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Torah Reading for Ki Teitzei

Torah Reading for Ki Teitzei

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Parshat Ki Teitzei
Shabbat, 11 Elul, 5777
2 September, 2017
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 21:10 - 25:19; Isaiah 54:1-10)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 21

10If you go out to war against your enemies, and the Lord, your God, will deliver him into your hands, and you take his captives,   יכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶ֑יךָ וּנְתָנ֞וֹ יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ בְּיָדֶ֖ךָ וְשָׁבִ֥יתָ שִׁבְיֽוֹ:
If you go out to war: The verse here is referring to an optional war [i.e., non-obligatory] (Sifrei 21:1), since in reference to the [obligatory] war [to conquer] the land of Israel, it would be inappropriate to say “and you take his captives” because it has already been stated [regarding the seven nations of Canaan],“[from these peoples’ cities…] you shall not allow any soul to live.” (Deut. 20: 16).   כי תצא למלחמה: במלחמת הרשות הכתוב מדבר, שבמלחמת ארץ ישראל אין לומר ושבית שביו, שהרי כבר נאמר (לעיל כ טז) לא תחיה כל נשמה:
and you take his captives: Heb. וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיוֹ. [The double language here comes] to include Canaanites in their midst, even though they are from the seven nations. — [Sifrei 21:2; Sotah 35b]   ושבית שביו: לרבות כנענים שבתוכה ואף על פי שהם משבעה אומות:
11and you see among the captives a beautiful woman and you desire her, you may take [her] for yourself as a wife.   יאוְרָאִ֨יתָ֙ בַּשִּׁבְיָ֔ה אֵ֖שֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּ֑אַר וְחָֽשַׁקְתָּ֣ בָ֔הּ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ֥ לְךָ֖ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
a…woman: Heb. אֵשֶׁת, even a married woman (אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ). - [Kid. 21b]   אשת: אפילו אשת איש:
[and you desire her,] you may take [her] for yourself as a wife: [Not that you are commanded to take this woman as a wife,] but Scripture [in permitting this marriage] is speaking only against the evil inclination [, which drives him to desire her]. For if the Holy One, blessed is He, would not permit her to him, he would take her illicitly. [The Torah teaches us, however, that] if he marries her, he will ultimately come to despise her, as it says after this, “If a man has [two wives-one beloved and the other despised]” (verse 15); [moreover] he will ultimately father through her a wayward and rebellious son (see verse 18). For this reason, these passages are juxtaposed. — [Tanchuma 1]   ולקחת לך לאשה: לא דברה תורה אלא כנגד יצר הרע. שאם אין הקב"ה מתירה ישאנה באיסור. אבל אם נשאה, סופו להיות שונאה, שנאמר אחריו (פסוק טו) כי תהיין לאיש וגו' וסופו להוליד ממנה בן סורר ומורה, לכך נסמכו פרשיות הללו:
12You shall bring her into your home, and she shall shave her head and let her nails grow.   יבוַֽהֲבֵאתָ֖הּ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֑ךָ וְגִלְּחָה֙ אֶת־רֹאשָׁ֔הּ וְעָֽשְׂתָ֖ה אֶת־צִפָּֽרְנֶֽיהָ:
and let her nails grow: Heb. וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת-צִפָּרְנֶיהָ. She must let them grow, so that she should becomes repulsive [to her captor, to induce him to change his mind about marrying her]. — [Sifrei 21:7, Yev. 48a]   ועשתה את צפרניה: תגדלם כדי שתתנוול:
13And she shall remove the garment of her captivity from upon herself, and stay in your house, and weep for her father and her mother for a full month. After that, you may be intimate with her and possess her, and she will be a wife for you.   יגוְהֵסִ֩ירָה֩ אֶת־שִׂמְלַ֨ת שִׁבְיָ֜הּ מֵֽעָלֶ֗יהָ וְיָֽשְׁבָה֙ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ וּבָֽכְתָ֛ה אֶת־אָבִ֥יהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּ֖הּ יֶ֣רַח יָמִ֑ים וְאַ֨חַר כֵּ֜ן תָּב֤וֹא אֵלֶ֨יהָ֙ וּבְעַלְתָּ֔הּ וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לְךָ֖ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
And she shall remove the garment of her captivity: [so that she should not be attractive to her captor,] for they are pretty [clothes], because gentile women adorn themselves during wartime, in order to seduce others [namely, the enemy] to have relations with them. — [Sifrei 21:8]   והסירה את שמלת שביה: לפי שהם נאים, שהגוים בנותיהם מתקשטות במלחמה בשביל להזנות אחרים עמהם:
and stay in your house: In the house he uses. Upon entering, he will stumble upon her, and upon leaving, he will stumble upon her, see her weeping and see her unsightly appearance-all this, so that she should become despicable to him. — [Sifrei 21: 9]   וישבה בביתך: בבית שמשתמש בו, נכנס ונתקל בה, יוצא ונתקל בה, רואה בבכייתה, רואה בנוולה, כדי שתתגנה עליו:
and weep for her father and her mother: Why is all this necessary? So that an Israelite woman [i.e., this man’s Jewish wife] should be happy, and this [gentile captive woman] should be grief-stricken, an Israelite woman should be dressed up, and this one should make herself repulsive. — [Sifrei 21:11]   ובכתה את אביה: כל כך למה, כדי שתהא בת ישראל שמחה וזו עצבה, בת ישראל מתקשטת וזו מתנוולת:
14And it will be, if you do not desire her, then you shall send her away wherever she wishes, but you shall not sell her for money. You shall not keep her as a servant, because you have afflicted her.   ידוְהָיָ֞ה אִם־לֹ֧א חָפַ֣צְתָּ בָּ֗הּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ֙ לְנַפְשָׁ֔הּ וּמָכֹ֥ר לֹֽא־תִמְכְּרֶ֖נָּה בַּכָּ֑סֶף לֹֽא־תִתְעַמֵּ֣ר בָּ֔הּ תַּ֖חַת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִנִּיתָֽהּ:
And it will be, if you do not desire her: Scripture informs you that eventually you will despise her. — [Sifrei 21:14.   והיה אם לא חפצתה בה: הכתוב מבשרך שסופך לשנאותה:
You shall not keep her as a servant: Heb. לֹא-תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ. [This means:]“You must not use her [as a slave]” (Sifrei 21:16). In the Persian language, the term for slavery and servitude is עִימְרָאָה [the term used here]. I learned this from the Yesod of Rabbi Moses the Darshan.   לא תתעמר בה: לא תשתמש בה בלשון פרסי קורין לעבדות ושימוש, עימראה. מיסודו של רבי משה הדרשן למדתי כן:
15If a man has two wives-one beloved and the other despised-and they bear him sons, the beloved one and the despised one, and the firstborn son is from the despised one.   טוכִּי־תִֽהְיֶ֨יןָ לְאִ֜ישׁ שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֗ים הָֽאַחַ֤ת אֲהוּבָה֙ וְהָֽאַחַ֣ת שְׂנוּאָ֔ה וְיָֽלְדוּ־ל֣וֹ בָנִ֔ים הָֽאֲהוּבָ֖ה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָ֑ה וְהָיָ֛ה הַבֵּ֥ן הַבְּכֹ֖ר לַשְּׂנִיאָֽה:
16Then it will be, on the day he [the husband] bequeaths his property to his sons, that he will not be able to give the son of the beloved [wife] birthright precedence over the son of the despised [wife]-the [real] firstborn son.   טזוְהָיָ֗ה בְּיוֹם֙ הַנְחִיל֣וֹ אֶת־בָּנָ֔יו אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶ֖ה ל֑וֹ לֹ֣א יוּכַ֗ל לְבַכֵּר֙ אֶת־בֶּן־הָ֣אֲהוּבָ֔ה עַל־פְּנֵ֥י בֶן־הַשְּׂנוּאָ֖ה הַבְּכֹֽר:
17Rather, he must acknowledge the firstborn, the son of the despised [wife] and give him a double share in all that he possesses, because he [this firstborn son] is the first of his strength, then he has the birthright entitlement.   יזכִּי֩ אֶת־הַבְּכֹ֨ר בֶּן־הַשְּׂנוּאָ֜ה יַכִּ֗יר לָ֤תֶת לוֹ֙ פִּ֣י שְׁנַ֔יִם בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵ֖א ל֑וֹ כִּי־הוּא֙ רֵאשִׁ֣ית אֹנ֔וֹ ל֖וֹ מִשְׁפַּ֥ט הַבְּכֹרָֽה:
a double share: [The firstborn son takes a share] equal to that of two brothers [together]. — [Sifrei 21:28]   פי שנים: כנגד שני אחים:
[and give him a double share] in all that he possesses: From here [we learn that] the firstborn son does not take [a double share] from that which [the father’s estate] is entitled to after the demise of the father, [e.g., from an uncollected debt,] as [he does] from what was in the father’s actual possession. — [Sifrei 21:29, Bech. 51b]   בכל אשר ימצא לו: מכאן שאין הבכור נוטל פי שנים בראוי לבא לאחר מיתת האב, כבמוחזק:
18If a man has a wayward and rebellious son, who does not obey his father or his mother, and they chasten him, and [he still] does not listen to them,   יחכִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְאִ֗ישׁ בֵּ֚ן סוֹרֵ֣ר וּמוֹרֶ֔ה אֵינֶ֣נּוּ שֹׁמֵ֔עַ בְּק֥וֹל אָבִ֖יו וּבְק֣וֹל אִמּ֑וֹ וְיִסְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵיהֶֽם:
wayward: Heb. סוֹרֵר, deviating (סָר) from the [proper] path.   סורר: סר מן הדרך:
rebellious: Heb. מוֹרֶה, [meaning] one who disobeys the words of his father. [The word מוֹרֶה is] derived from [the same root as] the word מַמְרִים [meaning “to rebel”] (see Deut. 9:7).   ומורה: מסרב בדברי אביו, לשון ממרים:
they shall chasten him: They must warn him in the presence of three [people, not to steal, nor to eat a certain quantity of meat and drink a certain quantity of wine (see further in Rashi)], and then they must have him flogged [by the court] (San. 71a; see Sifrei). [The Talmud (San. 71a) emends this to read: They must warn him in the presence of two (witnesses) and have him flogged in the presence of three (judges).] The wayward and rebellious son incurs punishment only if he steals [money from his father], consumes [at one meal] a tartemar [a weight equal to half a maneh] of meat, and drinks [at the same meal] half a log of wine, as it is said [referring to him], “a glutton and a guzzler (זוֹלֵל וְסֹבֵא)” (verse 20), and [elsewhere] it says, “Do not be among wine-guzzlers (בְסֹבְאֵי-יָיִן), among gluttonous eaters of meat (בְּזֹלְלֵי-בָשָׂר)” (Prov. 23:20), [which indicates that the term “guzzler” refers to wine and “glutton” refers to meat] (San. 70a, Sifrei). The wayward and rebellious son is executed on account of [what he will become in] the end-the Torah penetrates to his ultimate intentions. Eventually, he will squander his father’s money, seek what he has become accustomed to, not find it, and stand at the crossroads and rob people [killing them, thereby incurring the death penalty. Says the Torah, “Let him die innocent [of such crimes], rather than have him die guilty [of such crimes].” - [San. 72b]   ויסרו אותו: מתרין בו בפני שלשה ומלקין אותו. בן סורר ומורה אינו חייב, עד שיגנוב ויאכל תרטימר בשר וישתה חצי לוג יין. שנאמר (פסוק כ) זולל וסובא, ונאמר (משלי כג, כ) אל תהי בסובאי יין בזוללי בשר למו. ובן סורר ומורה נהרג על שם סופו, הגיעה תורה לסוף דעתו, סוף שמכלה ממון אביו ומבקש לימודו ואינו מוצא, ועומד בפרשת דרכים ומלסטם את הבריות, אמרה תורה ימות זכאי ואל ימות חייב:
19his father and his mother shall take hold of him and bring him out to the elders of his city, and to the gate of his place.   יטוְתָ֥פְשׂוּ ב֖וֹ אָבִ֣יו וְאִמּ֑וֹ וְהוֹצִ֧יאוּ אֹת֛וֹ אֶל־זִקְנֵ֥י עִיר֖וֹ וְאֶל־שַׁ֥עַר מְקֹמֽוֹ:
20And they shall say to the elders of his city, "This son of ours is wayward and rebellious; he does not obey us; [he is] a glutton and a guzzler."   כוְאָֽמְר֞וּ אֶל־זִקְנֵ֣י עִיר֗וֹ בְּנֵ֤נוּ זֶה֙ סוֹרֵ֣ר וּמֹרֶ֔ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ שֹׁמֵ֖עַ בְּקֹלֵ֑נוּ זוֹלֵ֖ל וְסֹבֵֽא:
21And all the men of his city shall pelt him to death with stones, and he shall die. So shall you clear out the evil from among you, and all Israel will listen and fear.   כאוּרְגָמֻ֠הוּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁ֨י עִיר֤וֹ בָֽאֲבָנִים֙ וָמֵ֔ת וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יִשְׁמְע֥וּ וְיִרָֽאוּ:
and all Israel will listen and fear: From here, [we learn that] the court must make a public proclamation, announcing: “So-and-so has been stoned because he was a wayward and rebellious son!” - [San. 89a]   וכל ישראל ישמעו ויראו: מכאן שצריך הכרזה בבית דין, פלוני נסקל על שהיה בן סורר ומורה:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 21

22If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death, and he is put to death, you shall [then] hang him on a pole.   כבוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה בְאִ֗ישׁ חֵ֛טְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֖וֶת וְהוּמָ֑ת וְתָלִ֥יתָ אֹת֖וֹ עַל־עֵֽץ:
If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death: The juxtaposition of these passages [i.e., this one and that of the wayward and rebellious son] teaches [us] that if his father and mother spare him, he will eventually lead an evil life style and commit [grave] sins for which he will be sentenced to death by the court. — [Tanchuma 1]   וכי יהיה באיש חטא משפט מות: סמיכות הפרשיות מגיד, שאם חסים עליו אביו ואמו, סוף שיצא לתרבות רעה ויעבור עבירות ויתחייב מיתה בבית דין:
you shall [then] hang him on a pole: Our Rabbis said: All who are stoned [by the court] must [afterwards] be hanged, for the verse (23) says,“a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God.” [Thus, we find that the sin of blasphemy is connected with hanging,] and a blasphemer is punished by stoning. [Consequently, our Rabbis taught that all those stoned must be hanged.]- [San. 45b]   ותלית אותו על עץ: רבותינו אמרו, כל הנסקלין, נתלין, שנאמר (פסוק כג) כי קללת אלהים תלוי. והמברך ה', בסקילה:
23But you shall not leave his body on the pole overnight. Rather, you shall bury him on that [same] day, for a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God, and you shall not defile your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance.   כגלֹֽא־תָלִ֨ין נִבְלָת֜וֹ עַל־הָעֵ֗ץ כִּֽי־קָב֤וֹר תִּקְבְּרֶ֨נּוּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־קִלְלַ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים תָּל֑וּי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמֵּא֙ אֶת־אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָֽה:
For a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God: Heb. קִלְלַת אלֹהִים. This is a degradation of the [Divine] King in Whose image Man is created, and the Israelites are God’s children. This is comparable to two identical twin brothers. One [of them] became king, while the other was arrested for robbery and hanged. Whoever saw him [the second brother, suspended on the gallows], would say,“The king is hanging!” [Therefore, the king ordered, and they removed him (Reggio ed.).] - [Sanh. 46b] Wherever [the term] קְלָלָה appears in Scripture, it means treating lightly (הָקֵל) and degrading. For example,“[And behold, you have with you Shimei the son of Gera…] and he cursed me with a severe curse (וְהוּא קִלְלַנִי קְלָלָה נִמְרֶצֶת)” (I Kings 2:8). - [See II Sam. 16:5-13]   כי קללת אלהים תלוי: זלזולו של מלך הוא, שאדם עשוי בדמות דיוקנו וישראל הם בניו. משל לשני אחים תאומים שהיו דומין זה לזה, אחד נעשה מלך, ואחד נתפס ללסטיות ונתלה, כל הרואה אותו אומר המלך תלוי. כל קללה שבמקרא לשון הקל וזלזול, כמו (מלכים א' ב, ח) והוא קללני קללה נמרצת:

Deuteronomy Chapter 22

1You shall not see your brother's ox or sheep straying, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall return them to your brother.   אלֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־שׁ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֵ֖ם לְאָחִֽיךָ:
and ignore them: [I.e.,] by covering one’s eyes, pretending not to see it.   והתעלמת: כובש עין כאלו אינו רואהו:
You shall not see… and ignore them: Heb. לֹא-תִרְאֶה וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ [lit., “You shall not see them… but rather, you shall ignore them!” What it really means is:] You shall not see them and ignore them [i.e., ignore your brother’s animals straying]; that is the simple meaning of the verse. Our Rabbis, however, explain that [although the verse clearly means that one must not ignore them, nevertheless, the verse is alluding to] situations when one is, in fact, permitted to ignore them [for example, if he is a kohen , and the animals have wandered into a cemetery, where kohanim may not enter, or if he is an honored sage, and it it is beneath his dignity to lead animals or carry packages in public places-he may “ignore” them, and he is not obligated to return them to his brother]. — [Sifrei 22:45, B.M. 30a]   לא תראה, והתעלמת: לא תראה אותו שתתעלם ממנו, זהו פשוטו. ורבותינו אמרו פעמים שאתה מתעלם וכו':
2But if your brother is not near you, or if you do not know him, you shall bring it into your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seeks it out, whereupon you shall return it to him.   בוְאִם־לֹ֨א קָר֥וֹב אָחִ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א יְדַעְתּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲסַפְתּוֹ֙ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְהָיָ֣ה עִמְּךָ֗ עַ֣ד דְּר֤שׁ אָחִ֨יךָ֙ אֹת֔וֹ וַֽהֲשֵֽׁבֹת֖וֹ לֽוֹ:
[And it shall be with you] until your brother seeks it out: Would you imagine that one should return it to him before he asks for it? Rather, [the meaning is that you must keep the animal] until you investigate him, [verifying] that he is is not a swindler [by demanding that he produce identifying signs]. - [B. M. 27b, Sifrei 22:47]   עד דרש אחיך: וכי תעלה על דעתך שיתנהו לו קודם שידרשהו, אלא דרשהו שלא יהא רמאי:
whereupon you shall return it to him: That there shall be something left in it to return, that it should not consume its [whole] value in your house, so you should claim it from him [from the owner]. From here, [the Rabbis] said: Any animal that works and eats, should work and eat [the proceeds of its work]; and [any animal] that does not work, yet still eats, should be sold [by the finder, and the money restored to the owner]. — [B.M. 28b]   והשבתו לו: שתהא בו השבה, שלא יאכל בביתך כדי דמיו ותתבעם ממנו. מכאן אמרו, כל דבר שעושה ואוכל יעשה ויאכל, ושאינו עושה ואוכל, ימכר:
3So shall you do with his donkey, and so shall you do with his garment, and so shall you do with any lost article of your brother which he has lost and you have found. You shall not ignore [it].   גוְכֵ֧ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לַֽחֲמֹר֗וֹ וְכֵ֣ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֘ לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ֒ וְכֵ֨ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֜ה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַ֥ת אָחִ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַ֥ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וּמְצָאתָ֑הּ לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לְהִתְעַלֵּֽם:
You shall not ignore [it]: You must not cover your eyes, pretending not to see it.   לא תוכל להתעלם: לכבוש עינך כאלו אינך רואה אותו:
4You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen [under its load] on the road, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall pick up [the load] with him.   דלֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־חֲמ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ שׁוֹרוֹ֙ נֹֽפְלִ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָקֵ֥ם תָּקִ֖ים עִמּֽוֹ:
You shall pick up [the load]: This is [the obligation of] טְעִינָה,“loading,” [i.e.,] to load up a burden that has fallen off it [the animal, as opposed to פְּרִיקָה, “unloading” a burden too heavy for the animal, delineated in Exod. 23:5]. — [B.M. 32a]   הקם תקים: זו טעינה. להטעין משאוי שנפל מעליו:
[You shall pick up (the load)] with him: [I.e.,] with the owner. However, if the owner walks away, sits down, and says, “Since the commandment is incumbent upon you, if you want to load, [go ahead and] load!” you are exempt. — [B.M. 32a]   עמו: עם בעליו, אבל אם הלך וישב לו, ואמר לו הואיל ועליך מצוה אם רצית לטעון טעון, פטור:
5A man's attire shall not be on a woman, nor may a man wear a woman's garment because whoever does these [things] is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   הלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה כְלִי־גֶ֨בֶר֙ עַל־אִשָּׁ֔ה וְלֹֽא־יִלְבַּ֥שׁ גֶּ֖בֶר שִׂמְלַ֣ת אִשָּׁ֑ה כִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶי֖ךָ כָּל־עֹ֥שֵׂה אֵֽלֶּה:
A man’s attire shall not be on a woman: making her appear like a man, thereby enabling her to go among men, for this can only be for the [purpose of] adultery. — [Nazir 59a]   לא יהיה כלי גבר על אשה: שתהא דומה לאיש כדי שתלך בין האנשים, שאין זו אלא לשם ניאוף:
nor may a man wear a woman’s garment: to go and abide among women. Another explanation: [In addition to not wearing a woman’s garment,] a man must also not remove his pubic hair or the hair of his armpits [for this is a practice exclusive to women]. — [Nazir 59a]   ולא ילבש גבר שמלת אשה: לילך ולישב בין הנשים. דבר אחר שלא ישיר שער הערוה ושער של בית השחי:
because… is an abomination: The Torah forbids only [the wearing of] clothes that would lead to abomination [i.e., immoral and illicit behavior]. — [Nazir 59a]   כי תועבת: לא אסרה תורה אלא לבוש המביא לידי תועבה:
6If a bird's nest chances before you on the road, on any tree, or on the ground, and [it contains] fledglings or eggs, if the mother is sitting upon the fledglings or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother upon the young.   וכִּ֣י יִקָּרֵ֣א קַן־צִפּ֣וֹר | לְפָנֶ֡יךָ בַּדֶּ֜רֶךְ בְּכָל־עֵ֣ץ | א֣וֹ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים֙ א֣וֹ בֵיצִ֔ים וְהָאֵ֤ם רֹבֶ֨צֶת֙ עַל־הָֽאֶפְרֹחִ֔ים א֖וֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִ֑ים לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח הָאֵ֖ם עַל־הַבָּנִֽים:
If a bird’s nest chances before you: This excludes [a bird nest that is] ready at hand. - [Chul. 139a, Sifrei 22:55]   כי יקרא: פרט למזומן:
you shall not take the mother: while she is on her young, [whereas if she is only hovering overhead, you may take her from upon her young]. - [Chul. 140b]   לא תקח האם: בעודה על בניה:
7You shall send away the mother, and [then] you may take the young for yourself, in order that it should be good for you, and you should lengthen your days.   זשַׁלֵּ֤חַ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָאֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּקַּח־לָ֑ךְ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְהַֽאֲרַכְתָּ֖ יָמִֽים:
in order that it should be good for you, [and you should lengthen your days]: If in the case of a commandment easy [to fulfill, like this one] for which there is no monetary expense, Scripture says,“[Do this] in order that it should be good for you, and that you should lengthen your days,” then how much greater is the reward for [the fulfillment of] commandments that are more difficult to observe [or for which there is a monetary expense]. — [Sifrei 22:64, Chul. 142a]   למען ייטב לך: אם מצוה קלה שאין בה חסרון כיס, אמרה תורה למען ייטב לך והארכת ימים, קל וחומר למתן שכרן של מצות חמורות:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 22

8When you build a new house, you shall make a guard rail for your roof, so that you shall not cause blood [to be spilled] in your house, that the one who falls should fall from it [the roof].   חכִּ֤י תִבְנֶה֙ בַּ֣יִת חָדָ֔שׁ וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ מַֽעֲקֶ֖ה לְגַגֶּ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־תָשִׂ֤ים דָּמִים֙ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ כִּֽי־יִפֹּ֥ל הַנֹּפֵ֖ל מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
When you build a new house, [you shall make a guard-rail for your roof]: If you have fulfilled the commandment of שִׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן,“sending away [the mother bird from her] nest,” you will eventually build a new house and fulfill the commandment of מַעֲקֶה, guard-rail, because [the fulfillment of] one commandment pulls along with it [an opportunity to fulfill] another commandment [i.e., one commandment leads to another]. You will then come to [possess] a vineyard, a field, and fine clothes. Therefore, these passages are juxtaposed [that is, those just discussed, and the ensuing passages pertaining to vineyards, fields, and garments]. — [Tanchuma 1]   כי תבנה בית חדש: אם קיימת מצות שלוח הקן סופך לבנות בית חדש ותקיים מצות מעקה, שמצוה גוררת מצוה, ותגיע לכרם ושדה ולבגדים נאים. לכך נסמכו פרשיות הללו:
a guard-rail: Heb. מַעֲקֶה, a fence surrounding the roof. Onkelos renders: תְּיָקָא, like a sheath (תִּיק), which protects what is inside it.   מעקה: גדר סביב לגג, ואונקלוס תרגם תיקא כעין תיק שמשמר מה שבתוכו:
that the one who falls should fall: That one [who would fall] deserves to fall [to his death on account of his sins]; nevertheless, you should not be the one to bring about his death, for meritorious things are executed through meritorious people, while things of ill-fortune are executed through guilty people. — [Sifrei 22:68]   כי יפול הנופל: ראוי זה ליפול ואף על פי כן לא תתגלגל מיתתו על ידך, שמגלגלין זכות על ידי זכאי וחובה על ידי חייב:
9You shall not sow your vineyard [together with] a mixed variety of species, lest the increase, even the seed that you sow and the yield of the vineyard [both] become forbidden.   טלֹֽא־תִזְרַ֥ע כַּרְמְךָ֖ כִּלְאָ֑יִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּ֗שׁ הַֽמְלֵאָ֤ה הַזֶּ֨רַע֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּזְרָ֔ע וּתְבוּאַ֖ת הַכָּֽרֶם:
[You shall not sow your vineyard together with] a mixed variety of species: [For example,] sowing in the same hand-throw [of seeds] wheat and barley, [the sowing together of which already constitutes one prohibition of כִּלְאַיִם -“mixed variety of species” (see Lev. 19:19)], and grapeseeds [the total combination of which now constitutes an additional prohibition of sowing the two diverse species in a vineyard]. — [Ber. 22a]   כלאים: חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד:
lest… become forbidden: Heb. תִּקְדַּשׁ, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: תִסְתָּאֵב, lit., become unclean. To anything repulsive to man, either in a positive sense, e.g., something holy, or in a negative sense, e.g., something forbidden, the term קָדוֹשׁ applies. For instance, “Do not come near me, lest I contaminate you (קְדַשְׁתִּיךָ‏)” (Isa. 65:5) [according to Rashi on Shevuoth 18b, or, according to Rabbi Joseph Kara on Isa. 65:5: “lest I become contaminated by you”].[See Maskil L’David, Be’er Basadeh, Yosef Hallel, and Leket Bahir.]   פן תקדש: כתרגומו תסתאב. כל דבר הנתעב על האדם, בין לשבח כגון הקדש, בין לגנאי כגון איסור, נופל בו לשון קדש, כמו (ישעיה סה, ה) אל תגע בי כי קדשתיך:
the increase: Heb. הַמְלֵאָה. This is the fullness מִלּוּי and increase, which a seed increases. - [See Pes. 25a]   המלאה: זה מילוי ותוספת שהזרע מוסיף:
10You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together.   ילֹא־תַֽחֲר֥שׁ בְּשֽׁוֹר־וּבַֽחֲמֹ֖ר יַחְדָּֽו:
You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey: The same law applies to any two species in the world. [Similarly,] this law applies [also] to [merely] leading them together when they are bound to each other as a pair, for transporting any load. — [Sifrei 22:79-80, Kilayim 8:2]   לא תחרוש בשור ובחמור: הוא הדין לכל שני מינים שבעולם, והוא הדין להנהיגם יחד קשורים זוגים בהולכת שום משא:
11You shall not wear a mixture of wool and linen together.   יאלֹ֤א תִלְבַּשׁ֙ שַֽׁעַטְנֵ֔ז צֶ֥מֶר וּפִשְׁתִּ֖ים יַחְדָּֽו:
a mixture: Heb. שַׁעַטְנֵז An expression denoting a mixture. Our Rabbis explained [this term to be an acronym of the terms]: שׁוּעַ, combed, טָווּי, spun, and נוּז, woven. [Thus, our Rabbis explain that the Torah prohibition of שַׁעַטְנֵז applies only to materials combed, spun, and woven together.]- [Sifrei 22:81, Niddah 61b, see Rashi and Tos. .]   שעטנז: לשון עירוב. ורבותינו פירשו שוע טווי ונוז:
12You shall make yourself twisted threads, on the four corners of your garment with which you cover yourself.   יבגְּדִלִ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֑ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֛ע כַּנְפ֥וֹת כְּסֽוּתְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּכַסֶּה־בָּֽהּ:
You shall make yourself twisted threads: even from a mixture [of wool and linen]. For this reason, Scripture juxtaposes them [these two commandments: sha’atnez and tzitzith]. — [Yev. 4a]   גדלים תעשה לך: אף מן הכלאים. לכך סמכן הכתוב:
13If a man takes a wife, is intimate with her and despises her,   יגכִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֖ישׁ אִשָּׁ֑ה וּבָ֥א אֵלֶ֖יהָ וּשְׂנֵאָֽהּ:
[If a man takes a wife,] is intimate with her, and despises her: in the end he will…   ובא אליה ושנאה: סופו:
14and he makes libelous charges against her and gives her a bad name, saying, "I took this woman, and when I came to her, I did not find any evidence of virginity for her."   ידוְשָׂ֥ם לָהּ֙ עֲלִילֹ֣ת דְּבָרִ֔ים וְהוֹצִ֥א עָלֶ֖יהָ שֵׁ֣ם רָ֑ע וְאָמַ֗ר אֶת־הָֽאִשָּׁ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לָקַ֔חְתִּי וָֽאֶקְרַ֣ב אֵלֶ֔יהָ וְלֹֽא־מָצָ֥אתִי לָ֖הּ בְּתוּלִֽים:
make libelous charges against her: One sin leads to another sin. He transgressed [the negative commandment of]“You shall not hate [your brother in your heart]” (Lev. 19:17); so eventually he will come to [commit the sin of] slander (לָשׁוֹן הָרַע) . - [Sifrei 22:87]   ושם לה עלילות דברים: עבירה גוררת עבירה, עבר על לא תשנא (ויקרא יט, יז) סופו לבא לידי לשון הרע:
this woman: We learn from here that he says nothing except in the presence of his opponent. — [Sifrei 22:89]   את האשה הזאת: מכאן שאין אומר דבר אלא בפני בעל דין:
15Then the girl's father and her mother shall obtain evidence of the girl's virginity, and take it out to the elders of the city, to the gate.   טווְלָקַ֛ח אֲבִ֥י הַנַּֽעֲרָ֖ה (כתיב הנער) וְאִמָּ֑הּ וְהוֹצִ֜יאוּ אֶת־בְּתוּלֵ֧י הַנַּֽעֲרָ֛ה (כתיב הנער) אֶל־זִקְנֵ֥י הָעִ֖יר הַשָּֽׁעְרָה:
The girl’s father and her mother [shall obtain evidence…]: Let those who raised this evil offspring be disgraced because of her. — [Sifrei 22:90]   אבי הנערה ואמה: מי שגדלו גידולים הרעים יתבזו עליה:
16And the girl's father shall say to the elders, "I gave my daughter to this man as a wife, and he despised her;   טזוְאָמַ֛ר אֲבִ֥י הַנַּֽעֲרָ֖ה (כתיב הנער) אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֑ים אֶת־בִּתִּ֗י נָתַ֜תִּי לָאִ֥ישׁ הַזֶּ֛ה לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וַיִּשְׂנָאֶֽהָ:
And the girl’s father shall say [to the elders]: [The father, but not the mother.] This teaches us that a woman is not permitted to speak in the presence of her husband [when others are present]. — [Sifrei 22:91]   ואמר אבי הנערה: מלמד שאין רשות לאשה לדבר בפני האיש:
17And behold, he made libelous charges, saying, 'I did not find evidence of your daughter's virginity.' But this is the evidence of my daughter's virginity!' And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city.   יזוְהִנֵּה־ה֡וּא שָׂם֩ עֲלִילֹ֨ת דְּבָרִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר לֹֽא־מָצָ֤אתִי לְבִתְּךָ֙ בְּתוּלִ֔ים וְאֵ֖לֶּה בְּתוּלֵ֣י בִתִּ֑י וּפָֽרְשׂוּ֙ הַשִּׂמְלָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י הָעִֽיר:
and they shall spread the garment: This is a figurative expression, meaning: they shall clarify the matter as [“clear”] as a [new] garment. — [Sifrei 22:92, Keth. 46a]   ופרשו השמלה: הרי זה משל, מחוורין הדברים כשמלה:
18Then, the elders of that city shall take the man and chasten him.   יחוְלָֽקְח֛וּ זִקְנֵ֥י הָֽעִיר־הַהִ֖וא אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ וְיִסְּר֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ:
and chasten him: [with] lashes. — [Sifrei 22:93, Keth. 46a]   ויסרו אותו: מלקות:
19And they shall fine him one hundred [shekels of] silver because he defamed a virgin of Israel, and he give it to the girl's father. And she shall be his wife; he shall not send her away all the days of his life.   יטוְעָֽנְשׁ֨וּ אֹת֜וֹ מֵ֣אָה כֶ֗סֶף וְנָֽתְנוּ֙ לַֽאֲבִ֣י הַנַּֽעֲרָ֔ה כִּ֤י הוֹצִיא֙ שֵׁ֣ם רָ֔ע עַ֖ל בְּתוּלַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלוֹ־תִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֔ה לֹֽא־יוּכַ֥ל לְשַׁלְּחָ֖הּ כָּל־יָמָֽיו:
20But if this matter was true: [indeed,] no evidence of the girl's virginity was found   כוְאִם־אֱמֶ֣ת הָיָ֔ה הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה לֹֽא־נִמְצְא֥וּ בְתוּלִ֖ים לַנַּֽעֲרָֽה (כתיב לנער) :
But if this matter was true: [as corroborated] by witnesses, and there was warning, [proving] that she had committed adultery after her betrothal. — [Keth. 44b]   ואם אמת היה הדבר: בעדים והתראה שזנתה לאחר אירוסין:
21they shall take the girl out to the entrance of her father's house, and the men of her city shall pelt her with stones, and she shall die, for she did a disgraceful thing in Israel, to commit adultery [in] her father's house. So shall you clear away the evil from among you.   כאוְהוֹצִ֨יאוּ אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָ֜ה (כתיב הנער) אֶל־פֶּ֣תַח בֵּֽית־אָבִ֗יהָ וּסְקָל֩וּהָ֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י עִירָ֤הּ בָּֽאֲבָנִים֙ וָמֵ֔תָה כִּי־עָֽשְׂתָ֤ה נְבָלָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִזְנ֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יהָ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
[they shall take the girl out] to the entrance of her father’s house: [as if to say:] “Look at the children you have reared!” - [Keth. 45a.]   אל פתח בית אביה: ראו גידולים שגדלתם:
the men of her city: [I.e.,] in the presence of all the men of her city. — [Sifrei 22:100]   וסקלוה אנשי עירה: במעמד כל אנשי עירה:
her father’s house: Heb. בֵּית אָבִיהָ, [to be understood as] בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ “in her father’s house.”   לזנות בית אביה: כמו בבית אביה:
22If a man is found lying with a married woman, even both of them shall die the man lying with the woman and the woman. So shall you clear away the evil from Israel.   כבכִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֨א אִ֜ישׁ שֹׁכֵ֣ב | עִם־אִשָּׁ֣ה בְעֻֽלַת־בַּ֗עַל וּמֵ֨תוּ֙ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם הָאִ֛ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִם־הָֽאִשָּׁ֖ה וְהָֽאִשָּׁ֑ה וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל:
both of them shall die: [The words “both of them” come] to exclude unnatural acts in which the man makes contact with the woman wihout intercourse], from which the woman derives no pleasure [thus not including“both of them” in the act]. — [Sifrei 22:102, San. 66b]   ומתו גם שניהם: להוציא מעשה חדודים שאין האשה נהנית מהם:
even: גַּם, lit., also. This comes to include those who have relations after them. [I.e., after these two people have already been tried and sentenced to death for adultery, and before they are put to death, other people commit further adultery with them, these new people are also to be put to death for adultery, and we do not consider this couple as dead people.] Another explanation [of the expression גַּם-שְׁנֵיהֶם]: To include the fetus. [I.e.,] if she was pregnant, they do not wait for her until she gives birth [but put her to death immediately, while still pregnant]. — [Arachin 7a]   גם: לרבות הבאים מאחריהם. דבר אחר גם שניהם לרבות את הולד, שאם היתה מעוברת אין ממתינין לה עד שתלד:
23If there is a virgin girl betrothed to a man, and [another] man finds her in the city, and lies with her,   כגכִּ֤י יִֽהְיֶה֙ נַֽעֲרָ֣ה (כתיב נער) בְתוּלָ֔ה מְאֹֽרָשָׂ֖ה לְאִ֑ישׁ וּמְצָאָ֥הּ אִ֛ישׁ בָּעִ֖יר וְשָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּֽהּ:
And [another] man finds her in the city: Therefore, he lay with her. A breach [in a wall] invites a thief; had she remained at home, this would not have happened to her. — [Sifrei 22:103]   ומצאה איש בעיר: לפיכך שכב עמה, פרצה קוראה לגנב הא אילו ישבה בביתה לא אירע לה:
24you shall take them both out to the gate of that city, and you shall pelt them with stones, and they shall die: the girl, because she did not cry out [even though she was] in the city, and the man, because he violated his neighbor's wife. So shall you clear away the evil from among you.   כדוְהֽוֹצֵאתֶ֨ם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶ֜ם אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר | הָעִ֣יר הַהִ֗וא וּסְקַלְתֶּ֨ם אֹתָ֥ם בָּֽאֲבָנִים֘ וָמֵ֒תוּ֒ אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָ֗ (כתיב הנער) עַל־דְּבַר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־צָֽעֲקָ֣ה בָעִ֔יר וְאֶ֨ת־הָאִ֔ישׁ עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּ֖ה אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
25But if a man finds the betrothed girl in the field, and the man overpowers her and lies with her, then only the man who lay with her shall die.   כהוְאִם־בַּשָּׂדֶ֞ה יִמְצָ֣א הָאִ֗ישׁ אֶת־הַנַּֽעֲרָ֙ה (כתיב הנער) הַֽמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְהֶֽחֱזִֽיק־בָּ֥הּ הָאִ֖ישׁ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וּמֵ֗ת הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּ֖הּ לְבַדּֽוֹ:
26Whereas to the girl, you shall do nothing the girl did not commit a sin deserving of death, for just as a man rises up against his fellow and murders him, so is this case.   כווְלַנַּֽעֲרָ֙ה (כתיב ולנער) לֹא־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה דָבָ֔ר אֵ֥ין לַנַּֽעֲרָ֖ה (כתיב לנער) חֵ֣טְא מָ֑וֶת כִּ֡י כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֩ יָק֨וּם אִ֤ישׁ עַל־רֵעֵ֨הוּ֙ וּרְצָח֣וֹ נֶ֔פֶשׁ כֵּ֖ן הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
for just as a man rises up [against his fellow and murders him, so is this case]: According to the simple meaning, this is the explanation: For she was coerced, and the man overpowered her, just like the case of someone who overpowers another person to kill him. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it [as follows]: This one comes to teach, but instead he learns (San. 73a). [That is, it would seem at first glance, that the case of the murderer in the verse is cited in order to teach us something about the case of the betrothed girl who was raped, namely, that just as the murdered person was overpowered, so was this girl overpowered and coerced. However, with further examination, we learn something new from the case of this girl, which can be applied to the case of the murderer. And that is: just as in the case of the girl, we may save her from sin by killing her assailant, so it is, in the case of a murderer overpowering someone with the intent of murder, anyone is permitted to kill his assailant in order to save the life of the intended victim.]- [Sifrei 22:106]   כי כאשר יקום וגו': לפי פשוטו זהו משמעו, כי אנוסה היא ובחזקה עמד עליה כאדם העומד על חברו להרגו. ורבותינו דרשו בו הרי זה בא ללמד ונמצא למד וכו':
27Because he found her in the field. The betrothed girl had cried out, but there was no one to save her.   כזכִּ֥י בַשָּׂדֶ֖ה מְצָאָ֑הּ צָֽעֲקָ֗ה הַנַּֽעֲרָ֙ה (כתיב הנער) הַֽמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין מוֹשִׁ֖יעַ לָֽהּ:
28If a man finds a virgin girl who was not betrothed, and seizes her and lies with her, and they are found,   כחכִּֽי־יִמְצָ֣א אִ֗ישׁ נַֽעֲרָ֤ה (כתיב נער) בְתוּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־אֹרָ֔שָׂה וּתְפָשָׂ֖הּ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וְנִמְצָֽאוּ:
29the man who lay with her shall give fifty [shekels of] silver to the girl's father, and she shall become his wife, because he violated her. He shall not send her away all the days of his life.   כטוְנָתַ֠ן הָאִ֨ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִמָּ֛הּ לַֽאֲבִ֥י הַנַּֽעֲרָ֖ה (כתיב הנער) חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלוֹ־תִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֗ה תַּ֚חַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִנָּ֔הּ לֹֽא־יוּכַ֥ל שַׁלְּחָ֖הּ כָּל־יָמָֽיו:

Deuteronomy Chapter 23

1A man shall not take his father's wife, nor shall he uncover the corner of his father's [cloak].   אלֹֽא־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֑יו וְלֹ֥א יְגַלֶּ֖ה כְּנַ֥ף אָבִֽיו:
shall not take: [I.e.,] betrothal has no effect on her [even after the father’s death], and he cannot legally marry her. — [Kid. 67a]   לא יקח: אין לו בה לקוחין ואין קידושין תופסין בה:
nor shall he uncover the corner of his father’s [cloak]: [This seemingly superfluous phrase comes to include] the שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם of his father [i.e., the widow of his father’s brother who died without children, who awaits (שׁוֹמֶרֶת) her brother-in-law (יָבָם) to either wed her or release her through the rite of חֲלִיצָה. See Deut. 25:5-10.] She is [thus] intended for his father [who is her brother-in-law]. But has he not already been admonished regarding her by [the verse] “[You shall not uncover] the nakedness of [i.e., commit incest with the wife of] your father’s brother” (Lev. 18:14)? However, [the prohibition is repeated here] to make the transgressor liable on her account for two negative commands (Yev. 4a), and to juxtapose it to“A bastard (מַמְזֵר) shall not enter [the assembly of the Lord,” to teach us that a מַמְזֵר,“bastard,” is only [a child of] a forbidden union punishable by כָּרֵת [“excision,” as is the case with a child born of one who takes his father’s שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם]. All the more so [does it apply to one born] from a forbidden union punishable by the death sentence by the court, for in forbidden unions incurring the death penalty by the court, there is no case that does not [also] incur the penalty of כָּרֵת [Yev. 49a]   ולא יגלה כנף אביו: שומרת יבם של אביו הראויה לאביו. והרי כבר הוזהר עליה משום (ויקרא יח, יד) ערות אחי אביך, אלא לעבור על זו בשני לאוין ולסמוך לה (פסוק ג) לא יבא ממזר, ללמד שאין ממזר אלא מחייבי כריתות וקל וחומר מחייבי מיתות בית דין, שאין בעריות מיתת בית דין שאין בה כרת:
2[A man] with injured testicles or whose member is cut, may not enter the assembly of the Lord.   בלֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א פְצֽוּעַ־דַּכָּ֛א וּכְר֥וּת שָׁפְכָ֖ה בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָֽה:
with injured testicles: [I.e.,] one whose testicles have been injured or crushed. — [Sifrei 23:111]   פצוע דכה: שנפצעו או שנדכאו ביצים שלו:
whose member is cut: Heb. וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה, one whose male organ is cut, [to the extent] that his semen no longer shoots forth in a continuous flow, but rather drips and trickles, and thus he cannot produce children. — [Yev. 75a]   וכרות שפכה: שנכרת הגיד ושוב אינו יורה קילוח זרע אלא שופך ושותת ואינו מוליד:
3A bastard shall not enter the assembly of the Lord; even the tenth generation shall not enter the assembly of the Lord.   גלֹֽא־יָבֹ֥א מַמְזֵ֖ר בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהֹוָ֑ה גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹֽא־יָבֹ֥א ל֖וֹ בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָֽה:
A bastard shall not enter the assembly of the Lord: [I.e.,] he shall not marry an Israelite woman. — [Yev. 77b]   לא יבא ממזר בקהל ה': לא ישא ישראלית:
4An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter the assembly of the Lord; even the tenth generation shall never enter the assembly of the Lord.   דלֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א עַמּוֹנִ֛י וּמֽוֹאָבִ֖י בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהֹוָ֑ה גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹֽא־יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֛ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
An Ammonite [or Moabite] shall not enter [the assembly of the Lord]: [I.e.,] he shall not marry an Israelite woman. — [Yev. 77b]   לא יבא עמוני: לא ישא ישראלית:
5Because they did not greet you with bread and water on the way, when you left Egypt, and because he [the people of Moab] hired Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor in Aram Naharaim against you, to curse you.   העַל־דְּבַ֞ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־קִדְּמ֤וּ אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּלֶּ֣חֶם וּבַמַּ֔יִם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֣ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַֽאֲשֶׁר֩ שָׂכַ֨ר עָלֶ֜יךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּע֗וֹר מִפְּת֛וֹר אֲרַ֥ם נַֽהֲרַ֖יִם לְקַלְלֶֽךָּ:
Because: Heb. עַל-דְּבַר [lit., “because of the word,” i.e.,] because of the [word of] advice they gave you (sic), to cause you to sin. — [Sifrei 23:114]   על דבר: על העצה שיעצו אתכם להחטיאכם:
on the way: when you were in [a state of] extreme exhaustion. — [Sifrei 23:114]   בדרך: כשהייתם בטירוף:
6But the Lord, your God, did not want to listen to Balaam. So the Lord, your God, transformed the curse into a blessing for you, because the Lord, your God, loves you.   ווְלֹֽא־אָבָ֞ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ אֶל־בִּלְעָ֔ם וַיַּֽהֲפֹךְ֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֧יךָ לְּךָ֛ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָ֖ה לִבְרָכָ֑ה כִּ֥י אֲהֵֽבְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
7You shall not ever seek out their welfare or their good, all your days.   זלֹֽא־תִדְר֥שׁ שְׁלֹמָ֖ם וְטֹֽבָתָ֑ם כָּל־יָמֶ֖יךָ לְעוֹלָֽם:
You shall not [ever] seek out their welfare [nor their good]: Since it says [in the case of a runaway slave], “He may reside with you in your midst” (verse 17), one might assume that this one [the Ammonite or the Moabite] is the same. Therefore, Scripture states: “You shall not [ever] seek out their welfare [or their good]” - [Sifrei 23:114. See Yalkut Shimoni , Mossad Harav Kook, fn. 54]   לא תדרוש שלומם: מכלל שנאמר (פסוק יז) עמך ישב בקרבך יכול אף זה כן, תלמוד לומר לא תדרוש שלומם:

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 23

8You shall not despise an Edomite, for he is your brother. You shall not despise an Egyptian, for you were a sojourner in his land.   חלֹֽא־תְתַעֵ֣ב אֲדֹמִ֔י כִּ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ ה֑וּא לֹֽא־תְתַעֵ֣ב מִצְרִ֔י כִּי־גֵ֖ר הָיִ֥יתָ בְאַרְצֽוֹ:
You shall not despise an Edomite: Completely, [but only the first two generations,] even though it is appropriate for you to despise him, because he went forth against you with the sword (see Num. 20:18-21).   לא תתעב אדומי: לגמרי ואף על פי שראוי לך לתעבו שיצא בחרב לקראתך:
You shall not despise an Egyptian: Absolutely, [but only the first two generations,] even though they cast your male [infants] into the Nile. What is the reason [that you may not despise them]? Because they hosted you in a time of dire need; therefore:   לא תתעב מצרי: מכל וכל אף על פי שזרקו זכוריכם ליאור. מה טעם, שהיו לכם אכסניא בשעת הדחק. לפיכך:
9Children who are born to them [in] the third generation may enter the assembly of the Lord.   טבָּנִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּֽלְד֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם דּ֣וֹר שְׁלִישִׁ֑י יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֖ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָֽה:
Children who are born to them in the third generation: But other nations, are allowed [to marry Jews] immediately [after their conversion]. Thus, you learn from here that someone who causes a person to sin does worse to him than one who kills him, for one who kills him, kills him [only] in this world, whereas one who leads him to sin removes him from [both] this world and from the world-to-come. Therefore, Edom, who came forth against them with the sword was not [completely] despised. Similarly, Egypt, who drowned them. These, however, who caused them to sin, were [completely] despised. — [Sifrei 23:117]   בנים אשר יולדו להם דור שלישי: ושאר האומות מותרין מיד. הא למדת שהמחטיא לאדם קשה לו מן ההורגו, שההורגו הורגו בעולם הזה, והמחטיאו מוציאו מן העולם הזה ומן העולם הבא, לפיכך אדום שקדמם בחרב לא נתעב וכן מצרים שטבעום, ואלו שהחטיאום נתעבו:
10When a camp goes out against your enemies, you shall beware of everything evil.   יכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א מַֽחֲנֶ֖ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶ֑יךָ וְנִ֨שְׁמַרְתָּ֔ מִכֹּ֖ל דָּבָ֥ר רָֽע:
When a camp goes forth [against your enemies], you shall beware: for Satan accuses in time of danger [thus extra care must be taken in time of war, when danger prevails]. — [Yerushalmi Shab. 2:6; Tanchuma, Vayiggash 1]   כי תצא וגו' ונשמרת: שהשטן מקטרג בשעת הסכנה:
11If there is among you a man who is unclean because of a nocturnal emission, he shall go outside the camp. He shall not come within the camp.   יאכִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה טָה֖וֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָ֑יְלָה וְיָצָא֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה לֹ֥א יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
[If there is among you a man who is unclean] because of a nocturnal emission: Scripture is speaking here in terms of that which usually occurs. [Emissions usually occur at night. However, the law applies equally if it occurs during the day.]- [Sifrei 23: 120]   מקרה לילה: דבר הכתוב בהווה:
he shall go outside the camp: This is a positive commandment;   ויצא אל מחוץ למחנה: זו מצות עשה:
He shall not come within the camp: This is a negative commandment. He is forbidden to come within the camp of the Levites, and all the more so, to the camp of the Shechinah, [comprised by the Mishkan and its courtyard]. — [Sifrei 23:120, Pes. 68a]   לא יבא אל תוך המחנה: זו מצות לא תעשה. ואסור ליכנס למחנה לויה, וכל שכן למחנה שכינה:
12And it shall be, towards evening, he shall bathe in water, and when the sun sets, he may come within the camp.   יבוְהָיָ֥ה לִפְנֽוֹת־עֶ֖רֶב יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וּכְבֹ֣א הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
And it will be, towards evening: He should immerse [in the mikvah] close to sunset, since he does not become clean without the sunset. — [Sifrei 23:121]   והיה לפנות ערב: סמוך להערב שמשו יטבול, שאינו טהור בלא הערב שמש:
13And you shall have a designated place outside the camp, so that you can go out there [to use it as a privy].   יגוְיָד֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה וְיָצָ֥אתָ שָׁ֖מָּה חֽוּץ:
And you shall have a designated place: Heb. יָד, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [וַאֲתַר, a place], like“each man in his place (יָדוֹ)” (Num. 2:17).   ויד תהיה לך: כתרגומו [ואתר], כמו (במדבר ב, יז) איש על ידו:
outside the camp: [I.e.,] outside the cloud [which surrounded the camp].   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לענן:
14And you shall keep a stake in addition to your weapons; and it shall be, when you sit down outside [to relieve yourself], you shall dig with it, and you shall return and cover your excrement.   ידוְיָתֵ֛ד תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ עַל־אֲזֵנֶ֑ךָ וְהָיָה֙ בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֣ ח֔וּץ וְחָֽפַרְתָּ֣ה בָ֔הּ וְשַׁבְתָּ֖ וְכִסִּ֥יתָ אֶת־צֵֽאָתֶֽךָ:
in addition to your weapons: Heb. עַל-אֲזֵנֶךָ. [I.e.,] besides your other items of equipment.   על אזנך: לבד משאר כלי תשמישך:
your weapons: Heb. אֲזֵנֶךָ, like כְּלֵי זַיְנְךָ, your weapons.   אזנך: כמו כלי זיינך:
15For the Lord, your God, goes along in the midst of your camp, to rescue you and to deliver your enemies before you. [Therefore,] your camp shall be holy, so that He should not see anything unseemly among you and would turn away from you.   טוכִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ | בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַֽחֲנֶ֗ךָ לְהַצִּֽילְךָ֙ וְלָתֵ֤ת אֹֽיְבֶ֨יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהָיָ֥ה מַחֲנֶ֖יךָ קָד֑וֹשׁ וְלֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְשָׁ֖ב מֵאַֽחֲרֶֽיךָ:
so that He will not see: [That is,] the Holy One, Blessed is He, [will not see] anything unseemly.   ולא יראה בך: הקב"ה ערות דבר:
16You shall not deliver a slave to his master if he seeks refuge with you from his master.   טזלֹֽא־תַסְגִּ֥יר עֶ֖בֶד אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֑יו אֲשֶׁר־יִנָּצֵ֥ל אֵלֶ֖יךָ מֵעִ֥ם אֲדֹנָֽיו:
You shall not deliver a slave: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders it [עֲבַד עַמְמִין, a Jewish servant who had been sold to a gentile] (Gittin 45a). Another explanation: even a Canaanite servant of an Israelite who fled from outside the land to the Land of Israel. — [Gittin 45a]   לא תסגיר עבד: כתרגומו. דבר אחר אפילו עבד כנעני של ישראל שברח מחוצה לארץ לארץ ישראל:
17[Rather,] he shall [be allowed to] reside among you, wherever he chooses within any of your cities, where it is good for him. You shall not oppress him.   יזעִמְּךָ֞ יֵשֵׁ֣ב בְּקִרְבְּךָ֗ בַּמָּק֧וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֛ר בְּאַחַ֥ד שְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ בַּטּ֣וֹב ל֑וֹ לֹ֖א תּוֹנֶֽנּוּ:
18There shall not be a prostitute of the daughters of Israel, and there shall not be a male prostitute of the sons of Israel.   יחלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֥ה קְדֵשָׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֣וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה קָדֵ֖שׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
There shall not be a prostitute: Heb. קְדֵשָׁה, one who is unbridled, prepared (מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת), and ready for prostitution.   לא תהיה קדשה: מופקרת, מקודשת ומזומנת לזנות:
and there shall not be a male prostitute: Heb. קָדֵשׁ, one [i.e., a male] ready for homosexual relations. - [Kid. 68b] Onkelos , however, renders: “A woman of the daughters of Israel shall not become a wife to a slave.” [Nevertheless, Onkelos 's explanation does not contradict that given above, for] such [a woman] is also susceptible to illicit relations, since this sort of marriage [between a Jewess and a slave] is not legally binding. For [slaves] are compared to donkeys, as it says,“Stay here with the donkey (עִם-הַחֲמוֹר)” (Gen. 22:5). [The choice of the word] עִם [rather אֶת [denotes] those compared to a donkey. - [Kid. 68a] [Abraham said this to his lads when he left them to take Isaac to offer him as a sacrifice. The lads were both slaves, both Eliezer and Ishmael, the son of his handmaid, Hagar. Similarly, the second half of the verse is rendered by Onkelos as follows:]“And no Israelite man shall take a maidservant as a wife,” since he too, becomes a קָדֵשׁ [“one reserved for illicit relations”] through her, because every time he cohabits with her, it is considered prostitution, since his marriage to her is not binding. — [See Pes. 88b]   ולא יהיה קדש: מזומן למשכב זכר. ואונקלוס תרגם לא תהא אתתא מבנת ישראל לגבר עבדא, שאף זו מופקרת לבעילת זנות היא, מאחר שאין קדושין תופסין לו בה, שהרי הוקשו לחמור, שנאמר (בראשית כב, ה) שבו לכם פה עם החמור, עם הדומה לחמור. ולא יסב גברא מבני ישראל אתתא אמא, שאף הוא נעשה קדש על ידה, שכל בעילותיו בעילות זנות שאין קדושין תופסין לו בה:
19You shall not bring a prostitute's fee or the price of a dog, to the House of the Lord, your God, for any vow, because both of them are an abomination to the Lord, your God.   יטלֹֽא־תָבִיא֩ אֶתְנַ֨ן זוֹנָ֜ה וּמְחִ֣יר כֶּ֗לֶב בֵּ֛ית יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְכָל־נֶ֑דֶר כִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶֽם:
a prostitute’s fee: [For example,] if one gave her a lamb as her fee, it is unfit to be offered up as a sacrifice. — [Sifrei 23:127]   אתנן זונה: נתן לה טלה באתננה פסול להקרבה:
the price of a dog: If one exchanged a dog for a lamb [this lamb is unfit for a sacrifice]. — [Sifrei 23:127; Temurah 29a]   ומחיר כלב: החליף שה בכלב:
because both of them [are an abomination to the Lord, your God]: Heb. גַּם הֵם. [The extra word גַּם, lit.“also,” comes] to include [a prostitute’s fee or the price of a dog, which has been] converted [to another form]. For example, wheat, which he (sic) made into flour. — [Temurah 30b] [Sefer Yereim ch. 207 reads: which she made into flour.]   גם שניהם: לרבות שינוייהם, כגון חטים ועשאן סלת:
20You shall not give interest to your brother, [whether it be] interest on money, interest on food or interest on any [other] item for which interest is [normally] taken.   כלֹֽא־תַשִּׁ֣יךְ לְאָחִ֔יךָ נֶ֥שֶׁךְ כֶּ֖סֶף נֶ֣שֶׁךְ אֹ֑כֶל נֶ֕שֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשָּֽׁךְ:
You shall not give interest: Heb. לֹא-תַשִּׁיךְ‏. This is an admonition to the borrower that he should not pay interest to the lender. Afterwards is the admonition to the lender, [in the verse:] “You shall not give him your money with interest” (Lev. 25:37). - [See Sifrei 23:128] [In some editions, the word “afterwards,” is omitted, because that verse does not appear after this one, but in Leviticus (Leket Bahir).   לא תשיך: אזהרה ללוה שלא יתן רבית למלוה, ואחר כך אזהרה למלוה (ויקרא כה לז) את כספך לא תתן לו בנשך:
21You may [however,] give interest to a gentile, but to your brother you shall not give interest, in order that the Lord, your God, shall bless you in every one of your endeavors on the land to which you are coming to possess.   כאלַנָּכְרִ֣י תַשִּׁ֔יךְ וּלְאָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַשִּׁ֑יךְ לְמַ֨עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹל֙ מִשְׁלַ֣ח יָדֶ֔ךָ עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
You may [however,] give interest to a gentile: But not to your brother. A negative commandment that is derived by inference from a positive commandment [such as this,] is considered a positive commandment. [Thus, in this passage we have the positive commandment (born out of the inference: “to a gentile,” i.e., but not to your brother, plus two negative commandments: 1) “You shall not give interest to your brother” (verse 20), and 2) “but to your brother you shall not give interest” (verse 21). Hence, one who borrows from a Jew with interest] transgresses two negative commandments and one positive commandment. — [B.M. 70b]   לנכרי תשיך: ולא לאחיך. לאו הבא מכלל עשה, עשה, לעבור עליו בשני לאוין ועשה:
22When you make a vow to the Lord, your God, you shall not delay in paying it, for the Lord, your God, will demand it of you, and it will be [counted as] a sin for you.   כבכִּֽי־תִדֹּ֥ר נֶ֨דֶר֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תְאַחֵ֖ר לְשַׁלְּמ֑וֹ כִּֽי־דָר֨שׁ יִדְרְשֶׁ֜נּוּ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
[When you make a vow…] you shall not delay in paying it: for three Festivals. Our Rabbis learned this from a Scriptural verse [see Deut. 16:16]. — [R.H. 4b]   לא תאחר לשלמו: שלשה רגלים. ולמדוהו רבותינו מן המקרא:
23But if you shall refrain from making vows, you will have no sin.   כגוְכִ֥י תֶחְדַּ֖ל לִנְדֹּ֑ר לֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
24Observe and do what is emitted from your lips just as you have pledged to the Lord, your God, as a donation, which you have spoken with your mouth.   כדמוֹצָ֥א שְׂפָתֶ֖יךָ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר וְעָשִׂ֑יתָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר נָדַ֜רְתָּ לַֽיהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ נְדָבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ בְּפִֽיךָ:
Observe [and do] what is emitted from your lips: This adds a positive commandment [i.e., to pay one’s vows in time,] to the [aforementioned] negative commandment [expressed in verse 22, namely,“you shall not delay in paying it”].   מוצא שפתיך תשמר ועשית: ליתן עשה על לא תעשה:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 23

25When you enter your neighbor's vineyard, you may eat as many grapes as you desire, until you are sated, but you shall not put [any] into your vessel.   כהכִּ֤י תָבֹא֙ בְּכֶ֣רֶם רֵעֶ֔ךָ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֧ עֲנָבִ֛ים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ֖ שָׂבְעֶ֑ךָ וְאֶל־כֶּלְיְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תִתֵּֽן:
When you enter your neighbor’s vineyard: Scripture is speaking of a worker [who enters his employer’s vineyard to work there]. — [B.M. 87b]   כי תבא בכרם רעך: בפועל הכתוב מדבר:
as you desire: As many as you wish.   כנפשך: כמה שתרצה:
until you are sated: But not excessive eating. — [B.M. 87b]   שבעך: ולא אכילה גסה:
you shall not place [any] into your vessel: From here [we learn that] Scripture is referring only to the period of the vintage, when you place [grapes] into the owner’s vessel (B.M. 87b). However, if the worker is entering [the vineyard] in order to hoe or or cover the exposed roots [with earth], he may not eat [any of the grapes]. — [B.M. 89b]   ואל כליך לא תתן: מכאן שלא דברה תורה אלא בשעת הבציר, בזמן שאתה נותן לכליו של בעל הבית, אבל אם שכרו לעדור ולקשקש, אינו אוכל:
26When you enter your neighbor's standing grain, you may pick the ears with your hand, but you shall not lift a sickle upon your neighbor's standing grain.   כוכִּ֤י תָבֹא֙ בְּקָמַ֣ת רֵעֶ֔ךָ וְקָֽטַפְתָּ֥ מְלִילֹ֖ת בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וְחֶרְמֵשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָנִ֔יף עַ֖ל קָמַ֥ת רֵעֶֽךָ:
When you enter your neighbor’s standing grain: This [verse] too, is speaking of a worker [who enters his employer’s grain field, to work there]. — [B.M. 87b]   כי תבא בקמת רעך: אף זו בפועל הכתוב מדבר:

Deuteronomy Chapter 24

1When a man takes a wife and is intimate with her, and it happens that she does not find favor in his eyes because he discovers in her an unseemly [moral] matter, and he writes for her a bill of divorce and places it into her hand, and sends her away from his house,   אכִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֛ישׁ אִשָּׁ֖ה וּבְעָלָ֑הּ וְהָיָ֞ה אִם־לֹ֧א תִמְצָא־חֵ֣ן בְּעֵינָ֗יו כִּי־מָ֤צָא בָהּ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּיתֽוֹ:
[When a man takes a wife… that she does not find favor in his eyes] because he discovers in her an unseemly [moral] matter: [In this case] he has an obligation to divorce her, lest she find favor in his eyes [and he might consequently wish to keep her, which he must not do, since she had committed an act of impropriety]. — [Gittin 90b]   כי מצא בה ערות דבר: מצוה עליו [לגרשה] שלא תמצא חן בעיניו:
2and she leaves his house and goes and marries another man,   בוְיָֽצְאָ֖ה מִבֵּית֑וֹ וְהָֽלְכָ֖ה וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לְאִֽישׁ־אַחֵֽר:
[and goes and marries] another man: who differs from her first husband, for that one sent the evil woman out of his home, whereas this [man] has taken her in[to his home]. — [Gittin 90b]   לאיש אחר: אין זה בן זוגו של ראשון, הוא הוציא רשעה מתוך ביתו וזה הכניסה:
3if the latter husband hates her and writes her a bill of divorce, and places it into her hand and sends her away from his house, or if the latter husband who took her as a wife, dies   גוּשְׂנֵאָהּ֘ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָֽאַחֲרוֹן֒ וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּית֑וֹ א֣וֹ כִ֤י יָמוּת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָאַֽחֲר֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָ֥הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
if the latter husband hates her: Scripture informs him that eventually he will [come to] despise her, and if not, she will bury him, for it says, “or if the latter husband… dies.”- [Sifrei 24:135]   ושנאה האיש האחרון: הכתוב מבשרו שסופו לשנאותה, ואם לאו קוברתו, שנאמר או כי ימות:
4her first husband, who had sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, since she was defiled [to him], for that is an abomination before the Lord, and you shall not bring sin to the land the Lord, your God, gives you for an inheritance.   דלֹֽא־יוּכַ֣ל בַּעְלָ֣הּ הָֽרִאשׁ֣וֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁ֠לְּחָ֠הּ לָשׁ֨וּב לְקַחְתָּ֜הּ לִֽהְי֧וֹת ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֗ה אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֻטַּמָּ֔אָה כִּי־תֽוֹעֵבָ֥ה הִ֖וא לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְלֹ֤א תַֽחֲטִיא֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָֽה:
since she was defiled [to him]: [This unusual expression comes] to include a sotah [a woman suspected of adultery] because she secluded herself [with another man]. [Until her trial ceremony takes place (see Num. 5:11-31) and it is yet unknown whether she has indeed committed adultery, he may not have relations with her.] - [Sifrei 24:136]   אחרי אשר הטמאה: לרבות סוטה שנסתרה:

Sixth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 24

5When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out in the army, nor shall he be subjected to anything associated with it. He shall remain free for his home for one year and delight his wife, whom he has taken.   הכִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִישׁ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה לֹ֤א יֵצֵא֙ בַּצָּבָ֔א וְלֹא־יַֽעֲבֹ֥ר עָלָ֖יו לְכָל־דָּבָ֑ר נָקִ֞י יִֽהְיֶ֤ה לְבֵיתוֹ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֔ת וְשִׂמַּ֖ח אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־לָקָֽח:
[When a man takes] a new wife: [i.e., one] who is new to him, even if she is a widow [i.e., she was previously married to someone else], but this excludes [a man who] remarries his divorcee. — [Sotah 44a]   אשה חדשה: שהיא חדשה לו ואפילו אלמנה, פרט למחזיר גרושתו:
nor shall he be subjected: lit., nor shall it pass over him, [referring to] the order of the army.   ולא יעבור עליו: דבר הצבא:
to anything associated with it: that is required by the army: [For instance,] he must not supply water and food or repair the roads [for the army]. However, men who return from the battlefield by the order of the kohen because they either built a house but did not yet dedicate it, or betrothed a woman but did not yet take her [as a wife] [see Deut. 20:5-7], are required to supply water and food and repair the roads [for the army]. — [Sotah 43a]   לכל דבר: שהוא צורך הצבא, לא לספק מים ומזון ולא לתקן דרכים, אבל החוזרים מעורכי המלחמה על פי כהן, כגון בנה בית ולא חנכו או ארס אשה ולא לקחה, מספיקין מים ומזון ומתקנין את הדרכים:
He shall remain [free] for his home: Heb. לְבֵיתוֹ, lit.,“for his house,” [meaning] also for his house. If he built a new house and dedicated it, or if he planted a vineyard (see Deut. 20:6) and redeemed it [i.e., he just began to partake of its fruits in the fourth year by redeeming them and eating their value in Jerusalem], he does not move from his home for the needs of war.   יהיה לביתו: אף בשביל ביתו, אם בנה בית וחנכו ואם נטע כרם וחללו, אינו זז מביתו בשביל צורכי המלחמה:
for his home: Heb. לְבֵיתוֹ. This refers to his house [as explained above].   לביתו: זה ביתו:
must remain: Heb. יִהְיֶה. [This] comes to include his vineyard [as explained above].   יהיה: לרבות את כרמו:
and delight: Heb. וְשִׂמַּח. [The word אֶת in this phrase, וְשִׂמַּח אֶת-אִשְׁתּוֹ, can mean “with,” or it can introduce the direct object, namely, “his wife.” Thus, this phrase can either mean “he shall rejoice with his wife,” or it could mean “he shall delight his wife.” Here, Rashi decides that the meaning is]“He shall delight his wife” [that is, the verb is in the piel (intensive causative) conjugation]. Thus, the [correct] rendering is as it appears in the Targum [Onkelos]: וְיַחְדֵי יַת אִיתְּתֵהּ,“and he shall make his wife happy.” One who renders: וְיֶחְדֵי יַת אִיתְּתֵהּ,“he shall rejoice with his wife,” is mistaken, for this is not the translation of וְשִׂמַּח [in the piel, causative conjugation], but [the translation] of וְשָׂמַח, [the kal, simple intransitive conjugation].   ושמח: ישמח את אשתו. ותרגומו ויחדי ית אתתיה. והמתרגם ויחדי עם אתתיה, טועה הוא, שאין זה תרגום של ושמח אלא של ושמח:
6One shall not take the lower or the upper millstone as security [for a loan], because he is taking a life as security.   ולֹא־יַֽחֲבֹ֥ל רֵחַ֖יִם וָרָ֑כֶב כִּי־נֶ֖פֶשׁ ה֥וּא חֹבֵֽל:
One shall not take the lower or the upper millstone as security [for a loan]: If [a creditor] comes to the court to demand security for a debt [for which no security had previously been required], he may not take as security articles used in the preparation of food. — [B.M. 115a]   לא יחבול: אם בא למשכנו על חובו בבית דין, לא ימשכננו בדברים שעושים בהן אוכל נפש:
the lower millstone: Heb. רֵחַיִם. This is the lower [millstone].   רחים: היא התחתונה:
the upper millstone: Heb. וָרָכֶב. This is the upper [millstone].   ורכב: היא העליונה:
7If a man is discovered kidnapping any person from among his brothers, of the children of Israel, and treats him as a slave and sells him that thief shall die, so that you shall clear out the evil from among you.   זכִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֨א אִ֜ישׁ גֹּנֵ֨ב נֶ֤פֶשׁ מֵֽאֶחָיו֙ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהִתְעַמֶּר־בּ֖וֹ וּמְכָר֑וֹ וּמֵת֙ הַגַּנָּ֣ב הַה֔וּא וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
If [a man] is discovered: By witnesses, and after he was warned [not to kidnap] (Sifrei 24:139). Likewise, every [instance of] יִמָּצֵא, “[if someone is] discovered,” in the Torah. - [Mechilta 21:63]   כי ימצא: בעדים והתראה. וכן כל כי ימצא שבתורה:
and treats him as a slave: The perpetrator is not liable [to the death penalty] until he uses [his victim as a slave]. — [Sifrei 24:139, San. 85b]   והתעמר בו: אינו חייב עד שישתמש בו:
8Be cautious regarding the lesion of tzara'ath, to observe meticulously and you shall do according to all that the Levite priests instruct you; as I have commanded them, [so shall you] observe to do.   חהִשָּׁ֧מֶר בְּנֶֽגַע־הַצָּרַ֛עַת לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מְאֹ֖ד וְלַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת כְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־יוֹר֨וּ אֶתְכֶ֜ם הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים הַֽלְוִיִּ֛ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִ֖ם תִּשְׁמְר֥וּ לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
Be cautious regarding the lesion of tzara’ath: that you do not remove any of the signs of uncleanness [e.g., by peeling off the skin], and that you do not cut off a bahereth , bright spot. — [Sifrei 24:140, Mak. 22a]   השמר בנגע הצרעת: שלא תתלוש סימני טומאה, ולא תקוץ את הבהרת:
according to all that [the Levite kohanim] instruct you: whether to quarantine [the person with tzara’ath], whether to make a decisive diagnosis [of tzara’ath], or whether to declare him clean.   ככל אשר יורו אתכם: אם להסגיר אם להחליט אם לטהר:
9Remember what the Lord, your God, did to Miriam on the way, when you went out of Egypt.   טזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְמִרְיָ֑ם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
Remember what the Lord, your God, did to Miriam: If you wish to take precautions against being stricken with tzara’ath, then do not speak לָשׁוֹן הָרַע [slander, derogatory remarks]. Remember what was done to Miriam, who spoke against her brother [Moses] and was stricken with lesions [of tzara’ath] (see Num. 12:1-16). - [Sifrei 24: 141]   זכור את אשר עשה ה' אלהיך למרים: אם באת להזהר שלא תלקה בצרעת, אל תספר לשון הרע. זכור העשוי למרים שדברה באחיה ולקתה בנגעים:
10When you lend your fellow [Jew] any item, you shall not enter his home to take his security.   יכִּֽי־תַשֶּׁ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ֖ מַשַּׁ֣את מְא֑וּמָה לֹֽא־תָבֹ֥א אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ לַֽעֲבֹ֥ט עֲבֹטֽוֹ:
When you lend your fellow [Jew]: Heb. כִּי-תַשֶּׁה, lit., when you obligate your friend.   כי תשה ברעך: תחוב בחברך:
any item: Heb. מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה, lit., a debt involving anything.   משאת מאומה: חוב של כלום:
11You shall stand outside, and the man to whom you are extending the loan shall bring the security to you outside.   יאבַּח֖וּץ תַּֽעֲמֹ֑ד וְהָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ נשֶׁ֣ה ב֔וֹ יוֹצִ֥יא אֵלֶ֛יךָ אֶת־הָֽעֲב֖וֹט הַחֽוּצָה:
12And if he is a poor man, you shall not lie down [to sleep] with his security.   יבוְאִם־אִ֥ישׁ עָנִ֖י ה֑וּא לֹ֥א תִשְׁכַּ֖ב בַּֽעֲבֹטֽוֹ:
you shall not lie down [to sleep] with his security: You shall not lie down [to sleep] while you have his security in your possession. — [Sifrei 24:144, B.M. 114b]   לא תשכב בעבוטו: לא תשכב ועבוטו אצלך:
13You shall return the security to him by sunset, so that he may lie down [to sleep] in his garment, and he will bless you, and it will be counted for you as merit before the Lord, your God.   יגהָשֵׁב֩ תָּשִׁ֨יב ל֤וֹ אֶת־הָֽעֲבוֹט֙ כְּב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ וְשָׁכַ֥ב בְּשַׂלְמָת֖וֹ וּבֵֽרֲכֶ֑ךָּ וּלְךָ֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה צְדָקָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
[You shall return the security to him] by sunset: if it is a garment worn at night. And if it is a garment worn by day, return it in the morning. This has already been written in parshath Mishpatim , where the verse says, “ until sunset you shall return it to him” (Exod. 22:25), meaning that you shall return it to him for the entire day, and when the sun sets, you may take it [back]. — [B.M. 114b]   כבוא השמש: אם כסות לילה הוא, ואם כסות יום החזירהו בבקר, וכבר כתוב בואלה המשפטים (שמות כב כה) עד בא השמש תשיבנו לו, כל היום תשיבנו לו וכבוא השמש תקחנו:
and he will bless you: And if he does not bless you, it will nevertheless “be counted for you as merit.” - [Sifrei 24:144]   וברכך: ואם אינו מברכך, מכל מקום ולך תהיה צדקה:

Seventh Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 24

14You shall not withhold the wages of a poor or destitute hired worker, of your brothers or of your strangers who are in your land within your cities.   ידלֹא־תַֽעֲשֹׁ֥ק שָׂכִ֖יר עָנִ֣י וְאֶבְי֑וֹן מֵֽאַחֶ֕יךָ א֧וֹ מִגֵּֽרְךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאַרְצְךָ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
You shall not withhold the wages of a [poor or destitute] hired worker: But has this not already been written [in the verse, “You shall not withhold what is due your fellow [Jew]” (Lev. 19:13)]? However, this [negative commandment] is [repeated here] to [make one] transgress two negative commandments for [withholding the pay due] a destitute person: [First, here,] not to withhold the wages of a worker who is poor or destitute, and [secondly,] concerning [even] the well-to-do worker, one was already admonished (Lev. 19:13)],“You shall not [unjustly] withhold what is due your fellow [Jew, which includes the destitute as well].” - [B.M. 61a] [See Chavel and Yosef Hallel, who quote the Reggio edition, which is more correct.]   לא תעשק שכיר: והלא כבר כתוב, אלא לעבור על האביון בשני לאוין לא תעשוק שכר שכיר שהוא עני ואביון, ועל העשיר כבר הוזהר (ויקרא יט יג) לא תעשוק את רעך:
destitute: Heb. אֶבְיוֹן, one who longs for everything [because he has nothing. The word for longing (תאב) resembles the word for destitute (אֶבְיוֹן)]. - [See Midrash Prov. 22:22]   אביון: התאב לכל דבר:
of your strangers: This [refers to] a righteous proselyte [who converts to Judaism out of genuine conviction and pure motives]. — [Sifrei 24:145]   מגרך: זה גר צדק:
within your cities: This [expression refers to] a convert who [has undertaken not to practice idolatry, but] eats animals that have not been ritually slaughtered. — [Sifrei 24:145]   בשעריך: זה גר תושב האוכל נבלות:
who are in your land: This [expression] comes to include the hire of animals or utensils. — [Sifrei 24:145, B.M. 111b]   אשר בארצך: לרבות שכר בהמה וכלים:
15You shall give him his wage on his day and not let the sun set over it, for he is poor, and he risks his life for it, so that he should not cry out to the Lord against you, so that there should be sin upon you.   טובְּיוֹמוֹ֩ תִתֵּ֨ן שְׂכָר֜וֹ וְלֹֽא־תָב֧וֹא עָלָ֣יו הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֤י עָנִי֙ ה֔וּא וְאֵלָ֕יו ה֥וּא נֹשֵׂ֖א אֶת־נַפְשׁ֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־יִקְרָ֤א עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
and he risks his life for it: For this wage he risks his life. [For instance,] he climbed up a ramp or suspended himself from a tree. — [B.M. 112a]   ואליו הוא נושא את נפשו: אל השכר הזה הוא נושא את נפשו למות, עלה בכבש ונתלה באילן:
so that there should be sin upon you: in any case, [even if he does not cry out to the Lord against you]. However, punishment is meted out faster by virtue of one who cries out. — [Sifrei 24:146]   והיה בך חטא: מכל מקום, אלא שממהרין להפרע על ידי הקורא:
16Fathers shall not be put to death because of sons, nor shall sons be put to death because of fathers; each man shall be put to death for his own transgression.   טזלֹא־יֽוּמְת֤וּ אָבוֹת֙ עַל־בָּנִ֔ים וּבָנִ֖ים לֹא־יֽוּמְת֣וּ עַל־אָב֑וֹת אִ֥ישׁ בְּחֶטְא֖וֹ יוּמָֽתוּ:
Fathers shall not be put to death because of sons: [I.e.,] by the testimony of [their] sons. But, if you say [that it means that fathers shall not be put to death] because of the sins of their sons, it has already been stated, “each man shall be put to death for his own transgression.” However, one who is not yet a man may die on account of his father’s transgressions. [Therefore,] minors may die at the hands of Heaven on account of their parents’ sins. — [Sifrei 24:147, Shab. 32b]   לא יומתו אבות על בנים: בעדות בנים. ואם תאמר בעון בנים, כבר נאמר איש בחטאו יומתו, אבל מי שאינו איש מת בעון אביו, הקטנים מתים בעון אבותם בידי שמים:
17You shall not pervert the judgment of a stranger or an orphan, and you shall not take a widow's garment as security [for a loan] .   יזלֹ֣א תַטֶּ֔ה מִשְׁפַּ֖ט גֵּ֣ר יָת֑וֹם וְלֹ֣א תַחֲבֹ֔ל בֶּ֖גֶד אַלְמָנָֽה:
You shall not pervert the judgment of a stranger or an orphan: And concerning a wealthy person, [meaning anyone, not necessarily poor], one has already been warned, “You shall not pervert justice” (Deut. 16:19). However, [Scripture] repeats this prohibition here in reference to the poor man to [make one] transgress two negative commandments [for perverting the justice due a poor man]. Since it is easier to pervert the judgment of a poor man than that of a rich man, [Scripture] admonishes and then repeats [the admonition].   לא תטה משפט גר יתום: ועל העשיר כבר הוזהר (דברים טז יט) לא תטה משפט, ושנה בעני לעבור עליו בשני לאוין, לפי שנקל להטות משפט עני יותר משל עשיר, לכך הזהיר ושנה עליו:
and you shall not take a widow’s garment as security [for a loan]: not at the time of the loan, [but when the debtor has defaulted].   ולא תחבול: שלא בשעת הלואה:
18You shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you from there; therefore, I command you to do this thing.   יחוְזָֽכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֨יתָ֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִשָּׁ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה:
You shall remember [that you were a slave in Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you from there]: [God says:] On that condition I redeemed you, [namely, on the condition] that you observe My statutes, even if you incur monetary loss in the matter.   וזכרת: על מנת כן פדיתיך לשמור חקותי אפילו יש חסרון כיס בדבר:
19When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf in the field, you shall not go back to take it; it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow, so that the Lord, your God, will bless you in all that you do.   יטכִּ֣י תִקְצֹר֩ קְצִֽירְךָ֨ בְשָׂדֶ֜ךָ וְשָֽׁכַחְתָּ֧ עֹ֣מֶר בַּשָּׂדֶ֗ה לֹ֤א תָשׁוּב֙ לְקַחְתּ֔וֹ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֑ה לְמַ֤עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ:
and forget a sheaf: but not a stack. [That is, if someone forgot a stack of grain, he may go back to retrieve it.] (Sifrei 24:149). Hence, [our Rabbis] said: (Pe’ah 6:6) A sheaf containing two se’ah, which someone forgot, is not considered שִׁכְחָה [that is, the harvester is permitted to go back and retrieve it].   ושכחת עומר: ולא גדיש. מכאן אמרו עומר שיש בו סאתים ושכחו אינו שכחה:
[When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf] in the field: [Why the repetition of the word“field”? This comes] to include שִׁכְחָה of standing grain, part of which the harvester had forgotten to reap, [not only bound up sheaves standing in the field]. - [Sifrei 24:149]   בשדה: לרבות שכחת קמה ששכח מקצתה מלקצור:
you shall not go back to take it: From here, [our Rabbis] said: Whatever is behind him is considered שִׁכְחָה, “forgotten” [and may not be retrieved]. Whatever is in front of him, is not considered “forgotten” [and may still be retrieved], since it does not come under the law of “you shall not go back to take.” - [Pe’ah 6:4]   לא תשוב לקחתו: מכאן אמרו, שלאחריו שכחה, שלפניו אינו שכחה, שאינו בבל תשוב:
so that [the Lord, your God,] will bless you: Although [the forgotten sheaf came into his hand without intention [of the owner]. How how much more so [will one be blessed] if he did it liberately! Hence, you must say that if someone dropped a sela, and a poor man found it and was sustained by it, then he [who lost the coin] will be blessed on its account. — [Sifrei 24:149]   למען יברכך: ואף על פי שבאת לידו שלא במתכוין, קל וחומר לעושה במתכוין. אמור מעתה, נפלה סלע מידו ומצאה עני ונתפרנס בה הרי הוא מתברך עליה:
20When you beat your olive tree, you shall not deglorify it [by picking all its fruit] after you; it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan and the widow.   ככִּ֤י תַחְבֹּט֙ זֵֽיתְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְפַאֵ֖ר אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶֽה:
you shall not deglorify it [by picking all its fruit] after you: Heb. לֹא-תְפַאֵר, [This word is derived from פְּאֵר or תִּפְאֶרֶת, “glory.” The “glory” of an olive-tree is its fruit. Thus, the meaning is:“You shall not take its glory” (תִּפְאֶרֶת) from it. [I.e., do not remove all its fruit.] Hence, [our Rabbis derive that [in addition to the harvest of grain and produce, in fruit-bearing trees also], one must leave behind פֵּאָה, [fruits at the end of the olive harvest]. — [Chul. 131b]   לא תפאר: לא תטול תפארתו ממנו. מכאן שמניחין פאה לאילן:
after you: This refers to שִׁכְחָה, forgotten fruit [in the case of a fruit-bearing tree, that one must leave the forgotten fruit for the poor to collect]. — [Chul. 131b]   אחריך: זו שכחה:
21When you pick the grapes of your vineyard, you shall not glean after you: it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan and the widow.   כאכִּ֤י תִבְצֹר֙ כַּרְמְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְעוֹלֵ֖ל אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶֽה:
[When you pick the grapes of your vineyard,] you shall not glean: i.e., if you find עוֹלְלוֹת, small clusters therein, you shall not take them. Now what constitutes עוֹלְלוֹת [thus necessitating them to be left for the poor]? Any cluster of grapes which has neither a כָּתֵף,“shoulder” or a נָטֵף, “drippings.” But if it has either one of them, it belongs to the householder. — [Pe’ah 7:4] I saw in the Talmud Yerushalmi (Pe’ah 7:3):“What is a כָּתֵף, shoulder?” It is [a cluster of grapes] in which the sprigs of grapes pile one on top of the other [at the top of the cluster, together taking on the shape of a shoulder. And what is] a נָטֵף,“drippings?” These are the grapes suspended from the central stalk [of the cluster, as though dripping down].   לא תעולל: אם מצאת בו עוללות לא תקחנה. ואיזו היא עוללות כל שאין לה לא כתף ולא נטף. יש לה אחד מהם הרי היא לבעל הבית. וראיתי בתלמוד ירושלמי איזו היא כתף, פסיגין זה על גב זה. נטף, אלו התלויות בשדרה ויורדות:
22You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt: therefore, I command you to do this thing.   כבוְזָ֣כַרְתָּ֔ כִּי־עֶ֥בֶד הָיִ֖יתָ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה:

Deuteronomy Chapter 25

1If there is a quarrel between men, and they approach the tribunal, and they [the judges] judge them, and they acquit the innocent one and condemn the guilty one   אכִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה רִיב֙ בֵּ֣ין אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְנִגְּשׁ֥וּ אֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט וּשְׁפָט֑וּם וְהִצְדִּ֨יקוּ֙ אֶת־הַצַּדִּ֔יק וְהִרְשִׁ֖יעוּ אֶת־הָֽרָשָֽׁע:
If there is a quarrel: they will eventually go to court. We learn from this, that peace cannot result from quarrel. [Just think,] what caused Lot to leave the righteous man [Abraham] (Gen. 13:7-12)? Clearly, it was quarrel. — [Sifrei 25:152]   כי יהיה ריב: סופם להיות נגשים אל המשפט. אמור מעתה אין שלום יוצא מתוך מריבה, מי גרם ללוט לפרוש מן הצדיק הוי אומר זו מריבה:
and condemn the guilty one: [Since the next verse continues, “the judge shall… flog him,”] one might think that all those convicted by the court must be flogged. Therefore, Scripture teaches us, “and it shall be, if the guilty one has incurred [the penalty] of lashes…” (verse 2). [From here, we see that] sometimes [a convicted party] is given lashes, and sometimes he is not. Who receives lashes is derived from the context, as follows: [Some negative commandments are mitigated by positive commandments which relate to the same matter, for example, the law of sending away the mother bird (Deut. 22:6-7). Scripture (22:6) states the negative commandment: “you shall not take the mother upon the young,” and immediately, Scripture (22:7) continues to state the positive commandment of: “You shall send away the mother.” Here, the negative commandment is mitigated by the positive commandment. How so? If someone transgressed the negative commandment and took the mother bird from upon her young, he may clear himself of the punishment he has just incurred, by fulfilling the positive commandment of sending the mother bird away from the nest. This is an example of “a negative commandment mitigated by a positive commandment.” (see Mishnah Mak. 17a) Now, in our context, immediately after describing the procedure of flogging in court, the next verse (4) continues with the negative commandment of:] “You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing [the grain],” a negative commandment which is not mitigated by a positive one. [Therefore, from the very context of these verses, we learn that only for transgressing a “negative commandment which is not mitigated by a positive commandment,” is one punished by lashes.]- [see Mak. 13b]   והרשיעו את הרשע: יכול כל המתחייבין בדין לוקין, תלמוד לומר והיה אם בן הכות הרשע, פעמים לוקה ופעמים אינו לוקה. ומי הוא הלוקה, למוד מן הענין (פסוק ד), לא תחסום שור בדישו, לאו שלא נתק לעשה:
2and it shall be, if the guilty one has incurred [the penalty of] lashes, that the judge shall make him lean over and flog him in front of him, commensurate with his crime, in number.   בוְהָיָ֛ה אִם־בִּ֥ן הַכּ֖וֹת הָֽרָשָׁ֑ע וְהִפִּיל֤וֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט֙ וְהִכָּ֣הוּ לְפָנָ֔יו כְּדֵ֥י רִשְׁעָת֖וֹ בְּמִסְפָּֽר:
the judge shall make him lean over: This teaches [us] that they [the judges] do not flog [the guilty party while [the latter is] standing or sitting, but, [when he is] leaning over. — [Mak. 22b]   והפילו השופט: מלמד שאין מלקין אותו לא עומד ולא יושב אלא מוטה:
[The judge shall… flog him] in front of him, commensurate with his crime: Heb., כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ [singular-meaning one punishment before him -] and behind him twice that number. From here they [the Rabbis] said:“They must give him two thirds [of his lashes] behind him [i.e., on his back], and one third in front of him [i.e., on his chest]” (Mak. 22b)   לפניו כדי רשעתו: ולאחריו כדי שתים. מכאן אמרו, מלקין אותו שתי ידות מלאחריו ושליש מלפניו:
in number: Heb. בְּמִסְפָּר, but it is not vowelized בַּמִּסְפָּר, in the number. This teaches us that the word בְּמִסְפָּר is in the construct state, [qualifying the word following it which is the first word of the next verse, namely, אַרְבָּעִים], to read: בְּמִסְפָּר אַרְבָּעִים, that is, “[and flog him…] the number of forty,” but not quite a full quota of forty, but the number that leads up to the full total of forty, i. e.,“forty-minus-one.” - [Mak. 22b]   במספר: ואינו נקוד במספר, למד שהוא דבוק, לומר במספר ארבעים ולא ארבעים שלמים, אלא מנין שהוא סוכם ומשלים לארבעים, והן ארבעים חסר אחת:
3He shall flog him with forty [lashes]; he shall not exceed, lest he give him a much more severe flogging than these [forty lashes], and your brother will be degraded before your eyes.   גאַרְבָּעִ֥ים יַכֶּ֖נּוּ לֹ֣א יֹסִ֑יף פֶּן־יֹסִ֨יף לְהַכֹּת֤וֹ עַל־אֵ֨לֶּה֙ מַכָּ֣ה רַבָּ֔ה וְנִקְלָ֥ה אָחִ֖יךָ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ:
He… shall not exceed: From here, we derive the admonition that one may not strike his fellow man. - [Keth. 33a, San. 85a]   לא יוסיף: מכאן אזהרה למכה את חברו:
and your brother will be degraded: All day [that is, throughout the entire procedure], Scripture calls him רָשָׁע, “wicked,” but, once he has been flogged, behold, he is “your brother.” - [Sifrei 25:153]   ונקלה אחיך: כל היום קוראו רשע ומשלקה קראו אחיך:
4You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing [the grain].   דלֹֽא־תַחְסֹ֥ם שׁ֖וֹר בְּדִישֽׁוֹ:
You shall not muzzle an ox: Scripture is speaking here in terms of what usually occurs [i.e., one usually uses an ox for threshing grain]. However, the law applies equally to any species of domestic animal, non-domesticated animal, or bird, and in any area of work in the process of preparing food. If so, why does Scripture specify an ox? To exclude man [from this law. That is, if it is a human who is performing the work, his employer is permitted to “muzzle” him, that is, to prevent the worker from eating from the produce. Nevertheless, it is a mitzvah to allow him to eat from the employer’s produce.]- [Sifrei 25:154]   לא תחסם שור בדישו: דיבר הכתוב בהווה והוא הדין לכל בהמה חיה ועוף העושים במלאכה שהיא בדבר מאכל. אם כן למה נאמר שור, להוציא את האדם:
when it is threshing [the grain]: One might have thought that it is permissible to muzzle the animal outside [the work area, i.e., before it starts threshing]. Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox!”-i.e., at any time [even before the actual threshing] (see B.M. 90b). Why then, is threshing mentioned? To tell you that, just as threshing [has two specific features]: a) It is a thing that does not represent the completion of its process [rendering the product liable for tithing and challah], and b) it [namely, grain] grows from the ground, likewise, any [work] which resembles it [in these two features, is included in this law]. Thus, excluded [from this prohibition] is the labor of milking, cheese-making, or in churning [milk, to produce buttermilk], all of which deal with an item that does not grow from the ground. Also excluded is the labor of kneading [dough], or in rolling out the dough to shape, for these procedures do in fact complete the process, rendering the product liable for challah to be taken. A further exclusion to this prohibition is the labor of separating dates and figs [that is, when spreading out dates and figs on a roof or the like, so that they dry, the fruit may adhere into one mass. Here, the procedure is to separate individual dates or figs from the mass, a procedure] which completes the preparation process, rendering the fruit liable for tithing. — [B.M. 89a]   בדישו: יכול יחסמנו מבחוץ, תלמוד לומר לא תחסום שור מכל מקום, ולמה נאמר דיש, לומר לך מה דיש מיוחד דבר שלא נגמרה מלאכתו וגדולו מן הארץ, אף כל כיוצא בו, יצא החולב והמגבן והמחבץ שאין גדולו מן הארץ, יצא הלש והמקטף שנגמרה מלאכתו לחלה, יצא הבודל בתמרים ובגרוגרות שנגמרה מלאכתן למעשר:
5If brothers reside together, and one of them dies having no son, the dead man's wife shall not marry an outsider. [Rather,] her husband's brother shall be intimate with her, making her a wife for himself, thus performing the obligation of a husband's brother with her.   הכִּי־יֵֽשְׁב֨וּ אַחִ֜ים יַחְדָּ֗ו וּמֵ֨ת אַחַ֤ד מֵהֶם֙ וּבֵ֣ן אֵֽין־ל֔וֹ לֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֧ה אֵֽשֶׁת־הַמֵּ֛ת הַח֖וּצָה לְאִ֣ישׁ זָ֑ר יְבָמָהּ֙ יָבֹ֣א עָלֶ֔יהָ וּלְקָחָ֥הּ לֽוֹ־לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וְיִבְּמָֽהּ:
If brothers reside together: [meaning] that they were both alive at the same time, [lit. that they had one dwelling in the world]. It excludes the wife of his brother who was no longer in the world [when he was born]. [This means as follows: If a man dies, and his brother is born after his death, his widow may not marry the brother of her deceased husband.] - [Sifrei 25:155, Yev. 17b]   כי ישבו אחים יחדו: שהיתה להם ישיבה אחת בעולם, פרט לאשת אחיו שלא היה בעולמו:
together: [This law applies only to brothers] who share in the inheritance“together” [namely, paternal brothers]. This excludes maternal brothers. - [Sifrei 25:155, Yev. 17b]   יחדו: המיוחדים בנחלה, פרט לאחיו מן האם:
having no son: Heb. וּבֵן אֵין-לוֹ [Literally,“and he has no son.” Here, the word אֵין can be read also as עַיִן, meaning to“investigate,” because an א is interchangeable with an ע (see Yev. 22b). Thus, the verse also teaches us:] Investigate him [if he has progeny of any sort]-whether he has a son or a daughter, or a son’s son or a son’s daughter, or a daughter’s son or a daughter’s daughter. [And if he has any of these, the law of יִבּוּם does not apply.]   ובן אין לו: עיין עליו בן או בת, או בן הבן, או בת הבן, או בן הבת, או בת הבת:
6And it will be, that the eldest brother [who performs the levirate marriage, if] she [can] bear will succeed in the name of his deceased brother, so that his [the deceased brother's] name shall not be obliterated from Israel.   ווְהָיָ֗ה הַבְּכוֹר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּלֵ֔ד יָק֕וּם עַל־שֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו הַמֵּ֑ת וְלֹֽא־יִמָּחֶ֥ה שְׁמ֖וֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל:
the eldest brother: Heb. הַבְּכוֹר, [literally“the firstborn.” However, here it means that] the eldest brother [of the deceased] should perform the levirate marriage with the widow. — [Sifrei 25:156, Yev. 24a]   והיה הבכור: גדול האחים הוא מייבם אותה:
she [can] bear: Heb. אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד [literally, “who will give birth.”] This excludes a woman incapable of conception. - [Sifrei 25:156, Yev. 24a]   אשר תלד: פרט לאילונית שאינה יולדת:
will succeed in the name of his deceased brother: [literally,“will rise in the name of his brother.”] The one who marries his wife, is to take the share of his deceased brother’s inheritance of their father’s property [in addition to his own share]. - [Yev. 24a]   יקום על שם אחיו: זה שייבם את אשתו יטול נחלת המת בנכסי אביו:
so that his name shall not be obliterated: This excludes [from the obligation of יִבּוּם] the wife of a eunuch whose name [was already] obliterated. - [Yev. 24a]   ולא ימחה שמו: פרט לאשת סריס ששמו מחוי:
7But if the man does not wish to take his brother's wife, the brother's wife shall go up to the gate, to the elders, and say, "My husband's brother has refused to perpetuate his brother's name in Israel he does not wish to perform the obligation of a husband's brother with me."   זוְאִם־לֹ֤א יַחְפֹּץ֙ הָאִ֔ישׁ לָקַ֖חַת אֶת־יְבִמְתּ֑וֹ וְעָֽלְתָה֩ יְבִמְתּ֨וֹ הַשַּׁ֜עְרָה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים וְאָֽמְרָה֙ מֵאֵ֨ן יְבָמִ֜י לְהָקִ֨ים לְאָחִ֥יו שֵׁם֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה יַבְּמִֽי:
to the gate: [Not to the gate of the city, but,] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: to the gate of the court.   השערה: כתרגומו לתרע בית דינא:
8Then the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him, and he shall stand up and say, "I do not wish to take her."   חוְקָֽרְאוּ־ל֥וֹ זִקְנֵֽי־עִיר֖וֹ וְדִבְּר֣וּ אֵלָ֑יו וְעָמַ֣ד וְאָמַ֔ר לֹ֥א חָפַ֖צְתִּי לְקַחְתָּֽהּ:
and he shall stand up: [He must make this declaration] in a standing position. - [Sifrei 25:158]   ועמד: בעמידה:
and say: in the Holy Language. She too shall make her statement in the Holy Language. — [Yev. 106b]   ואמר: בלשון הקודש, ואף היא דבריה בלשון הקודש:
9Then his brother's wife shall approach him before the eyes of the elders and remove his shoe from his foot. And she shall spit before his face and answer [him] and say, "Thus shall be done to the man who will not build up his brother's household!"   טוְנִגְּשָׁ֨ה יְבִמְתּ֣וֹ אֵלָיו֘ לְעֵינֵ֣י הַזְּקֵנִים֒ וְחָֽלְצָ֤ה נַֽעֲלוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְל֔וֹ וְיָֽרְקָ֖ה בְּפָנָ֑יו וְעָֽנְתָה֙ וְאָ֣מְרָ֔ה כָּ֚כָה יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה לָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יִבְנֶ֖ה אֶת־בֵּ֥ית אָחִֽיו:
And she shall spit before his face: on the ground, [not in his face]. — [Yev. 106b]   וירקה בפניו: על גבי קרקע:
[Thus shall be done to the man] who will not build up [his brother’s household]: From here, [we learn] that one who has undergone the rite of chalitzah [described in these verses], cannot change his mind and marry her, for it does not say,“[Thus will be done to that man] who did not build up [his brother’s household],” but,“who will not build up [his brother’s household].” Since he did not build it up [when he was obliged to do so], he will never again build it up. — [Yev. 10b]   אשר לא יבנה: מכאן למי שחלץ שלא יחזור וייבם, דלא כתיב אשר לא בנה, אלא אשר לא יבנה, כיון שלא בנה שוב לא יבנה:
10And that family shall be called in Israel, "The family of the one whose shoe was removed."   יוְנִקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בֵּ֖ית חֲל֥וּץ הַנָּֽעַל:
And his name shall be called [in Israel]: It is the duty of all those standing there to proclaim: חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל - “you, who have had your shoe removed!” - [Yev. 106b]   ונקרא שמו וגו': מצוה על כל העומדים שם לומר חלוץ הנעל:
11If [two] men, a man and his brother, are fighting together, and the wife of one of them approaches to rescue her husband from his assailant, and she stretches forth her hand and grabs hold of his private parts   יאכִּֽי־יִנָּצ֨וּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים יַחְדָּו֙ אִ֣ישׁ וְאָחִ֔יו וְקָֽרְבָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת הָֽאֶחָ֔ד לְהַצִּ֥יל אֶת־אִישָׁ֖הּ מִיַּ֣ד מַכֵּ֑הוּ וְשָֽׁלְחָ֣ה יָדָ֔הּ וְהֶֽחֱזִ֖יקָה בִּמְבֻשָֽׁיו:
If… men… are fighting together: they will eventually come to blows, as it is said:“[to rescue her husband] from his assailant.” [The moral here is:] Peace cannot result from strife. — [Sifrei 25:160]   כי ינצו אנשים: סופן לבא ליד מכות, כמו שנאמר מיד מכהו. אין שלום יוצא מתוך ידי מריבה:
12you shall cut off her hand You shall not have pity.   יבוְקַצֹּתָ֖ה אֶת־כַּפָּ֑הּ לֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶֽךָ:
You shall cut off her hand: [This verse is not to be understood literally, but rather, it means:] She must pay monetary damages to recompense the victim for the embarrassment he suffered [through her action. The amount she must pay is calculated by the court,] all according to the [social status] of the culprit and the victim (see B.K. 83b). But perhaps [it means that we must actually cut off] her very hand? [The answer is born out from a transmission handed down to our Rabbis, as follows:] Here, it says לֹא תָחוֹס,“do not have pity,” and later, in the case of conspiring witnesses (Deut. 19:21), the same expression, לֹא תָחוֹס, is used. [And our Rabbis taught that these verses have a contextual connection:] Just as there, in the case of the conspiring witnesses, [the literal expressions in the verse refer to] monetary compensation (see Rashi on that verse), so too, here, [the expression “You must cut off her hand” refers to] monetary compensation. — [Sifrei 25:161]   וקצותה את כפה: ממון דמי בשתו. הכל לפי המבייש והמתבייש. או אינו אלא ידה ממש, נאמר כאן לא תחוס, ונאמר להלן בעדים זוממין (לעיל יט יג) לא תחוס, מה להלן ממון, אף כאן ממון:
13You shall not keep in your pouch two different weights, one large and one small.   יגלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ בְּכִֽיסְךָ֖ אֶ֣בֶן וָאָ֑בֶן גְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְטַנָּֽה:
two different weights: [This term is not to be understood literally as “stones,” but rather, it refers to specific stones, namely:] weights [used to weigh merchandise in business].   אבן ואבן: משקלות:
one large and one small: [literally, “big and small.” This means:] the big stone“contradicts” [i.e., is inconsistent with] the small one. [That is to say, you must not have two weights which appear to be the same, but in fact, are unequal, allowing you] to purchase goods with the larger weight [thereby cheating the seller], and to sell with the smaller one [thereby cheating the buyer]. — [Sifrei 25:162]   גדולה וקטנה: גדולה שמכחשת את הקטנה, שלא יהא נוטל בגדולה ומחזיר בקטנה:
14You shall not keep in your house two different ephah measures, one large and one small.   ידלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ בְּבֵֽיתְךָ֖ אֵיפָ֣ה וְאֵיפָ֑ה גְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְטַנָּֽה:
You shall not keep: Heb. לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ, literally, “You will not have.” That is, the verse literally reads: “If you keep… two different weights, you will not have.” This teaches us that] if you do this, you will not have anything! - [Sifrei 25:162] [However,]   לא יהיה לך: אם עשית כן לא יהיה לך כלום:
15[Rather,] you shall have a full and honest weight, [and] a full and honest ephah measure, in order that your days will be prolonged on the land which the Lord, your God, gives you.   טואֶ֣בֶן שְׁלֵמָ֤ה וָצֶ֨דֶק֙ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֔ךְ אֵיפָ֧ה שְׁלֵמָ֛ה וָצֶ֖דֶק יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑ךְ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יַֽאֲרִ֣יכוּ יָמֶ֔יךָ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
you shall have a full and honest weight: [Literally, “If you keep a full and honest weight, you will have.” That is to say,] if you do this, you will have much. — [Sifrei 25:162]   אבן שלמה וצדק יהיה לך: אם עשית כן יהיה לך הרבה:
16For whoever does these things, whoever perpetrates such injustice, is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   טזכִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כָּל־עֹ֣שֵׂה אֵ֑לֶּה כֹּ֖ל עֹ֥שֵׂה עָֽוֶל:
17You shall remember what Amalek did to you on the way, when you went out of Egypt,   יזזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
You shall remember what [Amalek] did to you: [The juxtaposition of these passages teaches us that] if you use fraudulent measures and weights, you should be worried about provocation from the enemy, as it is said: “Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord” (Prov. 11:1), after which the [next] verse continues,“When willful wickedness comes, then comes disgrace.” [That is, after you intentionally sin by using deceitful scales, the enemy will come to provoke you into war, and this will be a disgraceful matter to you]. — [Tanchuma 8]   זכור את אשר עשה לך: אם שקרת במדות ובמשקלות הוי דואג מגרוי האויב, שנאמר (משלי יא א) מאזני מרמה תועבת ה', וכתיב בתריה בא זדון ויבא קלון:
18how he happened upon you on the way and cut off all the stragglers at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God.   יחאֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים:
how he happened upon you on the way: Heb. קָרְךָ, an expression denoting a chance occurrence (מִקְרֶה). - [Sifrei 25:167] Alternatively, an expression denoting seminal emission (קֶרִי) and defilement, because Amalek defiled the Jews by [committing] homosexual acts [with them]. — [Tanchuma 9] Yet another explanation: an expression denoting heat and cold (קוֹר). He cooled you off and made you [appear] tepid, after you were boiling hot, for the nations were afraid to fight with you, [just as people are afraid to touch something boiling hot]. But this one, [i.e., Amalek] came forward and started and showed the way to others. This can be compared to a bathtub of boiling water into which no living creature could descend. Along came an irresponsible man and jumped headlong into it! Although he scalded himself, he [succeeded to] make others think that it was cooler [than it really was]. — [Tanchuma 9]   אשר קרך בדרך: לשון מקרה. דבר אחר לשון קרי וטומאה, שהיה מטמאן במשכב זכור. דבר אחר לשון קור וחום, צננך והפשירך מרתיחתך, שהיו כל האומות יראים להלחם בכם ובא זה והתחיל והראה מקום לאחרים. משל לאמבטי רותחת שאין כל בריה יכולה לירד בתוכה, בא בן בליעל אחד קפץ וירד לתוכה. אף על פי שנכוה, הקרה אותה בפני אחרים:
and cut off: [The word וַיְזַנֵּב is derived from the word זָנָב, meaning “tail.” Thus, the verse means: Amalek] “cut off the tail.” This refers to the fact that Amalek cut off the members [of the male Jews,] where they had been circumcised, and cast them up [provocatively] towards Heaven [exclaiming to God: “You see! What good has Your commandment of circumcision done for them?”]- [Tanchuma 9]   ויזנב בך: מכת זנב, חותך מילות וזורק כלפי מעלה:
all the stragglers at your rear: Those who lacked strength on account of their transgression. [And because these Jews had sinned,] the cloud [of glory] had expelled them [thereby leaving them vulnerable to Amalek’s further attack]. - [Tanchuma 10]   כל הנחשלים אחריך: חסרי כח מחמת חטאם, שהיה הענן פולטן:
you were faint and weary: faint from thirst, as it is written, “The people thirsted there for water” (Exod. 17:3), and [immediately] afterwards it says,“Amalek came [and fought with Israel]” (verse 17:8). - [Tanchuma 10]   ואתה עיף ויגע: עיף בצמא, דכתיב (שמות יז ג) ויצמא שם העם למים, וכתיב אחריו ויבא עמלק:
and weary: from the journey. - [Tanchuma 10]   ויגע: בדרך:
He did not fear [God]: i.e., Amalek did not fear God [so as to refrain] from doing you harm. — [Sifrei 25:167]   ולא ירא: עמלק, אלהים, מלהרע לך:
19[Therefore,] it will be, when the Lord your God grants you respite from all your enemies around [you] in the land which the Lord, your God, gives to you as an inheritance to possess, that you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens. You shall not forget!   יטוְהָיָ֡ה בְּהָנִ֣יחַ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ | לְ֠ךָ֠ מִכָּל־אֹ֨יְבֶ֜יךָ מִסָּבִ֗יב בָּאָ֨רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהֹוָה־אֱלֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֤ נַֽחֲלָה֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ תִּמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר * (זֶ֣כֶר) עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לֹ֖א תִּשְׁכָּֽח:
you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep [camel and donkey] (God’s command to King Saul: see I Sam. 15:3), so that the name of Amalek should never again be mentioned (נִזְכָּר), from the word (זֵכֶר) , even regarding an animal, to say:“This animal was from Amalek.” - [Midrash Lekach Tov]   תמחה את זכר עמלק: מאיש ועד אשה מעולל ועד יונק משור ועד שה (שמואל א' טו ג). שלא יהא שם עמלק נזכר אפילו על הבהמה, לומר בהמה זו משל עמלק היתה:

Maftir Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 25

17You shall remember what Amalek did to you on the way, when you went out of Egypt,   יזזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
You shall remember what [Amalek] did to you: [The juxtaposition of these passages teaches us that] if you use fraudulent measures and weights, you should be worried about provocation from the enemy, as it is said: “Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord” (Prov. 11:1), after which the [next] verse continues,“When willful wickedness comes, then comes disgrace.” [That is, after you intentionally sin by using deceitful scales, the enemy will come to provoke you into war, and this will be a disgraceful matter to you]. — [Tanchuma 8]   זכור את אשר עשה לך: אם שקרת במדות ובמשקלות הוי דואג מגרוי האויב, שנאמר (משלי יא א) מאזני מרמה תועבת ה', וכתיב בתריה בא זדון ויבא קלון:
18how he happened upon you on the way and cut off all the stragglers at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God.   יחאֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים:
how he happened upon you on the way: Heb. קָרְךָ, an expression denoting a chance occurrence (מִקְרֶה). - [Sifrei 25:167] Alternatively, an expression denoting seminal emission (קֶרִי) and defilement, because Amalek defiled the Jews by [committing] homosexual acts [with them]. — [Tanchuma 9] Yet another explanation: an expression denoting heat and cold (קוֹר). He cooled you off and made you [appear] tepid, after you were boiling hot, for the nations were afraid to fight with you, [just as people are afraid to touch something boiling hot]. But this one, [i.e., Amalek] came forward and started and showed the way to others. This can be compared to a bathtub of boiling water into which no living creature could descend. Along came an irresponsible man and jumped headlong into it! Although he scalded himself, he [succeeded to] make others think that it was cooler [than it really was]. — [Tanchuma 9]   אשר קרך בדרך: לשון מקרה. דבר אחר לשון קרי וטומאה, שהיה מטמאן במשכב זכור. דבר אחר לשון קור וחום, צננך והפשירך מרתיחתך, שהיו כל האומות יראים להלחם בכם ובא זה והתחיל והראה מקום לאחרים. משל לאמבטי רותחת שאין כל בריה יכולה לירד בתוכה, בא בן בליעל אחד קפץ וירד לתוכה. אף על פי שנכוה, הקרה אותה בפני אחרים:
and cut off: [The word וַיְזַנֵּב is derived from the word זָנָב, meaning “tail.” Thus, the verse means: Amalek] “cut off the tail.” This refers to the fact that Amalek cut off the members [of the male Jews,] where they had been circumcised, and cast them up [provocatively] towards Heaven [exclaiming to God: “You see! What good has Your commandment of circumcision done for them?”]- [Tanchuma 9]   ויזנב בך: מכת זנב, חותך מילות וזורק כלפי מעלה:
all the stragglers at your rear: Those who lacked strength on account of their transgression. [And because these Jews had sinned,] the cloud [of glory] had expelled them [thereby leaving them vulnerable to Amalek’s further attack]. - [Tanchuma 10]   כל הנחשלים אחריך: חסרי כח מחמת חטאם, שהיה הענן פולטן:
you were faint and weary: faint from thirst, as it is written, “The people thirsted there for water” (Exod. 17:3), and [immediately] afterwards it says,“Amalek came [and fought with Israel]” (verse 17:8). - [Tanchuma 10]   ואתה עיף ויגע: עיף בצמא, דכתיב (שמות יז ג) ויצמא שם העם למים, וכתיב אחריו ויבא עמלק:
and weary: from the journey. - [Tanchuma 10]   ויגע: בדרך:
He did not fear [God]: i.e., Amalek did not fear God [so as to refrain] from doing you harm. — [Sifrei 25:167]   ולא ירא: עמלק, אלהים, מלהרע לך:
19[Therefore,] it will be, when the Lord your God grants you respite from all your enemies around [you] in the land which the Lord, your God, gives to you as an inheritance to possess, that you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens. You shall not forget!   יטוְהָיָ֡ה בְּהָנִ֣יחַ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ | לְ֠ךָ֠ מִכָּל־אֹ֨יְבֶ֜יךָ מִסָּבִ֗יב בָּאָ֨רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהֹוָה־אֱלֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֤ נַֽחֲלָה֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ תִּמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר * (זֶ֣כֶר) עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לֹ֖א תִּשְׁכָּֽח:
you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep [camel and donkey] (God’s command to King Saul: see I Sam. 15:3), so that the name of Amalek should never again be mentioned (נִזְכָּר), from the word (זֵכֶר) , even regarding an animal, to say:“This animal was from Amalek.” - [Midrash Lekach Tov]   תמחה את זכר עמלק: מאיש ועד אשה מעולל ועד יונק משור ועד שה (שמואל א' טו ג). שלא יהא שם עמלק נזכר אפילו על הבהמה, לומר בהמה זו משל עמלק היתה:

Haftarah

Isaiah Chapter 54

1"Sing you barren woman who has not borne; burst out into song and jubilate, you who have not experienced birth pangs, for the children of the desolate one are more than the children of the married woman," says the Lord.   ארָנִּ֥י עֲקָרָ֖ה לֹ֣א יָלָ֑דָה פִּצְחִ֨י רִנָּ֚ה וְצַֽהֲלִי֙ לֹא־חָ֔לָה כִּֽי־רַבִּ֧ים בְּֽנֵי־שֽׁוֹמֵמָ֛ה מִבְּנֵ֥י בְעוּלָ֖ה אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
Sing, you barren woman: Jerusalem, who was as though she had not borne.  
you who have not experienced birth pangs: Heb. חָלָה, an expression of childbirth, for the woman in confinement gives birth with pains and writhing.  
for the children of the desolate one: The daughter of Edom.  
2Widen the place of your tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of your habitations, do not spare; lengthen your cords and strengthen your stakes.   בהַרְחִ֣יבִי | מְק֣וֹם אָהֳלֵ֗ךְ וִֽירִיע֧וֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַ֛יִךְ יַטּ֖וּ אַל־תַּחְשׂ֑כִי הַֽאֲרִ֙יכִי֙ מֵֽיתָרַ֔יִךְ וִיתֵֽדֹתַ֖יִךְ חַזֵּֽקִי:
and let them stretch forth: far off.  
lengthen your cords: These are thin ropes that hang at the bottom of tents, and that are tied to stakes called ‘chevills’ in French, which are thrust into the ground.  
3For right and left shall you prevail, and your seed shall inherit nations and repeople desolate cities.   גכִּי־יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹ֖אול תִּפְרֹ֑צִי וְזַרְעֵךְ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם יִירָ֔שׁ וְעָרִ֥ים נְשַׁמּ֖וֹת יוֹשִֽׁיבוּ:
shall you prevail: Heb. תִּפְרֹצִי, shall you prevail.  
4Fear not, for you shall not be ashamed, and be not embarrassed for you shall not be put to shame, for the shame of your youth you shall forget, and the disgrace of your widowhood you shall no longer remember.   דאַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ כִּי־לֹ֣א תֵב֔וֹשִׁי וְאַל־תִּכָּֽלְמִ֖י כִּי־לֹ֣א תַחְפִּ֑ירִי כִּ֣י בֹ֚שֶׁת עֲלוּמַ֙יִךְ֙ תִּשְׁכָּ֔חִי וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת אַלְמְנוּתַ֖יִךְ לֹ֥א תִזְכְּרִי־עֽוֹד:
your youth: Heb. עֲלוּמַיִ, your youth.  
5For your Master is your Maker, the Lord of Hosts is His name, and your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, shall be called the God of all the earth.   הכִּ֚י בֹֽעֲלַ֙יִךְ֙ עֹשַׂ֔יִךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ וְגֹֽאֲלֵךְ֙ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יִקָּרֵֽא:
6For, like a wife who is deserted and distressed in spirit has the Lord called you, and a wife of one's youth who was rejected, said your God.   וכִּֽי־כְאִשָּׁ֧ה עֲזוּבָ֛ה וַֽעֲצ֥וּבַת ר֖וּחַ קְרָאָ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֵ֧שֶׁת נְעוּרִ֛ים כִּ֥י תִמָּאֵ֖ס אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
who was rejected: When she is rejected at times that her husband is a little wroth with her.  
7"For a small moment have I forsaken you, and with great mercy will I gather you.   זבְּרֶ֥גַע קָטֹ֖ן עֲזַבְתִּ֑יךְ וּבְרַֽחֲמִ֥ים גְּדֹלִ֖ים אֲקַבְּצֵֽךְ:
8With a little wrath did I hide My countenance for a moment from you, and with everlasting kindness will I have compassion on you," said your Redeemer, the Lord.   חבְּשֶׁ֣צֶף קֶ֗צֶף הִסְתַּ֨רְתִּי פָנַ֥י רֶ֙גַע֙ מִמֵּ֔ךְ וּבְחֶ֥סֶד עוֹלָ֖ם רִֽחַמְתִּ֑יךְ אָמַ֥ר גֹּֽאֲלֵ֖ךְ יְהֹוָֽה:
With a little wrath: Heb. שֶׁצֶף. Menahem (Machbereth p. 179) interprets this as, “with kindling of wrath,” and Dunash (Teshuvoth p. 20) states, “with a little wrath,” paralleling “For a small moment have I forsaken you,” and so did Jonathan render.  
and with everlasting kindness: that will exist forever.  
9"For this is to Me [as] the waters of Noah, as I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth, so have I sworn neither to be wroth with you nor to rebuke you.   טכִּי־מֵ֥י נֹ֙חַ֙ זֹ֣את לִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבַּ֗עְתִּי מֵֽעֲבֹ֥ר מֵי־נֹ֛חַ ע֖וֹד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כֵּ֥ן נִשְׁבַּ֛עְתִּי מִקְּצֹ֥ף עָלַ֖יִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּֽךְ:
For this is to Me [as] the waters of Noah: [i.e.,] it is an oath in My hand, and He proceeds to explain His words, “as I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth, etc.”  
10For the mountains shall depart and the hills totter, but My kindness shall not depart from you, neither shall the covenant of My peace totter," says the Lord, Who has compassion on you.   יכִּ֚י הֶֽהָרִים֙ יָמ֔וּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָע֖וֹת תְּמוּטֶ֑ינָה וְחַסְדִּ֞י מֵאִתֵּ֣ךְ לֹֽא־יָמ֗וּשׁ וּבְרִ֚ית שְׁלוֹמִי֙ לֹ֣א תָמ֔וּט אָמַ֥ר מְרַֽחֲמֵ֖ךְ יְהֹוָֽה:
For the mountains shall depart: Even if the merit of the Patriarchs and the Matriarchs is depleted, My kindness shall not depart from you.  
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