second day, and behold, two Hebrew men were quarreling, and he said to the wicked one, "Why are you going to strike your friend?"   יגוַיֵּצֵא֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וְהִנֵּ֛ה שְׁנֵֽי־אֲנָשִׁ֥ים עִבְרִ֖ים נִצִּ֑ים וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לָֽרָשָׁ֔ע לָ֥מָּה תַכֶּ֖ה רֵעֶֽךָ:
two Hebrew men were quarreling: Dathan and Abiram. They were the ones who saved some of the manna [when they had been forbidden to leave it overnight, as in Exod. 16:19, 20]. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:29]   שני אנשים עברים: דתן ואבירם הם שהותירו מן המן:
quarreling: Heb. נִצִּים, fighting.   נצים: מריבים:
Why are you going to strike: Although he had not struck him, he is called wicked for [merely] raising his hand [to strike him]. [From Sanh. 58b] [   למה תכה: אף על פי שלא הכהו, נקרא רשע בהרמת יד:
your friend: A wicked man like you. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:29]   רעך: רשע כמותך:
14And he retorted, "Who made you a man, a prince, and a judge over us? Do you plan to slay me as you have slain the Egyptian?" Moses became frightened and said, "Indeed, the matter has become known!"   ידוַיֹּ֠אמֶר מִ֣י שָֽׂמְךָ֞ לְאִ֨ישׁ שַׂ֤ר וְשֹׁפֵט֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ הַֽלְהָרְגֵ֨נִי֙ אַתָּ֣ה אֹמֵ֔ר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרַ֖גְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִ֑י וַיִּירָ֤א משֶׁה֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר אָכֵ֖ן נוֹדַ֥ע הַדָּבָֽר:
Who made you a man: You are still a youth. [From Tanchuma, Shemoth 10]   מי שמך לאיש: והרי עודך נער:
Do you plan to slay me: lit., Do you say to slay me. From here we learn that he slew him with the ineffable Name. [From Tanchuma, Shemoth 10]   הלהרגני אתה אמר: מכאן אנו למדים שהרגו בשם המפורש:
Moses became frightened: [To be explained] according to its simple meaning [that Moses was afraid Pharaoh would kill him]. Midrashically, it is interpreted to mean that he was worried because he saw in Israel wicked men [i.e.,] informers. He said, Since this is so, perhaps they [the Israelites] do not deserve to be redeemed [from slavery]. [From Tanchuma, Shemoth 10]   ויירא משה: כפשוטו. ומדרשו דאג לו על שראה בישראל רשעים דלטורין, אמר מעתה שמא אינם ראויין להגאל:
Indeed, the matter has become known: [To be interpreted] according to its apparent meaning [that it was known that he had slain the Egyptian]. Its midrashic interpretation, however, is: the matter I was wondering about, [i.e.,] why the Israelites are considered more sinful than all the seventy nations [of the world], to be subjugated with back-breaking labor, has become known to me. Indeed, I see that they deserve it. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:30]   אכן נודע הדבר: כמשמעו. ומדרשו נודע לי הדבר שהייתי תמה עליו, מה חטאו ישראל מכל שבעים אומות להיות נרדים בעבודת פרך, אבל רואה אני שהם ראויים לכך:
15Pharaoh heard of this incident, and he sought to slay Moses; so Moses fled from before Pharaoh. He stayed in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well.   טווַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ לַֽהֲרֹ֣ג אֶת־משֶׁ֑ה וַיִּבְרַ֤ח משֶׁה֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בְּאֶֽרֶץ־מִדְיָ֖ן וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב עַל־הַבְּאֵֽר:
Pharaoh heard: They informed on him.   וישמע פרעה: הם הלשינו עליו:
and he sought to slay Moses: He delivered him to the executioner to execute him, but the sword had no power over him. That is [the meaning of] what Moses said, “and He saved me from Pharaoh’s חֶרֶב ” (Exod. 18:4). [From Mechilta, Yithro 1, Exod. Rabbah 1:321]   ויבקש להרג את משה: מסרו לקוסטינר להרגו, ולא שלטה בו החרב, הוא שאמר משה (יח ד) ויצילני מחרב פרעה:
(He stayed in the land of Midian: Heb. וַיֵּשֶׁב, he tarried there, like Jacob dwelt וַיֵּשֶׁב (Gen. 37:1).)   וישב בארץ מדין: נתעכב שם, כמו (בראשית לז א) וישב יעקב:
and he sat down by a well: Heb. וַיֵּשֶׁב, an expression of sitting. He learned from Jacob, who met his mate at a well. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:32, Tanchuma, Shemoth 10] [The comment on the sentence He stayed in the land of Midian does not appear in some editions of Rashi. Therefore, it is enclosed within parentheses. The first sentence of the second paragraph does not appear in the Miraoth Gedoloth. It does, however, appear in all other editions of Rashi. Perhaps it was unintentionally omitted. Rashi intends here to differentiate between the first וַיֵּשֶׁב and the second וַיֵּשֶׁב He explains that the first וַיֵּשֶׁב means staying, residing, or tarrying, signifying that Moses resided in Midian. The second וַיֵּשֶׁב denotes, literally, sitting, meaning that Moses sat down by a well. The Sages of the midrashim teach us that Moses sat there intentionally, for he expected to meet his mate, just as Jacob had met Rachel and Eliezer had met Rebecca when he sought a mate for Isaac. Otherwise, Moses would not have sat by the well simply to watch how the flocks were being watered.]   וישב על הבאר: לשון ישיבה, למד מיעקב שנזדווג לו זווגו על הבאר:
16Now the chief of Midian had seven daughters, and they came and drew [water], and they filled the troughs to water their father's flocks.   טזוּלְכֹהֵ֥ן מִדְיָ֖ן שֶׁ֣בַע בָּנ֑וֹת וַתָּבֹ֣אנָה וַתִּדְלֶ֗נָה וַתְּמַלֶּ֨אנָה֙ אֶת־הָ֣רְהָטִ֔ים לְהַשְׁק֖וֹת צֹ֥אן אֲבִיהֶֽן:
Now the chief of Midian had: Heb. וּלְכֹהֵן מִדְיָן, i.e., the most prominent among them. He had abandoned idolatry, so they banned him from [living with] them. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:32, Tanchuma, Shemoth 11]   ולכהן מדין: רב שבהן ופירש לו מעבודה זרה ונידוהו מאצלם:
the troughs: Pools of running water, made in the ground.   את הרהטים: את בריכות מרוצת המים העשויות בארץ:
17But the shepherds came and drove them away; so Moses arose and rescued them and watered their flocks.   יזוַיָּבֹ֥אוּ הָֽרֹעִ֖ים וַיְגָֽרְשׁ֑וּם וַיָּ֤קָם משֶׁה֙ וַיּ֣וֹשִׁעָ֔ן וַיַּ֖שְׁקְ אֶת־צֹאנָֽם:
and drove them away: because of the ban. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:32, Tanchuma, Shemoth 11]   ויגרשום: מפני הנידוי:
18They came to their father Reuel, and he said, "Why have you come so quickly today?"   יחוַתָּבֹ֕אנָה אֶל־רְעוּאֵ֖ל אֲבִיהֶ֑ן וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מַדּ֛וּעַ מִֽהַרְתֶּ֥ן בֹּ֖א הַיּֽוֹם:
19They replied, "An Egyptian man rescued us from the hand[s] of the shepherds, and he also drew [water] for us and watered the flocks."   יטוַתֹּאמַ֕רְןָ אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י הִצִּילָ֖נוּ מִיַּ֣ד הָֽרֹעִ֑ים וְגַם־דָּלֹ֤ה דָלָה֙ לָ֔נוּ וַיַּ֖שְׁקְ אֶת־הַצֹּֽאן:
20He said to his daughters, "So where is he? Why have you left the man? Invite him, and let him eat bread."   כוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָ֖יו וְאַיּ֑וֹ לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ עֲזַבְתֶּ֣ן אֶת־הָאִ֔ישׁ קִרְאֶ֥ן ל֖וֹ וְיֹ֥אכַל לָֽחֶם:
Why have you left the man: He recognized him [Moses] as being of the seed of Jacob, for the water rose toward him. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:32, Tanchuma Shemoth 11]   למה זה עזבתן: הכיר בו שהוא מזרעו של יעקב, שהמים עולים לקראתו:
and let him eat bread: Perhaps he will marry one of you, as it is said: except the bread that he ate (Gen. 39:6) [alluding to Potiphar’s wife]. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:32, Tanchuma, Shemoth 11]   ויאכל לחם: שמא ישא אחת מכם, כמה דאת אמרת (בראשית לט ו) כי אם הלחם אשר הוא אוכל:
21Moses consented to stay with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses.   כאוַיּ֥וֹאֶל משֶׁ֖ה לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ וַיִּתֵּ֛ן אֶת־צִפֹּרָ֥ה בִתּ֖וֹ לְמשֶֽׁה:
consented: Heb. וַיּוֹאֶל, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: (וּצְבִי), and similar to this: Accept (הוֹאֶל) now and lodge (Jud. 19:6); Would that we had been content (הוֹאַלְנוּ) (Josh. 7:7); Behold now I have desired (הוֹאַלְךְתִּי) (Gen. 18:31). Its midrashic interpretation is: וַיּוֹאֶל is] an expression of an oath (אלה), he [Moses] swore to him that he would not move from Midian except with his consent. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:33, Tanchuma, Shemoth 12]   ויואל: כתרגומו. ודומה לו (שופטים יט ו) הואל נא ולין, ולו הואלנו (יהושע ז ז), הואלתי לדבר (בראשית יח כז), ומדרשו לשון אלה, נשבע לו שלא יזוז ממדין כי אם ברשותו:
22She bore a son, and he named him Gershom, for he said, "I was a stranger in a foreign land."   כבוַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֔ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ גֵּֽרְשֹׁ֑ם כִּ֣י אָמַ֔ר גֵּ֣ר הָיִ֔יתִי בְּאֶ֖רֶץ נָכְרִיָּֽה:
23Now it came to pass in those many days that the king of Egypt died, and the children of Israel sighed from the labor, and they cried out, and their cry ascended to God from the labor.   כגוַיְהִי֩ בַיָּמִ֨ים הָֽרַבִּ֜ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיָּ֨מָת֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיֵּאָֽנְח֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מִן־הָֽעֲבֹדָ֖ה וַיִּזְעָ֑קוּ וַתַּ֧עַל שַׁוְעָתָ֛ם אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים מִן־הָֽעֲבֹדָֽה:
Now it came to pass in those many days: that Moses sojourned in Midian, that the king of Egypt died, and Israel required a salvation, and Moses was pasturing, and a salvation came through him. Therefore, these sections were juxtaposed [i.e., the section dealing with the king of Egypt’s affliction, and that dealing with Moses pasturing flocks]. [From an old Rashi]   ויהי בימים הרבים ההם: שהיה משה גר במדין, וימת מלך מצרים והוצרכו ישראל לתשועה. ומשה היה רועה וגו' (ג א) ובאת תשועה על ידו, ולכך נסמכו פרשיות הללו:
that the king of Egypt died: He was stricken (נִצְטָרַע), and he would slaughter Israelite infants and bathe in their blood. [From Exod. Rabbah 1:34]   וימת מלך מצרים: נצטרע והיה שוחט תינוקות ישראל ורוחץ בדמם:
24God heard their cry, and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.   כדוַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־נַֽאֲקָתָ֑ם וַיִּזְכֹּ֤ר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־בְּרִית֔וֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶת־יִצְחָ֥ק וְאֶת־יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
their cry: Heb. נַאִקָתָם, their cry, similar to From the city, people groan (יִנְאָקוּ) (Job 24:12).   נאקתם: צעקתם, וכן (איוב כד יב) מעיר מתים ינאקו:
His covenant with Abraham: Heb. אֶת אַבְרָהָם, the equivalent of עִם אַבְרָהָם, with Abraham.   את בריתו את אברהם: עם אברהם:
25And God saw the children of Israel, and God knew.   כהוַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֖דַע אֱלֹהִֽים:
He focused His attention [lit., He set His heart] upon them: and did not conceal His eyes from them.   וידע א-להים: נתן עליהם לב ולא העלים עיניו:

Fourth Portion

Exodus Chapter 3

1Moses was pasturing the flocks of Jethro, his father in law, the chief of Midian, and he led the flocks after the free pastureland, and he came to the mountain of God, to Horeb.   אוּמשֶׁ֗ה הָיָ֥ה רֹעֶ֛ה אֶת־צֹ֛אן יִתְר֥וֹ חֹֽתְנ֖וֹ כֹּהֵ֣ן מִדְיָ֑ן וַיִּנְהַ֤ג אֶת־הַצֹּאן֙ אַחַ֣ר הַמִּדְבָּ֔ר וַיָּבֹ֛א אֶל־הַ֥ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים חֹרֵֽבָה:
after the free pastureland: to distance himself from [the possibility of] theft, so that they [the flocks] would not pasture in others’ fields. — [from Exodus Rabbah 2:3]   אחר המדבר: להתרחק מן הגזל שלא ירעו בשדות אחרים:
to the mountain of God: [Mount Horeb is called “the mountain of God”] in view of the [events of the] future.   אל הר הא-להים: על שם העתיד:
2An angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from within the thorn bush, and behold, the thorn bush was burning with fire, but the thorn bush was not being consumed.   בוַיֵּרָ֠א מַלְאַ֨ךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֵלָ֛יו בְּלַבַּת־אֵ֖שׁ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֑ה וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַסְּנֶה֙ בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֔שׁ וְהַסְּנֶ֖ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ אֻכָּֽל:
in a flame of fire: Heb. בִּלַבַּת אֵשׁ, in a flame of (שַׁלְהֶבֶת) fire, the heart (לִבּוֹ) of fire, like “the heart (לֵב) of the heavens” (Deut. 4:11), “in the heart (בְּלֵב) of the terebinth” (II Sam. 18:14). Do not wonder about the tav [in לִבַּת], for we have [an instance] similar to this: How degenerate is your heart (לִבָּתֵ) (Ezek. 16:30).   בלבת אש: בשלהבת אש לבו של אש, כמו (דברים ד יא) לב השמים, (שמואל ב יח יד) בלב האלה, ואל תתמה על התי"ו, שיש לנו כיוצא בו (יחזקאל טז ל) מה אמולה לבתך:
from within the thorn bush: But not from any other tree, because of “I am with him in distress” (Ps. 91:15). — [from Tanchuma, Shemoth 14]   מתוך הסנה: ולא אילן אחר, משום עמו אנכי בצרה (תהילים צא טו):
being consumed: Heb. אֻכַָּל, consumed, like “with which no work has been done (עֻבַּד)” ; (Deut. 21:3), “whence he had been taken (לֻקַח)” (Gen. 3:23).   אכל: נאכל, כמו (דברים כא ג) לא עבד בה, אשר לקח משם (בראשית ג כג):
3So Moses said, "Let me turn now and see this great spectacle why does the thorn bush not burn up?"   גוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֔ה אָסֻֽרָה־נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶ֥ה הַגָּדֹ֖ל הַזֶּ֑ה מַדּ֖וּעַ לֹֽא־יִבְעַ֥ר הַסְּנֶֽה:
Let me turn now: Let me turn away from here to draw near to there.   אסרה נא: אסורה מכאן להתקרב שם:
4The Lord saw that he had turned to see, and God called to him from within the thorn bush, and He said, "Moses, Moses!" And he said, "Here I am!"   דוַיַּ֥רְא יְהֹוָ֖ה כִּ֣י סָ֣ר לִרְא֑וֹת וַיִּקְרָא֩ אֵלָ֨יו אֱלֹהִ֜ים מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֗ה וַיֹּ֛אמֶר משֶׁ֥ה משֶׁ֖ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי:
5And He said, "Do not draw near here. Take your shoes off your feet, because the place upon which you stand is holy soil."   הוַיֹּ֖אמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַ֣ב הֲלֹ֑ם שַׁל־נְעָלֶ֨יךָ֙ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֣י הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ עוֹמֵ֣ד עָלָ֔יו אַדְמַת־קֹ֖דֶשׁ הֽוּא:
Take your shoes off: Heb. שַׁל, pull off and remove, similar to: “and the iron [axehead] will slip off (וְנָשַׁל)” (Deut. 19:5), “for your olive tree will drop (יִַַל)” [its fruit] (Deut. 28:40).   של: שלוף והוצא, כמו (דברים יט ה) ונשל הברזל, (דברים כח מ) כי ישל זיתך:
is holy soil: [Lit., it is holy soil.] The place.   אדמת קדש הוא: המקום:
6And He said, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." And Moses hid his face because he was afraid to look toward God.   ווַיֹּ֗אמֶר אָֽנֹכִי֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵֽאלֹהֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וַיַּסְתֵּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ פָּנָ֔יו כִּ֣י יָרֵ֔א מֵֽהַבִּ֖יט אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים:
7And the Lord said, "I have surely seen the affliction of My people who are in Egypt, and I have heard their cry because of their slave drivers, for I know their pains.   זוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֔ה רָאֹ֥ה רָאִ֛יתִי אֶת־עֳנִ֥י עַמִּ֖י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וְאֶת־צַֽעֲקָתָ֤ם שָׁמַ֨עְתִּי֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י נֹֽגְשָׂ֔יו כִּ֥י יָדַ֖עְתִּי אֶת־מַכְאֹבָֽיו:
for I know their pains: This is similar to: “and God knew” (Exod. 2:25). That is to say: for I set My heart to contemplate and to know their pains, and I have not hidden My eyes, neither will I block My ears from their cry.   כי ידעתי את מכאביו: כמו (לעיל ב כה) וידע א-להים, כלומר כי שמתי לב להתבונן ולדעת את מכאוביו ולא העלמתי עיני ולא אאטום את אזני מצעקתם:
8I have descended to rescue them from the hand[s] of the Egyptians and to bring them up from that land, to a good and spacious land, to a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites.   חוָֽאֵרֵ֞ד לְהַצִּיל֣וֹ | מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרַ֗יִם וּלְהַֽעֲלֹתוֹ֘ מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַהִוא֒ אֶל־אֶ֤רֶץ טוֹבָה֙ וּרְחָבָ֔ה אֶל־אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ אֶל־מְק֤וֹם הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי:
9And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to Me, and I have also seen the oppression that the Egyptians are oppressing them.   טוְעַתָּ֕ה הִנֵּ֛ה צַֽעֲקַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּ֣אָה אֵלָ֑י וְגַם־רָאִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־הַלַּ֔חַץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִצְרַ֖יִם לֹֽחֲצִ֥ים אֹתָֽם:
10So now come, and I will send you to Pharaoh, and take My people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt."   יוְעַתָּ֣ה לְכָ֔ה וְאֶשְׁלָֽחֲךָ֖ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה וְהוֹצֵ֛א אֶת־עַמִּ֥י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
So now come, and I will send you, etc.: And if you ask of what help will this be And take My people out? Your words will help, and you will take them out of there.   ועתה לכה ואשלחך אל פרעה: ואם תאמר מה תועיל, והוצא את עמי, יועילו דבריך ותוציאם משם:
11But Moses said to God, "Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should take the children of Israel out of Egypt?"   יאוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים מִ֣י אָנֹ֔כִי כִּ֥י אֵלֵ֖ךְ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה וְכִ֥י אוֹצִ֛יא אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
Who am I: Of what importance am I that I should speak with kings?   מי אנכי: מה אני חשוב לדבר עם המלכים:
and that I should take the children of Israel out: And even if I am of importance, what merit do the Israelites have that a miracle should be wrought for them, and I should take them out of Egypt?   וכי אוציא את בני ישראל: ואף אם חשוב אני, מה זכו ישראל שתעשה להם נס ואוציאם ממצרים:
12And He said, "For I will be with you, and this is the sign for you that it was I Who sent you. When you take the people out of Egypt, you will worship God on this mountain."   יבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ כִּי־אֶֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֔ךְ וְזֶה־לְּךָ֣ הָא֔וֹת כִּ֥י אָֽנֹכִ֖י שְׁלַחְתִּ֑יךָ בְּהוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֤ אֶת־הָעָם֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם תַּֽעַבְדוּן֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים עַ֖ל הָהָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
And He said, “For I will be with you…”: He [God] answered his former [question] first, and his latter [question] last. [Concerning] what you said, “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh?” This [mission] is not yours but Mine, “for I will be with you.” And this vision which you have seen in the thorn bush, is the sign for you that it was I who sent you and that you will succeed in My mission and that I am able to save you. Just as you saw the thorn bush performing My mission and not being harmed, so will you go on My mission and not be harmed. [Concerning] what you asked, “what merit do the Israelites have that they should go out of Egypt?” I have a great thing [dependent] on this Exodus, for at the end of three months from their Exodus from Egypt they are destined to receive the Torah on this mountain. Another explanation: For I will be with you, and this [namely] that you will succeed in your mission [on which I am sending you] is the sign for you for another promise, which I promise you, [namely,] that when you take them out of Egypt, you will serve God on this mountain, for you will receive the Torah on it, and that is the merit that will stand up for Israel. Similar to this expression [where a future event serves as a sign for a still more distant event], we find: “And this shall be the sign (הָאוֹת) for you, this year you shall eat what grows by itself, etc.” (Isa. 37:30, II Kings 19:29). Sennacherib’s downfall will be a sign for you regarding another promise, [i.e.,] that your land is desolate of fruit, and I will bless what grows by itself.   ויאמר כי אהיה עמך: השיבו על ראשון ראשון ועל אחרון אחרון, שאמרת מי אנכי כי אלך אל פרעה, לא שלך היא, כי אם משלי, כי אהיה עמך, וזה המראה אשר ראית בסנה לך האות כי אנכי שלחתיך, וכדאי אני להציל כאשר ראית הסנה עושה שליחותי ואיננו אוכל, כך תלך בשליחותי ואינך ניזוק. וששאלת מה זכות יש לישראל שיצאו ממצרים, דבר גדול יש לי על הוצאה זו, שהרי עתידים לקבל התורה על ההר הזה לסוף שלושה חדשים שיצאו ממצרים. דבר אחר כי אהיה עמך וזה שתצליח בשליחותך לך האות על הבטחה אחרת שאני מבטיחך, שכשתוציאם ממצרים תעבדון אותי על ההר הזה, שתקבלו התורה עליו והיא הזכות העומדת לישראל. ודוגמת לשון זה מצינו (ישעיהו לז ל) וזה לך האות אכול השנה ספיח וגו', מפלת סנחריב תהיה לך אות על הבטחה אחרת שארצכם חרבה מפירות ואני אברך הספיחים:
13And Moses said to God, "Behold I come to the children of Israel, and I say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they say to me, 'What is His name?' what shall I say to them?"   יגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים הִנֵּ֨ה אָֽנֹכִ֣י בָא֘ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְאָֽמַרְתִּ֣י לָהֶ֔ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְאָֽמְרוּ־לִ֣י מַה־שְּׁמ֔וֹ מָ֥ה אֹמַ֖ר אֲלֵהֶֽם:
14God said to Moses, "Ehyeh asher ehyeh (I will be what I will be)," and He said, "So shall you say to the children of Israel, 'Ehyeh (I will be) has sent me to you.'"   ידוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כֹּ֤ה תֹאמַר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֲלֵיכֶֽם:
“Ehyeh asher ehyeh (I will be what I will be)”: “I will be” with them in this predicament “what I will be” with them in their subjugation by other kingdoms. He [Moses] said before Him, “O Lord of the universe! Why should I mention to them another trouble? They have enough [problems] with this one.” He said to him, “You have spoken well. So shall you say, etc.” -[from Ber. 9b] (Not that Moses, God forbid, outsmarted God, but he did not understand what God meant, because originally, when God said, “I will be what I will be,” He told this to Moses alone, and He did not mean that he should tell it to Israel. That is the meaning of “You have spoken well,” for that was My original intention, that you should not tell such things to the children of Israel, only “So shall you say to the children of Israel,” ‘Ehyeh [I will be] has sent me.’” From tractate Berachoth this appears to be the correct interpretation. Give this matter your deliberation.) [Annotation to Rashi] [There appears to be no indication of this interpretation in tractate Berachoth.]   אהיה אשר אהיה: אהיה עמם בצרה זו אשר אהיה עמם בשעבוד שאר מלכיות. אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם, מה אני מזכיר להם צרה אחרת דיים בצרה זו. אמר לו יפה אמרת, כה תאמר וגו':
15And God said further to Moses, "So shall you say to the children of Israel, 'The Lord God of your forefathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.' This is My name forever, and this is how I should be mentioned in every generation.   טווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ ע֨וֹד אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה כֹּ֣ה תֹאמַר֘ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ יְהֹוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם אֱלֹהֵ֨י אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֛ק וֵֽאלֹהֵ֥י יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם זֶה־שְּׁמִ֣י לְעֹלָ֔ם וְזֶ֥ה זִכְרִ֖י לְדֹ֥ר דֹּֽר:
This is My name forever: Heb. לְעֹלָם [It is spelled] without a vav, meaning: conceal it [God’s name] תהַעִלִימֵהוּ [so] that it should not be read as it is written. — [from Pes. 50a] Since the “vav” of (לְעֹלָ ם) is missing, we are to understand it as לְעַלֵּם, to conceal, meaning that the pronunciation of the way God’s name is written (י-ה-ו-ה) is to be concealed. — [from Pes. 50a.]   זה שמי לעלם: חסר וי"ו, לומר העלימהו, שלא יקרא ככתבו:
and this is how I should be mentioned -: He [God] taught him [Moses] how it was to be read, and so does David say, “O Lord, Your name is forever; O Lord, the mention of Your name is for every generation” (Ps. 135:14). — [from Pes. 50a]   וזה זכרי: למדו היאך נקרא, וכן דוד הוא אומר (תהלים קלה יג) ה' שמך לעולם ה' זכרך לדור ודור:

Fifth Portion

Exodus Chapter 3

16Go and assemble the elders of Israel, and say to them, 'The Lord God of your forefathers has appeared to me, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, "I have surely remembered you and what is being done to you in Egypt." '   טזלֵ֣ךְ וְאָֽסַפְתָּ֞ אֶת־זִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֤ אֲלֵהֶם֙ יְהֹוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ נִרְאָ֣ה אֵלַ֔י אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם יִצְחָ֥ק וְיַֽעֲקֹ֖ב לֵאמֹ֑ר פָּקֹ֤ד פָּקַ֨דְתִּי֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְאֶת־הֶֽעָשׂ֥וּי לָכֶ֖ם בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:
the elders of Israel: Those devoted to study, for if you say [that it means] ordinary elderly men, how was it possible for him to gather [all] the elderly men of [a nation of] six hundred thousand? [from Yoma 28b]   את זקני ישראל: מיוחדים לישיבה. ואם תאמר זקנים סתם, היאך אפשר לו לאסוף זקנים של ששים רבוא:
17And I said, 'I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt, to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites, to a land flowing with milk and honey.'   יזוָֽאֹמַ֗ר אַֽעֲלֶ֣ה אֶתְכֶם֘ מֵֽעֳנִ֣י מִצְרַ֒יִם֒ אֶל־אֶ֤רֶץ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י אֶל־אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ:
18And they will hearken to your voice, and you shall come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall say to him, 'The Lord God of the Hebrews has happened upon us, and now, let us go for a three days' journey in the desert and offer up sacrifices to the Lord, our God.'   יחוְשָֽׁמְע֖וּ לְקֹלֶ֑ךָ וּבָאתָ֡ אַתָּה֩ וְזִקְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֗יִם וַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֵלָיו֙ יְהֹוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י הָֽעִבְרִיִּים֙ נִקְרָ֣ה עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְעַתָּ֗ה נֵֽלֲכָה־נָּ֞א דֶּ֣רֶךְ שְׁל֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וְנִזְבְּחָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ:
And they will hearken to your voice: As soon as you say this expression [“I have surely remembered you…," פָּקֹד פָּקַדְךְתִּי אֶתְכֶם] to them, they will hearken to your voice, for this password was transmitted to them from Jacob and from Joseph, that with this expression they will be redeemed. Jacob said to them, “and God will surely remember יִפְקֹד) (פָּקֹד you (Gen. 50:24). Joseph said to them, “God will surely remember (פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד) you” (Gen. 50:25). — [from Exod. Rabbah 3:11]   ושמעו לקלך: מאליהם, מכיון שתאמר להם לשון זה ישמעו לקולך, שכבר סימן זה מסור בידם מיעקב ומיוסף שבלשון זה הם נגאלים. יעקב אמר (בראשית נ כב) וא-להים פקוד יפקוד אתכם, יוסף אמר להם (בראשית נ כה) פקוד יפקוד א-להים אתכם:
(God of the Hebrews: Heb. הָעִבְרִיִים The “yud” is superfluous. It alludes to the ten plagues. — [From an old Rashi])   העבריים‎ אלהי: (יו"ד יתירה רמז למכות (ברשי ישן
has happened upon us: Heb. נִקְרָה, an expression of an occurrence (מִקְרֶה), and similarly, “God happened (וַיִקָר)” (Num. 23:4), “and I will be met by Him there (וְאָנֹכִי אִקָרֵה כֹּה)” (Num. 23:15).   נקרה עלינו: לשון מקרה וכן (במדבר כג ד) ויקר א-להים, (שם טו) ואנכי אקרה כה, אהא נקרה מאתו הלום:
19However, I know that the king of Egypt will not permit you to go, except through a mighty hand.   יטוַֽאֲנִ֣י יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יִתֵּ֥ן אֶתְכֶ֛ם מֶ֥לֶךְ מִצְרַ֖יִם לַֽהֲלֹ֑ךְ וְלֹ֖א בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה:
the king of Egypt will not permit you to go: if I do not show him My mighty hand; i.e., as long as I do not show him My mighty hand, he will not let you go.   לא יתן אתכם מלך מצרים להלך: אם אין אני מראה לו ידי החזקה, כלומר כל עוד שאין אני מודיעו ידי החזקה לא יתן אתכם להלוך:
will not permit: Heb. לֹא-יִךְתֵּן, [lit., will not give. In this case, however, Onkelos renders:] לֹא יִֹשְבּוֹק, will not permit, similar to “Therefore, I did not let you (לֹא-נְתַתִּי)” (Gen. 20:6); but God did not let him (וְלֹא-נְתָנוֹ) harm me” (Gen. 31:7), but they all are expressions of giving. [They are basically expressions of giving, in these cases, giving permission.] Others explain וְלֹא בְּיָד חִזָקָה - and not because his hand is mighty, for as soon as I stretch forth My hand and smite the Egyptians, etc.” The Targum renders it: “and not because his strength is mighty.” This was told to me in the name of Rabbi Jacob the son of Rabbi Menachem.   לא יתן: לא ישבוק, כמו (בראשית כ ו) על כן לא נתתיך, (שם לא ז) ולא נתנו א-להים להרע עמדי, וכולן לשון נתינה הם. ויש מפרשים ולא ביד חזקה ולא בשביל שידו חזקה, כי מאז אשלח את ידי והכיתי את מצרים וגו', ומתרגמין אותו ולא מן קדם דחיליה תקיף, משמו של רבי יעקב ברבי מנחם נאמר לי:
20And I will stretch forth My hand and smite the Egyptians with all My miracles that I will wreak in their midst, and afterwards he will send you out.   כוְשָֽׁלַחְתִּ֤י אֶת־יָדִי֙ וְהִכֵּיתִ֣י אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּכֹל֙ נִפְלְאתָ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶעשֶׂ֖ה בְּקִרְבּ֑וֹ וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן יְשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶתְכֶֽם:
21And I will put this people's favor in the eyes of the Egyptians, and it will come to pass that when you go, you will not go empty handed.   כאוְנָֽתַתִּ֛י אֶת־חֵ֥ן הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה בְּעֵינֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהָיָה֙ כִּ֣י תֵֽלֵכ֔וּן לֹ֥א תֵֽלְכ֖וּ רֵיקָֽם:
22Each woman shall borrow from her neighbor and from the dweller in her house silver and gold objects and garments, and you shall put [them] on your sons and on your daughters, and you shall empty out Egypt."   כבוְשָֽׁאֲלָ֨ה אִשָּׁ֤ה מִשְּׁכֶנְתָּהּ֙ וּמִגָּרַ֣ת בֵּיתָ֔הּ כְּלֵי־כֶ֛סֶף וּכְלֵ֥י זָהָ֖ב וּשְׂמָלֹ֑ת וְשַׂמְתֶּ֗ם עַל־בְּנֵיכֶם֙ וְעַל־בְּנֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְנִצַּלְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־מִצְרָֽיִם:
and from the dweller in her house: From the one who lives with her in the same house.   ומגרת ביתה: מאותה שהיא גרה אתה בבית:
and you shall empty out: Heb. וְנִצַּלְתֶּם, as the Targum renders: וּתְרוּקְנוּן, and you shall empty out. And likewise, and they emptied out (וַיְנצלוּ) Egypt (Exod. 12:36); “and the children of Israel stripped themselves (וַיִתְנַצְלוּ) of their ornaments” (Exod. 33:6). Hence, the nun is a root letter. Menachem, however, classified it in the classification of the “tzaddi” (Machbereth Menachem p. 149) with “Thus, God separated (וַיַצֵל) your father’s livestock” (Gen. 31:9); “that God separated (הִצִיל) from our father” (Gen. 31:16). His words are, however, incorrect, because if the “nun” were not part of the root, since it is vowelized with a “chirik”, the word would not be used in the active sense for the second person masculine plural, but in the passive form for the second person masculine plural, similar to: “and you shall be uprooted (וְנִסַּחְתֶּם) from the land” (Deut. 28:63); “and you shall be delivered (וְנִתַתֶּם) into the hand of the enemy” (Lev. 26:25); “and you will be beaten (וְנִגַּפְתֶּם) before your enemies” (Lev. 26:17); “and you will be melted (וְנִתַּכְתֶּם) in its midst” (Ezek. 22:21); and say, ‘We are saved (נִצַלְנוּ)’ ” (Jer. 7:10), a passive expression in the first person plural. Every “nun” that is sometimes in the root and [sometimes] is missing, like the “nun” of נוֹגֵף (beats), נוֹשֵׂא (carries), נוֹתֵן (gives), נוֹשֵׁ (bites), when it is used in the active second person plural, is vowelized with a vocalized “schwa,” e.g., “and you shall carry (וּנְשָׂאתֶם) your father” (Gen. 45:19); “and you shall give (וּנְתַתֶּם) them” (Num. 32:29); “And you shall circumcise (וּנְמַלְתֶּם) the flesh of your foreskin” (Gen. 17:11). Therefore, I say that this [nun], which is vowelized with a “chirik”, is part of the root, and the noun is נִצּוּל, which is a heavy expression [with a “dagesh” in the second letter], like דִבּוּר (speech), כִּפּוּר (atonement), לִמוּד (teaching), and when one speaks in the second person plural, it (the first root letter of the verb) is vowelized with a “chirik”, like: “And you shall speak (וְדִבַּרְתֶּם) to the rock” (Num. 20:8); “and expiate (וְכִפַּרְתֶּם) the House” (Ezek. 45:20); “And you shall teach (וְלִמַּדְתֶּם) them to your sons” (Deut. 11:19).   ונצלתם: כתרגומו ותרוקנון. וכן (שמות יב לו) וינצלו את מצרים, (שמות לג ו) ויתנצלו בני ישראל את עדים, והנו"ן בו יסוד. ומנחם חברו במחברת צד"י עם (בראשית לא ט) ויצל א-להים את מקנה אביכם, (שם טז) אשר הציל א-להים מאבינו. ולא יאמנו דבריו, כי אם לא היתה הנו"ן יסוד והיא נקודה בחיר"ק, לא תהא משמשת בלשון ופעלתם אלא בלשון ונפעלתם, כמו (דברים כח סג) ונסחתם מן האדמה, (ויקרא כו כה) ונתתם ביד אויב, (שם יז) ונגפתם לפני אויביכם, (יחזקאל כב כא) ונתכתם בתוכה, (ירמיהו ז י) ואמרתם נצלנו, לשון נפעלנו. וכל נו"ן שהיא באה בתיבה לפרקים ונופלת ממנה, כנו"ן של נוגף, נושא, נותן, נושך, כשהיא מדברת לשון ופעלתם תנקד בשו"א בחטף, כגון (בראשית מה יט) ונשאתם את אביכם, (במדבר לב כט) ונתתם להם את ארץ הגלעד, (בראשית יז יא) ונמלתם את בשר ערלתכם. לכן אני אומר שזאת הנקודה בחיר"ק מן היסוד היא, ויסוד שם דבר נצול, והוא מן הלשונות הכבדים, כמו דבור, כפור, למוד, כשידבר בלשון ופעלתם ינקד בחיר"ק, כמו (במדבר כ ח) ודברתם אל הסלע, (יחזקאל מה כ) וכפרתם את הבית, (דברים יא יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם:

Exodus Chapter 4

1Moses answered and said, "Behold they will not believe me, and they will not heed my voice, but they will say, 'The Lord has not appeared to you.' "   אוַיַּ֤עַן משֶׁה֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר וְהֵן֙ לֹא־יַֽאֲמִ֣ינוּ לִ֔י וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמְע֖וּ בְּקֹלִ֑י כִּ֣י יֹֽאמְר֔וּ לֹֽא־נִרְאָ֥ה אֵלֶ֖יךָ יְהֹוָֽה:
2And the Lord said to him, "What is this in your hand?" And he said, "A staff."   בוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו יְהֹוָ֖ה מַה־זֶּ֣ה (כתיב מזה) בְיָדֶ֑ךָ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מַטֶּֽה:
“What is this in your hand?”: Heb. מַזֶּה, [an unusual spelling. Its usual spelling is מַה זֶה in two words.] It is written as one word to imply the meaning: From this (מִזֶה) in your hand you are liable to be stricken because you have suspected innocent people (Exod. Rabbah 3:12). Its simple meaning is [that God is talking to Moses] as a person who says to his friend, “Do you admit that this before you is a stone?” He answers him, “Yes.” “Well, I will make it into a tree.”   מזה בידך: לכך נכתב תיבה אחת, לדרוש מזה שבידך אתה חייב ללקות, שחשדת בכשרים. ופשוטו כאדם שאומר לחברו מודה אתה שזו שלפניך אבן היא. אומר לו הן. אמר לו הריני עושה אותה עץ:
3And He said, "Cast it to the ground," and he cast it to the ground, and it became a serpent, and Moses fled from before it.   גוַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הַשְׁלִיכֵ֣הוּ אַ֔רְצָה וַיַּשְׁלִכֵ֥הוּ אַ֖רְצָה וַיְהִ֣י לְנָחָ֑שׁ וַיָּ֥נָס משֶׁ֖ה מִפָּנָֽיו:
and it became a serpent-: [This was how] He hinted to him [Moses] that he had spoken ill of Israel (by saying, “They will not believe me,” ) and he had adopted the art of the serpent. — [from Exod. Rabbah 3:12]   ויהי לנחש: רמז לו שסיפר לשון הרע על ישראל ותפש אומנותו של נחש:
4And the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch forth your hand and take hold of its tail." So Moses stretched forth his hand and grasped it, and it became a staff in his hand.   דוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה שְׁלַח֙ יָֽדְךָ֔ וֶֽאֱחֹ֖ז בִּזְנָב֑וֹ וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יָדוֹ֙ וַיַּ֣חֲזֶק בּ֔וֹ וַיְהִ֥י לְמַטֶּ֖ה בְּכַפּֽוֹ:
and grasped it-: Heb. וַיַּחֲזִיק בּוֹ. This is an expression of taking hold, and there are many such words in Scripture, e.g., “and the men took hold (וַיַּחִזִיקוּ) of his hand” (Gen. 19:16); “and she grabbed (וְהֶחֱזִיקָה) his private parts” (Deut. 25:11); “and I took hold (וְהֶחֱזַקְךְתִּי) of his jaw” (I Sam. 17:35). Every expression of חִזוּק attached to a “beth” denotes taking hold.   ויחזק בו: לשון אחיזה הוא, והרבה יש במקרא (בראשית יט טז) ויחזיקו האנשים בידו, (דברים כה יא) והחזיקה במבושיו, (שמואל א יז לה) והחזקתי בזקנו. כל לשון חזוק הדבוק לבי"ת, לשון אחיזה הוא:
5"In order that they believe that the Lord, the God of their forefathers, has appeared to you, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob."   הלְמַ֣עַן יַֽאֲמִ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־נִרְאָ֥ה אֵלֶ֛יךָ יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתָ֑ם אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵֽאלֹהֵ֥י יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
6And the Lord said further to him, "Now put your hand into your bosom," and he put his hand into his bosom, and he took it out, and behold, his hand was leprous like snow.   ווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה ל֜וֹ ע֗וֹד הָֽבֵא־נָ֤א יָֽדְךָ֙ בְּחֵיקֶ֔ךָ וַיָּבֵ֥א יָד֖וֹ בְּחֵיק֑וֹ וַיּ֣וֹצִאָ֔הּ וְהִנֵּ֥ה יָד֖וֹ מְצֹרַ֥עַת כַּשָּֽׁלֶג:
his hand was leprous like snow: It is usual for tzora'as (leprousy) to be white [as we find:] "If it be a white blemish." (Vayikra 13:4) With this sign, too, He hinted to him that he spoke slanderously when he said, "They will not believe me." It is for this reason that He struck him with tzora'as, just as Miriam was struck for speaking slanderously.   מצרעת כשלג: דרך צרעת להיות לבנה (ויקרא יג ד) אם בהרת לבנה היא. אף באות זה רמז שלשון הרע סיפר באומרו (פסוק א) לא יאמינו לי, לפיכך הלקהו בצרעת, כמו שלקתה מרים על לשון הרע:
7And He said, "Put your hand back into your bosom," and he put his hand back into his bosom, and [when] he took it out of his bosom, it had become again like [the rest of] his flesh.   זוַיֹּ֗אמֶר הָשֵׁ֤ב יָֽדְךָ֙ אֶל־חֵיקֶ֔ךָ וַיָּ֥שֶׁב יָד֖וֹ אֶל־חֵיק֑וֹ וַיּֽוֹצִאָהּ֙ מֵֽחֵיק֔וֹ וְהִנֵּה־שָׁ֖בָה כִּבְשָׂרֽוֹ:
and [when] he took it out of his bosom: From here, [we learn] that the Divine measure of good comes quicker than the measure of retribution, for in the first instance [verse 6] it does not say, from his bosom. — [from Shab. 97a, Exod. Rabbah 3:13]   ויוצאה מחיקו והנה שבה כבשרו: מכאן שמדה טובה ממהרת לבא ממדת פורענות, שהרי בראשונה לא נאמר מחיקו:
8"And it will come to pass, that if they do not believe you, and they do not heed the voice of the first sign, they will believe the voice of the last sign.   חוְהָיָה֙ אִם־לֹ֣א יַֽאֲמִ֣ינוּ לָ֔ךְ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְע֔וּ לְקֹ֖ל הָאֹ֣ת הָֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן וְהֶֽאֱמִ֔ינוּ לְקֹ֖ל הָאֹ֥ת הָאַֽחֲרֽוֹן:
they will believe the voice of the last sign: When you tell them, “Because of you I was stricken, because I spoke ill of you,” they will believe you, for they have already learned that those who trespass against them are stricken with plagues, such as Pharaoh and Abimelech, [who were punished] because of Sarah.   והאמינו לקל האת האחרון: משתאמר להם בשבילכם לקיתי על שספרתי עליכם לשון הרע יאמינו לך, שכבר למדו בכך שהמזדווגין להרע להם לוקים בנגעים, כגון פרעה ואבימלך בשביל שרה:
9And it will come to pass, if they do not believe either of these two signs, and they do not heed your voice, you shall take of the water of the Nile and spill it upon the dry land, and the water that you take from the Nile will become blood on the dry land."   טוְהָיָ֡ה אִם־לֹ֣א יַֽאֲמִ֡ינוּ גַּם֩ לִשְׁנֵ֨י הָֽאֹת֜וֹת הָאֵ֗לֶּה וְלֹ֤א יִשְׁמְעוּן֙ לְקֹלֶ֔ךָ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ֙ מִמֵּימֵ֣י הַיְאֹ֔ר וְשָֽׁפַכְתָּ֖ הַיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וְהָי֤וּ הַמַּ֨יִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּקַּ֣ח מִן־הַיְאֹ֔ר וְהָי֥וּ לְדָ֖ם בַּיַּבָּֽשֶׁת:
you shall take of the water of the Nile: He hinted to them that with the first plague He exacts retribution upon their deities. (This means that when the Holy One, blessed be He, exacts retribution upon the nations, He first exacts retribution upon their deities, for they [the Egyptians] worshipped the Nile, which afforded them sustenance, and He turned them [the deities, i.e., the Nile] into blood. [From an old Rashi])   ולקחת ממימי היאור: רמז להם שבמכה ראשונה נפרע מאלהותם:
and the water…will become: The word וְהָיוּ, will become, appears twice. [The verse means literally: And will be (וְהָיוּ), meaning that the water that you will take from the Nile will become (וְהָיוּ) blood on dry land.] It seems to me that if it said: “And will be (וְהָיוּ) the water that you will take from the Nile will become (וְהָיוּ) blood on dry land,” I understand [that it means] that in his hand it would turn into blood, and also when it descended to earth, it would remain as it is. But now it [the text] teaches us that it would not become blood until on dry land.   והיו המים וגו': והיו והיו שתי פעמים. נראה בעיני, אלו נאמר והיו המים אשר תקח מן היאור לדם ביבשת, שומע אני שבידו הם נהפכים לדם ואף כשירדו לארץ יהיו בהוייתן, אבל עכשיו מלמדנו שלא יהיו דם עד שיהיו ביבשת:
10Moses said to the Lord, "I beseech You, O Lord. I am not a man of words, neither from yesterday nor from the day before yesterday, nor from the time You have spoken to Your servant, for I am heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue."   יוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֣ה אֶל־יְהֹוָה֘ בִּ֣י אֲדֹנָי֒ לֹא֩ אִ֨ישׁ דְּבָרִ֜ים אָנֹ֗כִי גַּ֤ם מִתְּמוֹל֙ גַּ֣ם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁ֔ם גַּ֛ם מֵאָ֥ז דַּבֶּרְךָ֖ אֶל־עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ כִּ֧י כְבַד־פֶּ֛ה וּכְבַ֥ד לָשׁ֖וֹן אָנֹֽכִי:
neither from yesterday, etc.: We learn [from this] that for a full seven days the Holy One, blessed be He, was enticing Moses in the thorn bush to go on His mission: “from yesterday,” “from the day before yesterday,” “from the time You have spoken” ; thus there are three [days], and the three times גַּם [is mentioned] are inclusive words, adding up to six, and he was presently in the seventh day when he further said to Him, “Send now with whom You would send” (verse 13), until He became angry (verse 14) and complained about him. All this [reluctance] was because he [Moses] did not want to accept a position higher than his brother Aaron, who was his senior and was a prophet, as it is said: “Did I appear to the house of your father when they were in Egypt?” (I Sam. 2:27); [“your father” means Aaron. Similarly,] “and made Myself known to them in the land of Egypt” (Ezek. 20:5); “And I said to them, ‘Every man cast away the despicable idols from before his eyes’” (Ezek. 20:7), and that prophecy was said to Aaron. — [from Exod. Rabbah 3:16]   גם מתמול וגו': למדנו שכל שבעה ימים היה הקב"ה מפתה את משה בסנה לילך בשליחותו מתמול שלשום מאז דברך הרי שלשה, ושלשה גמין רבויין הם, הרי ששה, והוא היה עומד ביום השביעי כשאמר לו זאת עוד (להלן פסוק יג) שלח נא ביד תשלח, עד שחרה בו וקבל עליו. וכל זה, שלא היה רוצה ליטול גדולה על אהרן אחיו שהיה גדול הימנו ונביא היה, שנאמר (שמואל א ב כז) הנגלה נגליתי אל בית אביך בהיותם במצרים, הוא אהרן. וכן ביחזקאל (כ ה) ואודע להם בארץ מצרים וגו', (שם ז) ואומר אליהם איש שקוצי עיניו השליכו, ואותה נבואה לאהרן נאמרה:
heavy of mouth: I speak with difficulty, and in old French, it is balbu, stammerer.   כבד פה: בכבידות אני מדבר, ובלשון לעז בלב"א [גמגמן]:
11But the Lord said to him, "Who gave man a mouth, or who makes [one] dumb or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord?   יאוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו מִ֣י שָׂ֣ם פֶּה֘ לָֽאָדָם֒ א֚וֹ מִֽי־יָשׂ֣וּם אִלֵּ֔ם א֣וֹ חֵרֵ֔שׁ א֥וֹ פִקֵּ֖חַ א֣וֹ עִוֵּ֑ר הֲלֹ֥א אָֽנֹכִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
Who gave man a mouth: Who taught you to speak when you were being judged before Pharaoh concerning the Egyptian [you killed]?   מי שם פה וגו': מי למדך לדבר כשהיית נדון לפני פרעה על המצרי:
or who makes [one] dumb: Who made Pharaoh dumb, that he did not exert any effort [to issue his] command to kill you? And [who made] his servants deaf, so that they did not hear his commandment concerning you? And who made the executioners blind, that they did not see when you fled from the [executioner’s] platform and escaped?-[from Tanchuma, Shemoth 10]   או מי ישום אלם: מי עשה פרעה אלם שלא נתאמץ במצות הריגתך, ואת משרתיו חרשים, שלא שמעו בצוותו עליך, ולאספקלטורין ההורגים מי עשאם עורים, שלא ראו כשברחת מן הבימה ונמלטת:
Is it not I: Whose name is the Lord (י-ה-ו-ה), [Who] has done all this.   הלא אנכי: ששמי ה' עשיתי כל זאת:
12So now, go! I will be with your mouth, and I will instruct you what you shall speak. "   יבוְעַתָּ֖ה לֵ֑ךְ וְאָֽנֹכִי֙ אֶֽהְיֶ֣ה עִם־פִּ֔יךָ וְהֽוֹרֵיתִ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּדַבֵּֽר:
13But he said, "I beseech You, O Lord, send now [Your message] with whom You would send."   יגוַיֹּ֖אמֶר בִּ֣י אֲדֹנָ֑י שְׁלַח־נָ֖א בְּיַד־תִּשְׁלָֽח:
with whom You would send: With whom You are accustomed to sending, and this is Aaron. Another explanation: With someone else, with whom You wish to send, for I am not destined to bring them into the land [of Israel] and to be their redeemer in the future. You have many messengers.   ביד תשלח: ביד מי שאתה רגיל לשלוח, והוא אהרן. דבר אחר ביד אחר שתרצה לשלוח, שאין סופי להכניסם לארץ ולהיות גואלם לעתיד, יש לך שלוחים הרבה:
14And the Lord's wrath was kindled against Moses, and He said, "Is there not Aaron your brother, the Levite? I know that he will surely speak, and behold, he is coming forth toward you, and when he sees you, he will rejoice in his heart.   ידוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֨ף יְהֹוָ֜ה בְּמשֶׁ֗ה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ הֲלֹ֨א אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן אָחִ֨יךָ֙ הַלֵּוִ֔י יָדַ֕עְתִּי כִּֽי־דַבֵּ֥ר יְדַבֵּ֖ר ה֑וּא וְגַ֤ם הִנֵּה־הוּא֙ יֹצֵ֣א לִקְרָאתֶ֔ךָ וְרָֽאֲךָ֖ וְשָׂמַ֥ח בְּלִבּֽוֹ:
wrath was kindled: Rabbi Joshua ben Korchah says: In every [instance that God’s] kindling anger [is mentioned, i.e., that God’s anger was sparked] in the Torah, it is stated [that there was] a consequence [i.e., it was followed by a punishment]. In this [instance, however,] no consequence is stated, and we do not find that a punishment came [to Moses] after this kindling of anger. Rabbi Jose said to him, “Here too you can see a consequence is stated: [namely in the question] ‘Is there not Aaron your brother, the Levite,’ who was destined to be a Levite and not a priest [kohen]. I had said that the priesthood would emanate from you, henceforth it will not be so, but he [Aaron] will be a priest and you the Levite, as it is said: ‘But as for Moses, the man of God-his sons were to be called in the tribe of Levi’ (I Chron. 23:14).” -[from Zev. 102a]   ויחר אף: ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר כל חרון אף שבתורה נאמר בו רושם, וזה לא נאמר בו רושם, ולא מצינו שבא עונש על ידי אותו חרון. אמר לו רבי יוסי אף בזו נאמר בו רושם, הלא אהרן אחיך הלוי, שהיה עתיד להיות לוי ולא כהן, והכהונה הייתי אומר לצאת ממך, מעתה לא יהיה כן, אלא הוא יהיה כהן ואתה הלוי, שנאמר (דברי הימים א' כג כד) ומשה איש הא-להים בניו יקראו על שבט הלוי:
and behold, he is coming forth toward you: when you go to Egypt.   הנה הוא יצא לקראתך: כשתלך למצרים:
and when he sees you, he will rejoice in his heart: Not as you think, that he will resent your attaining a high position. Because of this [Aaron’s goodness and humility], Aaron merited the ornament of the breastplate, which is placed over the heart (Exod. 28:29). — [from Exod. Rabbah 3:17]   וראך ושמח בלבו: לא כשאתה סבור שיהא מקפיד עליך שאתה עולה לגדולה. ומשם זכה אהרן לעדי החשן הנתון על הלב:
15You shall speak to him, and you shall put the words into his mouth, and I will be with your mouth and with his mouth, and I will instruct you [both] what you shall do.   טווְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֔יו וְשַׂמְתָּ֥ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים בְּפִ֑יו וְאָֽנֹכִ֗י אֶֽהְיֶ֤ה עִם־פִּ֨יךָ֙ וְעִם־פִּ֔יהוּ וְהֽוֹרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּן:
16And he will speak for you to the people, and it will be that he will be your speaker, and you will be his leader.   טזוְדִבֶּר־ה֥וּא לְךָ֖ אֶל־הָעָ֑ם וְהָ֤יָה הוּא֙ יִֽהְיֶה־לְּךָ֣ לְפֶ֔ה וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֥וֹ לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
And he will speak for you: Heb לְ On your behalf he will speak to the people. This proves that every instance of לָכֶם, לְ, לִי, לוֹ and לָהֶם used in conjunction with דִבּוּר, speech, all denote “on behalf of.”   ודבר הוא לך: בשבילך ידבר אל העם וזה יוכיח על כל לך ולי ולו ולכם ולהם הסמוכים לדבור, שכולם לשון על הם:
will be your speaker: lit., your mouth. [He will be] your interpreter, because you have a speech impediment. — [from targumim]   יהיה לך לפה: למליץ, לפי שאתה כבד פה:
leader: Heb. לֵאלֹהִים, as a master and as a prince.   לא-להים: לרב ולשר:
17And you shall take this staff in your hand, with which you shall perform the signs."   יזוְאֶת־הַמַּטֶּ֥ה הַזֶּ֖ה תִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־בּ֖וֹ אֶת־הָֽאֹתֹֽת:

Sixth Portion

Exodus Chapter 4

18Moses went and returned to Jether, his father in law, and he said to him, "Let me go now and return to my brothers who are in Egypt, and let me see whether they are still alive." So Jethro said to Moses, "Go in peace."   יחוַיֵּ֨לֶךְ משֶׁ֜ה וַיָּ֣שָׁב | אֶל־יֶ֣תֶר חֹֽתְנ֗וֹ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ אֵ֣לֲכָה נָּ֗א וְאָשׁ֨וּבָה֙ אֶל־אַחַ֣י אֲשֶׁר־בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וְאֶרְאֶ֖ה הַֽעוֹדָ֣ם חַיִּ֑ים וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יִתְר֛וֹ לְמשֶׁ֖ה לֵ֥ךְ לְשָׁלֽוֹם:
and returned to Jether, his father-in-law: to take his leave, for he had sworn to him [Jethro] (that he would not leave Midian except with his permission) (Exodus Rabbah 4:1). And he had seven names: Reuel, Jether, Jethro, Keni, [Hobab, Heber, and Putiel]. — [from Michilta, Yithro 1:1] See Rashi on Exod. 18:1 for the reasons for these names.   וישב אל יתר חתנו: ליטול רשות, שהרי נשבע לו. ושבעה שמות היו לו רעואל, יתר, יתרו, קני, חובב, חבר, פוטיאל:
19The Lord said to Moses in Midian, "Go, return to Egypt, for all the people who sought your life have died."   יטוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֶל־משֶׁה֙ בְּמִדְיָ֔ן לֵ֖ךְ שֻׁ֣ב מִצְרָ֑יִם כִּי־מֵ֨תוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים הַֽמְבַקְשִׁ֖ים אֶת־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
for all the people… have died: Who are they? Dathan and Abiram. They were [really] alive, but they lost their property, and a pauper is considered dead. — [from Ned. 64b]   כי מתו כל האנשים: מי הם, דתן ואבירם. חיים היו, אלא שירדו מנכסיהם, והעני חשוב כמת:
20So Moses took his wife and his sons, mounted them upon the donkey, and he returned to the land of Egypt, and Moses took the staff of God in his hand.   כוַיִּקַּ֨ח משֶׁ֜ה אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֣וֹ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֗יו וַיַּרְכִּבֵם֙ עַל־הַֽחֲמֹ֔ר וַיָּ֖שָׁב אַ֣רְצָה מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיִּקַּ֥ח משֶׁ֛ה אֶת־מַטֵּ֥ה הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיָדֽוֹ:
mounted them upon the donkey: The designated donkey. That is the donkey that Abraham saddled for the binding of Isaac, and that is the one upon whom the King Messiah is destined to appear, as it is said: “humble, and riding a donkey” (Zech. 9:9). — [from Pirkei Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 31]   על החמר: חמור המיוחד, הוא החמור שחבש אברהם לעקידת יצחק והוא שעתיד מלך המשיח להגלות עליו, שנאמר (זכריה ט ט) עני ורוכב על חמור:
and he returned to the land of Egypt, and Moses took the staff: Chronological order is not strictly adhered to in the Scriptures.   וישב ארצה מצרים ויקח משה את מטה וגו': אין מוקדם ומאוחר מדוקדקים במקרא:
21The Lord said to Moses, "When you go to return to Egypt, see all the signs that I have placed in your hand and perform them before Pharaoh, but I will strengthen his heart, and he will not send out the people.   כאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָה֘ אֶל־משֶׁה֒ בְּלֶכְתְּךָ֙ לָשׁ֣וּב מִצְרַ֔יְמָה רְאֵ֗ה כָּל־הַמֹּֽפְתִים֙ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֣מְתִּי בְיָדֶ֔ךָ וַֽעֲשִׂיתָ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה וַֽאֲנִי֙ אֲחַזֵּ֣ק אֶת־לִבּ֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א יְשַׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָעָֽם:
When you go to return to Egypt: You should know that with this intention you shall go, that you shall be steadfast in My mission, to perform all My signs before Pharaoh, and you shall not be afraid of him.   בלכתך לשוב מצרימה וגו': דע שעל מנת כן תלך, שתהא גבור בשליחותי לעשות כל מופתי לפני פרעה ולא תירא ממנו:
that I have placed in your hand: He did not say this in reference to the three aforementioned signs, for He had not commanded that he [Moses] do them before Pharaoh but before Israel, in order that they would believe him, and we do not find that he performed them before him [Pharaoh]. But [regarding] signs that I am destined to put into your hand in Egypt, such as: “When Pharaoh speaks to you [i.e., asking for you to perform signs], etc.” (Exod. 7:9), do not wonder that it is written: “that I have placed,” [i.e., implying the past tense,] because this is what it means: “When you speak to him, I will have already placed them into your hand.”   אשר שמתי בידך: לא על שלש האותות האמורות למעלה, שהרי לא לפני פרעה צוה לעשותם אלא לפני ישראל, שיאמינו לו, ולא מצינו שעשאם לפניו, אלא מופתים שאני עתיד לשום בידך במצרים, כמו (שמות ז ט) כי ידבר אליכם פרעה וגו'. ואל תתמה על אשר כתיב אשר שמתי, שכן משמעו כשתדבר עמו, כבר שמתים בידך:
22And you shall say to Pharaoh, 'So said the Lord, "My firstborn son is Israel." '   כבוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּנִ֥י בְכֹרִ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And you shall say to Pharaoh: When you hear that his heart is hard, and he refuses to send [the Israelites out], say thus to him.   ואמרת אל פרעה: כשתשמע שלבו חזק וימאן לשלוח אמור לו כן:
My firstborn son: [Firstborn is] an expression of greatness, similar to “I, too, shall make him a firstborn” (Ps. 89:28). This is its simple meaning, but its midrashic interpretation is: Here the Holy One, blessed be He, acknowledged the sale of the birthright, which Jacob bought from Esau. — [from Gen. Rabbah 63:14]   בני בכרי: לשון גדולה, כמו (תהילים פט כח) אף אני בכור אתנהו, זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו כאן חתם הקב"ה על מכירת הבכורה שלקח יעקב מעשו:
23So I say to you, 'Send out My son so that he will worship Me, but if you refuse to send him out, behold, I am going to slay your firstborn son.' "   כגוָֽאֹמַ֣ר אֵלֶ֗יךָ שַׁלַּ֤ח אֶת־בְּנִי֙ וְיַ֣עַבְדֵ֔נִי וַתְּמָאֵ֖ן לְשַׁלְּח֑וֹ הִנֵּה֙ אָֽנֹכִ֣י הֹרֵ֔ג אֶת־בִּנְךָ֖ בְּכֹרֶֽךָ:
So I say to you…: in G-d's name, send My son etc.   ואמר אליך: בשליחותו של מקום:
Send out My son… but if you refuse to send him out, behold, I am going to slay, etc.: That is the last plague, but He warned him [Pharaoh] about it first, because it was [the most] severe, and that is what [Scripture] says: “Behold, God deals loftily in His power” (Job 36:22). Therefore, “who is a teacher like Him?” [A man of] flesh and blood who seeks to avenge himself against his fellow, concealing his plans, so that he will not seek rescue, but the Holy One, blessed be He, deals loftily with His strength, and no one is able to escape from his hand, except by returning to Him [by repenting]. Therefore, He teaches him [about possible punishment] and warns him to repent. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 14, Exodus Rabbah 9:9]   שלח את בני וגו' הנה אנכי הרג וגו': היא מכה אחרונה ובה התרהו תחלה מפני שהיא קשה, וזה הוא שאמר (איוב לו כב) הן אל ישגיב בכחו, לפיכך מי כמוהו מורה (איוב לו כב). בשר ודם המבקש להנקם מחבירו מעלים את דבריו שלא יבקש הצלה, אבל הקב"ה ישגיב בכחו ואין יכולת להמלט מידו, כי אם בשובו אליו, לפיכך הוא מורהו ומתרה בו לשוב:
24Now he was on the way, in an inn, that the Lord met him and sought to put him to death.   כדוַיְהִ֥י בַדֶּ֖רֶךְ בַּמָּל֑וֹן וַיִּפְגְּשֵׁ֣הוּ יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ הֲמִיתֽוֹ:
Now he was: [I.e.,] Moses.   ויהי: משה בדרך במלון:
on the way, in an inn and sought to put him to death: [I.e., He sought] Moses, because he had neglected to circumcise his son Eliezer. Because he neglected it, he was [to be] punished with death. It was taught in a Braitha: Rabbi Jose said: God forbid! Moses did not neglect it, but he reasoned: Shall I circumcise [him] and go forth on the road? It will be dangerous for the child for three days. Shall I circumcise [him] and wait three days? The Holy One, blessed be He, commanded me, “Go, return to Egypt.” [Moses hurried to Egypt intending to circumcise Eliezer upon his return.] Why [then] was he to be punished with death? Because first he busied himself with [the details of] his lodging. [This appears] in tractate Nedarim (31b). The angel turned into a sort of serpent and swallowed him [Moses] from his head to his thighs, and then [spit him out and] swallowed him from his feet to his private parts. Zipporah therefore understood that it was because of [the failure to perform] the circumcision [that this occurred]. — [from Ned. 32a, Exodus Rabbah 5:5]   ויבקש המיתו: המלאך למשה, לפי שלא מל את אליעזר בנו, ועל שנתרשל נענש מיתה. תניא אמר רבי יוסי חס ושלום לא נתרשל, אלא אמר אמול ואצא לדרך, סכנה היא לתינוק עד שלשה ימים, אמול ואשהה שלשה ימים, הקב"ה צוני (פסוק י"ט) לך שוב מצרים. ומפני מה נענש, לפי שנתעסק במלון תחלה. במסכת נדרים (דף לא ב). והיה המלאך נעשה כמין נחש ובולעו מראשו ועד ירכיו, וחוזר ובולעו מרגליו ועד אותו מקום, הבינה צפורה שבשביל המילה הוא:
25So Zipporah took a sharp stone and severed her son's foreskin and cast it to his feet, and she said, "For you are a bridegroom of blood to me."   כהוַתִּקַּ֨ח צִפֹּרָ֜ה צֹ֗ר וַתִּכְרֹת֙ אֶת־עָרְלַ֣ת בְּנָ֔הּ וַתַּגַּ֖ע לְרַגְלָ֑יו וַתֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֧י חֲתַן־דָּמִ֛ים אַתָּ֖ה לִֽי:
and cast it to his feet: She cast it before Moses’ feet. — [from Yerushalmi, Ned. 3:9]   ותגע לרגליו: השליכתו לפני רגליו של משה:
and she said: about her son.   ותאמר: על בנה:
For you are a bridegroom of blood to me: You were a cause that my bridegroom would [almost] be murdered. You are to me the slayer of my bridegroom.   כי חתן דמים אתה לי: אתה היית גורם להיות החתן שלי נרצח עליך, הורג אישי אתה לי:
26So He released him. Then she said, "A bridegroom of blood concerning the circumcision."   כווַיִּ֖רֶף מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אָ֚ז אָֽמְרָ֔ה חֲתַ֥ן דָּמִ֖ים לַמּוּלֹֽת:
So He released: [I.e.,] the angel [released] him. Then she understood that [it was] because of the circumcision that he had come to slay him.   וירף: המלאך ממנו. אז הבינה שעל המילה בא להורגו:
she said, “A bridegroom of blood concerning the circumcision”: My bridegroom would have been murdered because of the circumcision.   אמרה חתן דמים למולת: חתני היה נרצח על דבר המילה:
concerning the circumcision: Heb. לַמּוּלֹת concerning the circumcision. This is a noun, and the “lammed” serves as an expression meaning “concerning,” similar to “And Pharaoh will say concerning the children of (לִבְנֵי) Israel” (Exod. 14:3). Onkelos, however, translates דָמִים as referring to the blood of the circumcision.   למולת: על דבר המולות. שם דבר הוא, והלמ"ד משמשת בלשון על, כמו (שמות יד ג) ואמר פרעה לבני ישראל. ואונקלוס תרגם דמים, על דם המילה:   
27The Lord said to Aaron, "Go toward Moses, to the desert." So he went and met him on the mount of God, and he kissed him.   כזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן לֵ֛ךְ לִקְרַ֥את משֶׁ֖ה הַמִּדְבָּ֑רָה וַיֵּ֗לֶךְ וַיִּפְגְּשֵׁ֛הוּ בְּהַ֥ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים וַיִּשַּׁק־לֽוֹ:
28And Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord with which he had sent him and all the signs that He had commanded him.   כחוַיַּגֵּ֤ד משֶׁה֙ לְאַ֣הֲרֹ֔ן אֵ֛ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר שְׁלָח֑וֹ וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־הָֽאֹתֹ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽהוּ:
29So Moses and Aaron went, and they assembled all the elders of the children of Israel.   כטוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ משֶׁ֖ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֑ן וַיַּ֣אַסְפ֔וּ אֶת־כָּל־זִקְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
30And Aaron spoke all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses, and he performed the signs before the eyes of the people.   לוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָֽאֹתֹ֖ת לְעֵינֵ֥י הָעָֽם:
31And the people believed, and they heard that the Lord had remembered the children of Israel and that He saw their affliction, and they kneeled and prostrated themselves.   לאוַיַּֽאֲמֵ֖ן הָעָ֑ם וַיִּשְׁמְע֡וּ כִּֽי־פָקַ֨ד יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְכִ֤י רָאָה֙ אֶת־עָנְיָ֔ם וַיִּקְּד֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ:

Seventh Portion

Exodus Chapter 5

1And afterwards, Moses and Aaron came and said to Pharaoh, "So said the Lord God of Israel, 'Send out My people, and let them sacrifice to Me in the desert.' "   אוְאַחַ֗ר בָּ֚אוּ משֶׁ֣ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן וַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֔י וְיָחֹ֥גּוּ לִ֖י בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
And afterwards, Moses and Aaron came: But the elders slipped away one by one from following Moses and Aaron, until they had all slipped away before they arrived at the palace. [They did so] because they were afraid to go, and at Sinai, He punished them, [as it is written:] “And Moses shall draw near alone, but they shall not draw near” (Exod. 24:2). He sent them back. — [from Exodus Rabbah 5:14; Tanchuma, Shemoth 24]   ואחר באו משה ואהרן וגו': אבל הזקנים נשמטו אחד אחד מאחר משה ואהרן, עד שנשמטו כולם קודם שהגיעו לפלטין, לפי שיראו ללכת, ובסיני נפרע להם (כד ב) ונגש משה לבדו והם לא יגשו, החזירם לאחוריהם:
2And Pharaoh said, "Who is the Lord that I should heed His voice to let Israel out? I do not know the Lord, neither will I let Israel out."   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֔ה מִ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶשְׁמַ֣ע בְּקֹל֔וֹ לְשַׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לֹ֤א יָדַ֨עְתִּי֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְגַ֥ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹ֥א אֲשַׁלֵּֽחַ:
3And they said, "The God of the Hebrews has happened upon us. Now let us go on a three day journey in the desert and sacrifice to the Lord our God, lest He strike us with a plague or with the sword."   גוַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֱלֹהֵ֥י הָֽעִבְרִ֖ים נִקְרָ֣א עָלֵ֑ינוּ נֵ֣לֲכָה נָּ֡א דֶּ֩רֶךְ֩ שְׁל֨שֶׁת יָמִ֜ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֗ר וְנִזְבְּחָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ פֶּן־יִפְגָּעֵ֔נוּ בַּדֶּ֖בֶר א֥וֹ בֶחָֽרֶב:
lest He strike us: Heb. פֶּן יִפְגָעֵנוּ. They should have said, “ פֶּן יִפְגָעֲ, lest He strike you,” but they imparted honor to the throne [and out of respect said this]. The word פְּגִיעָה denotes a fatal encounter. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 2]   פן יפגענו: פן יפגעך היו צריכים לומר, אלא שחלקו כבוד למלכות. פגיעה זו לשון מקרה מות היא:
4But the king of Egypt said to them, "Why, Moses and Aaron, do you disturb the people from their work? Go to your own labors."   דוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם לָ֚מָּה משֶׁ֣ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן תַּפְרִ֥יעוּ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם מִמַּֽעֲשָׂ֑יו לְכ֖וּ לְסִבְלֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
do you disturb the people from their work: Heb. תַּפְרִיעוּ, [meaning] you separate [them] and take them away from their work, because they listen to you and expect to rest from their work. Similarly, “Avoid it (פְּרָעֵהוּ), do not pass through it” (Prov. 4:15); [i.e.,] distance it. Similarly, “And you have avoided (וַתִּפְרְעוּ) all my advice” (Prov. 1: 25); “that it was (פָרֻעַ) ” (Exod. 32:25), [i.e.,] distanced and despised.   תפריעו את העם ממעשיו: תבדילו ותרחיקו אותם ממלאכתם, ששומעין לכם וסבורים לנוח מן המלאכה. וכן (משלי ד טו) פרעהו אל תעבר בו, רחקהו. וכן (שם א כה) ותפרעו כל עצתי, (שמות לב כה) כי פרוע הוא, נרחק ונתעב:
Go to your own labors: “Go to your work that you have to do in your houses.” But [he could not have been referring to the Egyptian bondage, because Moses and Aaron were from the tribe of Levi and] the labor of the Egyptian bondage was not incumbent upon the tribe of Levi. You should know [that this is true] for behold, Moses and Aaron were coming and going without permission. — [from Tanchuma, Va’era 6; Tanchuma Buber, Va’era 4]   לכו לסבלתיכם: לכו למלאכתכם שיש לכם לעשות בבתיכם. אבל מלאכת שעבוד מצרים לא היתה על שבטו של לוי, ותדע לך שהרי משה ואהרן יוצאים ובאים שלא ברשות:
5And Pharaoh said, "Behold, now the people of the land are many, and you are stopping them from their labors."   הוַיֹּ֣אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֔ה הֵֽן־רַבִּ֥ים עַתָּ֖ה עַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהִשְׁבַּתֶּ֥ם אֹתָ֖ם מִסִּבְלֹתָֽם:
Behold, now the people of the land are many: Those who are required to work, and you stop them from their labors. This is a great loss.   הן רבים עתה עם הארץ: שהעבודה מוטלת עליהם ואתם משביתים אותם מסבלותם, הפסד גדול הוא זה:
6So, on that day, Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their officers, saying,   ווַיְצַ֥ו פַּרְעֹ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא אֶת־הַנֹּֽגְשִׂ֣ים בָּעָ֔ם וְאֶת־שֹֽׁטְרָ֖יו לֵאמֹֽר:
the taskmasters: They were Egyptians, and the officers were Israelites. The taskmaster was appointed over many officers, and the officer was appointed to drive the workers.   הנגשים: מצריים היו, והשוטרים היו ישראלים, הנוגש ממונה על כמה שוטרים, והשוטר ממונה לרדות בעושי המלאכה:
7"You shall not continue to give stubble to the people to make the bricks like yesterday and the day before yesterday. Let them go and gather stubble for themselves.   זלֹ֣א תֹֽאסִפ֞וּן לָתֵ֨ת תֶּ֧בֶן לָעָ֛ם לִלְבֹּ֥ן הַלְּבֵנִ֖ים כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֑ם הֵ֚ם יֵֽלְכ֔וּ וְקֽשְׁשׁ֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם תֶּֽבֶן:
stubble: Heb. תֶּבֶן, estoble in Old French. They would knead it with the clay.   תבן: אשטובל"א [קש] היו גובלין אותו עם הטיט:
bricks: Heb. לְּבֵנִים, tivles in Old French, [tuiles in modern French, tiles] made from clay and dried in the sun; some people fire them in a kiln.   לבנים: טיולי"ש בלעז [רעפים] שעושים מטיט ומייבשין אותן בחמה, ויש ששורפין אותן בכבשן:
like yesterday and the day before yesterday: As you have been doing until now.   כתמול שלשם: כאשר הייתם עושים עד הנה:
and gather: Heb. וְקשְׁשׁוּ, and they shall gather.   וקששו: ולקטו:
8But the number of bricks they have been making yesterday and the day before yesterday you shall impose upon them; you shall not reduce it, for they are lax. Therefore they cry out, saying, 'Let us go and sacrifice to our God.'   חוְאֶת־מַתְכֹּ֨נֶת הַלְּבֵנִ֜ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֵם֩ עֹשִׂ֨ים תְּמ֤וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם֙ תָּשִׂ֣ימוּ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם לֹ֥א תִגְרְע֖וּ מִמֶּ֑נּוּ כִּֽי־נִרְפִּ֣ים הֵ֔ם עַל־כֵּ֗ן הֵ֤ם צֹֽעֲקִים֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר נֵֽלְכָ֖ה נִזְבְּחָ֥ה לֵֽאלֹהֵֽינוּ:
But the number of bricks: The sum of the number of bricks which each one made daily when they were given stubble, that sum you shall levy upon them now too, in order that the labor may fall heavy upon them.   ואת מתכנת הלבנים: סכום חשבון הלבנים שהיה כל אחד עושה ליום כשהיה התבן נתן להם, אותו סכום תשימו עליהם גם עתה, למען תכבד העבודה עליהם:
for they are lax: from the work. Therefore, their hearts turn to idleness, and they cry out, saying, “Let us go, etc.”   כי נרפים: מן העבודה הם, לכך לבם פונה אל הבטלה וצועקים לאמר נלכה וגו':
for they are lax: [The words], מַתְכֹּנֶת [and] וְתֹכֶן לְבֵנִים (verse 18) [mean the number of bricks, as in] “and to Him are deeds counted (נִתְפְּנוּ ” (I Sam. 2:3); “and the counted (הַמְתֻכָּן) money” (II Kings 12:12). All are terms denoting a quantity.   מתכנת: ותוכן לבנים (פסוק יט), ולו נתכנו עלילות (שמואל א' ב ג), את הכסף המתוכן (מלכים ב' יב יב), כולם לשון חשבון הם:
lax: Heb. נִרְפִּים The work is neglected in their hands and abandoned by them, and they are withdrawing themselves from it, retres in Old French, [meaning] withdrawn, removed.   נרפים: המלאכה רפויה בידם ועזובה מהם והם נרפים ממנה, רטריי"ש בלע"ז [אחיזתם רופפת]:
9Let the labor fall heavy upon the men and let them work at it, and let them not talk about false matters."   טתִּכְבַּ֧ד הָֽעֲבֹדָ֛ה עַל־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים וְיַֽעֲשׂוּ־בָ֑הּ וְאַל־יִשְׁע֖וּ בְּדִבְרֵי־שָֽׁקֶר:
and let them not talk about false matters: Heb. וְאַל יִשְׁעוּ בְּדִבְרֵי שֶׁקֶר. Let them not constantly think and talk about matters of no substance, saying, “Let us go, let us sacrifice.” Similar to it is, “and I shall constantly engage (וְאֶשְׁעָה) in Your statutes” (Ps. 119:117). “For an example and for a byword (וְלִשְׁנִינָה)” (Deut. 28:37) is rendered [by Onkelos] as וּלְשׁוֹעִין. “And [the servant] told” (Gen. 24:66) is rendered וְאִשְׁךְתָּעֵי. It is, however, impossible to say that יִשְׁעוּ is [related to the] expression of “and the Lord turned (וַיִשַׁע) to Abel” (Gen. 424); “But to Cain and to his offering He did not turn (לֹא שָׁעָה) ” (Gen. 4:5); and to explain אַַַַַל יִשְׁעוּ as “and let them not turn.” If this were the case, Scripture should have written: וְאַל יִשְׁעוּ אֶל דִבְרֵי שָׁקֶר or שָׁקֶר לְדִבְרֵי, for that is the construction in all similar cases, e.g., “and shall turn (יִשְׁעֶה) to (עַל) His Maker" (Isa. 17:7); "and he shall not turn (וְלֹא יִשְׁעֶה) to (אֶל) the altars” (Isa. 17:8); “and they did not turn (וְלֹא ֹשָעו) to (עַל) the Holy One of Israel” (Isa. 31:1). I have not found the prefix “beth” immediately following them; after an expression of speech, however, concerning one who is engaged in speaking of a matter, the prefix “beth” is appropriate, e. g., “who talk about you (בְּ)” ; (Ezek. 33:30); “Miriam and Aaron talked about Moses (בְּמשֶׁה) ” (Num. 12: 1); “the angel who spoke with me (בִּי) ” (Zech. 4:1); “to speak of them (בָּם)” (Deut. 11:19); “And I shall speak of Your testimonies (בְעֵדֹתֶי) ” (Ps. 119:46). Here too, אַל יִשְׁעוּ בְּדִבְרֵי שָׁקֶר means: Let them not engage in speaking of words of vanity and nonsense.   ואל ישעו בדברי שקר: ואל יהגו וידברו תמיד בדברי רוח לאמר נלכה נזבחה. ודומה לו (תהילים קיט קיז) ואשעה בחקיך תמיד, (דברים כח לז) למשל ולשנינה, מתרגמינן ולשועין, (בראשית כד סו) ויספר ואשתעי. ואי אפשר לומר ישעו לשון (בראשית ד ד) וישע ה' אל הבל וגו', (שם ה) ואל קין ואל מנחתו לא שעה, ולפרש אל ישעו אל יפנו, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב ואל ישעו אל דברי שקר או לדברי שקר, כי כן גזרת כולם (ישעי' יז ז) ישעה האדם על עושהו, (שם לא א) ולא שעו על קדוש ישראל, (שם יז ח) ולא ישעה אל המזבחות, ולא מצאתי שמוש של בי"ת סמוכה לאחריהם, אבל אחר לשון דבור, במתעסק לדבר בדבר נופל לשון שמוש בי"ת, כגון (יחזקאל לג ל) הנדברים בך, (במדבר יב א) ותדבר מרים ואהרן במשה, (זכריה ד א) המלאך הדובר בי, (דברים יא יט) לדבר בם, (תהילים קיט מו) ואדברה בעדותיך, אף כאן אל ישעו בדברי שקר אל יהיו נדברים בדברי שוא והבאי:
10So the taskmasters of the people and their officers came out and spoke to the people, saying, "So said Pharaoh, 'I am not giving you stubble.   יוַיֵּ֨צְא֜וּ נֹֽגְשֵׂ֤י הָעָם֙ וְשֹׁ֣טְרָ֔יו וַיֹּֽאמְר֥וּ אֶל־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר פַּרְעֹ֔ה אֵינֶ֛נִּי נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֖ם תֶּֽבֶן:
11You go take for yourselves stubble from wherever you find [it], because nothing will be reduced from your work.' "   יאאַתֶּ֗ם לְכ֨וּ קְח֤וּ לָכֶם֙ תֶּ֔בֶן מֵֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר תִּמְצָ֑אוּ כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין נִגְרָ֛ע מֵֽעֲבֹֽדַתְכֶ֖ם דָּבָֽר:
You go take for yourselves stubble: And you must go with alacrity.   אתם לכו קחו לכם תבן: וצריכים אתם לילך בזריזות:
because nothing will be reduced from your work: from the entire amount of bricks that you were making daily, when you were given stubble prepared from the king’s house.   כי אין נגרע מעבדתכם דבר: מכל סכום לבנים שהייתם עושים ליום בהיות התבן ניתן לכם מזומן מבית המלך:
12So the people scattered throughout the entire land of Egypt, to gather a gleaning for stubble.   יבוַיָּ֥פֶץ הָעָ֖ם בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לְקשֵׁ֥שׁ קַ֖שׁ לַתֶּֽבֶן:
to gather a gleaning for stubble: Heb. לְקשֵׁשׁ קַֹש, to gather a gathering, to collect a collection for the stubble [needed] for the clay.   לקשש קש לתבן: לאסוף אסיפה, ללקוט לקט לצורך תבן הטיט:
a gleaning: Heb., קַֹש an expression of collecting. Since it is a substance that scatters and requires collecting, it is called קַֹש in other places [also].   קש לקשש קש לתבן: לשון לקוט. על שם שדבר המתפזר הוא וצריך לקוששו, קרוי קש בשאר מקומות.
13And the taskmasters were pressing [them], saying, "Finish your work, the requirement of each day in its day, just as when there was stubble."   יגוְהַנֹּֽגְשִׂ֖ים אָצִ֣ים לֵאמֹ֑ר כַּלּ֤וּ מַֽעֲשֵׂיכֶם֙ דְּבַר־י֣וֹם בְּיוֹמ֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּֽהְי֥וֹת הַתֶּֽבֶן:
were pressing [them]: Heb אָצִים, pressing-[from Targumim]   אצים: דוחקים:
the requirement of each day in its day: The quota of each day complete in its [i.e., on the same day, as you did when the stubble was prepared. — [from Onkelos]   דבר יום ביומו: חשבון של כל יום כלו ביומו, כאשר עשיתם בהיות התבן מוכן:
14And the officers of the children of Israel whom Pharaoh's taskmasters had appointed over them were beaten, saying, "Why have you not completed your quota to make bricks like the day before yesterday, neither yesterday nor today?"   ידוַיֻּכּ֗וּ שֹֽׁטְרֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֣מוּ עֲלֵהֶ֔ם נֹֽגְשֵׂ֥י פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר מַדּ֡וּעַ לֹא֩ כִלִּיתֶ֨ם חָקְכֶ֤ם לִלְבֹּן֙ כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם גַּם־תְּמ֖וֹל גַּם־הַיּֽוֹם:
And the officers of the children of Israel… were beaten: The officers were Israelites, and they had pity on their fellows, [and did] not press them. They would turn the bricks over to the taskmasters, who were Egyptians, and when something was missing form the [required] amount, they [the Egyptians] would flog them [the officers] because they did not press the workers. Therefore those officers merited to become the Sanhedrin, and some of the spirit that was upon Moses was taken and placed upon them, as it is said: “Gather to Me seventy men of the elders of Israel” (Num. 11:16), of those about whom you know the good that they did in Egypt, “that they are the elders of the people and its officers” (ibid.). — [from Tanchuma, Beha’alothecha 13 and Sifrei, Beha’alothecha 92]   ויכו שטרי בני ישראל: השוטרים ישראלים היו וחסים על חבריהם מלדחקם, וכשהיו משלימים הלבנים לנוגשים שהם מצריים, והיה חסר מן הסכום, היו מלקין אותם על שלא דחקו את עושי המלאכה, לפיכך זכו אותם שוטרים להיות סנהדרין, ונאצל מן הרוח אשר על משה, והושם עליהם, שנאמר (במדבר יא טז) אספה לי שבעים איש מזקני ישראל אשר ידעת, מאותן שידעת הטובה שעשו במצרים, כי הם זקני העם ושוטריו:
And the officers of the children of Israel… were beaten: [I. e.,] those whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had appointed as officers over them-saying, “Why, etc.” Why were they beaten? Because they [the Egyptian taskmasters] said to them [the officers], “Why have you not completed either yesterday or today the fixed quota set upon you to make bricks, as [you did] the ‘third yesterday’?” This is the day before yesterday, which was when they had been given stubble.   ויכו שטרי בני ישראל: אשר שמו נוגשי פרעה אותם לשוטרים עליהם לאמר מדוע וגו'. למה ויכו, שהיו אומרים להם מדוע לא כליתם גם תמול גם היום חק הקצוב עליכם ללבון כתמול השלישי שהוא יום שלפני אתמול, והוא היה בהיות התבן נתן להם:
were beaten: Heb. וַיֻכּוּ They were the object of an action. [The word is in the “hoph’al” conjugation, the recipient of the “hiph’il.”] They were beaten by others; the taskmasters beat them.   ויכו: לשון ויופעלו, הוכו מיד אחרים, הנוגשים הכום:
15So the officers of the children of Israel came and cried out to Pharaoh, saying, "Why do you do this to your servants?   טווַיָּבֹ֗אוּ שֹֽׁטְרֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּצְעֲק֥וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר לָ֧מָּה תַֽעֲשֶׂ֦ה כֹ֖ה לַֽעֲבָדֶֽיךָ:
16Stubble is not given to your servants, but they tell us, 'Make bricks,' and behold, your servants are beaten, and your people are sinning."   טזתֶּ֗בֶן אֵ֤ין נִתָּן֙ לַֽעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ וּלְבֵנִ֛ים אֹֽמְרִ֥ים לָ֖נוּ עֲשׂ֑וּ וְהִנֵּ֧ה עֲבָדֶ֛יךָ מֻכִּ֖ים וְחָטָ֥את עַמֶּֽךָ:
but they tell us, ‘Make bricks’: The taskmasters [tell us]: “Make bricks, as many as the original number.”   ולבנים אמרים לנו עשו: כמנין הראשון:
and your people are sinning: Heb. וְחָטָאתעַמֶ. If it were vowelized with a “pattach” (חַטָאת), I would say that it is connected, [i.e., in the construct state, and so it means:] and this thing is the sin of your people. However, since it is [vowelized with] a “kamatz” (חָטָאת), it is a noun [in the absolute state], and this is its meaning: and this thing brings sin upon your people, as if it were written: וְחַָטָאת לְעַמֶךָ, like “when they came to Beth-lehem (בֵּית לָחֶם) ” (Ruth 1:19), which is the equivalent of לְבֵית לָחֶם, and similarly with many [others].   וחטאת עמך: אלו היה נקוד פת"ח הייתי אומר שהוא דבוק, ודבר זה חטאת עמך הוא, עכשיו שהוא קמ"ץ, שם דבר הוא. וכך פירושו ודבר זה מביא חטאת על עמך, כאלו כתוב וחטאת לעמך, כמו (רות א יט) כבאנה בית לחם, שהוא כמו לבית לחם וכן הרבה:
17But he said, "You are lax, just lax. Therefore, you say, 'Let us go, let us sacrifice to the Lord.'   יזוַיֹּ֛אמֶר נִרְפִּ֥ים אַתֶּ֖ם נִרְפִּ֑ים עַל־כֵּן֙ אַתֶּ֣ם אֹֽמְרִ֔ים נֵֽלְכָ֖ה נִזְבְּחָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
18And now, go and work, but you will not be given stubble. Nevertheless, the [same] number of bricks you must give."   יחוְעַתָּה֙ לְכ֣וּ עִבְד֔וּ וְתֶ֖בֶן לֹֽא־יִנָּתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֑ם וְתֹ֥כֶן לְבֵנִ֖ים תִּתֵּֽנוּ:
Nevertheless the [same] number of bricks: Heb. וְתֹכֶן לְבֵנִים, the count of the bricks, and similarly, " הַכֶּסֶף הַמְתֻכָּן, the counted money” (II Kings 12:12), as is stated in that section, “and packed and counted the money” (II Kings 12:11). — [from Onkelos]   ותכן לבנים: חשבון הלבנים, וכן (מלכים ב יב יב) את הכסף המתוכן, המנוי, כמו שאמר בענין (שם יא) ויצורו וימנו את הכסף:
19The officers of the children of Israel saw them in distress, saying, "Do not reduce [the number] of your bricks, the requirement of each day in its day."   יטוַיִּרְא֞וּ שֹֽׁטְרֵ֧י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֹתָ֖ם בְּרָ֣ע לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹֽא־תִגְרְע֥וּ מִלִּבְנֵיכֶ֖ם דְּבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ:
The officers of the children of Israel saw: their fellows who were driven by them.   ויראו שטרי בני ישראל: את חבריהם הנרדים על ידם:
in distress: They saw them in the distress and trouble that befell them when they had to make the work heavy upon them, saying, “Do not reduce, etc.”   ברע: ראו אותם ברעה וצרה המוצאת אותם בהכבידם העבודה עליהם לאמר לא תגרעו וגו':
20They met Moses and Aaron standing before them when they came out from Pharaoh's presence.   כוַיִּפְגְּעוּ֙ אֶת־משֶׁ֣ה וְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן נִצָּבִ֖ים לִקְרָאתָ֑ם בְּצֵאתָ֖ם מֵאֵ֥ת פַּרְעֹֽה:
They met: Men of Israel [met] Moses and Aaron, etc. Our Rabbis expounded: Every [instance of] נִצִים, quarreling, and נִ צָּבִים, standing, is a reference to Dathan and Abiram, about whom it is said: “came out and stood upright” (Num. 16:27). — [from Ned. 64b]   ויפגעו: אנשים מישראל את משה ואת אהרן וגו'. ורבותינו דרשו כל נצים ונצבים דתן ואבירם היו, שנאמר בהם יצאו נצבים:
21And they said to them, "May the Lord look upon you and judge, for you have brought us into foul odor in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of his servants, to place a sword into their hand[s] to kill us."   כאוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם יֵ֧רֶא יְהֹוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם וְיִשְׁפֹּ֑ט אֲשֶׁ֧ר הִבְאַשְׁתֶּ֣ם אֶת־רֵיחֵ֗נוּ בְּעֵינֵ֤י פַרְעֹה֙ וּבְעֵינֵ֣י עֲבָדָ֔יו לָֽתֶת־חֶ֥רֶב בְּיָדָ֖ם לְהָרְגֵֽנוּ:
22So Moses returned to the Lord and said, "O Lord! Why have You harmed this people? Why have You sent me?   כבוַיָּ֧שָׁב משֶׁ֛ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה וַיֹּאמַ֑ר אֲדֹנָ֗י לָמָ֤ה הֲרֵעֹ֨תָה֙ לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה שְׁלַחְתָּֽנִי:
Why have You harmed this people?: And if You ask, “What is it to you?” [I answer,] “I am complaining that You have sent me.” -[from Tanchuma, Va’era 6]   למה הרעתה לעם הזה: ואם תאמר מה איכפת לך, קובל אני על ששלחתני:
23Since I have come to Pharaoh to speak in Your name, he has harmed this people, and You have not saved Your people."   כגוּמֵאָ֞ז בָּ֤אתִי אֶל־פַּרְעֹה֙ לְדַבֵּ֣ר בִּשְׁמֶ֔ךָ הֵרַ֖ע לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה וְהַצֵּ֥ל לֹֽא־הִצַּ֖לְתָּ אֶת־עַמֶּֽךָ:
he has harmed this people: Heb. הֵרַע, a causative expression. He brought much harm upon them, and the targum renders: אַבְאֵשׁ   הרע: לשון הפעיל הוא, הרבה רעה עליהם. ותרגומו אבאיש:

Exodus Chapter 6

1And the Lord said to Moses, "Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, for with a mighty hand he will send them out, and with a mighty hand he will drive them out of his land."   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה עַתָּ֣ה תִרְאֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה לְפַרְעֹ֑ה כִּ֣י בְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ יְשַׁלְּחֵ֔ם וּבְיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה יְגָֽרְשֵׁ֖ם מֵֽאַרְצֽוֹ:
Now you will see, etc.: You have questioned My ways [of running the world, which is] unlike Abraham, to whom I said, “For in Isaac will be called your seed” (Gen. 21:12), and afterwards I said to him, “Bring him up there for a burnt offering” (Gen. 22:2), yet he did not question Me. Therefore, now you will see. What is done to Pharaoh you will see, but not what is done to the kings of the seven nations when I bring them [the children of Israel] into the land [of Israel]. — [from Sanh. 111a]   עתה תראה וגו': הרהרת על מדותי, לא כאברהם שאמרתי לו (בראשית כא יב) כי ביצחק יקרא לך זרע, ואחר כך אמרתי לו (שם כב ב) העלהו לעולה, ולא הרהר אחרי, לפיכך עתה תראה. העשוי לפרעה תראה, ולא העשוי למלכי שבעה אומות, כשאביאם לארץ:
for with a mighty hand he will let them go: Because of My mighty hand, which will overpower Pharaoh, he will let them go.   כי ביד חזקה ישלחם: מפני ידי החזקה שתחזק עליו ישלחם:
and with a mighty hand he will drive them out of his land: Against Israel’s will he will drive them out, and they will not have time to make provisions for themselves, and so He says, “And the Egyptians pressed the people strongly, etc.” (Exod. 12:33).   וביד חזקה יגרשם מארצו: על כרחם של ישראל יגרשם, ולא יספיקו לעשות להם צידה. וכן הוא אומר (שמות יב לג) ותחזק מצרים על העם למהר לשלחם וגו':

Maftir Portion

Exodus Chapter 5

22So Moses returned to the Lord and said, "O Lord! Why have You harmed this people? Why have You sent me?   כבוַיָּ֧שָׁב משֶׁ֛ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה וַיֹּאמַ֑ר אֲדֹנָ֗י לָמָ֤ה הֲרֵעֹ֨תָה֙ לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה שְׁלַחְתָּֽנִי:
Why have You harmed this people?: And if You ask, “What is it to you?” [I answer,] “I am complaining that You have sent me.” -[from Tanchuma, Va’era 6]   למה הרעתה לעם הזה: ואם תאמר מה איכפת לך, קובל אני על ששלחתני:
23Since I have come to Pharaoh to speak in Your name, he has harmed this people, and You have not saved Your people."   כגוּמֵאָ֞ז בָּ֤אתִי אֶל־פַּרְעֹה֙ לְדַבֵּ֣ר בִּשְׁמֶ֔ךָ הֵרַ֖ע לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה וְהַצֵּ֥ל לֹֽא־הִצַּ֖לְתָּ אֶת־עַמֶּֽךָ:
he has harmed this people: Heb. הֵרַע, a causative expression. He brought much harm upon them, and the targum renders: אַבְאֵשׁ   הרע: לשון הפעיל הוא, הרבה רעה עליהם. ותרגומו אבאיש:

Exodus Chapter 6

1And the Lord said to Moses, "Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, for with a mighty hand he will send them out, and with a mighty hand he will drive them out of his land."   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה עַתָּ֣ה תִרְאֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה לְפַרְעֹ֑ה כִּ֣י בְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ יְשַׁלְּחֵ֔ם וּבְיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה יְגָֽרְשֵׁ֖ם מֵֽאַרְצֽוֹ:
Now you will see, etc.: You have questioned My ways [of running the world, which is] unlike Abraham, to whom I said, “For in Isaac will be called your seed” (Gen. 21:12), and afterwards I said to him, “Bring him up there for a burnt offering” (Gen. 22:2), yet he did not question Me. Therefore, now you will see. What is done to Pharaoh you will see, but not what is done to the kings of the seven nations when I bring them [the children of Israel] into the land [of Israel]. — [from Sanh. 111a]   עתה תראה וגו': הרהרת על מדותי, לא כאברהם שאמרתי לו (בראשית כא יב) כי ביצחק יקרא לך זרע, ואחר כך אמרתי לו (שם כב ב) העלהו לעולה, ולא הרהר אחרי, לפיכך עתה תראה. העשוי לפרעה תראה, ולא העשוי למלכי שבעה אומות, כשאביאם לארץ:
for with a mighty hand he will let them go: Because of My mighty hand, which will overpower Pharaoh, he will let them go.   כי ביד חזקה ישלחם: מפני ידי החזקה שתחזק עליו ישלחם:
and with a mighty hand he will drive them out of his land: Against Israel’s will he will drive them out, and they will not have time to make provisions for themselves, and so He says, “And the Egyptians pressed the people strongly, etc.” (Exod. 12:33).   וביד חזקה יגרשם מארצו: על כרחם של ישראל יגרשם, ולא יספיקו לעשות להם צידה. וכן הוא אומר (שמות יב לג) ותחזק מצרים על העם למהר לשלחם וגו':

Haftarah

Isaiah Chapter 27

6Those who came, whom Jacob caused to take root, Israel flourished and blossomed and they filled the face of the world with fruitage.   והַבָּאִים֙ יַשְׁרֵ֣שׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב יָצִ֥יץ וּפָרַ֖ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמָֽלְא֥וּ פְנֵֽי־תֵבֵ֖ל תְּנוּבָֽה:
Those who came, whom Jacob caused to take root: Do you not know what I did at first? Those who came to Egypt which Jacob caused to take root, flourished and blossomed there until they filled the face of the world with fruitage.  
7Like the smiting who smote him did He smite him: like the slaying of his slain ones, was he slain?   זהַכְּמַכַּ֥ת מַכֵּ֖הוּ הִכָּ֑הוּ אִם־כְּהֶ֥רֶג הֲרֻגָ֖יו הֹרָֽג:
Like the smiting of him who smote him did He smite him: Have you seen My might, that like the smiting of the one who smote Jacob, I smote him. They drowned them in the water, and I drowned them in the water. There are some other rhetorical questions that warrant an affirmative answer, e.g. (I Sam. 2:27), “Did I appear to the house of your father?” Also (Ezek. 8: 6), “Do you see what they are doing?”  
like the slaying of: Israel, who were the slain ones of Pharaoh, were Pharaoh and his people slain?  
8In that measure, when they sent them out, it strove with it; He spoke with His harsh wind on the day of the east wind.   חבְּסַאסְּאָ֖ה בְּשַׁלְחָ֣הּ תְּרִיבֶ֑נָּה הָגָ֛ה בְּרוּח֥וֹ הַקָּשָׁ֖ה בְּי֥וֹם קָדִֽים:
In that measure: (בְּסַאסְּאָה) in that measure.  
when they sent them out, it strove with it: When Egypt sent Israel out, it strove with it, the seah of the measure with its seah.  
He spoke with His harsh wind: (הָגָה) He spoke with His harsh speech.  
on the day of the east wind: On the day (concerning which Scripture states) (Ex. 14:21): “And the Lord led the sea with a strong east wind.”  
9Therefore, with this shall Jacob's iniquity be atoned for, and this is all the fruit of removing his sin; by making all the altar stones like crushed chalkstones; asherim and sun-images shall not rise.   טלָכֵ֗ן בְּזֹאת֙ יְכֻפַּ֣ר עֲו‍ֹֽן־יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְזֶ֕ה כָּל־פְּרִ֖י הָסִ֣ר חַטָּאת֑וֹ בְּשׂוּמ֣וֹ | כָּל־אַבְנֵ֣י מִזְבֵּ֗חַ כְּאַבְנֵי־גִר֙ מְנֻפָּצ֔וֹת לֹֽא־יָקֻ֥מוּ אֲשֵׁרִ֖ים וְחַמָּנִֽים:
Therefore: Now, too, with this, Jacob’s iniquity would be atoned for, to merit to be redeemed as then.  
and this is all the fruit: that is best for Me to remove his sin, if he makes all the altar stones of his high places, like crushed chalk-stones. מְנֻפָּצוֹת means crushed. Comp. (Ps. 137:9) “And crushes (וְנִפֵּץ) your babies.” Comp. (Jer. 13:14) “And I will crush them (וְנִפַּצְתִּים) one against the other.” גִּיר is a kind of dye.  
asherim and sun images shall not rise: So that they shall not retain their idolatry.  
10For a fortified city is solitary, a dwelling is forsaken and abandoned like a pasture; there a calf shall graze, and there he shall lie and consume its branches.   יכִּ֣י עִ֚יר בְּצוּרָה֙ בָּדָ֔ד נָוֶ֕ה מְשֻׁלָּ֥ח וְנֶעֱזָ֖ב כַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר שָׁ֣ם יִרְעֶ֥ה עֵ֛גֶל וְשָׁ֥ם יִרְבָּ֖ץ וְכִלָּ֥ה סְעִפֶֽיהָ:
For a fortified city is solitary: For, when they do this, a fortified city of Ishmael (ms. Esau) will be solitary and the dwelling will be forsaken by its inhabitants and abandoned like a pasture.  
there a calf shall graze: Ephraim shall inherit it, for he is called a calf, as it is said (Jer. 31:17): “Like an untamed calf.”  
and shall consume its branches: (סְעִיפֶיהָ) its branches.  
11When its branches dry out, they shall be broken; women shall come and ignite it, for it is not a people of understanding; therefore, its Maker shall not have compassion on it, and He Who formed it shall not grant it favor.   יאבִּיבֹ֚שׁ קְצִירָהּ֙ תִּשָּׁבַ֔רְנָה נָשִׁ֕ים בָּא֖וֹת מְאִיר֣וֹת אוֹתָ֑הּ כִּ֣י לֹ֚א עַם־בִּינוֹת֙ ה֔וּא עַל־כֵּן֙ לֹֽא־יְרַֽחֲמֶ֣נּוּ עֹשֵׂ֔הוּ וְיֹֽצְר֖וֹ לֹ֥א יְחֻנֶּֽנּוּ:
When its branches dry out: The branches of its roots. Comp. (Ps. 80:12) “It sent forth its branches (קְצִירֶיהָ).” Also (Job 14:9): “And produce branches (קָצִיר).” I.e., when the little merit that Edom has for honoring his father, is depleted, then its branches shall be broken.  
women shall come and ignite it: A people weak as women shall ignite them. Jonathan renders in this manner. מְאִירוֹת means ‘ignite.’ Comp. (Mal. 1:10) “And you shall not light (תָּאִירוּ) My altar in vain.” Dunash too interpreted it in this manner, for since the wood will be dry, it will be easy to ignite. Menahem, however, interpreted it to mean ‘gather.’ Comp. (Song 5:1) “I gathered (אָרִיתִי) my myrrh.” Also (Ps. 80:13): “All passersby gathered from it (וְאָרוּהָ).” (Machbereth Menahem p. 32) Dunash replied, “Does it not say, ‘When its branches dry out’? And with dry grapes, no one gathers fruit.” (Teshuvoth Dunash p. 45)] Likewise, our Sages, who prohibited accepting charity from them because of this reason, for they stated in Baba Bathra ch. 1, (10b,) “Does he not believe, ‘When its branches dry out, they shall be broken?’”  
12And it shall come to pass on that day, that the Lord shall gather from the flood of the river to the stream of Egypt, and you shall be gathered one by one, O children of Israel.   יבוְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יַחְבֹּ֧ט יְהֹוָ֛ה מִשִּׁבֹּ֥לֶת הַנָּהָ֖ר עַד־נַ֣חַל מִצְרָ֑יִם וְאַתֶּ֧ם תְּלֻקְּט֛וּ לְאַחַ֥ד אֶחָ֖ד בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
that the Lord shall gather: יַחְבֹּט, lit., shall beat. Jonathan renders: shall fall dead. I.e., the nations from the banks of the Euphrates to the stream of Egypt. I say, however, that these two expressions, (viz.) beating and gathering, coincide with one another, like one who bears his olive trees and goes back and gathers them and (ms. or) others gather them from the ground, so will the Holy One, blessed be He, commence the gathering, as it is said: A great shofar shall be sounded.  
from the flood of the river: These are those lost in the land of Assyria.  
to the stream of Egypt: Those are the ones exiled in the land of Egypt.  
the river: Euphrates. They are those in Assyria who live by the Euphrates.  
to the stream of Egypt: These are those who live in Egypt, He shall gather them like one who gathers olives.  
and you shall be gathered: from the exiles.  
one and one: Whoever finds one of you will bring him as an offering.  
13And it shall come to pass on that day, that a great shofar shall be sounded, and those lost in the land of Assyria and those exiled in the land of Egypt shall come and they shall prostrate themselves before the Lord on the holy mount in Jerusalem.   יגוְהָיָ֣ה | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִתָּקַע֘ בְּשׁוֹפָ֣ר גָּדוֹל֒ וּבָ֗אוּ הָאֹֽבְדִים֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אַשּׁ֔וּר וְהַנִּדָּחִ֖ים בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲו֧וּ לַֽיהֹוָ֛ה בְּהַ֥ר הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
those lost in the land of Assyria: Since they were scattered in a distant land, within the Sambatyon River, he calls them, ‘lost.’  

Isaiah Chapter 28

1Woe is to the crown of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim and the young fruit of an inferior fig is the position of his glory, which is at the end of a valley of fatness, crushed by wine.   אה֗וֹי עֲטֶ֚רֶת גֵּאוּת֙ שִׁכֹּרֵ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְצִ֥יץ נֹבֵ֖ל צְבִ֣י תִפְאַרְתּ֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֛ר עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ גֵּֽיא־שְׁמָנִ֖ים הֲל֥וּמֵי יָֽיִן:
the drunkards of Ephraim: who would become intoxicated with the wine of the state of Prugitha, as (the Rabbis) stated (Shabbath 147b): The water of Damascus and the wine of Prugitha robbed away the ten tribes.  
and the young fruit of an inferior fig is the position of his glory: And the position of the planting of his glory - the young fruit of his blossom shall be  
inferior figs: (נֹבֵל) They are the spoiled figs, as we learned in Berachoth (40b): For noveloth. And our Sages explained: Burned by the heat.  
young fruit: (צִיץ) synonymous with נֵץ, as the Targum renders: (Num. 27:13) וַיָּצֵץצִיץ, “and it produced young fruit,” as וְאָנֵץנֵץ.  
which is: planted.  
at the head of a valley of fatness: That is Kinnereth, whose fruits are sweet, and there they crush themselves with wine.  
crushed with wine: הֲלוּמֵי יַיִן. This may also be interpreted as follows: תפארתו אשר על ראש וכו׳ צבי, (his glorious beauty, which is, etc.): His glorious beauty, which is on the head of the ten tribes, anointed with pride with the best oils, as it is said (Amos 6:6): “With the best oils they anoint themselves.” גֵּיא is an expression of pride, as (supra 16:6): “Moab, they have become very proud.” (And that blossom will be like a wilting blossom) crushed by wine. So he calls them because of their drunkenness, and it is said concerning them (Amos 6:6): “Those who drink with basins of wine.”  
2Behold God [has] a strong and powerful [wind], like a downpour of hail, a storm of destruction, like a stream of powerful, flooding water, He lays it on the land with [His] hand.   בהִנֵּ֨ה חָזָ֚ק וְאַמִּץ֙ לַֽאדֹנָ֔י כְּזֶ֥רֶם בָּרָ֖ד שַׂ֣עַר קָ֑טֶב כְּ֠זֶרֶם מַ֣יִם כַּבִּירִ֥ים שֹׁטְפִ֛ים הִנִּ֥יחַ לָאָ֖רֶץ בְּיָֽד:
Behold: The Lord has a strong and powerful wind, which is like a downpour of hail and a storm of קֶטֶב מְרִירִי, bitter destruction.  
He lays it on the land with [His] hand: He shall place it on their land with His strong hand and cast down the inferior figs from fig trees.  
3With the feet, they shall be trampled, the crown of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim.   גבְּרַגְלַ֖יִם תֵּֽרָמַ֑סְנָה עֲטֶ֥רֶת גֵּא֖וּת שִׁכּוֹרֵ֥י אֶפְרָֽיִם:
4And his glorious beauty shall be the young fruit of an inferior fig, which is on the head of the valley of fatness; as a fig that ripens before the summer, which, if the seer sees it, he will swallow it while it is still in his hand.   דוְהָ֨יְתָ֜ה צִיצַ֚ת נֹבֵל֙ צְבִ֣י תִפְאַרְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹ֖אשׁ גֵּ֣יא שְׁמָנִ֑ים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ֙ בְּטֶ֣רֶם קַ֔יִץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִרְאֶ֚ה הָֽרֹאֶה֙ אוֹתָ֔הּ בְּעוֹדָ֥הּ בְּכַפּ֖וֹ יִבְלָעֶֽנָּה:
as a fig that ripens before the summer: like the ripening of the young fruits of an inferior fig.  
before the summer: the time of the ripening of other figs, which, because of its early ripening, he pounces on it and swallows it while it is still in his hand. So (Dan. 9:14), “He hastened the evil and brought it upon us.”  
5On that day, the Lord of Hosts shall be for a crown of beauty and for a diadem of glory, for the rest of His people.   הבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לַֽעֲטֶ֣רֶת צְבִ֔י וְלִצְפִירַ֖ת תִּפְאָרָ֑ה לִשְׁאָ֖ר עַמּֽוֹ:
On that day: When the transgressors are destroyed.  
for a crown of beauty: for the remaining righteous men among them.  
6And for a spirit of justice to him who sits in judgment, and for might for those who bring back the war to the gate.   ווּלְר֖וּחַ מִשְׁפָּ֑ט לַיּוֹשֵׁב֙ עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט וְלִ֨גְבוּרָ֔ה מְשִׁיבֵ֥י מִלְחָמָ֖ה שָֽׁעְרָה:
And for a spirit of justice: will the Holy One, blessed be He, be, i.e., to teach justice, to him who sits in judgment.  
and for might: will He be for those who bring back the war, the war of Torah.  
7These, too, erred because of wine and strayed because of strong wine; priest and prophet erred because of strong wine, they became corrupt because of wine; they went astray because of strong wine, they erred against the seer, they caused justice to stumble.   זוְגַם־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ בַּיַּ֣יִן שָׁג֔וּ וּבַשֵּׁכָ֖ר תָּע֑וּ כֹּהֵ֣ן וְנָבִיא֩ שָׁג֨וּ בַשֵּׁכָ֜ר נִבְלְע֣וּ מִן־הַיַּ֗יִן תָּעוּ֙ מִן־הַשֵּׁכָ֔ר שָׁגוּ֙ בָּֽרֹאֶ֔ה פָּק֖וּ פְּלִֽילִיָּֽה:
These too: who sit in judgment and return the war in this generation, i.e., the best and most esteemed among them, erred because of wine, for now there is no good in them.  
they erred against the seer: They mocked the words of the prophets. Jonathan renders: with eating delicacies, which they saw as a pleasure to them.  
they caused justice to stumble: (פָּקוּ פְּלִילֶיהָ), they caused justice to stumble. פָּקוּ is an expression similar to (Nahum 2: 11), “The stumbling (פִּיק) of knees” ; (I Sam. 25:31) “A stumbling block (פּוּקָה).”  
8For all tables were filled with vomit and ordure, without place.   חכִּי כָּל־שֻׁלְחָנ֔וֹת מָֽלְא֖וּ קִ֣יא צֹאָ֑ה בְּלִ֖י מָקֽוֹם:
For all tables: I.e., all their tables are of sacrifices for the dead, i.e., the pagan deities, which are like vomit and ordure.  
without a place: (I.e.) the mind cannot tolerate them.  
9Whom shall he teach knowledge and to whom shall he explain the message? To those weaned from milk, removed from breasts?   טאֶת־מִי֙ יוֹרֶ֣ה דֵעָ֔ה וְאֶת־מִ֖י יָבִ֣ין שְׁמוּעָ֑ה גְּמוּלֵי֙ מֵֽחָלָ֔ב עַתִּיקֵ֖י מִשָּׁדָֽיִם:
Whom shall he teach knowledge: Perhaps to babes who know not to understand, since the adults have turned to an evil way?  
those weaned from milk: separated from milk.  
removed from breasts: (עַתִּיקֵי) an expression similar to (Gen. 12:8), “And he removed (וַיַּעְתֵּק) from there.” Alternatively, separated from the Torah, which is called milk, and removed from breasts, removed from before Torah scholars.  
10For a precept for a precept, a precept for a precept, a line for a line, a line for a line, a little there, a little there.   יכִּ֣י צַ֚ו לָצָו֙ צַ֣ו לָצָ֔ו קַ֥ו לָקָ֖ו קַ֣ו לָקָ֑ו זְעֵ֥יר שָׁ֖ם זְעֵ֥יר שָֽׁם:
For a precept for a precept, a precept for a precept: The prophet commands them from the Holy One, blessed be He, but they - they have a precept of the idols, equal to this precept, and the prophet repeatedly admonishes them, and they always say, “We have a precept for the precept.” Ours is superior to yours.  
a line for a line: They have a plumb-line of wicked judgments equal to the plumb-line of justice.  
a little there, a little there: The prophet says to them, “In a short time evil will come upon you,” and they say, “A little there, let Him hurry, let Him hasten His deeds in a short time.”  
11For with distorted speech and in another language, does he speak to this people.   יאכִּי בְּלַֽעֲגֵ֣י שָׂפָ֔ה וּבְלָשׁ֖וֹן אַחֶ֑רֶת יְדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה:
With distorted speech: שָׂפָה) (בְּלַעֲגֵי Similarly, לְעָגִים and (infra 32:4), עִלְּגִים, are both expressions of distorted speech, which is not readily grasped.  
he speaks to this people: Everyone who speaks to them words of prophecy or admonition is to them like a distorted language, which they cannot understand.  
12For he said to them, "This is the rest; give rest to the weary, and this is the tranquility," but they would not listen.   יבאֲשֶׁ֣ר | אָמַ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם זֹ֚את הַמְּנוּחָה֙ הָנִ֣יחוּ לֶֽעָיֵ֔ף וְזֹ֖את הַמַּרְגֵּעָ֑ה וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וּא שְׁמֽוֹעַ:
For he said: The prophet said to them, “This is the rest,” that you should have rest, “give rest to the weary,” that you shall not rob him, “and this” shall be “tranquility” for them (var. for you).  
13And the word of the Lord shall be for them a precept for a precept, a precept for a precept, a line for a line, a line for a line, a little there, a little there, in order that they go and stumble backwards and be broken, and be trapped and caught.   יגוְהָיָ֨ה לָהֶ֜ם דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֗ה צַ֣ו לָצָ֞ו צַ֚ו לָצָו֙ קַ֚ו לָקָו֙ קַ֣ו לָקָ֔ו זְעֵ֥יר שָׁ֖ם זְעֵ֣יר שָׁ֑ם לְמַ֨עַן יֵֽלְכ֜וּ וְכָֽשְׁל֚וּ אָחוֹר֙ וְנִשְׁבָּ֔רוּ וְנֽוֹקְשׁ֖וּ וְנִלְכָּֽדוּ:
And the word of the Lord shall be, etc.: According to their measure, He shall mete out to them; He shall decree upon them with His word upon them, a precept of the nations that enslave them, upon a precept, a command upon a command, labor upon labor; a line of retribution commensurate with the line of sins that they committed (lit., in their hand); קַו לָקָו, derived from קוה, a hope instead of a hope; they will hope for light, and behold, there will be darkness.  
a little there, a little there: In a short time, it shall come upon them, and they shall become few there in the land of their enemies.  

Isaiah Chapter 29

22Therefore, so said the Lord to the House of Jacob, Who redeemed Abraham, "Now Jacob shall not be ashamed, and now his face shall not pale.   כבלָכֵ֗ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֚ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּדָ֖ה אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם לֹֽא־עַתָּ֚ה יֵבוֹשׁ֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְלֹ֥א עַתָּ֖ה פָּנָ֥יו יֶֽחֱוָֽרוּ:
Who redeemed Abraham: from Ur of the Chaldees.  
Now Jacob shall not be ashamed: of his father.  
and now his face shall not pale: because of his father’s father, for no imperfection has been found in his bed, and his bed is perfect.  
23For, when he sees his children, the work of My hands, in his midst, who shall hallow My name, and they shall hallow the Holy One of Jacob, and the God of Israel they shall revere.   כגכִּ֣י בִ֠רְאֹתוֹ יְלָדָ֞יו מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדַ֛י בְּקִרְבּ֖וֹ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁוּ שְׁמִ֑י וְהִקְדִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ אֶת־קְד֣וֹשׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְאֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יַֽעֲרִֽיצוּ:
For, when he sees his children: who will be the work of My hands, i.e., righteous men, in his midst, for when he sees in his midst that his children, the work of My hands, shall hallow My name, e.g., Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (see Dan. 3), therefore, his face shall not pale.  
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