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Torah Reading for Sukkot

Torah Reading for Sukkot

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First Day of Sukkot
Monday, 15 Tishrei, 5779
24 September, 2018
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2nd Portion: (Leviticus 23:4-14)
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Leviticus Chapter 23

4These are the Lord's appointed [holy days], holy occasions, which you shall designate in their appointed time:   דאֵ֚לֶּה מֽוֹעֲדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה מִקְרָאֵ֖י קֹ֑דֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְא֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם בְּמֽוֹעֲדָֽם:
These are the Lord’s appointed [holy days, holy occasions, that you shall designate]: In the earlier verse (verse 2), Scripture is referring to the proclamation of a leap year, while here, Scripture is referring to sanctifying the new month [i.e., “designating” which day is the first of the month, based on testimony of the sighting of the new moon. Both of these “designations,” therefore, have bearing on the establishment of the festivals.] - [Torath Kohanim 23: 146]   אלה מועדי ה': למעלה מדבר בעבור שנה, וכאן מדבר בקדוש החדש:
5In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, in the afternoon, [you shall sacrifice] the Passover offering to the Lord.   הבַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַרְבָּ֑יִם פֶּ֖סַח לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
in the afternoon: Heb. בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם, lit. between the two evenings. From six [halachic] hours [after dawn,] and onwards [until evening (עֶרֶב), i.e., nightfall.]   בין הערבים: משש שעות ולמעלה:
the Passover offering to the Lord: Heb. פֶּסַח, the offering up of a sacrifice named “Pesach.” [The term “Pesach” here refers to the Pesach offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan, not to the Passover Festival, which begins on the fifteenth. — [Be’er Heitev on Rashi]   פסח לה': הקרבת קרבן ששמו פסח:
6And on the fifteenth day of that month is the Festival of Unleavened Cakes to the Lord; you shall eat unleavened cakes for a seven day period.   ווּבַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֔ה חַ֥ג הַמַּצּ֖וֹת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים מַצּ֥וֹת תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
7On the first day, there shall be a holy occasion for you; you shall not perform any work of labor.   זבַּיּוֹם֙ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן מִקְרָא־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
8And you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord for a seven day period. On the seventh day, there shall be a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work of labor.   חוְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם אִשֶּׁ֛ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּיּ֤וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
And you shall bring a fire offering [to the Lord for a seven-day period]: These are the additional offerings [of Passover] delineated in parshath Pinchas (Num. 28:1625). Why are they mentioned here? To inform you that the additional offerings do not impede one another, [if some are omitted, as the Torah states:]   והקרבתם אשה וגו': הם המוספין האמורים בפרשת פנחס ולמה נאמרו כאן, לומר לך שאין המוספין מעכבין זה את זה:
And you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord: in any case. If there are no bulls, bring rams, and if there are neither bulls nor rams, bring lambs [as prescribed in Num. 28:19]. — [Torath Kohanim 23:152]   והקרבתם אשה לה': מכל מקום, אם אין פרים הבא אילים, ואם אין פרים ואילים, הבא כבשים:
for a seven-day period: Heb. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים, lit., a “seven” of days. Wherever the שִׁבְעַת appears, it denotes a noun, and [thus, the expression here שִׁבְעַת יָמִים means “a week of days” ; septaine in Old French [which is the noun, as opposed to sept, meaning the number seven. See Mizrachi on Rashi Exod. 10:22]. Likewise, every [construct expression like], שְׁמוֹנַת, שֵׁשֶׁת, חֲמֵשֶׁת, שְׁלֹשֶׁת [literally means, respectively, “an eight of,” “a six of,” “a five of,” “a three of,” [meaning a unit consisting of one of these numbers]. - [See Gur Aryeh and Levush Haorah on Rashi Exod. 10:22 for the reason this type of expression is used here instead of simply שִׁבְעָה יָמִים, “seven days.”]   שבעת ימים: כל מקום שנאמר שבעת שם דבר הוא, שבוע של ימים, שטיינ"א בלע"ז [קבוצה של שבעה ימים רצופים], וכן כל לשון שמונת, ששת, חמשת, שלשת:
work of labor: Even types of work (מְלָאכוֹת) that are considered by you as labor (עֲבוֹדָה) and necessities, where a monetary loss may be incurred if one would refrain from them, for example, something that will be lost [if the activity is postponed]. I understood this from Torath Kohanim, where it is taught (23:187): “One might think that even during the intermediate days of the Festival, work of labor is prohibited…” [and the text concludes by teaching us that during those days, מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה is permitted, and we know that the type of work that is permitted on the intermediate days is such work whose postponement would cause a loss (דָּבָר הָאָבֵד). Hence, we see that מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה and דָּבָר הָאָבֵד are synonymous, and that is what the Torah meant to prohibit on the festival holy days-namely, the first and seventh days of Passover, when even that type of work is prohibited].   מלאכת עבדה: אפילו מלאכות החשובות לכם עבודה וצורך, שיש חסרון כיס בבטלה שלהן, כגון דבר האבד. כך הבנתי מתורת כהנים, דקתני יכול אף חולו של מועד יהא אסור במלאכת עבודה וכו':
9And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   טוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
10Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When you come to the Land which I am giving you, and you reap its harvest, you shall bring to the kohen an omer of the beginning of your reaping.   ידַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־תָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִי֙ נֹתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֔ם וּקְצַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־קְצִירָ֑הּ וַֽהֲבֵאתֶ֥ם אֶת־עֹ֛מֶר רֵאשִׁ֥ית קְצִֽירְכֶ֖ם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
[you shall bring…an omer] of the beginning of your reaping: the first of the harvest [from the fields. Thus, one is permitted to proceed with the general harvest only after this omer has been reaped.]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Men. 71a]   ראשית קצירכם: שתהא ראשונה לקציר:
omer: a tenth of an ephah (see Exod. 16:36). That was its [the measure’s] name, like “And they measured it with an omer” (Exod. 16:18).   עמר: עשירית האיפה, כך היתה שמה, כמו (שמות טז יח) וימודו בעומר:
11And he shall wave the omer before the Lord so that it will be acceptable for you; the kohen shall wave it on the day after the rest day.   יאוְהֵנִ֧יף אֶת־הָעֹ֛מֶר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לִרְצֹֽנְכֶ֑ם מִמָּֽחֳרַת֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת יְנִיפֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And he shall wave: Every [mention of] תְּנוּפָה, “waving,” [in Scripture], denotes moving back and forth, up and down. [It is moved] back and forth to prevent evil winds; [it is moved] up and down to prevent evil dews [i.e., the dew should be a blessing for the crop, not a curse]. — [Men. 61a-62a]   והניף: כל תנופה מוליך ומביא מעלה ומוריד. מוליך ומביא לעצור רוחות רעות, מעלה ומוריד לעצור טללים רעים:
so that it will be acceptable for you: If you offer it up according to these instructions, it will be acceptable for you.   לרצנכם: אם תקריבו כמשפט זה, יהיו לרצון לכם:
on the day after the rest day: מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת. On the day after the first holy day of Passover, [since a holy festival day is also שַׁבָָּת, rest day , in Scripture]. For if you say [that it means] the “Sabbath of Creation” [i.e., the actual Sabbath, the seventh day of the week], you would not know which one. - [Men. 66a]   ממחרת השבת: ממחרת יום טוב הראשון של פסח, שאם אתה אומר שבת בראשית, אי אתה יודע איזהו:
12And on the day of your waving the omer, you shall offer up an unblemished lamb in its [first] year as a burnt offering to the Lord;   יבוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֕ם בְּי֥וֹם הֲנִֽיפְכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָעֹ֑מֶר כֶּ֣בֶשׂ תָּמִ֧ים בֶּן־שְׁנָת֛וֹ לְעֹלָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
you shall offer up [an unblemished lamb in its [first] year]: It comes as obligatory for the omer [not as part the additional offerings of Passover.   ועשיתם כבש: חובה לעומר הוא בא:
13Its meal offering [shall be] two tenths [of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with oil, a fire offering to the Lord as a spirit of satisfaction. And its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine.   יגוּמִנְחָתוֹ֩ שְׁנֵ֨י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֜ים סֹ֣לֶת בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֛מֶן אִשֶּׁ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֑חַ וְנִסְכּ֥וֹ (כתיב ונסכה) יַ֖יִן רְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִֽין:
Its meal offering: The meal offering [which accompanies every sacrifice], along with its libations. [See Num. 15:116.] [This is not an independent meal offering.]   ומנחתו: מנחת נסכיו:
two tenths [of an ephah]: It was double [the usual meal offering for a lamb, which is one tenth.] (See Num. 15:4.)   שני עשרנים: כפולה היתה:
and its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine: Although its meal offering is double, its libations are not double, [but the usual libation prescribed for a lamb (Num. 15:5). - [Men. 89b]   ונסכה יין רביעית ההין: אף על פי שמנחתו כפולה, אין נסכיו כפולים:
14You shall not eat bread or [flour made from] parched grain or fresh grain, until this very day, until you bring your God's sacrifice. [This is] an eternal statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.   ידוְלֶ֩חֶם֩ וְקָלִ֨י וְכַרְמֶ֜ל לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֗וּ עַד־עֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה עַ֚ד הֲבִ֣יאֲכֶ֔ם אֶת־קָרְבַּ֖ן אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
or [flour made from] parched grain: [This refers to] flour made from tender, plump grain that is parched in an oven (see Lev. 2:14).   וקלי: קמח עשוי מכרמל רך שמייבשין אותו בתנור:
plump grain: [These are the] plump, parched kernels, grenaillis [in Old French]. — [See Rashi, Sifthei Chachamim on Lev. 2:14]   וכרמל: הן קליות שקורין גרניד"ש [שבולים]:
in all your dwelling places: The Sages of Israel differ concerning this. Some learned from here that [the prohibition of eating] the new crop [before the omer] applies [even] outside the Land [of Israel], while others say that this phrase comes only to teach [us] that they were commanded regarding the new crop only after possession and settlement, after they had conquered and apportioned [the land. — [Kid. 37a]   בכל משבתיכם: נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל, יש שלמדו מכאן שהחדש נוהג בחוצה לארץ, ויש אומרים לא בא אלא ללמד שלא נצטוו על החדש אלא לאחר ירושה וישיבה, משכבשו וחלקו:
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