Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
A new online course
Starting January 22nd
Register »
Contact Us

Torah Reading for Massei

Torah Reading for Massei

 Email
Parshat Massei
Shabbat, 28 Tammuz, 5795
4 August, 2035
Select a portion:
Complete: (Numbers 33:1 - 36:13; Jeremiah 2:4-28; Jeremiah 4:1-2)
Show content in:

First Portion

Numbers Chapter 33

1These are the journeys of the children of Israel who left the land of Egypt in their legions, under the charge of Moses and Aaron.   אאֵ֜לֶּה מַסְעֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָֽצְא֛וּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם בְּיַד־משֶׁ֖ה וְאַֽהֲרֹֽן:
These are the journeys: Why were these journeys recorded? To inform us of the kind deeds of the Omnipresent, for although He issued a decree to move them around [from place to place] and make them wander in the desert, you should not say that they were moving about and wandering from station to station for all forty years, and they had no rest, because there are only forty-two stages. Deduct fourteen of them, for they all took place in the first year, before the decree, from when they journeyed from Rameses until they arrived in Rithmah, from where the spies were sent, as it says, “Then the people journeyed from Hazeroth [and camped in the desert of Paran].” (12:16); “Send out for yourself men…” (13:2), and here it says, “They journeyed from Hazeroth and camped at Rithmah,” teaching us that it [Rithmah] was in the desert of Paran. Subtract a further eight stages which took place after Aaron’s death-from Mount Hor to the plains of Moab-during the fortieth year, and you will find that throughout the thirty-eight years they made only twenty journeys. I found this in the commentary of R. Moshe (Hadarshan) [the preacher] (Mid. Aggadah). R. Tanchuma expounds it in another way. It is analogous to a king whose son became sick, so he took him to a far away place to have him healed. On the way back, the father began citing all the stages of their journey, saying to him, “This is where we sat, here we were cold, here you had a headache etc.” - [Mid. Tanchuma Massei 3, Num. Rabbah 23:3]   אלה מסעי: למה נכתבו המסעות הללו, להודיע חסדיו של מקום, שאעפ"י שגזר עליהם לטלטלם ולהניעם במדבר, לא תאמר שהיו נעים ומטולטלים ממסע למסע כל ארבעים שנה ולא היתה להם מנוחה, שהרי אין כאן אלא ארבעים ושתים מסעות. צא מהם י"ד, שכולם היו בשנה ראשונה, קודם גזירה, משנסעו מרמעסס עד שבאו לרתמה. שמשם נשתלחו המרגלים, שנאמר (במדבר יב, טז) ואחר נסעו העם מחצרות וגו' (שם יג, ב) שלח לך אנשים וגו'. וכאן הוא אומר ויסעו מחצרות ויחנו ברתמה, למדת שהיא במדבר פארן. ועוד הוצא משם שמונה מסעות שהיו לאחר מיתת אהרן מהר ההר עד ערבות מואב בשנת הארבעים, נמצא שכל שמנה ושלשים שנה לא נסעו אלא עשרים מסעות. זה מיסודו של רבי משה הדרשן. ורבי תנחומא דרש בו דרשה אחרת משל למלך שהיה בנו חולה והוליכו למקום רחוק לרפאותו, כיון שהיו חוזרין התחיל אביו מונה כל המסעות. אמר לו כאן ישננו, כאן הוקרנו, כאן חששת את ראשך וכו':
2Moses recorded their starting points for their journeys according to the word of the Lord, and these were their journeys with their starting points.   בוַיִּכְתֹּ֨ב משֶׁ֜ה אֶת־מוֹצָֽאֵיהֶ֛ם לְמַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֵ֥לֶּה מַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם לְמוֹצָֽאֵיהֶֽם:
3They journeyed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the day following the Passover sacrifice, the children of Israel left triumphantly before the eyes of all the Egyptians.   גוַיִּסְע֤וּ מֵֽרַעְמְסֵס֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן מִמָּֽחֳרַ֣ת הַפֶּ֗סַח יָֽצְא֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּיָ֣ד רָמָ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־מִצְרָֽיִם:
4And the Egyptians were busy burying because the Lord had struck down their firstborn and had wrought vengeance against their deities.   דוּמִצְרַ֣יִם מְקַבְּרִ֗ים אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּהֶ֖ם כָּל־בְּכ֑וֹר וּבֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם עָשָׂ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה שְׁפָטִֽים:
And the Egyptians were busy burying: occupied with their mourning.   ומצרים מקברים: טרודים באבלם:
5The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses and camped in Succoth.   הוַיִּסְע֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵֽרַעְמְסֵ֑ס וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּסֻכֹּֽת:
6They journeyed from Succoth and camped in Etham, at the edge of the desert.   ווַיִּסְע֖וּ מִסֻּכֹּ֑ת וַיַּֽחֲנ֣וּ בְאֵתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּקְצֵ֥ה הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
7They journeyed from Etham and camped in Pi hahiroth, which faces Baal zephon; and they camped in front of Migdol.   זוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מֵֽאֵתָ֔ם וַיָּ֨שָׁב֙ עַל־פִּ֣י הַֽחִירֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־פְּנֵ֖י בַּ֣עַל צְפ֑וֹן וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י מִגְדֹּֽל:
8They journeyed from Penei hahiroth and crossed in the midst of the sea to the desert. They walked for three days in the desert of Etham and camped in Marah.   חוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הַֽחִירֹ֔ת וַיַּֽעַבְר֥וּ בְתֽוֹךְ־הַיָּ֖ם הַמִּדְבָּ֑רָה וַיֵּ֨לְכ֜וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ שְׁל֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר אֵתָ֔ם וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּמָרָֽה:
9They journeyed from Marah and arrived in Elim, and in Elim there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there.   טוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אֵילִ֑מָה וּ֠בְאֵילִ֠ם שְׁתֵּ֨ים עֶשְׂרֵ֜ה עֵינֹ֥ת מַ֛יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֥ים תְּמָרִ֖ים וַיַּחֲנוּ־שָֽׁם:
10They journeyed from Elim and camped by the Red Sea.   יוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽאֵילִ֑ם וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ עַל־יַם־סֽוּף:
11They journeyed from the Red Sea and camped in the desert of Sin.   יאוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִיַּם־ס֑וּף וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּמִדְבַּר־סִֽין:
12They journeyed from the desert of Sin and camped in Dophkah.   יבוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמִּדְבַּר־סִ֑ין וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּדָפְקָֽה:
13They journeyed from Dophkah and camped in Alush.   יגוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִדָּפְקָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּאָלֽוּשׁ:
14They journeyed from Alush and camped in Rephidim, but there there was no water for the people to drink.   ידוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵאָל֑וּשׁ וַיַּֽחֲנוּ֙ בִּרְפִידִ֔ם וְלֹא־הָ֨יָה שָׁ֥ם מַ֛יִם לָעָ֖ם לִשְׁתּֽוֹת:
15They journeyed from Rephidim and camped in the Sinai desert.   טווַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽרְפִידִ֑ם וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי:
16They journeyed from the Sinai desert and camped in Kivroth hataavah.   טזוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמִּדְבַּ֣ר סִינָ֑י וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּקִבְרֹ֥ת הַתַּֽאֲוָֽה:
17They journeyed from Kivroth hataavah and camped in Hazeroth   יזוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִקִּבְרֹ֣ת הַתַּֽאֲוָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בַּֽחֲצֵרֹֽת:
18They journeyed from Hazeroth and camped in Rithmah.   יחוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽחֲצֵרֹ֑ת וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּרִתְמָֽה:
Rithmah: Heb. רִתְמָה, so named because of the slander of the spies, for it says,“What can He give you, and what can He add to you, you deceitful tongue? Sharpened arrows of a mighty man, with coals of brooms רְתָמִים” (Ps. 120:3-4). - [Mid. Aggadah]   ויחנו ברתמה: על שם לשון הרע של מרגלים, שנאמר (תהלים קכ, ג) מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה חצי גבור שנונים עם גחלי רתמים:
19They journeyed from Rithmah and camped in Rimmon perez.   יטוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽרִתְמָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּרִמֹּ֥ן פָּֽרֶץ:
20They journeyed from Rimmon perez and camped in Libnah.   כוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵרִמֹּ֣ן פָּ֑רֶץ וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּלִבְנָֽה:
21They journeyed from Libnah and camped in Rissah.   כאוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִלִּבְנָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּרִסָּֽה:
22They journeyed from Rissah and camped in Kehelathah.   כבוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽרִסָּ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בִּקְהֵלָֽתָה:
23They journeyed from Kehelathah and camped in Mount Shepher.   כגוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִקְּהֵלָ֑תָה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּהַר־שָֽׁפֶר:
24They journeyed from Mount Shepher and camped in Haradah.   כדוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽהַר־שָׁ֑פֶר וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בַּֽחֲרָדָֽה:
25They journeyed from Haradah and camped in Makheloth.   כהוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽחֲרָדָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּמַקְהֵלֹֽת:
26They journeyed from Makheloth and camped in Tahath.   כווַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמַּקְהֵלֹ֑ת וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּתָֽחַת:
27They journeyed from Tahath and camped in Tarah.   כזוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִתָּ֑חַת וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּתָֽרַח:
28They journeyed from Tarah and camped in Mithkah.   כחוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִתָּ֑רַח וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּמִתְקָֽה:
29They journeyed from Mithkah and camped in Hashmonah.   כטוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמִּתְקָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּחַשְׁמֹנָֽה:
30They journeyed from Hashmonah and camped in Moseroth.   לוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽחַשְׁמֹנָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּמֹֽסֵרֽוֹת:
31They journeyed from Moseroth and camped in Benei jaakan.   לאוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמֹּֽסֵר֑וֹת וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בִּבְנֵ֥י יַֽעֲקָֽן:
32They journeyed from Benei jaakan and camped in Hor hagidgad.   לבוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִבְּנֵ֣י יַֽעֲקָ֑ן וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּחֹ֥ר הַגִּדְגָּֽד:
33They journeyed from Hor hagidgad and camped in Jotbathah.   לגוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵחֹ֣ר הַגִּדְגָּ֑ד וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּיָטְבָֽתָה:
34They journeyed from Jotbathah and camped in Abronah.   לדוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִיָּטְבָ֑תָה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּעַבְרֹנָֽה:
35They journeyed from Abronah and camped in Etzion geber.   להוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽעַבְרֹנָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּעֶצְיֹ֥ן גָּֽבֶר:
36They journeyed from Ezion geber and camped in the desert of Zin, which is Kadesh.   לווַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽעֶצְיֹ֣ן גָּ֑בֶר וַיַּֽחֲנ֥וּ בְּמִדְבַּר־צִ֖ן הִ֥וא קָדֵֽשׁ:
37They journeyed from Kadesh and camped at Mount Hor, at the edge of the land of Edom.   לזוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִקָּדֵ֑שׁ וַיַּֽחֲנוּ֙ בְּהֹ֣ר הָהָ֔ר בִּקְצֵ֖ה אֶ֥רֶץ אֱדֽוֹם:
38Aaron the kohen ascended Mount Hor at the Lord's bidding and died there, on the first day of the fifth month in the fortieth year of the children of Israel's exodus from Egypt.   לחוַיַּ֩עַל֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶל־הֹ֥ר הָהָ֛ר עַל־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וַיָּ֣מָת שָׁ֑ם בִּשְׁנַ֣ת הָֽאַרְבָּעִ֗ים לְצֵ֤את בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַֽחֲמִישִׁ֖י בְּאֶחָ֥ד לַחֹֽדֶשׁ:
at the Lord’s bidding: [lit., by the mouth of the Lord.] This teaches us that he died by the [Divine] kiss. — [B.B. 17a]   על פי ה': מלמד שמת בנשיקה:
39Aaron was one hundred and twenty three years old when he died at Mount Hor.   לטוְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן בֶּן־שָׁל֧שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָ֑ה בְּמֹת֖וֹ בְּהֹ֥ר הָהָֽר:
40The Canaanite king of Arad, who dwelt in the south, in the land of Canaan, heard that the children of Israel had arrived.   מוַיִּשְׁמַ֗ע הַכְּנַֽעֲנִי֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲרָ֔ד וְהֽוּא־ישֵׁ֥ב בַּנֶּ֖גֶב בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן בְּבֹ֖א בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
The Canaanite…heard: To teach you that it was the news of Aaron’s death that he heard, for the clouds of glory had withdrawn, and he thought that permission had been granted to wage war against Israel. This is why it [Scripture] repeats it [here]. — [R. H. 3a]   וישמע הכנעני: כאן למדך שמיתת אהרן היא השמועה, שנסתלקו ענני הכבוד וכסבור שנתנה רשות להלחם בישראל, לפיכך חזר וכתבה:
41They journeyed from Mount Hor and camped in Zalmonah.   מאוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵהֹ֣ר הָהָ֑ר וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּצַלְמֹנָֽה:
42They journeyed from Zalmonah and camped in Punon.   מבוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִצַּלְמֹנָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּפוּנֹֽן:
43They journeyed from Punon and camped in Oboth.   מגוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִפּוּנֹ֑ן וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּאֹבֹֽת:
44They journeyed from Oboth and camped at the ruins of Abarim, on the Moabite boundary.   מדוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽאֹבֹ֑ת וַיַּֽחֲנ֛וּ בְּעִיֵּ֥י הָֽעֲבָרִ֖ים בִּגְב֥וּל מוֹאָֽב:
the ruins of Abarim: Heb. עִיּי הָעֲבָרִים, an expression denoting waste and ruins, as“into a heap (לְעִי) in the field” (Micah 1:6);“they have turned Jerusalem into heaps (לְעִיִּים) ” (Ps. 79:1).   בעיי העברים: לשון חרבות וגלים, כמו (מיכה א, ו) לעי השדה, (תהלים עט, א) שמו את ירושלים לעיים:
45They journeyed from the ruins and camped in Dibon gad.   מהוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽעִיִּ֑ים וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּדִיבֹ֥ן גָּֽד:
46They journeyed from Dibon gad and camped in Almon diblathaimah.   מווַיִּסְע֖וּ מִדִּיבֹ֣ן גָּ֑ד וַיַּֽחֲנ֖וּ בְּעַלְמֹ֥ן דִּבְלָתָֽיְמָה:
47They journeyed from Almon diblathaimah and camped in the mountains of Abarim, in front of Nebo.   מזוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽעַלְמֹ֣ן דִּבְלָתָ֑יְמָה וַיַּֽחֲנ֛וּ בְּהָרֵ֥י הָֽעֲבָרִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י נְבֽוֹ:
48They journeyed from the mountains of Abarim and camped in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho.   מחוַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽהָרֵ֣י הָֽעֲבָרִ֑ים וַיַּֽחֲנוּ֙ בְּעַֽרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב עַ֖ל יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵחֽוֹ:
49They camped along the Jordan from Beth jeshimoth to Abel shittim, in the plains of Moab.   מטוַיַּֽחֲנ֤וּ עַל־הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ מִבֵּ֣ית הַיְשִׁמֹ֔ת עַ֖ד אָבֵ֣ל הַשִּׁטִּ֑ים בְּעַרְבֹ֖ת מוֹאָֽב:
from Beth-jeshimoth to Abel-shittim: This teaches you that the extent of Israel’s camp was twelve mil [a mil equaling approximately 3500 ft.] for Rabbah bar bar Channah said, “I myself saw that place [and it is three parasangs (12 mil) square].” - [Eruvin 55b]   מבית הישמת עד אבל השטים: כאן למדך שיעור מחנה ישראל י"ב מיל. דאמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא וכו' (ערובין נה ב):
Abel-shittim: The plain of Shittim was called Abel.   אבל השטים: מישור של שטים אבל שמו:

Second Portion

Numbers Chapter 33

50The Lord spoke to Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho, saying:   נוַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־משֶׁ֖ה בְּעַרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֑ב עַל־יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
51Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When you cross the Jordan into the land of Canaan,   נאדַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כִּ֥י אַתֶּ֛ם עֹֽבְרִ֥ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
When you cross the Jordan…you shall drive out…: Were not they previously forewarned about this a number of times? However, Moses said to them,“When you cross over the Jordan on dry land, you shall cross on this condition, for if not, water will come and inundate you.” And so we find that Joshua said the same to them while they were still in the Jordan. — [Sotah 34a]   כי אתם עברים את הירדן וגו' והורשתם וגו': והלא כמה פעמים הוזהרו על כך, אלא כך אמר להם משה כשאתם עוברים בירדן ביבשה, על מנת כן תעברו, ואם לאו מים באין ושוטפין אתכם, וכן מצינו שאמר להם יהושע בעודם בירדן:
52you shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, destroy all their temples, destroy their molten idols, and demolish their high places.   נבוְה֨וֹרַשְׁתֶּ֜ם אֶת־כָּל־יֽשְׁבֵ֤י הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֔ם וְאִ֨בַּדְתֶּ֔ם אֵ֖ת כָּל־מַשְׂכִּיֹּתָ֑ם וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־צַלְמֵ֤י מַסֵּֽכֹתָם֙ תְּאַבֵּ֔דוּ וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־בָּֽמוֹתָ֖ם תַּשְׁמִֽידוּ:
You shall drive out: Heb. וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּם, you shall drive them out.   והורשתם: וגרשתם:
their temples: Heb. מַשְׂכִּיֹּתָם, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders, סִגְדַּתְהוֹן, their houses of worship, so called because they would cover (מַסְכְּכִין) the ground with a marble floor, on which they would prostrate themselves with outstretched hands and legs, as it is written,“And in your land you shall not place a pavement stone on which to prostrate yourselves (אֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית) in your land on which to prostrate yourselves” (Lev. 26:1).   משכיתם: כתרגומו בית סגדתהון, על שם שהיו מסככין את הקרקע ברצפת אבנים של שיש להשתחוות עליהם בפישוט ידים ורגלים, כדכתיב (ויקרא כו, א) ואבן משכית לא תתנו בארצכם להשתחוות עליה:
their molten [idols]: Heb. מַסֵּכֹתָם, as the Targum renders, מַתְּכַתְהוֹן, their molten [idols].   מסכתם: כתרגומו מתכתהון:
53You shall clear out the Land and settle in it, for I have given you the Land to occupy it.   נגוְהֽוֹרַשְׁתֶּ֥ם אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם־בָּ֑הּ כִּ֥י לָכֶ֛ם נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אֹתָֽהּ:
And you shall clear out the Land: You shall vacate it of its inhabitants, and then you shall“settle in it.” Only then will you be able to survive there, but if you do not do this, you will be unable to survive there.   והורשתם את הארץ: והורשתם אותה מיושביה ואז וישבתם בה, תוכלו להתקיים בה, ואם לאו לא תוכלו להתקיים בה:

Third Portion

Numbers Chapter 33

54You shall give the Land as an inheritance to your families by lot; to the large, you shall give a larger inheritance and to the small you shall give a smaller inheritance; wherever the lot falls shall be his; according to the tribes of your fathers, you shall inherit.   נד וְהִתְנַֽחַלְתֶּם֩ אֶת־הָאָ֨רֶץ בְּגוֹרָ֜ל לְמִשְׁפְּחֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם לָרַ֞ב תַּרְבּ֤וּ אֶת־נַֽחֲלָתוֹ֙ וְלַמְעַט֙ תַּמְעִ֣יט אֶת־נַֽחֲלָת֔וֹ אֶל֩ אֲשֶׁר־יֵ֨צֵא ל֥וֹ שָׁ֛מָּה הַגּוֹרָ֖ל ל֣וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֑ה לְמַטּ֥וֹת אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם תִּתְנֶחָֽלוּ:
wherever [the lot] falls: Heb. אֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא לוֹ שָׁמָּה, to…that the lot falls. This is an elliptical verse [and its meaning is:] The place to which the lot falls for him, shall be his.   אל אשר יצא לו שמה: מקרא קצר הוא זה, אל מקום אשר יצא לו שמה הגורל לו יהיה:
according to the tribes of your fathers: According to the number of those who left Egypt (B.B. 117a). Another interpretation: with twelve territories, like the number of tribes.   למטות אבותיכם: לפי חשבון יוצאי מצרים. דבר אחר בשנים עשר גבולין כמנין השבטים:
55But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the Land from before you, then those whom you leave over will be as spikes in your eyes and thorns in your sides, and they will harass you in the land in which you settle.   נהוְאִם־לֹ֨א תוֹרִ֜ישׁוּ אֶת־יֽשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֘רֶץ֘ מִפְּנֵיכֶם֒ וְהָיָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תּוֹתִ֣ירוּ מֵהֶ֔ם לְשִׂכִּים֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וְלִצְנִינִ֖ם בְּצִדֵּיכֶ֑ם וְצָֽרְר֣וּ אֶתְכֶ֔ם עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֖ם יֽשְׁבִ֥ים בָּֽהּ:
those whom you leave over: They will be a source of misfortune for you.   והיה אשר תותירו מהם: יהיו לכם לרעה:
as spikes in your eyes: Heb. לְשִׂכִּים, pins that will gouge out your eyes. The Targum [Onkelos renders], יְתֵדוֹת (Exod. 38:20), pins or spikes [as] סִכַּיָּא -   לשכים בעיניכם: ליתדות המנקרות עיניכם. תרגום של יתדות שיכיא:
and thorns: Heb. וְלִצְנִינִם. The commentators interpret this in the sense of a hedge of thorns which will surround you, fencing you in and confining you so that none can leave or enter. -   ולצנינם: פותרים בו הפותרים לשון מסוכת קוצים הסוככת אתכם לסגור ולכלוא אתכם מאין יוצא ובא:
and they will harass you: Heb. וְצָרְרוּ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders [וִיעִיקוּן, and they will harass you, cause you distress].   וצררו אתכם: כתרגומו:
56And it will be that what I had intended to do to them, I will do to you.   נווְהָיָ֗ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּמִּ֛יתִי לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת לָהֶ֖ם אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם:

Numbers Chapter 34

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Command the children of Israel and say to them, When you arrive in the land of Canaan, this is the land which shall fall to you as an inheritance, the land of Canaan according to its borders.   בצַ֞ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֥ם בָּאִ֖ים אֶל־הָאָ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן זֹ֣את הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּפֹּ֤ל לָכֶם֙ בְּנַֽחֲלָ֔ה אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנַ֖עַן לִגְבֻֽלֹתֶֽיהָ:
This is the land which shall fall to you: Since many precepts apply to the Land [of Israel] and do not apply outside the Land, Scripture found it necessary to chart the outer limits of its boundaries from all sides, to inform you that the precepts apply everywhere within these borders.   זאת הארץ אשר תפול לכם וגו': לפי שהרבה מצות נוהגות בארץ ואין נוהגות בחוצה לארץ, הוצרך לכתוב מצרני גבולי רוחותיה סביב, לומר לך מן הגבולים הללו ולפנים המצות נוהגות:
shall fall to you: Since it was apportioned by lot, the division is described in terms of נְפִילָה, falling [a word commonly used in connection with lots]. The Midrash Aggadah says that [this expression is used here] because the Holy One, blessed is He, cast down [lit., caused to fall] from heaven the celestial ministers of the seven [Canaanite] nations, and shackled them before Moses. He said to him [Moses], See, they no longer have any power. — [Mid. Tanchuma]   תפול לכם: על שם שנתחלקה בגורל נקראת חלוקה לשון נפילה. ומדרש אגדה אומר ע"י שהפיל הקב"ה שריהם של שבע אומות מן השמים וכפתן לפני משה, אמר לו ראה אין בהם עוד כח:
3Your southernmost corner shall be from the desert of Zin along Edom, and the southern border shall be from the edge of the Sea of Salt [the Dead Sea] to the east.   גוְהָיָ֨ה לָכֶ֧ם פְּאַת־נֶ֛גֶב מִמִּדְבַּר־צִ֖ן עַל־יְדֵ֣י אֱד֑וֹם וְהָיָ֤ה לָכֶם֙ גְּב֣וּל נֶ֔גֶב מִקְצֵ֥ה יָֽם־הַמֶּ֖לַח קֵֽדְמָה:
Your southernmost corner shall be: The southern flank extending from east to west.   והיה לכם פאת נגב: רוח דרומית אשר מן המזרח למערב:
from the desert of Zin: which adjoins Edom, beginning in the southeastern corner of the land of the nine tribes. How? Three lands lie south of the Land of Israel, each adjoining the other-part of Egypt, the entire land of Edom, and the entire land of Moab. The land of Egypt is in the southwestern corner, as it says [later] in this passage, “from Azmon to the stream of Egypt and its ends shall be to the sea” (verse 5). The stream of Egypt ran through the entire length of Egypt, as it says, “from the Shihor [river], which is along the face of Egypt” (Josh. 13:3), and it intervenes between the land of Egypt from the Land of Israel. The land of Edom adjoins it [Egypt] from the east, and the land of Moab adjoins the land of Edom at the southeastern corner [of the land of Israel]. When the Israelites departed from Egypt, had the Omnipresent wished to expedite their entry into the Land, He would have taken them northward across the Nile, and they would have thus entered the Land. But He did not do so, and this is the meaning of what is said, “God did not lead them [by] way of the land of the Philistines” (Exod. 13:17). For they [the Philistines] dwelt by the sea in the west of the land of Canaan, as it says regarding the Philistines, “those who inhabit the coastal area, the Cherethite nation” (Zeph. 2:5). He did not lead them by that route, but diverted them and took them along the southern route, to the desert. Ezekiel called it “the desert of the nations” (Ezek. 5:35) because several nations dwelt alongside it. He led them along the south, always from west to east, until they arrived at the southern end of the land of Edom. They asked the king of Edom for permission to enter his land and traverse its width in order to enter the Land [of Israel], but he refused, and they had to turn and travel along the entire south of Edom until they reached the southern end of the land of Moab, as it says, “He sent [messengers] also to the king of Moab, but he was unwilling” (Jud. 11:17). They then traversed the entire southern boundary of Moab, right to the end, and then turned northward until they had passed along its entire eastern boundary, along its width, and when they finished its eastern boundary, they came upon the land of Sihon and Og, who dwelt to the east of the land of Canaan, with the Jordan [river] intervening between them. This is the meaning of what is stated concerning Jephthah,“And they went through the desert and went around the land of Edom and the land of Moab, and they came to the east of the land of Moab” (ibid. 18). They conquered the lands of Sihon and Og, which were to the north of Moab, and came near to the Jordan, opposite the northwestern corner of the land of Moab. Hence, the land of Canaan, which was across the Jordan to the west, has its southeastern corner bordering on Edom.   ממדבר צן: אשר אצל אדום מתחלת מקצוע דרומית מזרחית של ארץ תשעת המטות. כיצד, שלש ארצות יושבות בדרומה של ארץ ישראל זו אצל זו קצת ארץ מצרים, וארץ אדום כולה וארץ מואב כולה. ארץ מצרים במקצוע דרומית מערבית, שנאמר בפרשה זו מעצמון נחלה מצרים והיו תוצאותיו הימה. ונחל מצרים היה מהלך על פני כל ארץ מצרים, שנאמר (יהושע יג, ג) מן השיחור אשר על פני מצרים. ומפסיק בין ארץ מצרים לארץ ישראל וארץ אדום אצלה לצד המזרח וארץ מואב אצל ארץ אדום בסוף הדרום למזרח, וכשיצאו ישראל ממצרים, אם רצה המקום לקרב את כניסתם לארץ היה מעבירם את הנילוס לצד צפון ובאין לארץ ישראל, ולא עשה כן, וזהו שנאמר (שמות יג, יז) ולא נחם א-להים דרך ארץ פלשתים, שהם יושבים על הים במערבה של ארץ כנען, כענין שנאמר בפלשתים (צפניה ב, ה) יושבי חבל הים גוי כרתים. ולא נחם אותו הדרך אלא הסיבן והוציאם דרך דרומה אל המדבר, והוא שקראו יחזקאל (יחזקאל כ, לה) מדבר העמים, לפי שהיו כמה אומות יושבות בצדו והולכין אצל דרומה מן המערב כלפי מזרח תמיד, עד שבאו לדרומה של ארץ אדום ובקשו ממלך אדום שיניחם להכנס בארצו ולעבור דרך רחבה ולהכנס לארץ, ולא רצה. והוצרכו לסבוב את כל דרומה של אדום עד בואם לדרומה של ארץ מואב, שנאמר (שופטים יא, יז) וגם אל מלך מואב שלח ולא אבה. והלכו כל דרומה של מואב עד סופה ומשם הפכו פניהם לצפון עד שסבבו כל מצר מזרחי שלה לרחבה וכשכלו את מזרחה מצאו את ארץ סיחון ועוג שהיו יושבין במזרחה של ארץ כנען והירדן מפסיק ביניהם. וזהו שנאמר ביפתח (שופטים יא, יח) וילך במדבר ויסב את ארץ אדום ואת ארץ מואב ויבא ממזרח שמש לארץ מואב. וכבשו את ארץ סיחון ועוג שהיתה בצפונה של ארץ מואב. וקרבו עד הירדן והוא כנגד מקצוע צפונית מערבית של ארץ מואב, נמצא שארץ כנען שבעבר הירדן למערב היה מקצוע דרומית מזרחית שלה אצל אדום:
4The border then turns south of Maaleh Akrabim [elevation of Akrabim], passing toward Zin, and its ends shall be to the south of Kadesh barnea. Then it shall extend to Hazar addar and continue toward Azmon.   דוְנָסַ֣ב לָכֶם֩ הַגְּב֨וּל מִנֶּ֜גֶב לְמַֽעֲלֵ֤ה עַקְרַבִּים֙ וְעָ֣בַר צִ֔נָה וְהָיוּ֙ (כתיב והיה֙) תּֽוֹצְאֹתָ֔יו מִנֶּ֖גֶב לְקָדֵ֣שׁ בַּרְנֵ֑עַ וְיָצָ֥א חֲצַר־אַדָּ֖ר וְעָבַ֥ר עַצְמֹֽנָה:
The border then turns south of Maaleh Akrabim: Whenever the term וְנָסַב (“turns”) or וְיָצָא (“extends to”) is used, it [Scripture] informs us that the border was not straight, but veered outward; the boundary line bent to the north, angling westward, so that the border passed south of Maaleh Akrabim, so that Maaleh Akrabim was within the border.   ונסב לכם הגבול מנגב למעלה עקרבים: כל מקום שנאמר ונסב או ויצא, מלמד שלא היה המצר שוה אלא הולך ויוצא לחוץ, יוצא המצר ועוקם לצד צפונו של עולם באלכסון למערב ועובר המצר בדרומה של מעלה עקרבים, נמצא מעלה עקרבים לפנים מן המצר:
passing toward Zin: Heb. צִנָה, to Zin, as in מִצְרַיְמָה, to Egypt.   ועבר צנה: אל צין כמו מצרימה:
its ends shall be: Heb. תוֹצְאֹתָיו, its ends, to the south of Kadesh-barnea.   והיו תוצאותיו: קצותיו. בדרומה של קדש ברנע:
it shall extend: The boundary stretches northward and continues angling westward, until it reaches Hazar-addar, and from there to Azmon and from there to the stream of Egypt. The term “turns” is used here, because Scripture writes,“it shall extend to Hazar-addar.” For it began to widen after passing Kadesh-barnea, and the width of that strip which protruded northward was from Kadesh-barnea to Azmon. From there onward, the boundary narrowed and turned southward, reaching the river of Egypt, and from there westward to the Great Sea, which is the western boundary of the entire Land of Israel. Thus, the river of Egypt is in the southwestern corner.   ויצא חצר אדר: מתפשט המצר ומרחיב לצד צפון של עולם ונמשך עוד באלכסון למערב ובא לו לחצר אדר ומשם לעצמון ומשם לנחל מצרים. ולשון ונסב האמור כאן לפי שכתב ויצא חצר אדר שהתחיל להרחיב משעבר את קדש ברנע ורוחב אותה רצועה שבלטה לצד צפון היתה מקדש ברנע עד עצמון ומשם והלאה נתקצר המצר ונסב לצד הדרום ובא לו לנחל מצרים ומשם לצד המערב אל הים הגדול שהוא מצר מערבה של כל ארץ ישראל. נמצא שנחל מצרים במקצוע מערבית דרומית:
5The border then turns from Azmon to the stream of Egypt, and its ends shall be to the sea.   הוְנָסַ֧ב הַגְּב֛וּל מֵֽעַצְמ֖וֹן נַ֣חְלָה מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהָי֥וּ תֽוֹצְאֹתָ֖יו הַיָּֽמָּה:
and its ends shall be to the sea: To the western border, for the southern border no longer stretches westward past there.   והיו תוצאותיו הימה: אל מצר המערב שאין עוד גבול נגב מאריך לצד המערב משם והלאה:
6The western border: it shall be for you the Great [Mediterranean] Sea and the border this shall be your western border.   ווּגְב֣וּל יָ֔ם וְהָיָ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם הַיָּ֥ם הַגָּד֖וֹל וּגְב֑וּל זֶה־יִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם גְּב֥וּל יָֽם:
The western border: And what was the western border?   וגבול ים: ומצר מערבי מהו:
[It shall be for you] the Great Sea: As a boundary.   והיה לכם הים הגדול: למצר:
and the border: The islands in the sea are also included in the border. These islands are called isles in old French. — [Gittin 8a]   וגבול: הנסין שבתוך הים אף הם מן הגבול והם איים, שקורין אישלי"ש [איים]:
7This shall be your northern border: From the Great [Mediterranean] Sea turn yourselves toward Mount Hor.   זוְזֶה־יִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם גְּב֣וּל צָפ֑וֹן מִן־הַיָּם֙ הַגָּדֹ֔ל תְּתָא֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם הֹ֥ר הָהָֽר:
northern border: Heb. גְּבוּל צָפוֹן, the northern boundary.   גבול צפון: מצר צפון:
From the Great Sea turn yourselves toward Mount Hor: which is the northwestern corner. Its summit slopes down into the sea. Some of the expanse of the sea is inward of it and some outside it.   מן הים הגדול תתאו לכם הר ההר: שהוא במקצוע צפונית מערבית. וראשו משפיע ונכנס לתוך הים ויש מרוחב הים לפנים הימנו וחוצה הימנו:
turn yourselves: Change your direction, to move from west to north, toward Mount Hor.   תתאו: תשפעו לכם לנטות ממערב לצפון אל הר ההר:
turn yourselves: An expression denoting a slant, as in “the [slanting] chamber (תָּא) of the guards” (I Kings 14:28); “the chamber (תָּא) of the gate” (Ezek. 40:10), which are called apendiz in old French [penthouse, lean-to, a small building with a sloping roof, attached to a main building] for it is curved and sloping.   תתאו: לשון סיבה, כמו (ד"ה ב' יב, יא) אל תא הרצים, (יחזקאל מ, י) ותאי השער היציע, שקורין אפינדי"ץ [מבנה בעל גג משופע], שהוא מוסב ומשופע:
8From Mount Hor turn to the entrance of Hamath, and the ends of the border shall be toward Zedad.   חמֵהֹ֣ר הָהָ֔ר תְּתָא֖וּ לְבֹ֣א חֲמָ֑ת וְהָי֛וּ תּֽוֹצְאֹ֥ת הַגְּבֻ֖ל צְדָֽדָה:
From Mount Hor: you shall turn and continue along the northern border eastward, and then you will arrive at the entrance to Hamath, which is Antioch. - [Targum Yerushalmi]   מהר ההר: תסבו ותלכו אל מצר הצפון לצד המזרח ותפגעו בלבא חמת, זו אנטוכיא:
and the ends of the border: Heb. תּוֹצְאֹת הַגּבוּל, the ends of the border. Whenever [Scripture] mentions “the ends of the border” either the boundary line ends there completely and does not continue further in that direction, or from there it spreads out, broadens, and extends backwards, continuing in a more slanting direction than [encompassed in] the original expanse. In relation to the breadth of the original dimension, it is called the ends, for that dimension ends there.   תוצאות הגבול: סופי הגבול. כל מקום שנאמר תוצאות הגבול, או המצר כלה שם לגמרי ואינו עובר להלן כלל, או משם מתפשט ומרחיב ויוצא לאחוריו להמשיך להלן באלכסון יותר מן הרוחב הראשון, ולענין רוחב המדה הראשון קראו תוצאות, ששם כלתה אותה מדה:
9The border shall then extend to Ziphron, and its ends shall be Hazar enan; this shall be your northern border.   טוְיָצָ֤א הַגְּבֻל֙ זִפְרֹ֔נָה וְהָי֥וּ תֽוֹצְאֹתָ֖יו חֲצַ֣ר עֵינָ֑ן זֶה־יִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם גְּב֥וּל צָפֽוֹן:
and its ends shall be Hazar-enan: This is the end of the northern border, and Hazar-enan is situated in the northeastern corner. From there“you shall then turn yourselves” toward the eastern border.   והיו תוצאתיו חצר עינן: הוא היה סוף המצר הצפוני. ונמצאת חצר עינן במקצוע צפונית מזרחית. ומשם והתאויתם לכם אל מצר המזרחי:
10You shall then turn yourselves toward the eastern border, from Hazar enan to Shepham.   יוְהִתְאַוִּיתֶ֥ם לָכֶ֖ם לִגְב֣וּל קֵ֑דְמָה מֵֽחֲצַ֥ר עֵינָ֖ן שְׁפָֽמָה:
You shall then turn yourselves: Heb. וְהִתְאַוִּיתֶם, a term denoting turning or veering, cognate with [the term] תְּתָאוּ.   והתאויתם: לשון הסבה ונטיה כמו תתאו:
to Shepham: on the eastern boundary, and from there to Riblah.   שפמה: במצר המזרחי ומשם הרבלה:
11The border descends from Shepham toward Riblah, to the east of Ain. Then the border descends and hits the eastern shore of Lake Kinnereth.   יאוְיָרַ֨ד הַגְּבֻ֧ל מִשְּׁפָ֛ם הָֽרִבְלָ֖ה מִקֶּ֣דֶם לָעָ֑יִן וְיָרַ֣ד הַגְּבֻ֗ל וּמָחָ֛ה עַל־כֶּ֥תֶף יָֽם־כִּנֶּ֖רֶת קֵֽדְמָה:
east of Ain: [Ain is] the name of a place, and the border passes east of it, so that Ain is situated within the border and is part of the Land of Israel.   מקדם לעין: שם מקום. והמצר הולך במזרחו נמצא העין לפנים מן המצר ומארץ ישראל הוא:
Then the border descends: As the border proceeds from north to south, it descends.   וירד הגבול: כל שהגבול הולך מצפון לדרום הוא יורד והולך:
and hits the... shore: [Heb. כֶּתֶף, lit. shoulder: i.e.,] the side.   ומחה על כתף: אל עבר:
and hits the eastern shore of Lake Kinnereth: For Lake Kinnereth was within the border to the west, and the border which is east of Lake Kinnereth, descends to the Jordan. The Jordan flows from north to south diagonally, slanting eastward, moving toward the land of Canaan opposite Lake Kinnereth, and extending along the eastern flank of the Land of Israel, opposite Lake Kinnereth, until it falls into the Sea of Salt [the Dead Sea], and from there the border ends with its ends at the Sea of Salt, from which the southeastern border begins. This is how it is encompassed from all its four sides.   ים כנרת קדמה: שיהא ים כנרת תוך לגבול במערב, והגבול במזרח ים כנרת, ומשם יורד אל הירדן והירדן מושך ובא מן הצפון לדרום באלכסון נוטה לצד מזרח ומתקרב לצד ארץ כנען כנגד ים כנרת ומושך לצד מזרחה של א"י כנגד ים כנרת עד שנופל בים המלח ומשם כלה הגבול בתוצאותיו אל ים המלח, שממנו התחלת מצר מקצוע דרומית מזרחית. הרי סובבת אותה לארבע רוחותיה:
12The border then continues down along the Jordan, and its ends is the Sea of Salt [the Dead Sea]; this shall be your Land according to its borders around.   יבוְיָרַ֤ד הַגְּבוּל֙ הַיַּרְדֵּ֔נָה וְהָי֥וּ תֽוֹצְאֹתָ֖יו יָ֣ם הַמֶּ֑לַח זֹאת֩ תִּֽהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֥ם הָאָ֛רֶץ לִגְבֻֽלֹתֶ֖יהָ סָבִֽיב:
13Moses commanded the children of Israel saying, "This is the Land which you are to apportion for inheritance through lot, that the Lord has commanded to give to the nine and a half tribes.   יגוַיְצַ֣ו משֶׁ֔ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר זֹ֣את הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּתְנַֽחֲל֤וּ אֹתָהּ֙ בְּגוֹרָ֔ל אֲשֶׁר֙ צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לָתֵ֛ת לְתִשְׁעַ֥ת הַמַּטּ֖וֹת וַֽחֲצִ֥י הַמַּטֶּֽה:
14For the tribe of Reuben's descendants according to their fathers' house, and the tribe of Gad's descendants according to their fathers' house, and half the tribe of Manasseh have already received their inheritance.   ידכִּ֣י לָֽקְח֞וּ מַטֵּ֨ה בְנֵ֤י הָרֽאוּבֵנִי֙ לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֔ם וּמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־הַגָּדִ֖י לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם וַֽחֲצִי֙ מַטֵּ֣ה מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה לָֽקְח֖וּ נַֽחֲלָתָֽם:
15The two and a half tribes have received their inheritance on this side of the Jordan, near Jericho in the east, toward the sunrise."   טושְׁנֵ֥י הַמַּטּ֖וֹת וַֽחֲצִ֣י הַמַּטֶּ֑ה לָֽקְח֣וּ נַֽחֲלָתָ֗ם מֵעֵ֛בֶר לְיַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ קֵ֥דְמָה מִזְרָֽחָה:
in the east toward the sunrise: Heb. קֵדְמָה, meaning toward the front of the world, which is in the east, for the east side is called the forefront [lit., the face] and the west is called the back. Thus, the south is to the right, and the north is to the left.   קדמה מזרחה: אל פני העולם שהם במזרח, שרוח מזרחית קרויה פנים, ומערבית קרויה אחור, לפיכך דרום לימין וצפון לשמאל:

Fourth Portion

Numbers Chapter 34

16The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   טזוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
17These are the names of the men who shall inherit the land on your behalf: Eleazar the kohen and Joshua the son of Nun.   יזאֵ֚לֶּה שְׁמ֣וֹת הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יִנְחֲל֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ אֶלְעָזָר֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֖ע֙ בִּן־נֽוּן:
who shall inherit the land of your behalf: Heb. לָכֶם, on your behalf. Each chieftain was an administrator for his tribe, to divide the tribal inheritance among families and individuals. He chose a suitable portion for each one, and whatever they did was binding, as if they had been designated as agents [by the members of the tribes]. It is not possible to render this word לָכֶם as every לָכֶם in Scripture, [meaning“to you,”] for in that case, it should have written יַנְחִילוּ לָכֶם, [in the hiph’il, the causative conjugation, they shall give it to you to inherit], but the word יִנְחֲלוּ [in the kal, simple conjugation] means that they shall inherit for you, on your behalf and in your stead, as in, “The Lord will wage war for you לָכֶם” (Exod. 14:14).   אשר ינחלו לכם: בשבילכם כל נשיא ונשיא אפוטרופוס לשבטו ומחלק נחלת השבט למשפחות ולגברים ובורר לכל אחד ואחד חלק הגון. ומה שהם עושין יהיה עשוי כאלו עשאום שלוחים. ולא יתכן לפרש לכם זה ככל לכם שבמקרא, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב ינחילו לכם. ינחלו משמע שהם נוחלים לכם בשבילכם ובמקומכם, כמו (שמות יד, יד) ה' ילחם לכם:
18You shall take one chieftain from each tribe to [help you to] acquire the land.   יחוְנָשִׂ֥יא אֶחָ֛ד נָשִׂ֥יא אֶחָ֖ד מִמַּטֶּ֑ה תִּקְח֖וּ לִנְחֹ֥ל אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
to [help you] to acquire the land: To take possession of the land and apportion it in your stead.   לנחול את הארץ: שיהא נוחל וחולק אותה במקומכם:
19These are the names of the men: for the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh.   יטוְאֵ֖לֶּה שְׁמ֣וֹת הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֑ים לְמַטֵּ֣ה יְהוּדָ֔ה כָּלֵ֖ב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּֽה:
20For the tribe of the descendants of Simeon, Samuel the son of Ammihud.   כוּלְמַטֵּה֨ בְּנֵ֣י שִׁמְע֔וֹן שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עַמִּיהֽוּד:
21For the tribe of Benjamin, Elidad the son of Chislon.   כאלְמַטֵּ֣ה בִנְיָמִ֔ן אֱלִידָ֖ד בֶּן־כִּסְלֽוֹן:
22The chieftain for the tribe of the descendants of Dan, Bukki the son of Jogli.   כבוּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵי־דָ֖ן נָשִׂ֑יא בֻּקִּ֖י בֶּן־יָגְלִֽי:
23For the descendants of Joseph; the chieftain for the tribe of the descendants of Manasseh, Hanniel the son of Ephod.   כגלִבְנֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף לְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־מְנַשֶּׁ֖ה נָשִׂ֑יא חַנִּיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־אֵפֹֽד:
24The chieftain for the tribe of the descendants of Ephraim, Kemuel the son of Shiphtan.   כדוּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־אֶפְרַ֖יִם נָשִׂ֑יא קְמוּאֵ֖ל בֶּן־שִׁפְטָֽן:
25The chieftain for the tribe of the descendants of Zebulun, Elizaphan the son of Parnach.   כהוּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־זְבוּלֻ֖ן נָשִׂ֑יא אֱלִֽיצָפָ֖ן בֶּן־פַּרְנָֽךְ:
26The chieftain for the tribe of the descendants of Issachar, Paltiel the son of Azzan.   כווּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יִשָּׂשכָ֖ר נָשִׂ֑יא פַּלְטִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עַזָּֽן:
27The chieftain for the tribe of the descendants of Asher, Ahihud the son of Shelomi.   כזוּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־אָשֵׁ֖ר נָשִׂ֑יא אֲחִיה֖וּד בֶּן־שְׁלֹמִֽי:
28The chieftain of the tribe of the descendants of Naphtali, Pedahel the son of Ammihud.   כחוּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־נַפְתָּלִ֖י נָשִׂ֑יא פְּדַהְאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עַמִּיהֽוּד:
29These are the ones whom the Lord commanded to apportion the inheritance to the children of Israel in the land of Canaan.   כטאֵ֕לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֑ה לְנַחֵ֥ל אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
to apportion the inheritance: They are the ones who shall divide the inheritance among you according to its portions.   לנחל את בני ישראל: שהם ינחילו אותה להם למחלקותיה:

Fifth Portion

Numbers Chapter 35

1The Lord spoke to Moses in the plains of Moab, by the Jordan at Jericho saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־משֶׁ֖ה בְּעַרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֑ב עַל־יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
2Command the children of Israel that they shall give to the Levites from their hereditary possession cities in which to dwell, and you shall give the Levites open spaces around the cities.   בצַו֘ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְנָֽתְנ֣וּ לַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם מִנַּֽחֲלַ֛ת אֲחֻזָּתָ֖ם עָרִ֣ים לָשָׁ֑בֶת וּמִגְרָ֗שׁ לֶֽעָרִים֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
open spaces: Empty belts of land surrounding each city, so as to beautify the city. It was forbidden to build a house, plant a vineyard or sow seed there. — [Arachin 33b]   ומגרש: ריוח מקום חלק חוץ לעיר סביב להיות לנוי לעיר, ואין רשאין לבנות שם בית ולא לנטוע כרם ולא לזרוע זריעה:
3These cities shall be theirs for dwelling, and their open spaces shall be for their cattle, their property, and for all their needs.   גוְהָי֧וּ הֶֽעָרִ֛ים לָהֶ֖ם לָשָׁ֑בֶת וּמִגְרְשֵׁיהֶ֗ם יִֽהְי֤וּ לִבְהֶמְתָּם֙ וְלִרְכֻשָׁ֔ם וּלְכֹ֖ל חַיָּתָֽם:
and for all their needs: Heb. חַיָּתָם, for their personal necessities. — [Ned. 81a]   ולכל חיתם: ולכל צרכיהם:
4The areas of open space for the cities which you shall give to the Levites shall extend from the wall of the city outward, one thousand cubits all around.   דוּמִגְרְשֵׁי֙ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַֽלְוִיִּ֑ם מִקִּ֤יר הָעִיר֙ וָח֔וּצָה אֶ֥לֶף אַמָּ֖ה סָבִֽיב:
one thousand cubits all around: Yet following this it says,“two thousand cubits”? How can this be? However, He assigned two thousand for them around the city, of which the inner thousand was for open area and the outer [thousand] for fields and vineyards. — [Sotah 27b]   אלף אמה סביב: ואחריו הוא אומר אלפים באמה, הא כיצד אלפים, הוא נותן להם סביב, ומהם אלף הפנימים למגרש והחיצונים לשדות וכרמים:
5You shall measure from outside the city, two thousand cubits on the eastern side, two thousand cubits on the southern side, two thousand cubits on the western side, and two thousand cubits on the northern side, with the city in the middle; this shall be your cities' open spaces.   הוּמַדֹּתֶ֞ם מִח֣וּץ לָעִ֗יר אֶת־פְּאַת־קֵ֣דְמָה אַלְפַּ֪יִם בָּֽאַ֠מָּ֩ה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־נֶ֩גֶב֩ אַלְפַּ֨יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֜ה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־יָ֣ם | אַלְפַּ֣יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֗ה וְאֵ֨ת פְּאַ֥ת צָפ֛וֹן אַלְפַּ֥יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֖ה וְהָעִ֣יר בַּתָּ֑וֶךְ זֶ֚ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָהֶ֔ם מִגְרְשֵׁ֖י הֶֽעָרִֽים:
6Among the cities you shall give to the Levites, shall be six cities of refuge, which you shall provide [as places] to which a murderer can flee. In addition to them, you shall provide forty two cities.   ווְאֵ֣ת הֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ לַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם אֵ֚ת שֵֽׁשׁ־עָרֵ֣י הַמִּקְלָ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתְּנ֔וּ לָנֻ֥ס שָׁ֖מָּה הָֽרֹצֵ֑חַ וַֽעֲלֵיהֶ֣ם תִּתְּנ֔וּ אַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּשְׁתַּ֖יִם עִֽיר:
7All the cities you shall give to the Levites shall number forty eight cities, them with their open spaces.   זכָּל־הֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ לַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם אַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֖ה עִ֑יר אֶתְהֶ֖ן וְאֶת־מִגְרְשֵׁיהֶֽן:
8And as for the cities that you shall give from the possession of the children of Israel, you shall take more from a larger [holding] and you shall take less from a smaller one. Each one, according to the inheritance allotted to him, shall give of his cities to the Levites.   חוְהֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ מֵֽאֲחֻזַּ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵאֵ֤ת הָרַב֙ תַּרְבּ֔וּ וּמֵאֵ֥ת הַמְעַ֖ט תַּמְעִ֑יטוּ אִ֗ישׁ כְּפִ֤י נַֽחֲלָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִנְחָ֔לוּ יִתֵּ֥ן מֵֽעָרָ֖יו לַֽלְוִיִּֽם:

Sixth Portion

Numbers Chapter 35

9The Lord spoke to Moses saying:   טוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
10Speak to the children of Israel and say to them, When you cross the Jordan to the land of Canaan,   ידַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כִּ֥י אַתֶּ֛ם עֹֽבְרִ֥ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן אַ֥רְצָה כְּנָֽעַן:
11you shall designate cities for yourselves; they shall be cities of refuge for you, and a murderer who killed a person unintentionally shall flee there.   יאוְהִקְרִיתֶ֤ם לָכֶם֙ עָרִ֔ים עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּֽהְיֶ֣ינָה לָכֶ֑ם וְנָ֥ס שָׁ֨מָּה֙ רֹצֵ֔חַ מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָֽה:
you shall designate: [The expression] הַקְרָיָה can mean only preparation, as it says,“Because the Lord, your God, prepared it (הִקְרָה) before me” (Gen. 27:20) - [Sifrei Massei 3, Targum Onkelos].   והקריתם: אין הקרייה אלא לשון הזמנה וכן הוא אומר (בראשית כז, כ) כי הקרה ה' אלהיך לפני:
12These cities shall serve you as a refuge from an avenger, so that the murderer shall not die until he stands in judgment before the congregation.   יבוְהָי֨וּ לָכֶ֧ם הֶֽעָרִ֛ים לְמִקְלָ֖ט מִגֹּאֵ֑ל וְלֹ֤א יָמוּת֙ הָֽרֹצֵ֔חַ עַד־עָמְד֛וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י הָֽעֵדָ֖ה לַמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
from an avenger: From the avenger of the blood, a kinsman of the murder victim. — [Mak. 12a]   מגאל: מפני גואל הדם שהוא קרוב לנרצח:
13The cities that you provide shall serve as six cities of refuge for you.   יגוְהֶֽעָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתֵּ֑נוּ שֵֽׁשׁ־עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּֽהְיֶ֥ינָה לָכֶֽם:
six cities of refuge: [This] informs [us] that even though Moses designated three cities across the Jordan during his lifetime, they did not provide refuge until the three provided by Joshua in the land of Canaan were designated. — [Sifrei Massei 8, Mak. 9a]   שש ערי מקלט: מגיד שאע"פ שהבדיל משה בחייו שלש ערים בעבר הירדן, לא היו קולטות עד שנבחרו שלש שנתן יהושע בארץ כנען:
14You shall provide the three cities in trans Jordan and the three cities in the land of Canaan; they shall be cities of refuge.   ידאֵ֣ת | שְׁל֣שׁ הֶֽעָרִ֗ים תִּתְּנוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר לַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וְאֵת֙ שְׁל֣שׁ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים תִּתְּנ֖וּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּֽהְיֶֽינָה:
the three cities: Although there were nine tribes in the land of Canaan, and here [across the Jordan] there were only two-and-a-half, He equalized the number of their refuge cities, because Gilead had many murderers, as it says,“Gilead, a city of workers of violence, who lurk to shed blood” (Hos. 6: 8). - [Mak. 10a, Sifrei Massei 6]   את שלש הערים וגו': אף על פי שבארץ כנען תשעה שבטים וכאן אינן אלא שנים וחצי, השוה מנין ערי מקלט שלהם משום דבגלעד נפישי רוצחים, דכתיב (הושע ו, ח) גלעד קרית פועלי און עקובה מדם:
15These six cities shall be a refuge for the children of Israel and for the proselyte and resident among them, so that anyone who unintentionally kills a person can flee there.   טולִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְלַגֵּ֤ר וְלַתּוֹשָׁב֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔ם תִּֽהְיֶ֛ינָה שֵֽׁשׁ־הֶֽעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לְמִקְלָ֑ט לָנ֣וּס שָׁ֔מָּה כָּל־מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָֽה:
16If he struck him with an iron instrument and he dies, he is a murderer, and the murderer shall be put to death.   טזוְאִם־בִּכְלִ֨י בַרְזֶ֧ל | הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַ ה֑וּא מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָֽרֹצֵֽחַ:
If he struck him with an iron instrument: This does not refer to accidental manslaughter discussed nearby, but to premeditated murder, and it teaches us that the implement of murder has to be big enough to cause death, for regarding all the [other] cases it says, אֲשֶׁר יָמוּת בָּה, “which is deadly,” and the Targum [Onkelos] renders, “of a size capable of causing death,” except in the case of iron, since it is evident and known to the Holy One, blessed is He, that a small piece of iron can kill, even a needle (Sifrei Massei 6, Sanh. 76b). That is why [in the case of iron] the Torah did not specify a size and write “which is deadly.” If you say that Scripture refers to one who murders unintentionally, [this cannot be because], below it says, “or, with any stone which is deadly, and without seeing [his victim]…” (verse 23). This shows that in the cases mentioned before it, Scripture speaks of one who murders with intent.   ואם בכלי ברזל הכהו: אין זה מדבר בהורג בשוגג הסמוך לו, אלא בהורג במזיד. ובא ללמד, שההורג בכל דבר צריך שיהא בו שיעור כדי להמית, שנאמר בכולם אשר ימות בו, דמתרגמינן דהיא כמסת דימות ביה, חוץ מן הברזל, שגלוי וידוע לפני הקב"ה שהברזל ממית בכל שהוא אפילו מחט, לפיכך לא נתנה בו תורה שיעור לכתוב בו אשר ימות בו. ואם תאמר בהורג בשוגג הכתוב מדבר, הרי הוא אומר למטה או בכל אבן אשר ימות בה בלא ראות וגו', למד על האמורים למעלה שבהורג במזיד הכתוב מדבר:
17If he struck him with a fist sized stone which is deadly, and he dies, he is a murderer, and the murderer shall be put to death.   יזוְאִ֡ם בְּאֶ֣בֶן יָד֩ אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֨וּת בָּ֥הּ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַ ה֑וּא מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָֽרֹצֵֽחַ:
with a fist-sized stone: [A stone] large enough to fill a hand. — [Onkelos]   באבן יד: שיש בה מלא יד:
which is deadly: Which is large enough to cause death, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. Since it [Scripture] says, “If one of them strikes the other with a stone” (Exod. 21:18), but it does not specify a size, I might think any size? Therefore it says, “which is deadly” - [Sifrei Massei 10]   אשר ימות בה: שיש בה שיעור להמית, כתרגומו. לפי שנאמר (שמות כא, יח) והכה איש את רעהו באבן, ולא נתן בה שיעור, יכול כל שהוא, לכך נאמר אשר ימות בה:
18Or with a fist sized wooden instrument which is deadly,and he dies, he is a murderer, and the murderer shall be put to death.   יחא֡וֹ בִּכְלִ֣י עֵץ־יָד֩ אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֨וּת בּ֥וֹ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַ ה֑וּא מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָֽרֹצֵֽחַ:
or with a fist-sized wooden instrument: Since it says, “If a man strikes his manservant or his maidservant with a rod” (Exod. 21:20), I might think any size? That is why with regard to wood it says,“which is deadly”-it must be a size capable of causing death. — [Sifrei Massei 11]   או בכלי עץ יד: לפי שנאמר (שמות כא, כ) וכי יכה איש את עבדו או את אמתו בשבט, יכול כל שהוא, לכך נאמר בעץ אשר ימות בו, שיהא בו כדי להמית:
19The blood avenger shall kill the murderer; he may kill him when he meets him.   יטגֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם ה֥וּא יָמִ֖ית אֶת־הָֽרֹצֵ֑חַ בְּפִגְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ ה֥וּא יְמִתֶֽנּוּ:
when he meets him: Even in the cities of refuge.   בפגעו בו: אפילו בתוך ערי מקלט:
20If, out of hatred, he pushed him, or threw something at him with premeditation, and he died,   כוְאִם־בְּשִׂנְאָ֖ה יֶהְדֳּפֶ֑נּוּ אֽוֹ־הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ עָלָ֛יו בִּצְדִיָּ֖ה וַיָּמֹֽת:
with premeditation: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders, בְּכַמְנָא, with ambush.   בצדיה: כתרגומו בכמנא במארב:
21or if he maliciously struck him with his hand and he died, the assailant shall be put to death; he is a murderer; the blood avenger may kill the murderer when he meets him.   כאא֣וֹ בְאֵיבָ֞ה הִכָּ֤הוּ בְיָדוֹ֙ וַיָּמֹ֔ת מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥ת הַמַּכֶּ֖ה רֹצֵ֣חַ ה֑וּא גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֗ם יָמִ֛ית אֶת־הָֽרֹצֵ֖חַ בְּפִגְעוֹ־בֽוֹ:
22But if he pushed him accidentally, without malice, or threw an object at him without premeditation,   כבוְאִם־בְּפֶ֥תַע בְּלֹֽא־אֵיבָ֖ה הֲדָפ֑וֹ אֽוֹ־הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ עָלָ֛יו כָּל־כְּלִ֖י בְּלֹ֥א צְדִיָּֽה:
accidentally: Heb. בְּפֶתַע, by accident, but the Targum renders בִּתְכֵף, “suddenly,” [meaning] that he was next to him and he had no time to take precautions against [killing] him.   בפתע: באונס. ותרגומו בתכיף שהיה סמוך לו, ולא היה לו שהות להזהר עליו:
23or, with any stone which is deadly, and without seeing [his victim] he threw it down at him and it killed him, but he was not his enemy and bore him no malice   כגא֣וֹ בְכָל־אֶ֜בֶן אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֥וּת בָּהּ֙ בְּלֹ֣א רְא֔וֹת וַיַּפֵּ֥ל עָלָ֖יו וַיָּמֹ֑ת וְהוּא֙ לֹֽא־אוֹיֵ֣ב ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ רָֽעָתֽוֹ:
or, with any stone which is deadly: he struck him.   או בכל אבן אשר ימות בה: הכהו:
without seeing: He did not see him [while striking him].   בלא ראות: שלא ראהו:
he threw it down at him: From here they said that the one who kills by way of a falling action is exiled, but if [he kills] by means of an upward action is not exiled. — [Mak. 7b]   ויפל עליו: מכאן אמרו ההורג דרך ירידה גולה, דרך עלייה אינו גולה:
24Then the congregation shall judge between the assailant and the blood avenger, on the basis of these judgments.   כדוְשָֽׁפְטוּ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה בֵּ֚ין הַמַּכֶּ֔ה וּבֵ֖ין גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֑ם עַ֥ל הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
25The congregation shall protect the murderer from the hand of the blood avenger, and the congregation shall return him to the city of refuge to which he had fled, and he shall remain there until the Kohen Gadol, who anointed him with the sacred oil, dies.   כהוְהִצִּ֨ילוּ הָֽעֵדָ֜ה אֶת־הָֽרֹצֵ֗חַ מִיַּד֘ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּם֒ וְהֵשִׁ֤יבוּ אֹתוֹ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה אֶל־עִ֥יר מִקְלָט֖וֹ אֲשֶׁר־נָ֣ס שָׁ֑מָּה וְיָ֣שַׁב בָּ֗הּ עַד־מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־מָשַׁ֥ח אֹת֖וֹ בְּשֶׁ֥מֶן הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
until the kohen gadol… dies: For he causes the Divine Presence to rest upon Israel and thus prolong their lives, whereas the murderer causes the Divine Presence to withdraw from Israel and thus shorten their lives. He is not worthy of standing before the Kohen Gadol [Sifrei Massei 20]. Another interpretation: Because the Kohen Gadol should have prayed that such a misfortune should not befall Israel during his lifetime [Mak. 11a].   עד מות הכהן הגדול: שהוא בא להשרות שכינה בישראל ולהאריך ימיהם, והרוצח בא לסלק את השכינה מישראל ומקצר את ימי החיים. אינו כדאי שיהא לפני כהן גדול. דבר אחר לפי שהיה לו לכהן גדול להתפלל שלא תארע תקלה זו לישראל בחייו:
who anointed him with the sacred oil: According to the literal meaning, this is one of the elliptical verses [in Scripture], as it does not reveal who anointed him; thus, it is like saying, “who was anointed by the one who anointed him with the sacred oil.” Our Rabbis expounded it in Tractate Makkoth (11b) as a verification of the law, to teach that if before sentence was passed, the Kohen Gadol died and they appointed another one in his stead, and afterwards sentence was passed, he [the murderer] can return home only after the second one has died, as it says, “who anointed him.” Did he anoint the kohen, or did the kohen anoint him? However, this includes the [case of a high kohen who was] anointed in his days [and thus, it is as if he had anointed the Kohen Gadol, so to speak], that he frees him through his death.   אשר משח אותו בשמן הקדש: לפי פשוטו מן המקראות הקצרים הוא, שלא פירש מי משחו, אלא כמו אשר משחו המושח אותו בשמן הקדש. ורבותינו דרשוהו במסכת מכות (יא ב) לראיית דבר, ללמד שאם עד שלא נגמר דינו מת כהן גדול ומנו אחר תחתיו ולאחר מכאן נגמר דינו, חוזר במיתתו של שני, שנאמר אשר משח אותו, וכי הוא משחו לכהן או הכהן משח אותו, אלא להביא את הנמשח בימיו שמחזירו במיתתו:
26But if the murderer goes beyond the border of the city of refuge to which he had fled,   כווְאִם־יָצֹ֥א יֵצֵ֖א הָֽרֹצֵ֑חַ אֶת־גְּבוּל֙ עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנ֖וּס שָֽׁמָּה:
27and the blood avenger finds him outside the limits of his city of refuge, and the blood avenger slays the murderer, he has no blood.   כזוּמָצָ֤א אֹתוֹ֙ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם מִח֕וּץ לִגְב֖וּל עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֑וֹ וְרָצַ֞ח גֹּאֵ֤ל הַדָּם֙ אֶת־הָ֣רֹצֵ֔חַ אֵ֥ין ל֖וֹ דָּֽם:
he has no blood: He is like one who kills a dead person, who has no blood.   אין לו דם: הרי הוא כהורג את המת שאין לו דם:
28For he shall remain in his city of refuge until the Kohen Gadol dies, and only after the Kohen Gadol has died, may the murderer return to the land which is his possession.   כחכִּ֣י בְעִ֤יר מִקְלָטוֹ֙ יֵשֵׁ֔ב עַד־מ֖וֹת הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֑ל וְאַֽחֲרֵי־מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֔ל יָשׁוּב֙ הָֽרֹצֵ֔חַ אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
29These shall be for you a statute of justice for all your generations, in all your dwelling places.   כטוְהָי֨וּ אֵ֧לֶּה לָכֶ֛ם לְחֻקַּ֥ת מִשְׁפָּ֖ט לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
in all your dwelling places: This teaches that the minor Sanhedrin functions outside the Land as long as there is one functioning in the Land of Israel [namely, while the Temple stood]. — [Mak. 7a, Sifrei Massei 25]   בכל מושבתיכם: למד שתהא סנהדרין קטנה נוהגת בחוצה לארץ כל זמן שנוהגת בארץ ישראל:
30Whoever [namely the blood avenger] kills a person, based on the testimony of witnesses, he shall slay the murderer. A single witness may not testify against a person so that he should die.   לכָּל־מַ֨כֵּה־נֶ֔פֶשׁ לְפִ֣י עֵדִ֔ים יִרְצַ֖ח אֶת־הָֽרֹצֵ֑חַ וְעֵ֣ד אֶחָ֔ד לֹא־יַֽעֲנֶ֥ה בְנֶ֖פֶשׁ לָמֽוּת:
Whoever kills a person…: The one who comes to kill him because he murdered someone.   כל מכה נפש וגו': הבא להרגו על שהכה את הנפש:
based on the testimony of witnesses: who testify that he murdered him intentionally, after he had been forewarned. [I.e., the blood avenger may not slay the murderer unless there are witnesses that he committed the murder.]- [Sifrei Massei 26]   לפי עדים ירצח: שיעידו שבמזיד ובהתראה הרגו:
31You shall not accept ransom for the life of a murderer, who is guilty of death, for he shall be put to death.   לאוְלֹֽא־תִקְח֥וּ כֹ֨פֶר֙ לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ רֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא רָשָׁ֖ע לָמ֑וּת כִּי־מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת:
You shall not accept ransom: He cannot be acquitted in exchange for payment. — [Keth. 37b]   ולא תקחו כפר: לא יפטר בממון:
32You shall not accept ransom for one who has fled to his city of refuge, to allow him to return to live in the Land, before the kohen has died.   לבוְלֹֽא־תִקְח֣וּ כֹ֔פֶר לָנ֖וּס אֶל־עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֑וֹ לָשׁוּב֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בָּאָ֔רֶץ עַד־מ֖וֹת הַכֹּהֵֽן:
You shall not accept ransom for the one who has fled to his city of refuge: One who has fled to a city of refuge after he killed someone unintentionally cannot absolve himself from exile through payment by giving a ransom so that he can return to dwell in the Land before the kohen dies. — [Keth. 37b]   ולא תקחו כפר לנוס אל עיר מקלטו: למי שנס אל עיר מקלטו שהרג בשוגג אינו נפטר מגלות בממון ליתן כופר לשוב לשבת בארץ בטרם ימות הכהן:
has fled: Heb. לָנוּס, is equivalent to לְנָס, “for the one who has fled.” Similarly,“those who returned (שׁוּבֵי) from the war” (Mich. 2:8). Similarly,“Those who are removed (נוּגֵי) from the appointed season” (Zeph. 3:18);“for [all the people…] were circumcised (מֻלִים)” (Josh. 5:5). Just as you say שׁוּב in reference to one who has already returned, and מוּל regarding one who is already circumcised, so will you say לָנוּס for one who has already fled. He is called נוּס, that is to say, ‘an escapee.’ If you say that לָנוּס means ‘to flee,’ and explain it thus: You shall not accept ransom for who must flee, in order to absolve him from exile, then I do not know how it can say,“to return to live in the Land” for if he has not yet fled, from where should he return?   לנוס: כמו לנס, כמו (מיכה ב, ח) שובי מלחמה, ששבו מן המלחמה, וכן (צפניה ג, יח) נוגי ממועד, וכן (יהושע ה, ה) כי מולים היו, כאשר תאמר שוב על מי ששב כבר, ומול על מי שמל כבר, כן תאמר לנוס על מי שנס כבר, וקורהו נוס כלומר מוברח. ואם תאמר לנוס לברוח, ותפרשהו לא תקחו כופר למי שיש לו לברוח לפטרו מן הגלות, לא ידעתי היאך יאמר לשוב לשבת בארץ, הרי עדיין לא נס ומהיכן ישוב:
33And you shall not corrupt the land in which you live, for the blood corrupts the land, and the blood which is shed in the land cannot be atoned for except through the blood of the one who shed it.   לגוְלֹא־תַֽחֲנִ֣יפוּ אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתֶּם֙ בָּ֔הּ כִּ֣י הַדָּ֔ם ה֥וּא יַֽחֲנִ֖יף אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְלָאָ֣רֶץ לֹֽא־יְכֻפַּ֗ר לַדָּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּ֔הּ כִּי־אִ֖ם בְּדַ֥ם שֹֽׁפְכֽוֹ:
And you shall not corrupt: Heb. ולֹא-תַחֲנִיפוּ, you shall not cause it to be wicked, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders, לֹא תְחַיְבוּן, you shall not make sinful."   ולא תחניפו: ולא תרשיעו, כתרגומו ולא תחייבון:
34And you shall not defile the land where you reside, in which I dwell, for I am the Lord Who dwells among the children of Israel.   לדוְלֹ֧א תְטַמֵּ֣א אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתֶּם֙ יֽשְׁבִ֣ים בָּ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י שֹׁכֵ֣ן בְּתוֹכָ֑הּ כִּ֚י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה שֹׁכֵ֕ן בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
in which I dwell: You should not cause me to dwell amidst its uncleanness.   אשר אני שכן בתוכה: שלא תשכינו אותי בטומאתה:
for I am the Lord who dwells among the children of Israel: Even when they are unclean, the Divine Presence resides with them. — [Sifrei Massei 32]   כי אני ה' שוכן בתוך בני ישראל: אף בזמן שהם טמאים שכינה ביניהם:

Seventh Portion

Numbers Chapter 36

1The paternal heads of the family of the sons of Gilead the son of Machir the son of Manasseh of the families of the sons of Joseph approached and spoke before Moses and before the chieftains, the paternal heads of the children of Israel.   אוַיִּקְרְב֞וּ רָאשֵׁ֣י הָֽאָב֗וֹת לְמִשְׁפַּ֤חַת בְּנֵֽי־גִלְעָד֙ בֶּן־מָכִ֣יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה מִמִּשְׁפְּחֹ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיְדַבְּר֞וּ לִפְנֵ֤י משֶׁה֙ וְלִפְנֵ֣י הַנְּשִׂאִ֔ים רָאשֵׁ֥י אָב֖וֹת לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
2They said, "The Lord commanded my master to give the Land as an inheritance through lot to the children of Israel, and our master was commanded by the Lord to give the inheritance of Zelophehad our brother to his daughters.   בוַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ אֶת־אֲדֹנִי֙ צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לָתֵ֨ת אֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ בְּנַֽחֲלָ֛ה בְּגוֹרָ֖ל לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַֽאדֹנִי֙ צֻוָּ֣ה בַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לָתֵ֗ת אֶת־נַֽחֲלַ֛ת צְלָפְחָ֥ד אָחִ֖ינוּ לִבְנֹתָֽיו:
3Now, if they marry a member of another tribe of the children of Israel, their inheritance will be diminished from the inheritance of our father, and it will be added to the inheritance of the tribe into which they marry, and thus, it will be diminished from the lot of our inheritance.   גוְהָי֠וּ לְאֶחָ֞ד מִבְּנֵ֨י שִׁבְטֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לְנָשִׁים֒ וְנִגְרְעָ֤ה נַֽחֲלָתָן֙ מִנַּֽחֲלַ֣ת אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ וְנוֹסַ֕ף עַ֚ל נַֽחֲלַ֣ת הַמַּטֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּֽהְיֶ֖ינָה לָהֶ֑ם וּמִגֹּרַ֥ל נַֽחֲלָתֵ֖נוּ יִגָּרֵֽעַ:
and it will be added to the inheritance of the tribe: For her son inherits her, and the son’s pedigree follows his father’s tribe.   ונוסף על נחלת המטה: שהרי בנה יורשה והבן מתיחס על שבט אביו:
4Even if the children of Israel will have a Jubilee, their inheritance will be added to the inheritance of the tribe into which they marry, and their inheritance will be diminished from the inheritance of our father's tribe."   דוְאִם־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה הַיֹּבֵל֘ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְנֽוֹסְפָה֙ נַֽחֲלָתָ֔ן עַ֚ל נַֽחֲלַ֣ת הַמַּטֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּֽהְיֶ֖ינָה לָהֶ֑ם וּמִנַּֽחֲלַת֙ מַטֵּ֣ה אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ יִגָּרַ֖ע נַֽחֲלָתָֽן:
Even if the children of Israel will have a Jubilee: From here R. Judah said: The Jubilee is destined to cease. — [Torath Kohanim 13:1]   ואם יהיה היובל: מכאן היה רבי יהודה אומר עתיד היובל שיפסוק:
will have a Jubilee: That is to say, this is not a form of sale, which returns [to the original owner] in the Jubilee [year], for inheritance does not return at the Jubilee. Even if the Jubilee occurs, the inheritance will not return to its tribe; hence, it is “added to the inheritance of the tribe into which they marry.”   ואם יהיה היובל: כלומר אין זו מכירה שחוזרת ביובל, שהירושה אינה חוזרת, ואפילו אם יהיה היובל לא תחזור הנחלה לשבטו, ונמצא שנוספה על נחלת המטה אשר תהיינה להם:
5Moses commanded the children of Israel according to the word of the Lord, saying, "The tribe of Joseph's descendants speak justly.   הוַיְצַ֤ו משֶׁה֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַל־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר כֵּ֛ן מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יוֹסֵ֖ף דֹּֽבְרִֽים:
6This is the word that the Lord has commanded regarding Zelophehad's daughters. Let them marry whomever they please, but they shall marry only to the family of their father's tribe.   וזֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה לִבְנ֤וֹת צְלָפְחָד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵֽינֵיהֶ֖ם תִּֽהְיֶ֣ינָה לְנָשִׁ֑ים אַ֗ךְ לְמִשְׁפַּ֛חַת מַטֵּ֥ה אֲבִיהֶ֖ם תִּֽהְיֶ֥ינָה לְנָשִֽׁים:
7Thus, the inheritance of the children of Israel will not be transferred from tribe to tribe, for each person from the children of Israel will remain attached to the inheritance of his father's tribe.   זוְלֹֽא־תִסֹּ֤ב נַֽחֲלָה֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִמַּטֶּ֖ה אֶל־מַטֶּ֑ה כִּ֣י אִ֗ישׁ בְּנַֽחֲלַת֙ מַטֵּ֣ה אֲבֹתָ֔יו יִדְבְּק֖וּ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
8Every daughter from the tribes of the children of Israel who inherits property, shall marry a member of her father's tribe, so each one of the children of Israel shall inherit the property of his forefathers.   חוְכָל־בַּ֞ת יֹרֶ֣שֶׁת נַֽחֲלָ֗ה מִמַּטּוֹת֘ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ לְאֶחָ֗ד מִמִּשְׁפַּ֛חַת מַטֵּ֥ה אָבִ֖יהָ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֑ה לְמַ֗עַן יִֽירְשׁוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אִ֖ישׁ נַֽחֲלַ֥ת אֲבֹתָֽיו:
Every daughter…who inherits property: Because her father had no son.   וכל בת ירשת נחלה: שלא היה בן לאביה:
9And no inheritance will be transferred from one tribe to another tribe, for each person of the tribes of the children of Israel shall remain attached to his own inheritance."   טוְלֹֽא־תִסֹּ֧ב נַֽחֲלָ֛ה מִמַּטֶּ֖ה לְמַטֵּ֣ה אַחֵ֑ר כִּי־אִישׁ֙ בְּנַ֣חֲלָת֔וֹ יִדְבְּק֕וּ מַטּ֖וֹת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
10As the Lord had commanded Moses, so did Zelophehad's daughters do.   יכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶׁ֑ה כֵּ֥ן עָשׂ֖וּ בְּנ֥וֹת צְלָפְחָֽד:
11Mahlah, Tirzah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Noah married their cousins.   יאוַתִּֽהְיֶ֜ינָה מַחְלָ֣ה תִרְצָ֗ה וְחָגְלָ֧ה וּמִלְכָּ֛ה וְנֹעָ֖ה בְּנ֣וֹת צְלָפְחָ֑ד לִבְנֵ֥י דֹֽדֵיהֶ֖ן לְנָשִֽׁים:
Mahlah, Tirzah…: Here it enumerates them according to seniority over each other in age, and they were married in the order they were born. But throughout Scripture (26:33, 17:1, Josh. 17:3), it lists them in order of their intelligence and informs us that they were all equal. — [B.B. 120a]   מחלה תרצה וגו': כאן מנאן לפי גדולתן זו מזו בשנים ונשאו כסדר תולדותן, ובכל המקרא מנאן לפי חכמתן ומגיד ששקולות זו כזו:
12They married into the families of the sons of Manasseh the son of Joseph, and their inheritance remained with the tribe of their father's family.   יבמִמִּשְׁפְּחֹ֛ת בְּנֵֽי־מְנַשֶּׁ֥ה בֶן־יוֹסֵ֖ף הָי֣וּ לְנָשִׁ֑ים וַתְּהִי֙ נַֽחֲלָתָ֔ן עַל־מַטֵּ֖ה מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת אֲבִיהֶֽן:
13These are the commandments and the ordinances that the Lord commanded the children of Israel through Moses in the plains of Moab, by the Jordan at Jericho.   יגאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֞ת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּיַד־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּעַרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב עַ֖ל יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵחֽוֹ:

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 36

11Mahlah, Tirzah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Noah married their cousins.   יאוַתִּֽהְיֶ֜ינָה מַחְלָ֣ה תִרְצָ֗ה וְחָגְלָ֧ה וּמִלְכָּ֛ה וְנֹעָ֖ה בְּנ֣וֹת צְלָפְחָ֑ד לִבְנֵ֥י דֹֽדֵיהֶ֖ן לְנָשִֽׁים:
Mahlah, Tirzah…: Here it enumerates them according to seniority over each other in age, and they were married in the order they were born. But throughout Scripture (26:33, 17:1, Josh. 17:3), it lists them in order of their intelligence and informs us that they were all equal. — [B.B. 120a]   מחלה תרצה וגו': כאן מנאן לפי גדולתן זו מזו בשנים ונשאו כסדר תולדותן, ובכל המקרא מנאן לפי חכמתן ומגיד ששקולות זו כזו:
12They married into the families of the sons of Manasseh the son of Joseph, and their inheritance remained with the tribe of their father's family.   יבמִמִּשְׁפְּחֹ֛ת בְּנֵֽי־מְנַשֶּׁ֥ה בֶן־יוֹסֵ֖ף הָי֣וּ לְנָשִׁ֑ים וַתְּהִי֙ נַֽחֲלָתָ֔ן עַל־מַטֵּ֖ה מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת אֲבִיהֶֽן:
13These are the commandments and the ordinances that the Lord commanded the children of Israel through Moses in the plains of Moab, by the Jordan at Jericho.   יגאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֞ת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּיַד־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּעַרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב עַ֖ל יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵחֽוֹ:

Haftarah

Jeremiah Chapter 2

4Hearken to the word of the Lord, O house of Jacob, and all the families of the house of Israel.   דשִׁמְע֥וּ דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה בֵּ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְכָֽל־מִשְׁפְּח֖וֹת בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
5So says the Lord: What wrong did your forefathers find in Me, that they distanced themselves from Me, and they went after futility and themselves became futile?   הכֹּ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה מַה־מָּֽצְא֨וּ אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֥ם בִּי֙ עָ֔וֶל כִּ֥י רָֽחֲק֖וּ מֵֽעָלָ֑י וַיֵּֽלְכ֛וּ אַֽחֲרֵ֥י הַהֶ֖בֶל וַיֶּהְבָּֽלוּ:
6And they did not say, "Where is the Lord, Who brought us up from the land of Egypt, Who led us in the desert, in a land of plains and pits, in a land of waste and darkness, in a land where no man had passed and where no man had dwelt.   ווְלֹ֣א אָֽמְר֔וּ אַיֵּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה הַמַּֽעֲלֶ֥ה אֹתָ֖נוּ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם הַמּוֹלִ֨יךְ אֹתָ֜נוּ בַּמִּדְבָּ֗ר בְּאֶ֨רֶץ עֲרָבָ֚ה וְשׁוּחָה֙ בְּאֶ֙רֶץ֙ צִיָּ֣ה וְצַלְמָ֔וֶת בְּאֶ֗רֶץ לֹֽא־עָ֚בַר בָּהּ֙ אִ֔ישׁ וְלֹֽא־יָשַׁ֥ב אָדָ֖ם שָֽׁם:
And they did not say, Where is the Lord: that we should follow other gods?  
plains: Heb. ערבה (planure in O.F.), related to pianoro in Old Italian, meaning ‘a plateau.’  
and pits: Heb. ושוחה (enfosses in O.F.), pitted.  
waste: Heb. ציה (degat in French).  
and darkness: Heb. וצלמות. An expression of darkness.  
7And I brought you to a forest land to eat of its produce and its goodness, and you came and contaminated My land, and made My heritage an abomination.   זוָֽאָבִ֚יא אֶתְכֶם֙ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ הַכַּרְמֶ֔ל לֶאֱכֹ֥ל פִּרְיָ֖הּ וְטוּבָ֑הּ וַתָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ וַתְּטַמְּא֣וּ אֶת־אַרְצִ֔י וְנַֽחֲלָתִ֥י שַׂמְתֶּ֖ם לְתֽוֹעֵבָֽה:
to a forest land: To the land of Israel which is planted like כרמל, meaning: planted like a forest.  
8The priests did not say, "Where is the Lord?" And those who hold onto the Torah did not know Me and the rulers rebelled against Me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal and followed what does not avail.   חהַכֹּֽהֲנִ֗ים לֹ֚א אָֽמְרוּ֙ אַיֵּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה וְתֹֽפְשֵׂ֚י הַתּוֹרָה֙ לֹ֣א יְדָע֔וּנִי וְהָֽרֹעִ֖ים פָּ֣שְׁעוּ בִ֑י וְהַנְּבִאִים֙ נִבְּא֣וּ בַבַּ֔עַל וְאַֽחֲרֵ֥י לֹֽא־יוֹעִ֖לוּ הָלָֽכוּ:
and those who hold onto the Torah: The Sanhedrin.  
and the rulers: the kings.  
prophesied by Baal: In the name of Baal.  
9Therefore, I will still contend with you, says the Lord, and with your children's children will I contend.   טלָכֵ֗ן עֹ֛ד אָרִ֥יב אִתְּכֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י בְנֵיכֶ֖ם אָרִֽיב:
Therefore, I will still contend: Before I bring misfortune upon you, I will still contend with you through My prophets, although I have already contended with you many days.  
10For pass over [to] the isles of the Kittites and see, and send to Kedar and consider diligently, and see whether there was any such thing,   יכִּ֣י עִבְר֞וּ אִיֵּ֚י כִתִּיִּים֙ וּרְא֔וּ וְקֵדָ֛ר שִׁלְח֥וּ וְהִֽתְבּֽוֹנְנ֖וּ מְאֹ֑ד וּרְא֕וּ הֵ֥ן הָֽיְתָ֖ה כָּזֹֽאת:
the isles of the Kittites: To the isles of the Kittites. איי is (isles in French).  
and send to Kedar: And send to Kedar to see their custom.  
and consider diligently: And put your heart to it to consider the matter diligently.  
whether: Heb. הן, like אם, if. Whether either of those nations exchanged its god although they are no gods, yet My nation exchanged their glory, with which they were honored. The Kittites and the Kedarites were tent dwellers and cattle herders, who would travel, go, and wander from pasture to pasture and from desert to desert, and they carry their gods with them to the place where they encamp. But I carried you until I established you, yet you forsook Me. This is how Jonathan paraphrased it. Our Sages said however: The Kittites worshipped water and the Kedarites worshipped fire. And although they know that water quenches fire, they did not forsake their god.  
11Whether a nation exchanged a god although they are not gods. Yet My nation exchanged their glory for what does not avail.   יאהַֽהֵימִ֥יר גּוֹי֙ אֱלֹהִ֔ים וְהֵ֖מָּה לֹ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים וְעַמִּ֛י הֵמִ֥יר כְּבוֹד֖וֹ בְּל֥וֹא יוֹעִֽיל:
for what does not avail: For an idol that does not avail.  
12Oh heavens, be astonished about this, and storm, become very desolate, says the Lord.   יבשֹׁ֥מּוּ שָׁמַ֖יִם עַל־זֹ֑את וְשַֽׂעֲר֛וּ חֳרְב֥וּ מְאֹ֖ד נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
O heavens, be astonished: Heb. שמו, an expression of astonishment, like השתוממוּ. It is the imperative form, with the same vowel points as (I Sam. 14:9): “If they say thus to us,” Wait (דּמּוּ)."  
and storm: Heb. ושערו, an expression of סער, a storm.  
become very desolate: As though you are becoming desolate because of the Temple that is destined to be destroyed.  
13For My people have committed two evils; they have forsaken Me, the spring of living waters, to dig for themselves cisterns, broken cisterns that do not hold water.   יגכִּֽי־שְׁתַּ֥יִם רָע֖וֹת עָשָׂ֣ה עַמִּ֑י אֹתִ֨י עָזְב֜וּ מְק֣וֹר | מַ֣יִם חַיִּ֗ים לַחְצֹ֚ב לָהֶם֙ בֹּאר֔וֹת בֹּארֹת֙ נִשְׁבָּרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יָכִ֖לוּ הַמָּֽיִם:
two evils: Had they exchanged their Deity [lit. their fear] for one His equal, it would be one evil, and now that they have forsaken Me, that I am a spring of living waters, to follow idols, which are like cisterns of stored up water, and they are broken and cracked, and their water is absorbed in their cracks, these are two evils.  
to dig: Heb. לחצב, lit. to hew.  
that do not hold: (Tendront in O.F.) their water, for the water will make their edge and their walls muddy, and they cave in.  
14Is Israel a slave? Is he a home-born slave? Why has he become a prey?   ידהַעֶ֙בֶד֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אִם־יְלִ֥יד בַּ֖יִת ה֑וּא מַדּ֖וּעַ הָיָ֥ה לָבַֽז:
Is he a home born slave?: The son of a maidservant.  
15Young lions roar over him: they have raised their voice, and they have made his land a desolation; his cities were burnt without an inhabitant.   טועָלָיו֙ יִשְׁאֲג֣וּ כְפִרִ֔ים נָֽתְנ֖וּ קוֹלָ֑ם וַיָּשִׁ֚יתוּ אַרְצוֹ֙ לְשַׁמָּ֔ה עָרָ֥יו נִצְּת֖וּ (כתיב נִצְּתֻ֖ה) מִבְּלִ֥י ישֵֽׁב:
roar: roar, a present tense.  
young lions: Symbolic of kings.  
were burnt: were burnt with fire.  
16Also the children of Noph and Tahpanhes will break your crown.   טזגַּם־בְּנֵי־נֹ֖ף וְתַחְפַּנְחֵ֑ס (כתיב וְתַחְפַּנְֵס֑) יִרְע֖וּךְ קָדְקֹֽד:
Also the children of Noph and Tahpanhes: They are the Egyptians upon whom you trust for aid.  
will break your crown: They will break your skull. ירעוּך is an expression of breaking (רציצה), as we translate ורצוץ, “and crushed” (Deut. 28:33), וּרעיע.  
17Is not this caused to you by your forsaking the Lord your God at the time He leads you by the way?   יזהֲלוֹא־זֹ֖את תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֑ךְ עָזְבֵךְ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהַ֔יִךְ בְּעֵ֖ת מוֹלִכֵ֥ךְ בַּדָּֽרֶךְ:
Is not this caused to you: Is not this misfortune and this retribution caused to you by the guilt and the iniquity that you have forsaken the Lord your God?  
at the time He leads you by the way: For He would teach you the good and the straight way.  
18And now, what have you to do in the way of Egypt to drink the water of the Shihor and what have you to do in the way of Assyria to drink the water of the river?   יחוְעַתָּ֗ה מַה־לָּךְ֙ לְדֶ֣רֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִשְׁתּ֖וֹת מֵ֣י שִׁח֑וֹר וּמַה־לָּךְ֙ לְדֶ֣רֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר לִשְׁתּ֖וֹת מֵ֥י נָהָֽר:
what have you to do in the way of Egypt: Why do you leave Me and trust in Egypt?  
to drink the water of the Shihor: For they drowned your male children in the Nile. Shihor is the Nile, as it is said: “From the Shihor which is before Egypt,” in the Book of Joshua (13:3).  
and what have you to do: to rebel against Me so that you should be exiled to the way of Assyria, to the other side of the Euphrates River?  
19Your evil will chastise you, and your backslidings will reprove you, and you shall know and see that your forsaking the Lord your God is evil and bitter, and fear of Me was not upon you, says the Lord God of Hosts.   יטתְּיַסְּרֵ֣ךְ רָֽעָתֵ֗ךְ וּמְשֻֽׁבוֹתַ֙יִךְ֙ תּֽוֹכִחֻ֔ךְ וּדְעִ֚י וּרְאִי֙ כִּי־רַ֣ע וָמָ֔ר עָזְבֵ֖ךְ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יִךְ וְלֹ֚א פַחְדָּתִי֙ אֵלַ֔יִךְ נְאֻם־אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִ֖ה צְבָאֽוֹת:
Your evil will chastise you: Eventually, your evil will bring suffering upon you.  
and your backslidings: , Heb. ומשבותיך, an expression related to “backsliding children (שובבים)” (infra 3:22).  
will reprove you: Heb. תוכחך, an expression of reproof.  
and the fear of Me was not: My fear was not in your heart that you should fear Me.  
20For of old I broke your yoke, I tore open your yoke-bands, and you said, "I will not transgress," but on every lofty hill and under every leafy tree, you recline as a harlot.   ככִּ֣י מֵֽעוֹלָ֞ם שָׁבַ֣רְתִּי עֻלֵּ֗ךְ נִתַּ֙קְתִּי֙ מֽוֹסְרוֹתַ֔יִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִ֖י לֹ֣א אֶעֱב֑וֹר (כתיב אֶעֱב֑וֹד) כִּ֣י עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָ֞ה גְּבֹהָ֗ה וְתַ֙חַת֙ כָּל־עֵ֣ץ רַֽעֲנָ֔ן אַ֖תְּ צֹעָ֥ה זֹנָֽה:
I broke your yoke: To the wooden yoke an expression of breaking applies, and to the yoke-bands which are of leather an expression of tearing open applies.  
yoke-bands: [מוסרותיך are the] ropes used to shackle the yoke [to the animal].  
and you said, “I will not transgress.”: your words.  
but on every lofty hill: Put you did not keep your promise, for on every lofty hill you recline (צעה). This is an expression of a bed and a sheet (מצע). [The word] כי serves as an expression of ‘but.’  
21Yet I planted you a noble vine stock, throughout of right seed; now how have you turned yourself into a degenerate wild vine to Me?   כאוְאָֽנֹכִי֙ נְטַעְתִּ֣יךְ שׂוֹרֵ֔ק כֻּלֹּ֖ה זֶ֣רַע אֱמֶ֑ת וְאֵיךְ֙ נֶהְפַּ֣כְתְּ לִ֔י סוּרֵ֖י הַגֶּ֥פֶן נָכְרִיָּֽה:
I planted you a noble vine stock: Heb. שורק is the branches of a good vine, that is to say the children of pious and righteous fathers. Its midrashic interpretation is: I planted you שורק. I added for you to the seven commandments of the children of Noah, six hundred and six, as is the numerical value of שורק.  
degenerate: Heb. סוּרי (Destoultours in O.F).  
wild vine: that grows in the forests.  
22For if you wash with natron and use much soap, your iniquity is stained before Me, says the Lord God.   כבכִּ֚י אִם־תְּכַבְּסִי֙ בַּנֶּ֔תֶר וְתַרְבִּי־לָ֖ךְ בֹּרִ֑ית נִכְתָּ֚ם עֲו‍ֹנֵךְ֙ לְפָנַ֔י נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
with natron: A type of earth with which garments are cleansed and rubbed.  
soap: Heb. בֹּרִית, cleanliness. Comp.“And pure (וּבַר) of heart” (Ps. 24:4). Some explain בֹּרִית as savon in French, soap.  
your iniquity is stained: Jon. renders: Like the mark of a stain that is unclean, so have your sins increased before Me. כתם is tka in O.F.  
your iniquity: This is said concerning the iniquity of the ‘Golden Calf,’ which remains in existence forever, as it is stated: “And on the day of My visitation, I will visit upon them their sin” (Exodus 32:34). All visitations that come upon Israel have part of the iniquity of the Golden Calf in them.  
23How do you say, "I have not been defiled; I have not gone after the Baalim"? See your way in the valley, know what you have done, [like] a swift young she-camel, clinging to her ways.   כגאֵ֣יךְ תֹּֽאמְרִ֞י לֹ֣א נִטְמֵ֗אתִי אַֽחֲרֵ֚י הַבְּעָלִים֙ לֹ֣א הָלַ֔כְתִּי רְאִ֚י דַרְכֵּךְ֙ בַּגַּ֔יְא דְּעִ֖י מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֑ית בִּכְרָ֥ה קַלָּ֖ה מְשָׂרֶ֥כֶת דְּרָכֶֽיהָ:
See your way in the valley: See what you have done opposite Beth-Peor, and until now you adhere to that way like a swift she camel clinging to her ways.  
young she-camel: Heb. בכרה, a young female camel, that loves to wander.“The young camels (בכרי) of Midian” (Isa. 60:6) is translated “and they are young camels,” as we find in Sanhedrin 52a: There are many old camels laden with the skins of young camels (הוגני).  
clinging: Adhering to the ways of her youth, an expression similar to: “it would have clung (מסריך סריך)” (Chullin 51a). This may be associated with “a shoe thong נעל) (שרוך ” (Gen. 14:23). She binds the ways of her youth in her heart.  
24A wild donkey accustomed to the desert, that snuffs up the wind in her desire, her tendency like the sea creatures, who can hinder her? All who seek her will not weary; in her month they will find her.   כדפֶּ֣רֶה | לִמֻּ֣ד מִדְבָּ֗ר בְּאַוַּ֚ת נַפְשָׁהּ֙ (כתיב נַפְשָׁו֙) שָֽׁאֲפָ֣ה ר֔וּחַ תַּֽאֲנָתָ֖הּ מִ֣י יְשִׁיבֶ֑נָּה כָּל־מְבַקְשֶׁ֙יהָ֙ לֹ֣א יִיעָ֔פוּ בְּחָדְשָׁ֖הּ יִמְצָאֽוּנְהָ:
A wild donkey: (salvatico in O.F.) wild, and some interpret it as poulain in O.F., a foal.  
accustomed to the desert: Accustomed to be in the deserts, so she loves to wander.  
that snuffs up the wind: She opens her mouth and snuffs up the wind, and he always returns to his place.  
her tendency like the sea creatures, who can hinder her?: That trait of the sea creatures that she has, for also the sea creature snuffs up the wind, as it is said: “They snuff up the wind like sea creatures” (infra 14:6). Who can hinder her from that trait? So it is with you who can return you from your evil way?  
her tendency like a sea creature: Son dagronemant in O.F., dragon nature. Jonathan rendered it in this manner, כערודה. Another explanation: It is an expression of wailing, comp.“moaning and wailing”  
all who seek her will not weary: For they will weary needlessly, for they will be unable to overtake her. What will her end be? In her month, they will find her. There is one month in the year that she sleeps for the whole month, and then she is captured. You, too, - one month (viz. Ab) was already prepared for you from the days of the spies, when your forefathers established it as a time of vain weeping, therein, you will be captured. (תּאניה ואניה) (Lam. 2:5). Another explanation: (sa contree in French,) her country, comp. Taanath Shiloh (Josh. 16:6).  
25Withhold your foot from going barefoot and your throat from thirst; but you said, "I despair. No, for I love strangers, and I will follow them."   כהמִנְעִ֚י רַגְלֵךְ֙ מִיָּחֵ֔ף וּגְרוֹנֵ֖ךְ (כתיב וּגְורֹנֵ֖ךְ) מִצִּמְאָ֑ה וַתֹּאמְרִ֣י נוֹאָ֔שׁ ל֕וֹא כִּֽי־אָהַ֥בְתִּי זָרִ֖ים וְאַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֥ם אֵלֵֽךְ:
Withhold your foot from going barefoot: This your habit, like the wild donkey that loves to wander. My prophets say to you, “Withhold your foot from idolatry lest you go barefoot into exile and withhold your throat from dying of thirst.”  
but you said: concerning the words of the prophets.  
I despair: It is of no concern. I despair of your words. נואש is (nonkalajjr in O.F.) nonchalair in modern French.  
26As the shame of a thief when he is found out, so have the house of Israel been ashamed; they, their kings, their princes, their priests, and their prophets.   כוכְּבֹ֚שֶׁת גַּנָּב֙ כִּ֣י יִמָּצֵ֔א כֵּ֥ן הוֹבִ֖ישׁוּ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הֵ֚מָּה מַלְכֵיהֶם֙ שָֽׂרֵיהֶ֔ם וְכֹֽהֲנֵיהֶ֖ם וּנְבִֽיאֵיהֶֽם:
when he is found out: At the beginning, when he is found to be a thief, and he was presumed to be faithful. In this manner, Jonathan rendered it.  
27They say to the wood, "You are my father," and to the stone, "You bore us," for they turned to Me their nape and not their face, and at the time of their misfortune they say, "Arise and save us. "   כזאֹֽמְרִ֨ים לָעֵ֜ץ אָ֣בִי אַ֗תָּה וְלָאֶ֙בֶן֙ אַ֣תְּ יְלִדְתָּ֔נוּ (כתיב יְלִדְתָּ֔ניּ) כִּֽי־פָנ֥וּ אֵלַ֛י עֹ֖רֶף וְלֹ֣א פָנִ֑ים וּבְעֵ֚ת רָֽעָתָם֙ יֹֽאמְר֔וּ ק֖וּמָה וְהֽוֹשִׁיעֵֽנוּ:
and at the time of their misfortune they say: i.e., they say to Me, “Arise and save us.” Jonathan, too, translates in this manner: And at the time that misfortune befalls them, they deny their idols and confess before Me, and say. “Have mercy upon us and save us.”  
28Now where are your gods that you have made for yourself; let them get up if they will save you at the time of your misfortune, for as many as your cities were your gods, O Judea.   כחוְאַיֵּ֚ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֣יתָ לָּ֔ךְ יָק֕וּמוּ אִם־יֽוֹשִׁיע֖וּךָ בְּעֵ֣ת רָֽעָתֶ֑ךָ כִּ֚י מִסְפַּ֣ר עָרֶ֔יךָ הָי֥וּ אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ יְהוּדָֽה:
as many as your cities were your gods: In every city was another god.  

Jeremiah Chapter 4

1If you return, O Israel, says the Lord, to Me, you shall return, and if you remove your detestable things from My Presence, you shall not wander.   אאִם־תָּשׁ֨וּב יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל | נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י תָּשׁ֑וּב וְאִם־תָּסִ֧יר שִׁקּוּצֶ֛יךָ מִפָּנַ֖י וְלֹ֥א תָנֽוּד:
If you return, O Israel: with this repentance, to Me, you will return to your original glory and greatness.  
and if you remove your detestable things from My Presence: Then you shall not wander to go out in exile.  
2And you will swear, "As the Lord lives," in truth and in justice and in righteousness, nations will bless themselves with him and boast about him.   בוְנִשְׁבַּ֙עְתָּ֙ חַי־יְהֹוָ֔ה בֶּאֱמֶ֖ת בְּמִשְׁפָּ֣ט וּבִצְדָקָ֑ה וְהִתְבָּ֥רְכוּ ב֛וֹ גּוֹיִ֖ם וּב֥וֹ יִתְהַלָּֽלוּ:
And you will swear, “As the Lord lives,” in truth: When you swear by My name, you will swear in truth, not as now, that it is written concerning you, “And if they say, ‘As the Lord lives,’ surely they swear falsely” (5:2).  
nations will bless themselves with him: If you do so, then nations will bless themselves with Israel. Every non-Jew will say to his son, “You shall be like So-and-so the Jew.”  
boast: Heb. יתהללו, they will recite your praise. Another explanation of is יתהללו : Whoever is able to cleave to Israel will boast about the matter (porvanter in French).  
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Select a portion:
 Email